Science.gov

Sample records for mitigation strategies supporting

  1. Peer Support as a Novel Strategy to Mitigate Post-Intensive Care Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Mark E; Jackson, James C; Hopkins, Ramona O; Thompson, Carol; Andrews, Adair; Netzer, Giora; Bates, Dina M; Bunnell, Aaron E; Christie, LeeAnn M; Greenberg, Steven B; Lamas, Daniela J; Sevin, Carla M; Weinhouse, Gerald; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Post-intensive care syndrome, a condition defined by new or worsening impairment in cognition, mental health, and physical function after critical illness, has emerged in the past decade as a common and life-altering consequence of critical illness. New strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of neuropsychological and functional impairment common after critical illness and to prepare and support survivors on their road toward recovery. The present state of critical care survivorship is described, and postdischarge care delivery in the United States and the potential impact of the present-day fragmented model of care delivery are detailed. A novel strategy that uses peer support groups could more effectively meet the needs of survivors of critical illness and mitigate post-intensive care syndrome. PMID:27153311

  2. Forest Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono-Barsony, C.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is a major driver of climate change contributing ~ 12% of global anthropogenic CO2 atmospheric emissions. A climate mitigation mechanism called Reduction Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) has been developed to tackle emissions due to forest loss in developing countries. In light of the final document agreed at the 15th UN Conference of the Parties, REDD will be central in any post- 2012 climate agreement. Nonetheless, REDD's political, economical and scientific challenges should still be addressed. To aid the scientific community, a review of current and future deforestation estimates in terms of forest surface change, carbon density, and carbon flux has been prepared. In addition, current estimates of REDD mitigation potential and a simple case study have also been examined. Preliminary results are presented here.

  3. 78 FR 21275 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 RIN 3150-AJ08 Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies... plant licensees' station blackout mitigation strategies. Appendix A of the draft regulatory basis... document is one of the actions stemming from the NRC's lessons-learned efforts associated with the...

  4. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  5. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  6. Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Le Page, Yannick LB; Hurtt, George; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Patel, Pralit L.; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2013-02-19

    The present and future concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide depends on both anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks of carbon. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on a progressive transition to carbon12 efficient technologies to reduce industrial emissions, substantially supported by policies to maintain or enhance the terrestrial carbon stock in forests and other ecosystems. This strategy may be challenged if terrestrial sequestration capacity is affected by future climate feedbacks, but how and to what extent is little understood. Here, we show that climate mitigation strategies are highly sensitive to future natural disturbance rates (e.g. fires, hurricanes, droughts), because of potential effect of disturbances on the terrestrial carbon balance. Generally, altered disturbance rates affect the pace of societal and technological transitions required to achieve the mitigation target, with substantial consequences on the energy sector and on the global economy. Understanding the future dynamics and consequences of natural disturbances on terrestrial carbon balance is thus essential for developing robust climate mitigation strategies and policies

  7. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  8. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  9. [Thermovalorization: new technologies, impacts and mitigation strategies].

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Loconte, V L; Signorelli, C

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades the quantity (in weight and volume) of solid waste is grown so rapidly to become a real problem especially in densely urbanized areas. The disposal of Municipal Solid Waste by incineration with energy recovery (WtE) is recognized as the most suitable system to process non-recyclable waste. However in several countries there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental impact of incinerators. Epidemiological studies, developed since the 80s, are still the subject of controversial discussion because the results of research often refer to old incinerators--built a few decades ago--and therefore more impactful. In fact inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control in these facilities tended to risk the health of plant workers and local environment. This situation furthermore contributes to increase public risk perception and the spread of the NIMBY (not in my backyard) syndrome while siting this unwanted but necessary facilities. Actually, new strategies as advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations, have resulted in large reductions in the amount of emissions. So the first aim of this work has been to understand if these high perception of risk have a reason to exist also in modern and new municipal waste incinerators. The second aim is to discover if the law, the new technologies and the mitigation strategies can really set a limit on the negative impacts on human health and on environment and if is it possible to improve or increase these strategies. Work has been divided into two parts. The first part focuses on analysis of waste environmental impact regulations, of plant operation systems and of epidemiological studies results. The second part involves the examination of the actual use of regulatory instruments, the most advanced technologies and the strategies for mitigation in the most effective new concept incinerators plants. For this verification

  10. [Thermovalorization: new technologies, impacts and mitigation strategies].

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Loconte, V L; Signorelli, C

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades the quantity (in weight and volume) of solid waste is grown so rapidly to become a real problem especially in densely urbanized areas. The disposal of Municipal Solid Waste by incineration with energy recovery (WtE) is recognized as the most suitable system to process non-recyclable waste. However in several countries there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental impact of incinerators. Epidemiological studies, developed since the 80s, are still the subject of controversial discussion because the results of research often refer to old incinerators--built a few decades ago--and therefore more impactful. In fact inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control in these facilities tended to risk the health of plant workers and local environment. This situation furthermore contributes to increase public risk perception and the spread of the NIMBY (not in my backyard) syndrome while siting this unwanted but necessary facilities. Actually, new strategies as advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations, have resulted in large reductions in the amount of emissions. So the first aim of this work has been to understand if these high perception of risk have a reason to exist also in modern and new municipal waste incinerators. The second aim is to discover if the law, the new technologies and the mitigation strategies can really set a limit on the negative impacts on human health and on environment and if is it possible to improve or increase these strategies. Work has been divided into two parts. The first part focuses on analysis of waste environmental impact regulations, of plant operation systems and of epidemiological studies results. The second part involves the examination of the actual use of regulatory instruments, the most advanced technologies and the strategies for mitigation in the most effective new concept incinerators plants. For this verification

  11. Seismic Mitigation Strategies for Existing School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattis, D. B.; Krimgold, F.; Green, M.

    California provides the paradigm for lessening devastating earthquake damage in U.S. buildings. This document examines specific examples of the seismic mitigation process, a process showing that seismic retrofit in existing schools in other parts of the country are possible and could lead to more general seismic rehabilitation in other buildings.…

  12. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  13. Acrylamide mitigation strategies: critical appraisal of the FoodDrinkEurope toolbox.

    PubMed

    Palermo, M; Gökmen, V; De Meulenaer, B; Ciesarová, Z; Zhang, Y; Pedreschi, F; Fogliano, V

    2016-06-15

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D resources, however no comments about the pro and cons of the different measures were provided to advise the potential users. Experts of the field are aware that not all the strategies proposed have equal value in terms of efficacy and cost/benefit ratio. This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. Five authors from different geographical areas having a publication record on acrylamide mitigation strategies worked independently ranking the efficacy of the acrylamide mitigation strategies taking into account three key parameters: (i) reduction rate; (ii) side effects; and (iii) applicability and economic impact. On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. As expected, all strategies selected in the Toolbox turned out to be useful, however, not at the same level. The use of enzyme asparaginase and the selection of low sugar varieties were considered the best mitigation strategies in bakery and in potato products, respectively. According to authors' opinion most of the other mitigation strategies, although effective, either have relevant side effects on the sensory profile of the products, or they are not easy to implement in industrial production. The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context. PMID:26666890

  14. Acrylamide mitigation strategies: critical appraisal of the FoodDrinkEurope toolbox.

    PubMed

    Palermo, M; Gökmen, V; De Meulenaer, B; Ciesarová, Z; Zhang, Y; Pedreschi, F; Fogliano, V

    2016-06-15

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D resources, however no comments about the pro and cons of the different measures were provided to advise the potential users. Experts of the field are aware that not all the strategies proposed have equal value in terms of efficacy and cost/benefit ratio. This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. Five authors from different geographical areas having a publication record on acrylamide mitigation strategies worked independently ranking the efficacy of the acrylamide mitigation strategies taking into account three key parameters: (i) reduction rate; (ii) side effects; and (iii) applicability and economic impact. On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. As expected, all strategies selected in the Toolbox turned out to be useful, however, not at the same level. The use of enzyme asparaginase and the selection of low sugar varieties were considered the best mitigation strategies in bakery and in potato products, respectively. According to authors' opinion most of the other mitigation strategies, although effective, either have relevant side effects on the sensory profile of the products, or they are not easy to implement in industrial production. The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context.

  15. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  16. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  18. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  19. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  20. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  1. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  2. 1999 Leak Detection and Monitoring and Mitigation Strategy Update

    SciTech Connect

    OHL, P.C.

    1999-09-23

    This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented.

  3. Comparative advantage strategy for rapid pollution mitigation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Due to its sheer size and growth trend, no other country is facing more daunting challenges than China in reducing its pollutant emissions. A critical but inadequately addressed question is how rapidly China could feasibly achieve such mitigation. The stake is high not only about how much worse China's environmental quality could become but also about how the world can prevent catastrophic climate change. Through examining sulfur dioxide (SO2) mitigation in coal-fired power plants and wind energy development for carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, this article proposes a comparative advantage strategy for overcoming high barriers to fast pollution mitigation. On the demand side, China could first make progress in the deployment of more pollution control facilities and then improve their operational performance. The resulting low technological market entry barriers could help to build enough industrial capacity to meet the huge demand with prices under control. The strategy in the current practice could be improved to establish not only a large supply industry but also a strong one to enable other countries to move more rapidly in pollution mitigation.

  4. The Urban Heat Island Phenomenon and Potential Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Gorsevski, Virginia; Russell, Camille; Quattrochi, Dale; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A survey of urban heat island research is provided to describe how heat islands develop, urban landscape and meteorological characteristics that facilitate development, use of aircraft remote sensing data, and why heat islands are of interest to planners, elected officials, and the public. The roles of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal agencies, national laboratories and universities, state and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOS) in studying the urban heat island effect and developing mitigation strategies are explored. Barriers that hamper mitigation efforts and case studies in Atlanta and Salt Lake City are discussed.

  5. Reassessing Biological Threats: Implications for Cooperative Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Summer Elise; Petzing, Stephanie Rachel; Young, Catharine Grace

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapon threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a greater appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition, we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation. PMID:26649289

  6. Reassessing Biological Threats: Implications for Cooperative Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Summer Elise; Petzing, Stephanie Rachel; Young, Catharine Grace

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapon threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a greater appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition, we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation.

  7. Methanogens: methane producers of the rumen and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Hook, Sarah E; Wright, André-Denis G; McBride, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo.

  8. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  9. Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools for Noise Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated a new five year program this year, the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program, a program which will investigate airframe and engine system noise reduction. QAT will also address community noise impact. As part of this community noise impact component, NASA will investigate air traffic management (ATM) challenges in reducing noise. In particular, controller advisory automation aids will be developed to aid the air traffic controller in addressing noise concerns as he/she manages traffic in busy terminal areas. NASA has developed controller automation tools to address capacity concerns and the QAT strategy for ATM Low Noise Operations is to build upon this tool set to create added advisories for noise mitigation. The tools developed for capacity will be briefly reviewed, followed by the QAT plans to address ATM noise concerns. A major NASA goal in global civil aviation is to triple the aviation system throughput in all-weather conditions while maintaining safety. A centerpiece of this activity is the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an evolving suite of air traffic controller decision support tools (DSTs) to enhance capacity of arrivals and departures in both the enroute center and the TRACON. Two of these DSTs, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final approach Spacing Tool (pFAST), are in daily use at the Fort Worth Center and the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON, respectively, where capacity gains of 5-13% have been reported in recent NASA evaluations. Under the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Free Flight Phase One Program, TMA and pFAST are each being implemented at six to eight additional sites. In addition, other DSTs are being developed by NASA under the umbrella of CTAS. This means that new software will be built upon CTAS, and the paradigm of real-time simulation evaluation followed by field site development and evaluation will be the pathway for the new tools. Additional information is included in the

  10. Ocean Fertilization and Other Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2008-07-29

    In order to evaluate ocean fertilization in the larger context of other proposed strategies for reducing the threat of the global warming, a wide range of different climate change mitigation approaches are compared in terms of their long-term potential, stage of development, relative costs and potential risks, as well as public acceptance. This broad comparative analysis is carried out for the following climate change mitigation strategies: supply-side and end-use efficiency improvements, terrestrial and geological carbon sequestration, CO2 ocean disposal and iron fertilization, nuclear power, and renewable energy generation from biomass, passive solar, solar thermal, photovoltaics, hydroelectric and wind. In addition, because of the inherent problems of conducting an objective comparative cost-benefit analysis, two non-technological solutions to global warming are also discussed: curbing population growth and transitioning to a steady-state economy.

  11. Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are part of a natural process of hillslope erosion that can result in catastrophic loss of life and extensive property damage in mountainous, densely populated areas. As global population expansion on or near steep hillslopes continues, the human and economic costs associated with landslides will increase. Landslide hazard mitigation strategies generally involve hazard assessment mapping, warning systems, control structures, and regional landslide planning and policy development. To be sustainable, hazard mitigation requires that management of natural resources is closely connected to local economic and social interests. A successful strategy is dependent on a combination of multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering approaches, and the political will to take action at the local community to national scale.

  12. Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

  13. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.

    1997-02-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O&M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R&D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment).

  14. Numerical simulations of urban heat island mitigation strategies in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roland; Zuvela-Aloise, Maja

    2013-04-01

    Effects of change in land use on daytime urban heat island (UHI) of Vienna is investigated using the local-scale atmospheric model MUKLIMO3 developed at the German Weather Service (DWD). Assuming that the observed trend towards urbanization negatively impacts the heat stress of urban areas, it becomes increasingly important to develop UHI mitigation strategies that aims to reduce the urban heat stress. The purpose of this study is to gain a further understanding of the structure of the daytime UHI in Vienna and to investigate the question to what degree changes in the urban land use affect the near-surface climate and heat stress in the city. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of the UHI is obtained by the computation of the mean annual number of summer days (Tmax × 25° C) of the 1981-2010 period using the so-called cuboid method (DWD). A set of mitigation strategies is developed and applied to MUKLIMO3 simulation experiments. The strategies take into account the change in urban land use as well as the modification of land use features. Results confirm the importance of green areas, water ways and pervious surfaces in the city. In addition, the size, location and distribution of new vegetated areas, i.e. parks, can crucially alter the urban heat stress. In view of the unique character of the city, the realization of adequate mitigation strategies is mainly limited to the existing urban land use. The obtained model results are intended to provide additional information for the city planners.

  15. Disruptions in ITER and strategies for their control and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnen, M.; Aleynikova, K.; Aleynikov, P. B.; Campbell, D. J.; Drewelow, P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Granetz, R. S.; Gribov, Y.; Hartmann, N.; Hollmann, E. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Jachmich, S.; Kim, S.-H.; Kočan, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kovalenko, D.; Kruezi, U.; Loarte, A.; Maruyama, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Parks, P. B.; Pautasso, G.; Pitts, R. A.; Reux, C.; Riccardo, V.; Roccella, R.; Snipes, J. A.; Thornton, A. J.; de Vries, P. C.

    2015-08-01

    The thermal and electromagnetic loads related to disruptions in ITER are substantial and require careful design of tokamak components to ensure they reach the projected lifetime and to ensure that safety relevant components fulfil their function for the worst foreseen scenarios. The disruption load specifications are the basis for the design process of components like the full-W divertor, the blanket modules and the vacuum vessel and will set the boundary conditions for ITER operations. This paper will give a brief overview on the disruption loads and mitigation strategies for ITER and will discuss the physics basis which is continuously refined through the current disruption R&D programs.

  16. Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing this final rule to require domestic and foreign food facilities that are required to register under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) to address hazards that may be introduced with the intention to cause wide scale public health harm. These food facilities are required to conduct a vulnerability assessment to identify significant vulnerabilities and actionable process steps and implement mitigation strategies to significantly minimize or prevent significant vulnerabilities identified at actionable process steps in a food operation. FDA is issuing these requirements as part of our implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). PMID:27236872

  17. Roadmap to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) success

    PubMed Central

    Balian, John D.; Malhotra, Rachpal; Perentesis, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Medical safety-related risk management is a rapidly evolving and increasingly important aspect of drug approval and market longevity. To effectively meet the challenges of this new era, we describe a risk management roadmap that proactively yet practically anticipates risk-management requirements, provides the foundation for enduring yet appropriately flexible risk-management practices, and leverages these techniques to efficiently and effectively utilize risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS)/risk minimization programs as market access enablers. This fully integrated risk-management paradigm creates exciting opportunities for newer tools, techniques, and approaches to more successfully optimize product development, approval, and commercialization, with patients as the ultimate beneficiaries. PMID:25083193

  18. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza A: balancing conflicting policy objectives.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Klinkenberg, Don; Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy M

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation of a severe influenza pandemic can be achieved using a range of interventions to reduce transmission. Interventions can reduce the impact of an outbreak and buy time until vaccines are developed, but they may have high social and economic costs. The non-linear effect on the epidemic dynamics means that suitable strategies crucially depend on the precise aim of the intervention. National pandemic influenza plans rarely contain clear statements of policy objectives or prioritization of potentially conflicting aims, such as minimizing mortality (depending on the severity of a pandemic) or peak prevalence or limiting the socio-economic burden of contact-reducing interventions. We use epidemiological models of influenza A to investigate how contact-reducing interventions and availability of antiviral drugs or pre-pandemic vaccines contribute to achieving particular policy objectives. Our analyses show that the ideal strategy depends on the aim of an intervention and that the achievement of one policy objective may preclude success with others, e.g., constraining peak demand for public health resources may lengthen the duration of the epidemic and hence its economic and social impact. Constraining total case numbers can be achieved by a range of strategies, whereas strategies which additionally constrain peak demand for services require a more sophisticated intervention. If, for example, there are multiple objectives which must be achieved prior to the availability of a pandemic vaccine (i.e., a time-limited intervention), our analysis shows that interventions should be implemented several weeks into the epidemic, not at the very start. This observation is shown to be robust across a range of constraints and for uncertainty in estimates of both R(0) and the timing of vaccine availability. These analyses highlight the need for more precise statements of policy objectives and their assumed consequences when planning and implementing strategies to mitigate the

  19. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  20. Patent cliff mitigation strategies: giving new life to blockbusters.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    With several blockbuster drugs on the brink of another significant patent expiry cliff, innovator pharmaceutical firms are at risk of losing billions of dollars in sales to generic competition. With issues such as staggering R&D costs, reduced productivity and increasing governmental emphasis on pharmacoeconomics, timely planning and implementation of product lifecycle management strategies is becoming indispensable. A variety of strategies designed to mitigate the post-patent expiry revenue loss exist. These approaches range from fairly straightforward measures, such as strategic price cuts and launching own or authorized generics, to complex and lengthy ones, such as new formulations and indications that require companies to reinvent their pharmaceuticals. As patent expiries loom and product pipelines continue to remain thin, proactive planning for generic entry will be critical for pharma companies to drive growth and earnings in a sustainable manner.

  1. Patent cliff mitigation strategies: giving new life to blockbusters.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    With several blockbuster drugs on the brink of another significant patent expiry cliff, innovator pharmaceutical firms are at risk of losing billions of dollars in sales to generic competition. With issues such as staggering R&D costs, reduced productivity and increasing governmental emphasis on pharmacoeconomics, timely planning and implementation of product lifecycle management strategies is becoming indispensable. A variety of strategies designed to mitigate the post-patent expiry revenue loss exist. These approaches range from fairly straightforward measures, such as strategic price cuts and launching own or authorized generics, to complex and lengthy ones, such as new formulations and indications that require companies to reinvent their pharmaceuticals. As patent expiries loom and product pipelines continue to remain thin, proactive planning for generic entry will be critical for pharma companies to drive growth and earnings in a sustainable manner. PMID:26372691

  2. Wake Mitigation Strategies for Optimizing Wind Farm Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilip, Deepu; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Although wind turbines are designed individually for optimum power production, they are often arranged into groups of closely spaced turbines in a wind farm rather than in isolation. Consequently, most turbines in a wind farm do not operate in unobstructed wind flows, but are affected by the wakes of turbines in front of them. Such wake interference significantly reduces the overall power generation from wind farms and hence, development of effective wake mitigation strategies is critical for improving wind farm efficiency. One approach towards this end is based on the notion that the operation of each turbine in a wind farm at its optimum efficiency might not lead to optimum power generation from the wind farm as a whole. This entails a down regulation of individual turbines from its optimum operating point, which can be achieved through different methods such as pitching the turbine blades, changing the turbine tip speed ratio or yawing of the turbine, to name a few. In this study, large-eddy simulations of a two-turbine arrangement with the second turbine fully in the wake of the first are performed. Different wake mitigation techniques are applied to the upstream turbine, and the effects of these on its wake characteristics are investigated. Results for the combined power from the two turbines for each of these methods are compared to a baseline scenario where no wake mitigation strategies are employed. Analysis of the results shows the potential for improved power production from such wake control methods. It should be noted, however, that the magnitude of the improvement is strongly affected by the level of turbulence in the incoming atmospheric flow.

  3. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  4. Bimetallic Wiregauze Supported Pt-Ru Nanocatalysts for Hydrogen Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Sanap, Kiran K; Varma, S; Waghmode, S B; Sharma, P; Manoj, N; Vatsa, R K; Bharadwaj, S R

    2015-05-01

    Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is one of the most suitable devices for mitigation of hydrogen, generated in nuclear power plant under accidental conditions. For this purpose we report development of stainless steel wire gauze supported Pt-Ru nanoparticles as catalysts. Simultaneous electroless deposition has been employed for the synthesis of the catalysts. Pt-Ru based bimetallic catalysts were characterized for their rate of coating kinetics, noble metal loading, phase purity by XRD and surface morphology by SEM, TEM and elemental analysis by SIMS. Developed catalysts were found to be active for efficient recombination of hydrogen and oxygen in air as well as in presence of various prospective poisons like CO2, CH4, CO and relative humidity. Pt-Ru based bimetallic catalyst with 0.9% loading was found to be active for CO poisoning up to 400 ppm of CO. PMID:26504972

  5. Radiation effects and mitigation strategies for modern FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettler, M. W.; Caffrey, M. P.; Graham, P. S.; Krone, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Array devices have become the technology of choice in small volume modern instrumentation and control systems. These devices have always offered significant advantages in flexibility, and recent advances in fabrication have greatly increased logic capacity, substantially increasing the number of applications for this technology. Unfortunately, the increased density (and corresponding shrinkage of process geometry), has made these devices more susceptible to failure due to external radiation. This has been an issue for space based systems for some time, but is now becoming an issue for terrestrial systems in elevated radiation environments and commercial avionics as well. Characterizing the failure modes of Xilinx FPGAs, and developing mitigation strategies is the subject of ongoing research by a consortium of academic, industrial, and governmental laboratories. This paper presents background information of radiation effects and failure modes, as well as current and future mitigation techniques. In particular, the availability of very large FPGA devices, complete with generous amounts of RAM and embedded processor(s), has led to the implementation of complete digital systems on a single device, bringing issues of system reliability and redundancy management to the chip level. Radiation effects on a single FPGA are increasingly likely to have system level consequences, and will need to be addressed in current and future designs.

  6. Cyanobacteria and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress: mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Häder, Donat-P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2010-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are primitive photosynthetic oxygen-evolving prokaryotes that appeared on the Earth when there was no ozone layer to protect them from damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR has both direct and indirect effects on the cyanobacteria due to absorption by biomolecules and UVR-induced oxidative stress, respectively. However, these organisms have developed several lines of mitigation strategies/defense mechanisms such as avoidance, scavenging, screening, repair and programmed cell death to counteract the damaging effects of UVR. This review presents an update on the effects of UVR on cyanobacteria and the defense mechanisms employed by these prokaryotes to withstand UVR stress. In addition, recent developments in the field of molecular biology of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids and scytonemin, are also added and the possible role of programmed cell death, signal perception as well their transduction under UVR stress is being discussed.

  7. Effectiveness of landslide risk mitigation strategies in Shihmen Watershed, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Yi; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish landslide risk analysis procedures that can be used to analyze landslide risk in a watershed scale and to assess the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies. Landslide risk analysis encompassed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability of elements at risk, and community resilience capacity. First, landslide spatial probability, landslide temporal probability, and landslide area probability were joined to estimate the probability of landslides with an area exceeding a certain threshold in each slope unit. Second, the expected property and life losses were both analyzed in vulnerability analysis. Different elements at risk were assigned corresponding values, and then used in conjunction with the vulnerabilities to carry out quantitative analysis. Third, the resilience capacity of different communities was calculated based on the scores obtained through community checklists and the weights of individual items, including "the participation experience of disaster prevention drill," "real-time monitoring mechanism of community," "autonomous monitoring of residents," and "disaster prevention volunteer." Finally, the landslide probabilities, vulnerability analysis results, and resilience capacities were combined to assess landslide risk in Shihmen Watershed. In addition, the risks before and after the implementation of non-structural disaster prevention strategies were compared to determine the benefits of various strategies, and subsequently benefit-cost analysis was performed. Communities with high benefit-cost ratios included Hualing, Yisheng, Siouluan, and Gaoyi. The watershed as a whole had a benefit-cost ratio far greater than 1, indicating that the effectiveness of strategies was greater than the investment cost, and these measures were thus cost-effective. The results of factor sensitivity analysis revealed that changes in vulnerability and mortality rates would increase the uncertainty of risk, and that raise in annual

  8. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications.

  9. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  10. Understanding risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven

    2011-07-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) be required of manufacturers. These REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with drugs and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product, including once the product becomes available as generic. The elements of an individual REMS program consist of three levels: medication guide or patient package insert, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). A medication guide or patient package insert is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patient decision making, and enhance drug adherence. Communication plans are used to educate health care providers and to encourage their compliance with REMS. The ETASU is a restrictive process that is implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure that patients have safe access to products with known serious risks that would otherwise be unavailable. To review the components of REMS and specifically assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplantation arena, a literature search of the MEDLINE database (January 2007-December 2010) was performed, and published materials from the FDA and its Web site were also reviewed. In transplantation, REMS programs exist for both everolimus (medication guide and communication plan) and sirolimus (medication guide). The FDA has stated that all mycophenolic acid derivatives will be subject to a proposed REMS that has not yet been approved; however, both branded mycophenolic acid agents already have approved medication guides. The REMS are a permanent fixture in the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents, and their further implementation in solid organ transplantation is inevitable. Transplantation providers should take a proactive role in patient education and implementation of REMS within the therapeutic area

  11. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  12. An Interface to Drought Mitigation: Decision Support Tools from the National Drought Mitigation Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M.; Fuchs, B.; Hayes, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) (http://drought.unl.edu) has been working with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) (http://drought.gov) and other partners with a goal of developing tools to enhance drought risk management activities around the world. The NDMC is a national center founded in 1995 and located at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The NDMC conducts basic and applied research, services and decision support applications, along with maintaining a number of operational drought-related tools and products including the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR) and Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). The NDMC's newly launched National Drought Atlas (NDA) will be the focus of this presentation. Building off the concept of the original National Electronic Drought Atlas (NEDA) developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (led by Hoskings, Wallis and Guttman in the early 1990s), the original NEDA consisted of approximately 1000 stations taken from the Historical Climate Network (HCN). The period of record was limited at that time with most stations only having digital data from the late 1940s to present. For the NDMC's NDA, more than 12,000 stations with precipitation and/or temperature records from the National Weather Service Cooperative data (COOP) network were analyzed through the Regional Climate Centers' (RCCs) Applied Climate Information System (ACIS). From the initial sample set of 12,000 sites considered, over 3000 stations had at least 40 years of data and over 1700 sites had over 60 years of data meeting our criteria. A unique period of record (POR) was established for each station based on the screening criteria, with each station having a unique starting date. From the final selection of 3059 stations, all have at least 40+ years of data and 827 sites contain over 80+ years of data. In essence, the new NDA tripled the size and doubled the period of record of those sites used in

  13. The effectiveness of cool and green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect at the city-scale is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in conjunction with the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM). Specifically, the cooling impacts of green roof and cool (white/high-albedo) roof strategies over the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area during a heat wave period (7 June-10 June 2008) are assessed using the optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM described in the companion paper by Li and Bou-Zeid (2014). Results indicate that the surface UHI effect (defined based on the urban-rural surface temperature difference) is reduced significantly more than the near-surface UHI effect (defined based on urban-rural 2 m air temperature difference) when these mitigation strategies are adopted. In addition, as the green and cool roof fractions increase, the surface and near-surface UHIs are reduced almost linearly. Green roofs with relatively abundant soil moisture have comparable effect in reducing the surface and near-surface UHIs to cool roofs with an albedo value of 0.7. Significant indirect effects are also observed for both green and cool roof strategies; mainly, the low-level advection of atmospheric moisture from rural areas into urban terrain is enhanced when the fraction of these roofs increases, thus increasing the humidity in urban areas. The additional benefits or penalties associated with modifications of the main physical determinants of green or cool roof performance are also investigated. For green roofs, when the soil moisture is increased by irrigation, additional cooling effect is obtained, especially when the ‘unmanaged’ soil moisture is low. The effects of changing the albedo of cool roofs are also substantial. These results also underline the capabilities of the WRF-PUCM framework to support detailed analysis and diagnosis of the UHI phenomenon, and of its different mitigation strategies.

  14. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  15. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Susan C; Peterson, Janet; Yektashenas, Behin

    2012-02-01

    The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices. PMID:22171604

  16. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  17. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster's mitigation communication and education strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won't be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  18. Supporting Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION There are many opinions on the potentials for GHG mitigation in agriculture, but it is not always clear which among these are the most reliable and useful. The issues are complex, and the opinions as many and varied as those who have been brave enough to put their ideas forward. This co...

  19. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process

  20. Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems.

    PubMed

    Schils, R L M; Eriksen, J; Ledgard, S F; Vellinga, Th V; Kuikman, P J; Luo, J; Petersen, S O; Velthof, G L

    2013-03-01

    Herbivores are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions. They account for a large share of manure-related N(2)O emissions, as well as soil-related N(2)O emissions through the use of grazing land, and land for feed and forage production. It is widely acknowledged that mitigation measures are necessary to avoid an increase in N(2)O emissions while meeting the growing global food demand. The production and emissions of N(2)O are closely linked to the efficiency of nitrogen (N) transfer between the major components of a livestock system, that is, animal, manure, soil and crop. Therefore, mitigation options in this paper have been structured along these N pathways. Mitigation technologies involving diet-based intervention include lowering the CP content or increasing the condensed tannin content of the diet. Animal-related mitigation options also include breeding for improved N conversion and high animal productivity. The main soil-based mitigation measures include efficient use of fertilizer and manure, including the use of nitrification inhibitors. In pasture-based systems with animal housing facilities, reducing grazing time is an effective option to reduce N(2)O losses. Crop-based options comprise breeding efforts for increased N-use efficiency and the use of pastures with N(2)-fixing clover. It is important to recognize that all N(2)O mitigation options affect the N and carbon cycles of livestock systems. Therefore, care should be taken that reductions in N(2)O emissions are not offset by unwanted increases in ammonia, methane or carbon dioxide emissions. Despite the abundant availability of mitigation options, implementation in practice is still lagging. Actual implementation will only follow after increased awareness among farmers and greenhouse gases targeted policies. So far, reductions in N(2)O emissions that have been achieved are mostly a positive side effect of other N-targeted policies.

  1. Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems.

    PubMed

    Schils, R L M; Eriksen, J; Ledgard, S F; Vellinga, Th V; Kuikman, P J; Luo, J; Petersen, S O; Velthof, G L

    2013-03-01

    Herbivores are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions. They account for a large share of manure-related N(2)O emissions, as well as soil-related N(2)O emissions through the use of grazing land, and land for feed and forage production. It is widely acknowledged that mitigation measures are necessary to avoid an increase in N(2)O emissions while meeting the growing global food demand. The production and emissions of N(2)O are closely linked to the efficiency of nitrogen (N) transfer between the major components of a livestock system, that is, animal, manure, soil and crop. Therefore, mitigation options in this paper have been structured along these N pathways. Mitigation technologies involving diet-based intervention include lowering the CP content or increasing the condensed tannin content of the diet. Animal-related mitigation options also include breeding for improved N conversion and high animal productivity. The main soil-based mitigation measures include efficient use of fertilizer and manure, including the use of nitrification inhibitors. In pasture-based systems with animal housing facilities, reducing grazing time is an effective option to reduce N(2)O losses. Crop-based options comprise breeding efforts for increased N-use efficiency and the use of pastures with N(2)-fixing clover. It is important to recognize that all N(2)O mitigation options affect the N and carbon cycles of livestock systems. Therefore, care should be taken that reductions in N(2)O emissions are not offset by unwanted increases in ammonia, methane or carbon dioxide emissions. Despite the abundant availability of mitigation options, implementation in practice is still lagging. Actual implementation will only follow after increased awareness among farmers and greenhouse gases targeted policies. So far, reductions in N(2)O emissions that have been achieved are mostly a positive side effect of other N-targeted policies. PMID:23031718

  2. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  3. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation Strategy for Polar Drive at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; McKenty, P. W.; Zuegel, J. D.; Radha, P. B.; Marshall, F. J.; Seka, W.; Michel, D. T.; Hohenberger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) causes two-beam energy exchange via stimulated Brillouin scattering, which reduces absorbed light and implosion velocity, alters time-resolved scattered-light spectra, and redistributes absorbed light. These effects reduce target performance in symmetric direct-drive and polar-drive (PD) experiments on the OMEGA Laser System and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The CBET package (Adaawam) incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO is an integral part of the 3-D ray-trace package (Mazinisin). The CBET exchange occurs primarily over the equatorial region in PD, where successful mitigation strategies concentrate. Detuning the initial laser wavelength (dλ0) reduces the CBET interaction volume, which can be combined with spot-shape alterations. Employing opposed +/-dλ0 in each hemisphere offers the best single CBET mitigation option. The current NIF layout can be used to test detuning by altering the NIF PD repointing strategy while maintaining adequate symmetry. Simulations (2-D DRACO) predict measurable results: shell trajectory and shape and scattered-light spectrum and distribution. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  4. Ambient Air Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Exposures to Mobile Source PM2.5 Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation discussing ambient air mitigation strategies for near-road exposures. The presentation provides an overview of multiple methods, but focuses on the role roadside features (sound walls, vegetation) may play. This presentation summarizes preoviously published work by...

  5. Strategies to Support Productive Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warshauer, Hiroko K.

    2015-01-01

    An episode in which students encounter difficulty while working on a challenging task can be viewed as an opportunity for them to grapple with important mathematical ideas. Teachers can use these instances to acknowledge struggle as a natural part of learning while providing appropriate guidance and support to maintain the mathematical goals and…

  6. Strategies for Supporting Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robin A.; Thompson, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Programs for teenage mothers provided through school districts or community agencies often have their own curricular agenda for teaching teenage mothers about the proper care of and nutrition for infants and the typical stages of child development, but not all programs are successful in supporting the development of positive early relationships…

  7. Basic Strategies of Dynamic Supportive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Misch, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Supportive therapy is the psychotherapeutic approach employed with the majority of mentally ill individuals. Nevertheless, most mental health professional training programs dedicate little time and effort to the teaching and learning of supportive therapy, and many mental health professionals are unable to clearly and concisely articulate the nature or process of supportive work. Although supportive therapy incorporates many specific techniques from a wide variety of psychotherapy schools, it can be conceptualized as consisting of a more limited number of underlying strategies. The fundamental strategies that underpin effective supportive therapy with mentally ill individuals are described. PMID:11069130

  8. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  9. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  10. Decision-Support System for Mitigating Long-Term Flood Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H. R.; van Delden, H.; Newman, J. P.; Riddell, G. A.; Zecchin, A. C.; Dandy, G. C.; Newland, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term flood risk in urban areas is expected to increase as a result of a number of factors, such as an increase in the severity of flood events due to the impact of climate change and the exposure of a larger number of people to flooding as a result of population growth. In order to facilitate the development of long-term flood mitigation plans, a framework for a decision-support system (DSS) is presented in this paper. The framework consists of an integrated model (see Figure) consisting of dynamic, spatially distributed land-use and flood inundation models. It also enables the impact of various flood mitigation strategies to be assessed, such as spatial planning, land management, structural measures (e.g. levees, changes in building codes), and community education. The framework considers a number of external drivers that are represented in the form of long-term planning scenarios. These include the impact of climate drivers on the extent of flooding via the flood inundation model and the impact of population and economic drivers on the size and distribution of the population via the land use allocation model. Using this framework, a DSS is being developed and applied to the Greater Adelaide region of South Australia. This DSS includes an intuitive, user-friendly interface for enabling different planning scenarios and mitigation portfolios to be selected, as well as temporal changes in flood risk maps under each of these scenarios to be observed. Changes in flood risk maps are investigated over a 30-year period with climate drivers represented by different representative concentration pathways, population drivers represented by different population projections and economic drivers represented by different employment rates. The impact of different combinations of mitigation measures is also investigated. The results indicate that climate, population and economic drivers have a significant impact on the temporal evolution of flood risk for the case study area

  11. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement

  12. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  13. Identifiability in biobanks: models, measures, and mitigation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Loukides, Grigorios; Benitez, Kathleen; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2013-01-01

    The collection and sharing of person-specific biospecimens has raised significant questions regarding privacy. In particular, the question of identifiability, or the degree to which materials stored in biobanks can be linked to the name of the individuals from which they were derived, is under scrutiny. The goal of this paper is to review the extent to which biospecimens and affiliated data can be designated as identifiable. To achieve this goal, we summarize recent research in identifiability assessment for DNA sequence data, as well as associated demographic and clinical data, shared via biobanks. We demonstrate the variability of the degree of risk, the factors that contribute to this variation, and potential ways to mitigate and manage such risk. Finally, we discuss the policy implications of these findings, particularly as they pertain to biobank security and access policies. We situate our review in the context of real data sharing scenarios and biorepositories. PMID:21739176

  14. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    PubMed

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests.

  15. Deterministic and Nondeterministic Behavior of Earthquakes and Hazard Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, H.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes exhibit both deterministic and nondeterministic behavior. Deterministic behavior is controlled by length and time scales such as the dimension of seismogenic zones and plate-motion speed. Nondeterministic behavior is controlled by the interaction of many elements, such as asperities, in the system. Some subduction zones have strong deterministic elements which allow forecasts of future seismicity. For example, the forecasts of the 2010 Mw=8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake and the 2012 Mw=7.6, Costa Rica, earthquake are good examples in which useful forecasts were made within a solid scientific framework using GPS. However, even in these cases, because of the nondeterministic elements uncertainties are difficult to quantify. In some subduction zones, nondeterministic behavior dominates because of complex plate boundary structures and defies useful forecasts. The 2011 Mw=9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake may be an example in which the physical framework was reasonably well understood, but complex interactions of asperities and insufficient knowledge about the subduction-zone structures led to the unexpected tragic consequence. Despite these difficulties, broadband seismology, GPS, and rapid data processing-telemetry technology can contribute to effective hazard mitigation through scenario earthquake approach and real-time warning. A scale-independent relation between M0 (seismic moment) and the source duration, t, can be used for the design of average scenario earthquakes. However, outliers caused by the variation of stress drop, radiation efficiency, and aspect ratio of the rupture plane are often the most hazardous and need to be included in scenario earthquakes. The recent development in real-time technology would help seismologists to cope with, and prepare for, devastating tsunamis and earthquakes. Combining a better understanding of earthquake diversity and modern technology is the key to effective and comprehensive hazard mitigation practices.

  16. Behavioral Health and Performance, Risk to Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren; Whitemire, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the working of the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) group, which supports the research element which manages an integrated program for future space flight. The BHP operations group supports astronauts and their families in all phases of the International Space Station Mission, and post mission effects.

  17. Medical mitigation strategies for acute radiation exposure during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Slava; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2006-02-01

    The United States Government has recently refocused their space program on manned missions to the Moon by 2018 and later to Mars. While there are many potential risks associated with exploration-class missions, one of the most serious and unpredictable is the effect of acute space radiation exposure, and the space program must make every reasonable effort to mitigate this risk. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth's magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Either can cause acute and chronic medical illness. Numerous researchers are currently examining the ability of GCR exposure to induce the development of genetic changes that lead to malignancies and other delayed effects. However, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE event and the potential impact on the mission and crew. This review paper will provide the readers with medical management options for an acute radiation event based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and evidence-based critical analysis of the scientific literature. It is the goal of this paper to stimulate debate regarding the definition of safety parameters for exploration-class missions to determine the level of medical care necessary to provide for the crew that will undertake such missions.

  18. Medical mitigation strategies for acute radiation exposure during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Slava; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2006-02-01

    The United States Government has recently refocused their space program on manned missions to the Moon by 2018 and later to Mars. While there are many potential risks associated with exploration-class missions, one of the most serious and unpredictable is the effect of acute space radiation exposure, and the space program must make every reasonable effort to mitigate this risk. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth's magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Either can cause acute and chronic medical illness. Numerous researchers are currently examining the ability of GCR exposure to induce the development of genetic changes that lead to malignancies and other delayed effects. However, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE event and the potential impact on the mission and crew. This review paper will provide the readers with medical management options for an acute radiation event based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and evidence-based critical analysis of the scientific literature. It is the goal of this paper to stimulate debate regarding the definition of safety parameters for exploration-class missions to determine the level of medical care necessary to provide for the crew that will undertake such missions. PMID:16491581

  19. Strategies for Supporting Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Lindsay R.; Horn, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The development of early literacy skills is critical to children's later success in reading and reading-related activities; therefore, understanding how teachers can support early literacy development is equally important. In this article, the authors provide information on how early childhood teachers can use specific strategies and techniques as…

  20. Core Strategies to Support English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sheldon; Eslami, Zohreh R.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2012-01-01

    Reading and vocabulary instruction can serve as an instructional process to respond to English language learner (ELL) needs. The purpose of this review of literature was to determine whether reading and vocabulary instruction should be used as core strategies for supporting ELLs requiring interventions as a response to the Texas English Language…

  1. An Optimal Mitigation Strategy Against the Asteroid Impact Threat with Short Warning Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) Phase 2 study entitled "An Innovative Solution to NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development." This NIAC Phase 2 study was conducted at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) of Iowa State University in 2012-2014. The study objective was to develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation strategy for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (less than 5 years). The mitigation strategy described in this paper is intended to optimally reduce the severity and catastrophic damage of the NEO impact event, especially when we don't have sufficient warning times for non-disruptive deflection of a hazardous NEO. This paper provides an executive summary of the NIAC Phase 2 study results.

  2. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Germann, Timothy C.; Kadau, Kai; Longini, Ira M.; Macken, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised the specter of a devastating pandemic like that of 1917–1918, should this avian virus evolve to become readily transmissible among humans. We introduce and use a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S. population of 281 million individuals for R0 (the basic reproductive number) from 1.6 to 2.4. We model the impact that a variety of levels and combinations of influenza antiviral agents, vaccines, and modified social mobility (including school closure and travel restrictions) have on the timing and magnitude of this spread. Our simulations demonstrate that, in a highly mobile population, restricting travel after an outbreak is detected is likely to delay slightly the time course of the outbreak without impacting the eventual number ill. For R0 < 1.9, our model suggests that the rapid production and distribution of vaccines, even if poorly matched to circulating strains, could significantly slow disease spread and limit the number ill to <10% of the population, particularly if children are preferentially vaccinated. Alternatively, the aggressive deployment of several million courses of influenza antiviral agents in a targeted prophylaxis strategy may contain a nascent outbreak with low R0, provided adequate contact tracing and distribution capacities exist. For higher R0, we predict that multiple strategies in combination (involving both social and medical interventions) will be required to achieve similar limits on illness rates. PMID:16585506

  3. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge; Public Workshop; Issue Paper AGENCY: Food and... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... patients' and health care providers' knowledge about the risks of drugs marketed with an approved...

  4. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  5. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law. PMID:25514502

  6. Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rescuing amphibian diversity is an achievable conservation challenge. Disease mitigation is one essential component of population management. Here we assess existing disease mitigation strategies, some in early experimental stages, which focus on the globally emerging chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We discuss the precedent for each strategy in systems ranging from agriculture to human medicine, and the outlook for each strategy in terms of research needs and long-term potential. Results We find that the effects of exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis occur on a spectrum from transient commensal to lethal pathogen. Management priorities are divided between (1) halting pathogen spread and developing survival assurance colonies, and (2) prophylactic or remedial disease treatment. Epidemiological models of chytridiomycosis suggest that mitigation strategies can control disease without eliminating the pathogen. Ecological ethics guide wildlife disease research, but several ethical questions remain for managing disease in the field. Conclusions Because sustainable conservation of amphibians in nature is dependent on long-term population persistence and co-evolution with potentially lethal pathogens, we suggest that disease mitigation not focus exclusively on the elimination or containment of the pathogen, or on the captive breeding of amphibian hosts. Rather, successful disease mitigation must be context specific with epidemiologically informed strategies to manage already infected populations by decreasing pathogenicity and host susceptibility. We propose population level treatments based on three steps: first, identify mechanisms of disease suppression; second, parameterize epizootiological models of disease and population dynamics for testing under semi-natural conditions; and third, begin a process of adaptive management in field trials with natural populations. PMID:21496358

  7. Contamination mitigation strategies for scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D R G

    2015-06-01

    Modern scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) enables imaging and microanalysis at very high magnification. In the case of aberration-corrected STEM, atomic resolution is readily achieved. However, the electron fluxes used may be up to three orders of magnitude greater than those typically employed in conventional STEM. Since specimen contamination often increases with electron flux, specimen cleanliness is a critical factor in obtaining meaningful data when carrying out high magnification STEM. A range of different specimen cleaning methods have been applied to a variety of specimen types. The contamination rate has been measured quantitatively to assess the effectiveness of cleaning. The methods studied include: baking, cooling, plasma cleaning, beam showering and UV/ozone exposure. Of the methods tested, beam showering is rapid, experimentally convenient and very effective on a wide range of specimens. Oxidative plasma cleaning is also very effective and can be applied to specimens on carbon support films, albeit with some care. For electron beam-sensitive materials, cooling may be the method of choice. In most cases, preliminary removal of the bulk of the contamination by methods such as baking or plasma cleaning, followed by beam showering, where necessary, can result in a contamination-free specimen suitable for extended atomic scale imaging and analysis.

  8. Diatom Proteomics Reveals Unique Acclimation Strategies to Mitigate Fe Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Brook L.; Faux, Jessica F.; Hippmann, Anna A.; Maldonado, Maria T.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Goodlett, David R.; Boyd, Philip W.; Strzepek, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth rates are limited by the supply of iron (Fe) in approximately one third of the open ocean, with major implications for carbon dioxide sequestration and carbon (C) biogeochemistry. To date, understanding how alteration of Fe supply changes phytoplankton physiology has focused on traditional metrics such as growth rate, elemental composition, and biophysical measurements such as photosynthetic competence (Fv/Fm). Researchers have subsequently employed transcriptomics to probe relationships between changes in Fe supply and phytoplankton physiology. Recently, studies have investigated longer-term (i.e. following acclimation) responses of phytoplankton to various Fe conditions. In the present study, the coastal diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, was acclimated (10 generations) to either low or high Fe conditions, i.e. Fe-limiting and Fe-replete. Quantitative proteomics and a newly developed proteomic profiling technique that identifies low abundance proteins were employed to examine the full complement of expressed proteins and consequently the metabolic pathways utilized by the diatom under the two Fe conditions. A total of 1850 proteins were confidently identified, nearly tripling previous identifications made from differential expression in diatoms. Given sufficient time to acclimate to Fe limitation, T. pseudonana up-regulates proteins involved in pathways associated with intracellular protein recycling, thereby decreasing dependence on extracellular nitrogen (N), C and Fe. The relative increase in the abundance of photorespiration and pentose phosphate pathway proteins reveal novel metabolic shifts, which create substrates that could support other well-established physiological responses, such as heavily silicified frustules observed for Fe-limited diatoms. Here, we discovered that proteins and hence pathways observed to be down-regulated in short-term Fe starvation studies are constitutively expressed when T. pseudonana is acclimated (i

  9. PREFERENCE EVALUATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR MULTIPLE UTILITIES OF HEAT MITIGATION PROJECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hideharu; Nakatani, Jun; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    Heat mitigation projects, such as green roof, waterfront, mist spraying and water-retentive pavement, are mainly intended to decrease outdoor temperature, while some of them have multiple utilities including increase of species, mitigation of flood, improvement of spatial design and environmental enlightenment in addition to decrease in outdoor temperature. This paper proposes and demonstrates a decision support method for alternative design based on prioritization and preference evaluation for multiple utilities of heat mitigation projects. First, applying analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the priority order of project implementation was decided based on subjective evaluation of multi-stakeholders such as benefit recipients, experts and project implementers on multiple utilities of the projects. Then, the preference structure of office workers as benefit recipients of projects was identified using conjoint analysis, each utility was evaluated in monetary value, and discussed which aspects should be emphasized on detailed project planning.

  10. Voltage Sag Mitigation Strategies for an Indian Power Systems: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A. K.; Gupta, C. P.; Singh, G. K.

    2014-08-01

    Under modern deregulated environment, both utilities and customers are concerned with the power quality improvement but with different objectives/interests. The utility reconfigure its power network and install mitigation devices, if needed, to improve power quality. The paper presents a strategy for selecting cost-effective solutions to mitigate voltage sags, the most frequent power quality disturbance. In this paper, mitigation device(s) is/are inducted in the optimal network topology at suitable places for their better effectiveness for further improvement in power quality. The optimal placement is looked from utility perspectives for overall benefit. Finally, their performance is evaluated on the basis of reduction in total number of voltage sags, reduction in total number of process trips and reduction in total financial losses due to voltage sags.

  11. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  12. Mitigation strategies to reduce pesticide inputs into ground- and surface water and their effectiveness; a review.

    PubMed

    Reichenberger, Stefan; Bach, Martin; Skitschak, Adrian; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the current knowledge on mitigation strategies to reduce pesticide inputs into surface water and groundwater, and their effectiveness when applied in practice is reviewed. Apart from their effectiveness in reducing pesticide inputs into ground- and surface water, the mitigation measures identified in the literature are evaluated with respect to their practicability. Those measures considered both effective and feasible are recommended for implementing at the farm and catchment scale. Finally, recommendations for modelling are provided using the identified reduction efficiencies. Roughly 180 publications directly dealing with or being somehow related to mitigation of pesticide inputs into water bodies were examined. The effectiveness of grassed buffer strips located at the lower edges of fields has been demonstrated. However, this effectiveness is very variable, and the variability cannot be explained by strip width alone. Riparian buffer strips are most probably much less effective than edge-of-field buffer strips in reducing pesticide runoff and erosion inputs into surface waters. Constructed wetlands are promising tools for mitigating pesticide inputs via runoff/erosion and drift into surface waters, but their effectiveness still has to be demonstrated for weakly and moderately sorbing compounds. Subsurface drains are an effective mitigation measure for pesticide runoff losses from slowly permeable soils with frequent waterlogging. For the pathways drainage and leaching, the only feasible mitigation measures are application rate reduction, product substitution and shift of the application date. There are many possible effective measures of spray drift reduction. While sufficient knowledge exists for suggesting default values for the efficiency of single drift mitigation measures, little information exists on the effect of the drift reduction efficiency of combinations of measures. More research on possible interactions between different drift

  13. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

  14. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  15. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Holmner, Åsa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT)’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

  16. Improved Wavelength Detuning Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation Strategy for Polar Direct Drive at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; McKenty, P. W.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) reduces absorbed light and implosion velocity, alters time-resolved scattered-light spectra, and redistributes absorbed and scattered light. These effects reduce target performance in both symmetric direct-drive and polar-direct-drive (PDD) experiments on the OMEGA Laser System and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The CBET package (Adaawam) incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO is an integral part of the 3-D ray-trace package (Mazinisin). The CBET exchange occurs primarily over the equatorial region in PDD, where successful mitigation strategies concentrate. Detuning the initial laser wavelength (dλ0) reduces the CBET interaction volume, which can be combined with other mitigation domains (e.g., spatial and temporal). By judiciously selecting the ring and/or port +/-dλ0 in each hemisphere, using new DRACO diagnostic abilities, improved wavelength detuning strategies trade-off overall energy absorption for improved hemispherical energy balance control. These balanced-wavelength detuning strategies improve performance for high-convergence implosions. Simulations (2-D DRACO) predict improved implosion performance and control in both the shell trajectory and morphology for planned intermediate PDD experiments on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  17. Rapid optimization of blast wave mitigation strategies using Quiet Direct Simulation and Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew R.; Kuo, Fang-An; Hsieh, Chih-Wei; Yu, Jen-Perng; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Ferguson, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Presented is a rapid calculation tool for the optimization of blast wave related mitigation strategies. The motion of gas resulting from a blast wave (specified by the user) is solved by the Quiet Direct Simulation (QDS) method - a rapid kinetic theory-based finite volume method. The optimization routine employed is a newly developed Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is demonstrated to be similar to a Differential Evolution (DE) scheme with several modifications. In any Genetic Algorithm, individuals contain genetic information which is passed on to newly created individuals in successive generations. The results from unsteady QDS simulations are used to determine the individual's "genetic fitness" which is employed by the proposed Genetic Algorithm during the reproduction process. The combined QDS/GA algorithm is applied to various test cases and finally the optimization of a non-trivial blast wave mitigation strategy. Both QDS and the proposed GA are demonstrated to perform with minimal computational expense while accurately solving the optimization problems presented.

  18. A Decision Support System for Mitigating Stream Temperature Impacts in the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing demands on the limited and variable water supply across the West can result in insufficient streamflow to sustain healthy fish habitat. We develop an integrated decision support system (DSS) for modeling and mitigating stream temperature impacts and demonstrate it on the Sacramento River system in California. Water management in the Sacramento River is a complex task with a diverse set of demands ranging from municipal supply to mitigation of fisheries impacts due to high water temperatures. Current operations utilize the temperature control device (TCD) structure at Shasta Dam to mitigate these high water temperatures downstream at designated compliance points. The TCD structure at Shasta Dam offers a rather unique opportunity to mitigate water temperature violations through adjustments to both release volume and temperature. In this study, we develop and evaluate a model-based DSS with four broad components that are coupled to produce the decision tool for stream temperature mitigation: (i) a suite of statistical models for modeling stream temperature attributes using hydrology and climate variables of critical importance to fish habitat; (ii) a reservoir thermal model for modeling the thermal structure and, consequently, the water release temperature, (iii) a stochastic weather generator to simulate weather sequences consistent with seasonal outlooks; and, (iv) a set of decision rules (i.e., 'rubric') for reservoir water releases in response to outputs from the above components. Multiple options for modifying releases at Shasta Dam were considered in the DSS, including mixing water from multiple elevations through the TCD and using different acceptable levels of risk. The DSS also incorporates forecast uncertainties and reservoir operating options to help mitigate stream temperature impacts for fish habitat, while efficiently using the reservoir water supply and cold pool storage. The use of these coupled tools in simulating impacts of future climate

  19. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food

    PubMed Central

    Brorby, Gregory P.; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds. PMID:27102178

  20. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis with bioaugmentation: characteristics of effective probiotics and strategies for their selection and use.

    PubMed

    Bletz, Molly C; Loudon, Andrew H; Becker, Matthew H; Bell, Sara C; Woodhams, Douglas C; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N

    2013-06-01

    Probiotic therapy through bioaugmentation is a feasible disease mitigation strategy based on growing evidence that microbes contribute to host defences of plants and animals. Amphibians are currently threatened by the rapid global spread of the pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. Bioaugmentation of locally occurring protective bacteria on amphibians has mitigated this disease effectively in laboratory trials and one recent field trial. Areas still naïve to Bd provide an opportunity for conservationists to proactively implement probiotic strategies to prevent further amphibian declines. In areas where Bd is endemic, bioaugmentation can facilitate repatriation of susceptible amphibians currently maintained in assurance colonies. Here, we synthesise the current research in amphibian microbial ecology and bioaugmentation to identify characteristics of effective probiotics in relation to their interactions with Bd, their host, other resident microbes and the environment. To target at-risk species and amphibian communities, we develop sampling strategies and filtering protocols that result in probiotics that inhibit Bd under ecologically relevant conditions and persist on susceptible amphibians. This filtering tool can be used proactively to guide amphibian disease mitigation and can be extended to other taxa threatened by emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts in the forestry sector, especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where forests are vulnerable and sensitive to the increasing probability and severity of climatic extremes, especially to droughts. For providing information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options for the Carpathian basin, a GIS-supported Decision Support System is under development. This study focuses on the future tendencies of climate indicators that determine the distribution, growth, health status and production of forests as well as the potential pests and diseases. For the analyses the climate database of the Decision Support System has been applied, which contains daily time series for precipitation and temperature means and extremes as well as derived climate indices for 1961-2100. For the future time period, simulation results of 12 regional climate models are included (www.ensembles-eu.org) based on the A1B emission scenario. The main results can be summarized as follows: · The projected change of the climate indices (e.g. total number of hot days, frost days, dry days, consecutive dry periods) and forestry indices (e.g. Ellenberg climate quotient, Forestry aridity index; Tolerance index for beech) indicates the warming and drying of the growing season towards the end of the 21st century. These can have severe consequences on the ecosystem services of forests. · The climatic suitable area of the native tree species is projected to move northwards and upwards in the mountains, respectively. For beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) this shift would mean the drastic shrink of the distribution area in the analyzed region. · The characteristic climate conditions that are expected in the Carpathian basin in the second half of the century, are now located southeastern from the case study region. In this way, the potential future provenance regions can be determined. Results provide input for the climate

  2. Methane mitigation in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Wiggins, E. B.; Miu, J. C. L.; Carranza, V.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cities generate a large fraction of anthropogenic methane emissions that are increasing with urbanization and greater reliance on natural gas as fuel. New measurements of methane in cities suggest an as-yet unrealized potential for city-scale methane mitigation. We present high-resolution methane observations from four cities in North America to demonstrate the utility of methane surveys for identifying urban methane sources. We used portable, continuous on-road measurements to determine the spatial distribution of methane in Fairbanks, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Across cities, methane tended to be highly concentrated in space, suggesting discrete, point emission sources. Elevated methane levels were found near known emission sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment facilities, and natural gas-fueled power plants, and revealed the location of fugitive leaks in natural gas infrastructure. The mix of sources and sizes of methane leaks varied among cities, highlighting a need for locally adaptive emissions regulation. Urban methane observations can inform anthropogenic processes in development of methane mitigation strategies. We discuss specific examples of how continuous atmospheric measurements can enhance the design of mitigation strategies in these cities, and potential contributions of these approaches to cross-sectoral efforts to reduce methane emissions at the city level.

  3. Potential Risks and Mitigation Strategies Before the Conduct of a Clinical Trial: An Industry Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Seema; Kapatkar, Vaibhavi K; Mourya, Meenakshi; Roy, Sucheta; Jha, Shailendra; Reddy, Rajasekhar; Kadhe, Ganesh; Mane, Amey; Sawant, Sandesh

    2016-01-01

    Conduct of clinical trials has undergone substantial changes over the last two decades. Newer markets, evolving guidelines and documentation and high cost involved in conducting the trials have led pharmaceutical companies to prepare a risk mitigation plan. Extensive monitoring of potential risks is an essential element of clinical trials which helps to ensure quality and integrity of a clinical investigation. Every clinical trial has pre (before the trial), conduct and post phase. This article which has been developed as a result of extensive research at ground level by a reputed pharmaceutical company to identify the potential stages of risks that could affect the overall quality and safety of a trial and its outcome during the pre-phase of trial (the stage of the trial where the study design is being planned before initiation of the clinical trial). It includes risks associated with basic study concept, protocol design, Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) and Clinical Trial Authorization (CTA) application signing, vendors of central drug laboratory, site and investigator selection, Clinical Research Coordinator (CRC) meet, Informed Consent Form (ICF), Case Report Form (CRF)/ Status Report Form (SRF) preparation, Ethics Committee (EC) submission, etc. have been highlighted. The risk based mitigation strategy (to develop an effective risk monitoring plan before staring a clinical trial) has also been suggested by authors. A well-tailored and integrated plan, recognition of potential risks and their mitigation strategy can result in the pre exclusion or end to end solution of all the risks associated with pre- phase of clinical trials.

  4. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  5. Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodhams, Douglas C.; Bosch, Jaime; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Cashins, Scott; Davis, Leyla R.; Lauer, Antje; Muths, Erin L.; Puschendorf, Robert; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Sheafor, Brandon; Voyles, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Because sustainable conservation of amphibians in nature is dependent on long-term population persistence and co-evolution with potentially lethal pathogens, we suggest that disease mitigation not focus exclusively on the elimination or containment of the pathogen, or on the captive breeding of amphibian hosts. Rather, successful disease mitigation must be context specific with epidemiologically informed strategies to manage already infected populations by decreasing pathogenicity and host susceptibility. We propose population level treatments based on three steps: first, identify mechanisms of disease suppression; second, parameterize epizootiological models of disease and population dynamics for testing under semi-natural conditions; and third, begin a process of adaptive management in field trials with natural populations.

  6. The impacts of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; LePage, Y.; Patel, P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Clarke, L.; Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence that anthropogenic climate change may alter patterns of tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial distribution, which in turn will alter the carbon balance of terrestrial systems in the large regions impacted by these storms. Recent studies project up to a doubling of major storms (Saffir-Simpson Scale 3-5) over the next century. Single large storms have been shown to be capable of causing committed carbon emissions equivalent to the annual U.S. carbon sink. These changes have the potential to affect climate mitigation strategies, most of which rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink to restrain the accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Altered patterns of disturbances and the resulting changes to the carbon balance of terrestrial systems could impact the magnitude of emissions to mitigate, the economic value of ecosystem carbon storage, and thus future land-use patterns, food prices and energy technology. Here we investigate the potential consequences of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies using a fully integrated model (iED) that links advanced ecological and socio-economic models. The model combines the regional integrated assessment algorithms of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), with the climate- sensitive ecosystem and carbon modeling in the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, and the land-use mapping algorithms of the Global Land-use Model (GLM). We explore a range of scenarios of altered future tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial pattern, the resulting effects on the terrestrial carbon balance, and the coupled effects on the food and energy sector under a range of future climate mitigation goals.

  7. Methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable critical infrastructure equipment and mitigation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Lon Andrew; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NSCD), Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), contracted Sandia National Laboratories to develop a generic methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable, critical infrastructure assets and the development of mitigation strategies for their loss or compromise. The initial project has been divided into three discrete deliverables: (1) A generic methodology report suitable to all Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) Sectors (this report); (2) a sector-specific report for Electrical Power Distribution; and (3) a sector-specific report for the water sector, including generation, water treatment, and wastewater systems. Specific reports for the water and electric sectors are available from Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. Contamination Detection and Mitigation Strategies for Unsymmetric Dimethylhydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide Non-Combustion Product Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benjamin; Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Baker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Dimethylamine and nitrite, which are non-combustion reaction products of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, can contaminate spacesuits during extra-vehicular activity (EVA) operations. They can react with water in the International Space Station (ISS) airlock to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a carcinogen. Detection methods for assessing nitrite and dimethylamine contamination were investigated. The methods are based on color-forming reactions in which intensity of color is proportional to concentration. A concept color detection kit using a commercially available presumptive field test for methamphetamine coupled with nitrite test strips was developed and used to detect dimethylamine and nitrite. Contamination mitigation strategies were also developed.

  9. HYPOXIA IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO: DOES THE SCIENCE SUPPORT THE PLAN TO REDUCE, MITIGATE, AND CONTROL HYPOXIA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    We update and reevaluate the scientific information on the distribution, history and causes of continental shelf hypoxia that supports the 2001 "Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxiain the Northern Gulf of Mexico," incorporating data, publications, and res...

  10. GLIMPSE: A decision support tool for simultaneously achieving our air quality management and climate change mitigation goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, R. W.; Akhtar, F.; Loughlin, D. H.; Henze, D. K.; Bowman, K. W.

    2012-12-01

    Poor air quality, ecosystem damages, and climate change all are caused by the combustion of fossil fuels, yet environmental management often addresses each of these challenges separately. This can lead to sub-optimal strategies and unintended consequences. Here we present GLIMPSE -- a decision support tool for simultaneously achieving our air quality and climate change mitigation goals. GLIMPSE comprises of two types of models, (i) the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, to calculate the relationship between emissions and impacts at high spatial resolution, and (ii) the MARKAL energy system model, to calculate the relationship between energy technologies and emissions. This presentation will demonstrate how GLIMPSE can be used to explore energy scenarios to better achieve both improved air quality and mitigate climate change. Second, this presentation will discuss how space-based observations can be incorporated into GLIMPSE to improve decision-making. NASA satellite products, namely ozone radiative forcing from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), are used to extend GLIMPSE to include the impact of emissions on ozone radiative forcing. This provides a much needed observational constraint on ozone radiative forcing.

  11. Strategies, Protections and Mitigations for Electric Grid Affets from Electro-Magnetic Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Rita Ann; Frickey, Steven Jay

    2016-01-01

    The mission of DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance the security and reliability of America’s energy infrastructure and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. One of the threats OE is concerned about is a high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) from a nuclear explosion and eletro-magnetic pulse (EMP) or E1 pulse can be generated by EMP weapons. DOE-OE provides federal leadership and technical guidance in addressing electric grid issues. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was chosen to conduct the EMP study for DOE-OE due to its capabilities and experience in setting up EMP experiments on the electric grid and conducting vulnerability assessments and developing innovative technology to increase infrastructure resiliency. This report identifies known impacts to EMP threats, known mitigations and effectiveness of mitigations, potential cost of mitigation, areas for government and private partnerships in protecting the electric grid to EMP, and identifying gaps in our knowledge and protection strategies.

  12. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Policy decisions regarding climate change mitigation are increasingly incorporating the beneficial and adverse health impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Studies of such co-benefits and co-harms involve modeling approaches requiring a range of analytic decisions that affect the model output. Objective: Our objective was to assess analytic decisions regarding model framework, structure, choice of parameters, and handling of uncertainty when modeling health co-benefits, and to make recommendations for improvements that could increase policy uptake. Methods: We describe the assumptions and analytic decisions underlying models of mitigation co-benefits, examining their effects on modeling outputs, and consider tools for quantifying uncertainty. Discussion: There is considerable variation in approaches to valuation metrics, discounting methods, uncertainty characterization and propagation, and assessment of low-probability/high-impact events. There is also variable inclusion of adverse impacts of mitigation policies, and limited extension of modeling domains to include implementation considerations. Going forward, co-benefits modeling efforts should be carried out in collaboration with policy makers; these efforts should include the full range of positive and negative impacts and critical uncertainties, as well as a range of discount rates, and should explicitly characterize uncertainty. We make recommendations to improve the rigor and consistency of modeling of health co-benefits. Conclusion: Modeling health co-benefits requires systematic consideration of the suitability of model assumptions, of what should be included and excluded from the model framework, and how uncertainty should be treated. Increased attention to these and other analytic decisions has the potential to increase the policy relevance and application of co-benefits modeling studies, potentially helping policy makers to maximize mitigation potential while

  13. 'High-health, high-performance' horses: risk mitigation strategies for OIE-listed diseases.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; Murray, G; Timoney, P

    2015-12-01

    The 'high-health, high-performance' (HHP) horse concept has been developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) together with the F6ddration Equestre Internationale and the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. This concept is outlined in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Chapter 4.16). It aims to address impediments to the international movement of competition horses through a harmonised, practically feasible, globally applicable framework based on simplified certification requirements for the temporary importation of HHP horses and for their return to their country of usual residence. Based on the principle of compartmentalisation, the high health status of these horses would be established by the application, at all times, of stringent health management practices and biosecurity measures to create and maintain a functional separation between horses within the defined compartment and all other equids. These provisions are intended to mitigate the risk of disease spread for most OIE-listed diseases. For six OIE-listed diseases (African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine piroplasmosis, glanders and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis), the OIE recommends disease-specific mitigation measures, which have been included in a model HHP Veterinary Certificate, to provide additional guarantees to mitigate the risk of disease spread. This article presents the HH P disease risk mitigation strategy. It demonstrates how continuous observance of the HHP biosecurity measures and health management practices provides a scientific rationale for limiting the list of diseases for which HHP horses should be screened with respect to their temporary importation for competition purposes. PMID:27044155

  14. An evaluation of a mitigation strategy for deer-vehicle collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, John A.; Rosa, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    High mule deer Odocoileus hemionus mortality in southwestern Utah led to the establishment of a mitigation strategy with two major objectives: 1) reduction of wildlife-vehicle collisions and 2) restoration of landscape connectivity to facilitate wildlife movement across the roaded landscape. During our study, we assessed the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in reducing mule deer mortality in the following ways: 1) we compared the number of deer-vehicle collisions in the newly fenced area with a control area without fencing; 2) we analyzed the ‘end-of-the-fence’ problem, defined here as increased mortality of mule deer at the ends of the 2.4-m high exclusion fences; and 3) we evaluated the frequency of animal crossings of the new underpasses using remotely-sensed cameras and compared them with crossing frequency rates for a 20-year-old control underpass. We compared six years of pre-construction mortality (during 1998-2003) with two years of post-construction data on mortality (during 2005-2006) and found a 98.5% decline in deer mortalities in the treatment (i.e. fenced, jump-outs and underpasses) vs a 2.9% decline in the control (i.e. no fences, no jump-outs and no underpasses). We detected no end-of-the-fence problems related to deer mortality. Migratory movements during fall and spring were clearly reflected in the use of underpass. Overall results demonstrated that the mitigation strategy was effective and reduced the number of deer-vehicle accidents, while allowing wildlife movement across the landscape.

  15. [Key microbial processes in nitrous oxide emissions of agricultural soil and mitigation strategies].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, which does not only have a strong influence on the global climate change but also depletes the ozone layer and induces the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation to ground surface, so numerous researches have been focused on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Soil is the foremost source of N2O emissions to the atmosphere, and approximately two-thirds of these emissions are generally attributed to microbiological processes including bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Here the available knowledge concerning the research progress in N2O production in agricultural soils was reviewed, including denitrification, nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and the abiotic (including soil pH, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic matter, soil humidity and temperature) and biotic factors that have direct and indirect effects on N2O fluxes from agricultural soils were also summarized. In addition, the strategies for mitigating N2O emissions and the future research direction were proposed. Therefore, these studies are expected to provide valuable and scientific evidence for the study on mitigation strategies for the emission of greenhouse gases, adjustment of nitrogen transformation processes and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency.

  16. [Key microbial processes in nitrous oxide emissions of agricultural soil and mitigation strategies].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, which does not only have a strong influence on the global climate change but also depletes the ozone layer and induces the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation to ground surface, so numerous researches have been focused on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Soil is the foremost source of N2O emissions to the atmosphere, and approximately two-thirds of these emissions are generally attributed to microbiological processes including bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Here the available knowledge concerning the research progress in N2O production in agricultural soils was reviewed, including denitrification, nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and the abiotic (including soil pH, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic matter, soil humidity and temperature) and biotic factors that have direct and indirect effects on N2O fluxes from agricultural soils were also summarized. In addition, the strategies for mitigating N2O emissions and the future research direction were proposed. Therefore, these studies are expected to provide valuable and scientific evidence for the study on mitigation strategies for the emission of greenhouse gases, adjustment of nitrogen transformation processes and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24812980

  17. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R.

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  18. Disease risk mitigation: the equivalence of two selective mixing strategies on aggregate contact patterns and resulting epidemic spread.

    PubMed

    Morin, Benjamin R; Perrings, Charles; Levin, Simon; Kinzig, Ann

    2014-12-21

    The personal choices affecting the transmission of infectious diseases include the number of contacts an individual makes, and the risk-characteristics of those contacts. We consider whether these different choices have distinct implications for the course of an epidemic. We also consider whether choosing contact mitigation (how much to mix) and affinity mitigation (with whom to mix) strategies together has different epidemiological effects than choosing each separately. We use a set of differential equation compartmental models of the spread of disease, coupled with a model of selective mixing. We assess the consequences of varying contact or affinity mitigation as a response to disease risk. We do this by comparing disease incidence and dynamics under varying contact volume, contact type, and both combined across several different disease models. Specifically, we construct a change of variables that allows one to transition from contact mitigation to affinity mitigation, and vice versa. In the absence of asymptomatic infection we find no difference in the epidemiological impacts of the two forms of disease risk mitigation. Furthermore, since models that include both mitigation strategies are underdetermined, varying both results in no outcome that could not be reached by choosing either separately. Which strategy is actually chosen then depends not on their epidemiological consequences, but on the relative cost of reducing contact volume versus altering contact type. Although there is no fundamental epidemiological difference between the two forms of mitigation, the social cost of alternative strategies can be very different. From a social perspective, therefore, whether one strategy should be promoted over another depends on economic not epidemiological factors.

  19. Promising New Teacher Support Strategies and Their Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella R.; Quartz, Karen Hunter

    1995-01-01

    Describes several promising new teacher support strategies implemented by California universities and their district partners as part of the California New Teacher Project, noting resources expended to implement each strategy. The strategies are framed according to their programmatic and economic dimensions. Strategies that make the most sense…

  20. Development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for Disaster Early Warning and Mitigation in the Ecowas Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, L. A.; Keita, M. S.; Akinyede, J. O.; Kufoniyi, O.; Erin, G.

    2015-08-01

    The West Africa Sub-region has been crisis and disaster ridden in recent times with enormous challenges for disaster mitigation. The crisis/disasters range from conflicts fuelled by political upheaval to epidemics that take their tolls on the population of some countries in the sub-region. The crisis and disaster events have overwhelming magnitudes and are highly dynamic, requiring a well-articulated plan for immediate response in order to mitigate their effects. A study carried out by the Early Warning Directorate (EWD) of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) highlighted the risks and vulnerabilities of the region despite the considerable progress made in development and peace consolidation in some parts of the region. The study identified apparent institutional and infrastructural deficiencies, such as the lack of up-to-date geospatial data and information, and inadequate platforms for data gathering and data sharing among the relevant national agencies, which have made much of the region particularly vulnerable to the emerging threats. It is against the foregoing that the development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for EWD and the ECOWAS is being proposed. In addition to the resolution of the crucial need of reliable geospatial data capacity of member states, this initiative will spearhead the realisation of a Geospatial Data Infrastructure for ECOWAS Commission, through the appropriate policy formulation and implementation. Through the proper implementation of the Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services, ECOWAS will have the capacity to provide geospatial analysis and mapping support focusing on areas related to conflict prevention and resolution, regional planning for food security, early warning of viral diseases and epidemics, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response, infrastructural development and refugee resettlement, and a host of other vital projects/programmes for promoting ECOWAS regional integration

  1. Proactive gait strategies to mitigate risk of obstacle contact are more prevalent with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Muir, B C; Haddad, J M; Heijnen, M J H; Rietdyk, S

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine if healthy older adults adopt strategies to decrease the likelihood of obstacle contact, and to determine how these strategies are modified as a function of advancing age. Three age groups were examined: 20-25 yo (N = 19), 65-79 yo (N = 11), and 80-91 yo (N = 18). Participants stepped over a stationary, visible obstacle on a walkway. Step length and gait speed progressively decreased with advancing age; the shorter step length resulted in closer foot placement to the obstacle and an associated increased risk of obstacle contact. Lead (first limb to cross the obstacle) and trail (second) limb trajectories were examined for behavior that mitigated the risk of contact. (1) Consistent trail foot placement before the obstacle across all ages allowed space and time for the trail foot to clear the obstacle. (2) To avoid lead limb contact due to closer foot placement before and after the obstacle, the lead toe was raised more vertically after toe-off, and then the foot was extended beyond the landing position (termed lead overshoot) and retracted backwards to achieve the shortened step length. Lead overshoot progressively increased with advancing age. (3) Head angle was progressively lower with advancing age, an apparent attempt to gather more visual information during approach. Overall, a series of proactive strategies were adopted to mitigate risk of contact. However, the larger, more abrupt movements associated with a more vertical foot trajectory and lead overshoot may compromise whole body balance, indicating a possible trade-off between risk of contact and stability.

  2. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  3. Risk Mitigation Strategies for Adverse Reactions Associated with the Disease Modifying Drugs in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Subei, Adnan M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years the number of disease modifying therapies (DMTs) have doubled in number. The thirteen approved agents have shown a wide-range of efficacy and safety in their clinical trials and post-marketing experience. While the availability of the newer agents allows for a wider selection of therapy for clinicians and patients, it requires careful understanding of the benefits and risks of each agent. Several factors such as the medication efficacy, side-effect profile, patient’s preference, and co-morbidities need to be considered. An individualized treatment approach is thus imperative. In this review, risk stratification and mitigation strategies of the various disease modifying agents will be discussed. PMID:26407624

  4. Simulation Comparison of Wake Mitigation Control Strategies for a Two-Turbine Case

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Paul; Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; Lee, Sang; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem; Johnson, Kathryn; Churchfield, Matt; Michalakes, John; Spalart, Philippe; Moriarty, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Wind turbines arranged in a wind plant impact each other through their wakes. Wind plant control is an active research field that attempts to improve wind plant performance by coordinating control of individual turbines to take into account these turbine–wake interactions. High-fidelity simulations of a two-turbine fully waked scenario are used to investigate several wake mitigation strategies, in this paper, including modification of yaw and tilt angles of an upstream turbine to induce wake skew, as well as repositioning of the downstream turbine. The simulation results are compared through change relative to a baseline operation in terms of overall power capture and loading on the upstream and downstream turbine. Results demonstrated improved power production for all methods. Moreover, analysis of control options, including individual pitch control, shows potential to minimize the increase of, or even reduce, turbine loads.

  5. Evaluating the potential effectiveness of compensatory mitigation strategies for marine bycatch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Bakker, V.; Doak, D.F.; Sullivan, B.; Lewison, R.; Satterthwaite, W.H.; McIntyre, P.B.; Wolf, S.; Priddel, D.; Arnold, J.M.; Henry, R.W.; Sievert, P.; Croxall, J.

    2008-01-01

    Conservationists are continually seeking new strategies to reverse population declines and safeguard against species extinctions. Here we evaluate the potential efficacy of a recently proposed approach to offset a major anthropogenic threat to many marine vertebrates: incidental bycatch in commercial fisheries operations. This new approach, compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch (CMMB), is conceived as a way to replace or reduce mandated restrictions on fishing activities with compensatory activities (e.g., removal of introduced predators from islands) funded by levies placed on fishers. While efforts are underway to bring CMMB into policy discussions, to date there has not been a detailed evaluation of CMMB's potential as a conservation tool, and in particular, a list of necessary and sufficient criteria that CMMB must meet to be an effective conservation strategy. Here we present a list of criteria to assess CMMB that are tied to critical ecological aspects of the species targeted for conservation, the range of possible mitigation activities, and the multi-species impact of fisheries bycatch. We conclude that, overall, CMMB has little potential for benefit and a substantial potential for harm if implemented to solve most fisheries bycatch problems. In particular, CMMB is likely to be effective only when applied to short-lived and highly-fecund species (not the characteristics of most bycatch-impacted species) and to fisheries that take few non-target species, and especially few non-seabird species (not the characteristics of most fisheries). Thus, CMMB appears to have limited application and should only be implemented after rigorous appraisal on a case-specific basis; otherwise it has the potential to accelerate declines of marine species currently threatened by fisheries bycatch. ?? 2008 Finkelstein et al.

  6. Evaluating the Potential Effectiveness of Compensatory Mitigation Strategies for Marine Bycatch

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Myra; Bakker, Victoria; Doak, Daniel F.; Sullivan, Ben; Lewison, Rebecca; Satterthwaite, William H.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Wolf, Shaye; Priddel, David; Arnold, Jennifer M.; Henry, Robert W.; Sievert, Paul; Croxall, John

    2008-01-01

    Conservationists are continually seeking new strategies to reverse population declines and safeguard against species extinctions. Here we evaluate the potential efficacy of a recently proposed approach to offset a major anthropogenic threat to many marine vertebrates: incidental bycatch in commercial fisheries operations. This new approach, compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch (CMMB), is conceived as a way to replace or reduce mandated restrictions on fishing activities with compensatory activities (e.g., removal of introduced predators from islands) funded by levies placed on fishers. While efforts are underway to bring CMMB into policy discussions, to date there has not been a detailed evaluation of CMMB's potential as a conservation tool, and in particular, a list of necessary and sufficient criteria that CMMB must meet to be an effective conservation strategy. Here we present a list of criteria to assess CMMB that are tied to critical ecological aspects of the species targeted for conservation, the range of possible mitigation activities, and the multi-species impact of fisheries bycatch. We conclude that, overall, CMMB has little potential for benefit and a substantial potential for harm if implemented to solve most fisheries bycatch problems. In particular, CMMB is likely to be effective only when applied to short-lived and highly-fecund species (not the characteristics of most bycatch-impacted species) and to fisheries that take few non-target species, and especially few non-seabird species (not the characteristics of most fisheries). Thus, CMMB appears to have limited application and should only be implemented after rigorous appraisal on a case-specific basis; otherwise it has the potential to accelerate declines of marine species currently threatened by fisheries bycatch. PMID:18560568

  7. Tailoring the Employment of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structure Load Mitigation Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Binita; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The currently available control concepts to mitigate aerodynamic and hydrodynamic induced support structure loads reduce either fore-aft or side-to-side damage under certain operational conditions. The load reduction is achieved together with an increase in loads in other components of the turbine e.g. pitch actuators or drive train, increasing the risk of unscheduled maintenance. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate a methodology for reduction of support structure damage equivalent loads (DEL) in fore-aft and side-to-side directions using already available control concepts. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to minimize the DELs, while limiting the collateral effects of the control algorithms for load reduction. The optimization gives trigger values of sea state condition for the activation or deactivation of certain control concepts. As a result, by accepting the consumption of a small fraction of the load reserve in the design load envelope of other turbine components, a considerable reduction of the support structure loads is facilitated.

  8. E-health strategies to support adherence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adherence to healthy behaviors and self-care strategies is a concern among clinicians. E-health applications, such as the internet, personal communication devices, electronic health records and web portals, and electronic games, may be a way to provide health information in a way that is reliable, c...

  9. Using Technology to Support Visual Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bannon, Blanche; Puckett, Kathleen; Rakes, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Visual learning is a strategy for visually representing the structure of information and for representing the ways in which concepts are related. Based on the work of Ausubel, these hierarchical maps facilitate student learning of unfamiliar information in the K-12 classroom. This paper presents the research base for this Type II computer tool, as…

  10. Reducing uncertainties of local sea level projections for developing climate-change mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H. P.; Miller, N. L.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in Local Sea Level (LSL) may be one of the major climate change impacts requiring expensive coastal protection measures or severe adaptation strategies. In many countries, decision makers are increasingly facing decisions of whether to burden national economies with costs for coastal protection, or to risk major disasters. The decision to rebuild (e.g. New Orleans) or abandon cities or island nations (e.g. Maldives) under incrreasing risk of being devastated by a combination of storm surge and rising LSL requires an understanding of the uncertainties. Today's planning decisions will have long term implications for mitigating the potential of a slowly developing LSL rise disaster. Informed decisions will only be possible if predictions of the range of future LSL rise are made available with reliable uncertainties. State-of-the-science Earth system models cannot reliably predict climate-induced changes in LSL, hence policy- makers lack needed tools for determining best mitigation strategies. Local secular changes in LSL are the result of a location-dependent mix of various factors, including steric changes, ocean and atmospheric circulation changes, mass exchange of the ocean with terrestrial water storage and the cryosphere, and the vertical motion of the land. A major uncertainty is contributed by the uncertain response of large ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica to climate change. Therefore, Probability Density Functions (PDF) attached to the IPCC predictions for global temperature changes over the next 100 years cannot be translated easily into PDFs for global sea level changes, and even less so for any LSL changes. We will present an observation-based approach for the prediction and probabilities of LSL changes for a wide range of scenarios needed to assess plausible future LSL trajectories at any given location. Identifying the major contributions to the uncertainties and determining their weight with respect to the overall PDF for LSL changes will

  11. Adverse impact of heat stress on embryo production: causes and strategies for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P J; Drost, M; Rivera, R M; Paula-Lopes, F F; al-Katanani, Y M; Krininger, C E; Chase, C C

    2001-01-01

    The production of embryos by superovulation is often reduced in periods of heat stress. The associated reduction in the number of transferable embryos is due to reduced superovulatory response, lower fertilization rate, and reduced embryo quality. There are also reports that success of in vitro fertilization procedures is reduced during warm periods of the year. Heat stress can compromise the reproductive events required for embryo production by decreasing expression of estrus behavior, altering follicular development, compromising oocyte competence, and inhibiting embryonic development. While preventing effects of heat stress can be difficult, several strategies exist to improve embryo production during heat stress. Among these strategies are changing animal housing to reduce the magnitude of heat stress, utilization of cows with increased resistance to heat stress (i.e., cows with lower milk yield or from thermally-adapted breeds), and manipulation of physiological and cellular function to overcome deleterious consequences of heat stress. Effects of heat stress on estrus behavior can be mitigated by use of estrus detection aids or utilization of ovulation synchronization treatments to allow timed embryo transfer. There is some evidence that embryonic survival can be improved by antioxidant administration and that pharmacological treatments can be developed that reduce the degree of hyperthermia experienced by cows exposed to heat stress.

  12. Strategies for Building Social Support for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    At-risk families cope with many issues simultaneously and are often overwhelmed. To assist families, early childhood professionals must offer community- and family-centered support through collaborations with social service providers and outreach professionals. Educational professionals working in high-needs schools must re-examine their funding…

  13. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  14. Supporting Technology at GRC to Mitigate Risk as Stirling Power Conversion Transitions to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2009-01-01

    Stirling power conversion technology has been reaching more advanced levels of maturity during its development for space power applications. The current effort is in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Sunpower Inc., and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. Of paramount importance is the reliability of the power system and as a part of this, the Stirling power convertors. GRC has established a supporting technology effort with tasks in the areas of reliability, convertor testing, high-temperature materials, structures, advanced analysis, organics, and permanent magnets. The project utilizes the matrix system at GRC to make use of resident experts in each of the aforementioned fields. Each task is intended to reduce risk and enhance reliability of the convertor as this technology transitions toward flight status. This paper will provide an overview of each task, outline the recent efforts and accomplishments, and show how they mitigate risk and impact the reliability of the ASC s and ultimately, the ASRG.

  15. Supporting Technology at GRC to Mitigate Risk as Stirling Power Conversion Transitions to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2008-01-01

    Stirling power conversion technology has been reaching more advanced levels of maturity during its development for space power applications. The current effort is in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Sunpower Inc., and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. Of paramount importance is the reliability of the power system and as a part of this, the Stirling power convertors. GRC has established a supporting technology effort with tasks in the areas of reliability, convertor testing, high-temperature materials, structures, advanced analysis, organics, and permanent magnets. The project utilizes the matrix system at GRC to make use of resident experts in each of the aforementioned fields. Each task is intended to reduce risk and enhance reliability of the convertor as this technology transitions toward flight status. This paper will provide an overview of each task, outline the recent efforts and accomplishments, and show how they mitigate risk and impact the reliability of the ASC s and ultimately, the ASRG.

  16. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  17. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission.

  18. Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho

    2008-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i

  19. Hawaiian cultural influences on support for lava flow hazard mitigation measures during the January 1960 eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Kapoho, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, B.F.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.; Lachman, R.; Bonk, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    On average, 72% of respondents favored the construction of earthen barriers to hold back or divert lava and protect Kapoho, but far fewer agreed with the military's use of bombs (14%) to protect Kapoho. In contrast, about one-third of respondents conditionally agreed with the use of bombs. It is suggested that local participation in the bombing strategy may explain the increased conditional acceptance of bombs as a mitigation tool, although this can not be conclusively demonstrated. Belief in Pele and being of Hawaiian ethnicity did not reduce support for the use of barriers, but did reduce support for bombs in both bombing scenarios. The disparity in levels of acceptance of barriers versus bombing and of one bombing strategy versus another suggests that historically public attitudes toward lava flow hazard mitigation strategies were complex. A modern comparative study is needed before the next damaging eruption to inform debates and decisions about whether or not to interfere with the flow of lava. Recent changes in the current eruption of Kīlauea make this a timely topic.

  20. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    PubMed

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  1. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    PubMed

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  2. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels

    PubMed Central

    Zimba, Roderick F.; Likando, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18–35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  3. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  4. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed.

  5. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  6. Quantifying carbon mitigation wedges in U.S. cities: near-term strategy analysis and critical review.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Bernard, Meghan; Chavez, Abel; Hillman, Tim; Whitaker, Michael; Thomas, Gregg; Marshall, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    A case study of Denver, Colorado explores the roles of three social actors-individual users, infrastructure designer-operators, and policy actors-in near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in U.S. cities. Energy efficiency, renewable energy, urban design, price- and behavioral-feedback strategies are evaluated across buildings-facilities, transportation, and materials/waste sectors in cities, comparing voluntary versus regulatory action configurations. GHG mitigation impact depends upon strategy effectiveness per unit, as well as societal participation rates in various action-configurations. Greatest impact occurs with regulations addressing the vast existing buildings stock in cities, followed by voluntary behavior change in electricity use/purchases, technology shifts (e.g., to teleconferencing), and green-energy purchases among individual users. A portfolio mix of voluntary and regulatory actions can yield a best-case maximum of ~1% GHG mitigation annually in buildings and transportation sectors, combined. Relying solely on voluntary actions reduces mitigation rates more than five-fold. A portfolio analysis of climate action plans in 55 U.S. cities reveals predominance of voluntary outreach programs that have low societal participation rates and hence low GHG impact, while innovative higher-impact behavioral, technological, and policy/regulatory strategies are under-utilized. Less than half the cities capitalize on cross-scale linkages with higher-impact state-scale policies. Interdisciplinary field research can help address the mis-match in plans, actions, and outcomes.

  7. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  8. External Strategies for Stimulating and Supporting School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew; Osthoff, Eric

    This paper examines how school restructuring can be promoted by agencies outside the school. The first part posits a framework for designing and analyzing external strategies to promote school restructuring. This framework distinguishes between strategies that are: (1) intended to initiate versus support school restructuring; (2) comprehensive…

  9. Learning Strategies in Web-Supported Collaborative Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Web-based learning promotes computer-mediated interaction and student-centred learning in most higher education institutions. To fulfil their academic requirements, students develop appropriate strategies to support learning. Purposes of this study were to: (1) examine the relationship between students study strategies (assessed by Learning and…

  10. A new strategy to mitigate the initial capacity loss of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xin; Lin, Chikai; Wang, Xiaoping; Maroni, Victor A.; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher S.; Lu, Wenquan

    2016-08-01

    Hard carbon (non-graphitizable) and related materials, like tin, tin oxide, silicon, and silicon oxide, have a high theoretical lithium delivery capacity (>550 mAh/g depending on their structural and chemical properties) but unfortunately they also exhibit a large initial capacity loss (ICL) that overrides the true reversible capacity in a full cell. Overcoming the large ICL of hard carbon in a full-cell lithium-ion battery (LIB) necessitates a new strategy wherein a sacrificial lithium source additive, such as, Li5FeO4 (LFO), is inserted on the cathode side. Full batteries using hard carbon coupled with LFO-LiCoO2 (LCO) are currently under development at our laboratory. We find that the reversible capacity of a cathode containing LFO can be increased by 14%. Furthermore, the cycle performance of full cells with LFO additive is improved from <90% to >95%. We show that the LFO additive not only can address the irreversible capacity loss of the anode, but can also provide the additional lithium ion source required to mitigate the lithium loss caused by side reactions. In addition, we have explored the possibility to achieve higher capacity with hard carbon, whereby the energy density of full cells can be increased from ca. 300 Wh/kg to >400 Wh/kg.

  11. Controlling chemical dosing for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks using a hybrid automata control strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals such as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and iron salts are widely used to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewer networks composed of interconnected sewer pipe lines and pumping stations. Chemical dosing control is usually non-automatic and based on experience, thus often resulting in sewage reaching the discharge point receiving inadequate or even no chemical dosing. Moreover, intermittent operation of pumping stations makes traditional control theory inadequate. A hybrid automata-based (HA-based) control method is proposed in this paper to coordinate sewage pumping station operations by considering their states, thereby ensuring suitable chemical concentrations in the network discharge. The performance of the proposed control method was validated through a simulation study of a real sewer network using real sewage flow data. The physical, chemical and biological processes were simulated using the well-established SeweX model. The results suggested that the HA-based control strategy significantly improved chemical dosing control performance and sulfide mitigation in sewer networks, compared to the current common practice. PMID:24355844

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions in the state of Morelos, Mexico: a first approximation for establishing mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, María Luisa; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the authors report the first greenhouse gas emission inventory of Morelos, a state in central Mexico, in which the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been identified using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were estimated as CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq) for the years 2005, 2007, and 2009, with 2005 being treated as the base year. The percentage contributions from each category to the CO2 eq emissions in the base year were as follows: 38% from energy, 30% from industrial processes, 23% from waste, 5% from agriculture, and 4% from land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF). As observed in other state inventories in Mexico, road transportation is the main source of CO2 emissions, wastewater handling and solid waste disposal are the main sources of CH4 emissions, and agricultural soils are the source of the most significant N2O emissions. The information reported in this inventory identifies the main emission sources. Based on these results, the government can propose public policies specifically designed for the state of Morelos to establish GHG mitigation strategies in the near future.

  13. Controlling chemical dosing for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks using a hybrid automata control strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals such as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and iron salts are widely used to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewer networks composed of interconnected sewer pipe lines and pumping stations. Chemical dosing control is usually non-automatic and based on experience, thus often resulting in sewage reaching the discharge point receiving inadequate or even no chemical dosing. Moreover, intermittent operation of pumping stations makes traditional control theory inadequate. A hybrid automata-based (HA-based) control method is proposed in this paper to coordinate sewage pumping station operations by considering their states, thereby ensuring suitable chemical concentrations in the network discharge. The performance of the proposed control method was validated through a simulation study of a real sewer network using real sewage flow data. The physical, chemical and biological processes were simulated using the well-established SeweX model. The results suggested that the HA-based control strategy significantly improved chemical dosing control performance and sulfide mitigation in sewer networks, compared to the current common practice.

  14. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  15. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  16. Jitter Test Program and On-Orbit Mitigation Strategies for Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Kenney, Thomas; Maghami, Peiman; Mule, Pete; Blaurock, Carl; Haile, William B.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) aims to study the Sun's influence on the Earth, the source, storage, and release of the solar energy, and the interior structure of the Sun. During science observations, the jitter stability at the instrument focal plane must be maintained to less than a fraction of an arcsecond for two of the SDO instruments. To meet these stringent requirements, a significant amount of analysis and test effort has been devoted to predicting the jitter induced from various disturbance sources. This paper presents an overview of the SDO jitter analysis approach and test effort performed to date. It emphasizes the disturbance modeling, verification, calibration, and validation of the high gain antenna stepping mechanism and the reaction wheels, which are the two largest jitter contributors. This paper also describes on-orbit mitigation strategies to protect the system from analysis model uncertainties. Lessons learned from the SDO jitter analyses and test programs are included in the paper to share the knowledge gained with the community.

  17. Acute kidney injury induced by antimicrobial agents in the elderly: awareness and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Fumihiro; Mizuno, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents has increased in recent years as treatments have diversified and resistant bacteria have appeared. With increased use of antimicrobial agents, elderly patients are prone to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as a result of factors such as drug-drug interactions, polypharmacy, long-term use, and over- or under-dosage. In particular, elderly patients using antimicrobials are at increased risk to develop drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), which is the most common severe ADR in such patients. AKI is a serious problem that is associated with mortality amongst hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial-induced AKI can be classified into three different types: acute tubular necrosis (ATN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), and renal tubule lumen obstruction. AKI can generally be prevented by proper maintenance of fluid balance. To design dosage regimens that ensure efficient drug excretion via the kidney, it is necessary to accurately estimate renal function; however, the kidney undergoes age-dependent structural and functional alterations over time. Therefore, proper management of antimicrobial agents by an antimicrobial stewardship team may lead to decreased incidence of AKI. This article reviews antimicrobial-induced AKI and discusses potential strategies for increasing awareness of AKI and mitigating its clinical effects.

  18. Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Andrew J; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Pretty, Jules; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Richardson, David J

    2012-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas and cause of ozone layer depletion. Global emissions continue to rise. More than two-thirds of these emissions arise from bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes in soils, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. This article summarizes the outcomes of an interdisciplinary meeting, 'Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) the forgotten greenhouse gas', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, from 23 to 24 May 2011. It provides an introduction and background to the nature of the problem, and summarizes the conclusions reached regarding the biological sources and sinks of N(2)O in oceans, soils and wastewaters, and discusses the genetic regulation and molecular details of the enzymes responsible. Techniques for providing global and local N(2)O budgets are discussed. The findings of the meeting are drawn together in a review of strategies for mitigating N(2)O emissions, under three headings, namely: (i) managing soil chemistry and microbiology, (ii) engineering crop plants to fix nitrogen, and (iii) sustainable agricultural intensification.

  19. Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Andrew J.; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Pretty, Jules; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas and cause of ozone layer depletion. Global emissions continue to rise. More than two-thirds of these emissions arise from bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes in soils, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. This article summarizes the outcomes of an interdisciplinary meeting, ‘Nitrous oxide (N2O) the forgotten greenhouse gas’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, from 23 to 24 May 2011. It provides an introduction and background to the nature of the problem, and summarizes the conclusions reached regarding the biological sources and sinks of N2O in oceans, soils and wastewaters, and discusses the genetic regulation and molecular details of the enzymes responsible. Techniques for providing global and local N2O budgets are discussed. The findings of the meeting are drawn together in a review of strategies for mitigating N2O emissions, under three headings, namely: (i) managing soil chemistry and microbiology, (ii) engineering crop plants to fix nitrogen, and (iii) sustainable agricultural intensification. PMID:22451101

  20. A new strategy to mitigate the initial capacity loss of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xin; Lin, Chikai; Wang, Xiaoping; Maroni, Victor A.; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher S.; Lu, Wenquan

    2016-08-01

    Hard carbon (non-graphitizable) and related materials, like tin, tin oxide, silicon, and silicon oxide, have a high theoretical lithium delivery capacity (>550 mAh/g depending on their structural and chemical properties) but unfortunately they also exhibit a large initial capacity loss (ICL) that overrides the true reversible capacity in a full cell. Overcoming the large ICL of hard carbon in a full-cell lithium-ion battery (LIB) necessitates a new strategy wherein a sacrificial lithium source additive, such as, Li5FeO4 (LFO), is inserted on the cathode side. Full batteries using hard carbon coupled with LFO-LiCoO2 (LCO) are currently under development at our laboratory. We find that the reversible capacity of a cathode containing LFO can be increased by 14%. Furthermore, the cycle performance of full cells with LFO additive is improved from <90% to >95%. We show that the LFO additive not only can address the irreversible capacity loss of the anode, but can also provide the additional lithium ion source required to mitigate the lithium loss caused by side reactions. In addition, we have explored the possibility to achieve higher capacity with hard carbon, whereby the energy density of full cells can be increased from ca. 300 Wh/kg to >400 Wh/kg.

  1. Second-hand smoke exposure and mitigation strategies among home visitation workers

    PubMed Central

    Keske, Robyn; Rees, Vaughan W.; Behm, Ilan; Wadler, Brianna M.; Geller, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Protection of workers from second-hand smoke (SHS) in occupational settings is an important policy priority yet little attention has been given to SHS protection for home visitation health workers, who number almost two million in the United States. Self-reported SHS exposure, SHS mitigation strategies, and suggestions for further SHS exposure reduction approaches were obtained from home visitation health workers in Massachusetts. Methods Across-sectional survey was conducted among Massachusetts Early Intervention workers at their statewide conference in April, 2010. Results Eighty-three percent of the N=316 respondents reported at least one hour per month of SHS exposure, and 16% reported at least 11 hours per month. Nevertheless, only 22% of workers counseled clients on maintaining a smoke free home. Fewer than 30% of workers had ever voiced concerns to their employing agency and just 12% had raised their concerns directly with clients. Only 14% stated that their agency had rules designed to protect workers from SHS. Conclusions SHS exposure occurs frequently among home visitation health workers. The data point to a substantial population who are not protected from SHS exposure by formal policies. PMID:22184207

  2. Risk-mitigation strategies for large earth flows in Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    This presentation proposes an overview on ancient earth flows of the Northern Apennines and their reactivation mechanisms, with a view to gleaning information that can subsequently be utilized to implement risk-reduction strategies for land-use planning and mitigation measures. These large landslide bodies are the result of multi-phase events occurred during the last 13.000 years, but, in spite of the ancient origin, they are still dangerous, due to the repetitiveness of the reactivation events. Damages deriving from the recurrent reactivation of these ancient landslides exceeds the 90% of the total. The hazard assessment of these landslides, which are of slope scale, constitutes a thorny problem, especially in view of the inapplicability of traditional deterministic models such as limit equilibrium stability analysis. The usual set of factors that form the basis of deterministic methods is insufficient to make reliable predictions about the future behaviour of these landslides and their related hazard. Nevertheless, a site-specific assessment of probability of reactivation is fundamental to effective land-use planning. The observation of real, recent events (e.g. Boschi di Valoria, Corniglio and Cà Lita) has proved to be an useful mean for understanding which are the conditions and behaviours that usually lead to the reactivation of an ancient earth flow. More in general, the analysis of the evolution of earth flows during actual reactivation acknowledges a typical, recurring succession of events that precede the failure of the slope. In order to perform an effective risk-reduction strategy, a site-specific, interdisciplinary and partially heuristic approach should be implemented, pooling together many elements of evaluation. Most importantly, using detailed field observation and all other available means, the hazard estimate must consider possible indicators of present and recent movement, or situations that could lead to future reactivation, with special

  3. Home Visiting: A Service Strategy to Reduce Poverty and Mitigate Its Consequences.

    PubMed

    Minkovitz, Cynthia S; O'Neill, Kay M G; Duggan, Anne K

    2016-04-01

    Home visiting programs are increasingly recognized as an important part of the early childhood system of care in the United States. The objectives of this report are to review the rationale for home visiting; characterize the Federal Home Visiting Program; highlight the evidence of home visiting effectiveness, particularly for low income families; identify opportunities to promote coordination between medical homes and home visiting programs; and explain the critical role of research, evaluation, and quality improvement to strengthen home visiting effectiveness. Home visiting programs offer voluntary home-based services and other supports to meet the needs of vulnerable pregnant women and young families. Home visiting intends to address poverty in 2 ways. First, it promotes economic self-sufficiency directly by building parents' knowledge, skills, and motivation related to employment opportunities and by linking families with community services such as adult education and job training. Second, it mitigates the effects of poverty through direct service and community linkages to enhance parents' capacity for positive parenting and for their own health and family functioning. Home visiting has shown effectiveness in multiple domains, including family economic self-sufficiency, birth outcomes, maternal health, child health and development, and positive parenting practices. Authorized as part of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and reauthorized in 2015, the Federal Home Visiting Program invests an unprecedented $1.9 billion in the form of grants to states to expand home visiting programs and support rigorous research. As part of the early childhood system of services, home visiting programs must coordinate with other community services and supports. Programs will be most effective when resources are used efficiently, duplication of services is avoided, and alignment and reinforcement of other providers' messages are achieved. The Federal Home Visiting Program has

  4. Home Visiting: A Service Strategy to Reduce Poverty and Mitigate Its Consequences.

    PubMed

    Minkovitz, Cynthia S; O'Neill, Kay M G; Duggan, Anne K

    2016-04-01

    Home visiting programs are increasingly recognized as an important part of the early childhood system of care in the United States. The objectives of this report are to review the rationale for home visiting; characterize the Federal Home Visiting Program; highlight the evidence of home visiting effectiveness, particularly for low income families; identify opportunities to promote coordination between medical homes and home visiting programs; and explain the critical role of research, evaluation, and quality improvement to strengthen home visiting effectiveness. Home visiting programs offer voluntary home-based services and other supports to meet the needs of vulnerable pregnant women and young families. Home visiting intends to address poverty in 2 ways. First, it promotes economic self-sufficiency directly by building parents' knowledge, skills, and motivation related to employment opportunities and by linking families with community services such as adult education and job training. Second, it mitigates the effects of poverty through direct service and community linkages to enhance parents' capacity for positive parenting and for their own health and family functioning. Home visiting has shown effectiveness in multiple domains, including family economic self-sufficiency, birth outcomes, maternal health, child health and development, and positive parenting practices. Authorized as part of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and reauthorized in 2015, the Federal Home Visiting Program invests an unprecedented $1.9 billion in the form of grants to states to expand home visiting programs and support rigorous research. As part of the early childhood system of services, home visiting programs must coordinate with other community services and supports. Programs will be most effective when resources are used efficiently, duplication of services is avoided, and alignment and reinforcement of other providers' messages are achieved. The Federal Home Visiting Program has

  5. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  6. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  7. Strategies to Support Ethical Reasoning in Student Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton Griswold, Joan; Ting Chowning, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the importance and benefits of incorporating ethics\tinto the classroom and presents five strategies that both scaffold students'\tunderstanding of ethical issues and support students' abilities to come to a reasoned and well-supported decision about those issues. (Contains 1 table and 4 notes.)

  8. Application of two passive strategies on the load mitigation of large offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzadeh, Rasoul; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the numerical results of two passive strategies to reduce the support structure loads of a large offshore wind turbine. In the first approach, an omnidirectional tuned mass damper is designed and implemented in the tower top to alleviate the structural vibrations. In the second approach, a viscous fluid damper model which is diagonally attached to the tower at two points is developed. Aeroelastic simulations are performed for the offshore 10MW INNWIND.EU reference wind turbine mounted on a jacket structure. Lifetime damage equivalent loads are evaluated at the tower base and compared with those for the reference wind turbine. The results show that the integrated design can extend the lifetime of the support structure.

  9. Hydrogen Mitigation Strategy of the APR1400 Nuclear Power Plant for a Hypothetical Station Blackout Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong

    2005-06-15

    In order to analyze the hydrogen distribution during a hypothetical station blackout accident in the Korean next-generation Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) containment, the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW was used. The source of the hydrogen and steam for the GASFLOW analysis was obtained from a MAAP calculation. The discharged water, steam, and hydrogen from the pressurizer are released into the water of the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). Most of the discharged steam is condensed in the IRWST water because of its subcooling, and dry hydrogen is released into the free volume of the IRWST; finally, it goes out to the annular compartment above the IRWST through the vent holes. From the GASFLOW analysis, it was found that the gas mixture in the IRWST becomes quickly nonflammable by oxygen starvation but the hydrogen is accumulated in the annular compartment because of the narrow ventilation gap between the operating deck and containment wall when the igniters installed in the IRWST are not operated. When the igniters installed in the APR1400 were turned on, a short period of burning occurred in the IRWST, and then the flame was extinguished by the oxygen starvation in the IRWST. The unburned hydrogen was released into the annular compartment and went up to the dome because no igniters are installed around the annular compartment in the base design of the APR1400. From this result, it could be concluded that the control of the hydrogen concentration is difficult for the base design. In this study design modifications are proposed and evaluated with GASFLOW in view of the hydrogen mitigation strategy.

  10. Adherence to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) requirements for monthly testing of liver function

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Nunes, Anthony P; Lin, Nancy D; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Noone, Joshua; Tangirala, Krishna; Johnston, Stephen; Gutierrez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS), as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medications with the potential for harm, are increasingly incorporating rigid protocols for patient evaluation, but little is known about compliance with these programs. Despite the inherent limitations, data on administrative claims may provide an opportunity to investigate adherence to these programs. Methods: We assessed adherence to liver function test (LFT) requirements included in the REMS program for bosentan through use of administrative claims. Patients observed in the Optum Research Database who were initiators of bosentan from November 20, 2001 to March 31, 2013 were included. Adherence to LFTs was calculated using pharmacy claims for bosentan dispensation and medical claims for laboratory services, and was assessed at the time of drug initiation and within specified time intervals throughout follow-up. Results: Of 742 patients, 523 (70.5%) had ≥1 qualifying LFT. Among patients with ≥12 dispensations, claims for LFTs at individual dispensations were 53.2–64.0%. Median proportion of dispensations with ≥1 LFT was 0.8 among patients with ≥6 (interquartile range, 0.7–1.0) or ≥12 (0.7–0.9) dispensations. Adherence was 90–100% for 33.3% of all initiators, whereas 29.3% of initiators were non-adherent (defined as <50% of on-therapy LFTs). Conclusions: Analyses of administrative claims suggest that the REMS program for bosentan may not have adequately guaranteed adherence to the program’s monthly monitoring of LFTs. Such investigations of existing REMS programs may provide insight on how to accomplish more successful evaluation of REMS. PMID:25709706

  11. Towards a Proactive Risk Mitigation Strategy at La Fossa Volcano, Vulcano Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biass, S.; Gregg, C. E.; Frischknecht, C.; Falcone, J. L.; Lestuzzi, P.; di Traglia, F.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive risk assessment framework was built to develop proactive risk reduction measures for Vulcano Island, Italy. This framework includes identification of eruption scenarios; probabilistic hazard assessment, quantification of hazard impacts on the built environment, accessibility assessment on the island and risk perception study. Vulcano, a 21 km2 island with two primary communities host to 900 permanent residents and up to 10,000 visitors during summer, shows a strong dependency on the mainland for basic needs (water, energy) and relies on a ~2 month tourism season for its economy. The recent stratigraphy reveals a dominance of vulcanian and subplinian eruptions, producing a range of hazards acting at different time scales. We developed new methods to probabilistically quantify the hazard related to ballistics, lahars and tephra for all eruption styles. We also elaborated field- and GIS- based methods to assess the physical vulnerability of the built environment and created dynamic models of accessibility. Results outline the difference of hazard between short and long-lasting eruptions. A subplinian eruption has a 50% probability of impacting ~30% of the buildings within days after the eruption, but the year-long damage resulting from a long-lasting vulcanian eruption is similar if tephra is not removed from rooftops. Similarly, a subplinian eruption results in a volume of 7x105 m3 of material potentially remobilized into lahars soon after the eruption. Similar volumes are expected for a vulcanian activity over years, increasing the hazard of small lahars. Preferential lahar paths affect critical infrastructures lacking redundancy, such as the road network, communications systems, the island's only gas station, and access to the island's two evacuation ports. Such results from hazard, physical and systemic vulnerability help establish proactive volcanic risk mitigation strategies and may be applicable in other island settings.

  12. SCOPE of Pain: An Evaluation of an Opioid Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Continuing Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Zisblatt, Lara; Ng, Pamela; Hayes, Sean M.; Peloquin, Sophie; Hardesty, Ilana; White, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Due to the high prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) requiring manufacturers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioid analgesics to fund continuing education based on a FDA Blueprint. This article describes the Safe and Competent Opioid Prescribing Education (SCOPE of Pain) program, an ER/LA opioid analgesic REMS program, and its impact on clinician knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and self-reported clinical practice. Method. Participants of the 3-h SCOPE of Pain training completed pre-, immediate post- and 2-month post-assessments. Subjects. The primary target group (n = 2,850), and a subset (n = 476) who completed a 2-month post-assessment, consisted of clinicians licensed to prescribe ER/LA opioid analgesics, who care for patients with chronic pain and who completed the 3-h training between February 28, 2013 and June 13, 2014. Results. Immediately post-program, there was a significant increase in correct responses to knowledge questions (60% to 84%, P ≤ 0.02) and 87% of participants planned to make practice changes. At 2-months post-program, there continued to be a significant increase in correct responses to knowledge questions (60% to 69%, P ≤ 0.03) and 67% reported increased confidence in applying safe opioid prescribing care and 86% reported implementing practice changes. There was also an improvement in alignment of desired attitudes toward safe opioid prescribing. Conclusions. The SCOPE of Pain program improved knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and self-reported clinical practice in safe opioid prescribing. This national REMS program holds potential to improve the safe use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26304703

  13. Does Supportive Parenting Mitigate the Longitudinal Effects of Peer Victimization on Depressive Thoughts and Symptoms in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Bilsky, Sarah A.; Cole, David A.; Dukewich, Tammy L.; Martin, Nina C.; Sinclair, Keneisha R.; Tran, Cong V.; Roeder, Kathryn M.; Felton, Julia W.; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Maxwell, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Cohen and Wills (Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A., 1985, Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357) described two broad models whereby social support could mitigate the deleterious effects of stress on health: a main effect model and stress-buffering model. A specific application of these models was tested in a three-wave, multimethod study of 1888 children to assess ways parental support (social support) mitigates the effects of peer victimization (stress) on children’s depressive symptoms and depression-related cognitions (health-related outcomes). Results revealed that (a) both supportive parenting and peer victimization had main effects on depressive symptoms and cognitions; (b) supportive parenting and peer victimization did not interact in the prediction of depressive thoughts and symptoms; (c) these results generalized across age and gender; and (d) increases in depressive symptoms were related to later reduction of supportive parenting and later increase in peer victimization. Although supportive parenting did not moderate the adverse outcomes associated with peer victimization, results show that its main effect can counterbalance or offset these effects to some degree. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23713500

  14. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food: Workshop Proceedings.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul; Brorby, Gregory P; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-05-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds.

  15. An Optimal Mitigation Strategy Against the Asteroid Impact Threat with Short Warning Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent; Pitz, Alan; Kaplinger, Brian; Hawkins, Matt; Winkler, Tim; Premaratne, Pavithra; Vardaxis, George; Lyzhoft, Joshua; Zimmerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    To develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation technique for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (i.e., when we don't have sufficient warning times for a deflection mission).

  16. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  17. Healthy eating during pregnancy: determinants and supportive strategies.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Fowles, Sarah L

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of the determinants of healthy eating in pregnancy by synthesizing current research findings and offers strategies to promote healthy eating during pregnancy. This article is guided by the ecological model for health promotion that suggests the determinants of healthy eating as intrapersonal or collective determinants of food choices and public policies that support healthy eating during pregnancy. Community health nurses can apply this model to gain insights into identifying gaps in practice and to prioritize action strategies to guide program development and interventions designed to support healthy eating by all pregnant women.

  18. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  19. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  20. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert D.; Scyphers, Steven B.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders’ perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state’s management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders’ support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that

  1. Interlanguage Request Modification: The Use of Lexical/Phrasal Downgraders and Mitigating Supportive Moves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economidou-Kogetsidis, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify and interpret the exact aspects of Greek interlanguage modification which present deviations from native usage. As such, it is an investigation of Greek ESL university students' request modification and a comparison to British English native speakers. More specifically, it concentrates on the mitigating function…

  2. A Dualistic Stream Classification System for Oregon: In Support of a Stream Compensatory Mitigation Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    To meet the goals of the U.S. federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and Oregon’s Removal-Fill (R-F) Law, unavoidable impacts to jurisdictional waters, including streams and rivers, must be compensated for through compensatory mitigation under the CWA Section 404 and R-F permitting ...

  3. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  4. The Integrated Scorecard in support of corporate sustainability strategies.

    PubMed

    Journeault, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Organizations have increasingly recognized the importance and benefits of developing a sustainability strategy that incorporates environmental and social responsibilities. However, the simultaneous integration of the economic, environmental and social aspects remains a major concern for organizations. The Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) represents one of the most promising strategic tools to help organizations face these challenges and support their sustainability strategy. However, past research has provided unclear, incomplete and even contradictory SBSC frameworks while offering little knowledge about how to integrate stakeholder management as well as environmental and social performance within the balanced scorecard to successfully support a corporate sustainability strategy. The aim of this study is to address these issues and limitations by proposing the Integrated Scorecard, a specific SBSC that integrates the three pillars of sustainability performance within four different perspectives, namely environmental, social and economic performance, stakeholder management, internal business processes, and skills and capabilities. This study provides a conceptual approach to the Integrated Scorecard and illustrates, through the use of two practical illustrations, the ability of this framework to support the corporate sustainability strategy by identifying the core sustainability objectives that organizations should achieve when creating value, facilitating the understanding of the contribution of environmental and social initiatives on economic performance, allowing the monitoring and measurement of the strategy's level of achievement, and creating synergy between sustainability performance management and reporting.

  5. The Integrated Scorecard in support of corporate sustainability strategies.

    PubMed

    Journeault, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Organizations have increasingly recognized the importance and benefits of developing a sustainability strategy that incorporates environmental and social responsibilities. However, the simultaneous integration of the economic, environmental and social aspects remains a major concern for organizations. The Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) represents one of the most promising strategic tools to help organizations face these challenges and support their sustainability strategy. However, past research has provided unclear, incomplete and even contradictory SBSC frameworks while offering little knowledge about how to integrate stakeholder management as well as environmental and social performance within the balanced scorecard to successfully support a corporate sustainability strategy. The aim of this study is to address these issues and limitations by proposing the Integrated Scorecard, a specific SBSC that integrates the three pillars of sustainability performance within four different perspectives, namely environmental, social and economic performance, stakeholder management, internal business processes, and skills and capabilities. This study provides a conceptual approach to the Integrated Scorecard and illustrates, through the use of two practical illustrations, the ability of this framework to support the corporate sustainability strategy by identifying the core sustainability objectives that organizations should achieve when creating value, facilitating the understanding of the contribution of environmental and social initiatives on economic performance, allowing the monitoring and measurement of the strategy's level of achievement, and creating synergy between sustainability performance management and reporting. PMID:27479238

  6. Designing Electronic Performance Support Systems: Models and Instructional Strategies Employed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekvinda, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine whether instructional designers and performance technologists utilize instructional design models when designing and developing electronic performance support systems (EPSS). The study also explored if these same designers were utilizing instructional strategies within their EPSS to support…

  7. Mobile-Device-Supported Strategy for Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kuo-En; Lan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Chien-Mei; Sung, Yao-Ting

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper explores the feasibility of using of a wireless handheld system (WHS) that supports the individual and co-operative reading activities of students and helps teachers implement reading strategy instruction in Chinese language classes. The experimental findings demonstrate that the WHS benefits students applying…

  8. Positioning a University Outreach Center: Strategies for Support and Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skivington, Kristen D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that a strong case can be made for supporting outreach as a value-added function in a university. Specific strategies for positioning outreach within the university by developing a power base are outlined. The case of the University of Michigan-Flint is offered as an example of this approach. Seven lessons learned in the process are noted.…

  9. Supporting Classroom Transitions between Daily Routines: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Horn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide tools for preschool professionals to plan for transitions between daily routines, to identify challenging transitions during the day, and to offer strategies to support transitions in classrooms to prevent challenging behaviors from occurring due to frequent changes. Specifically, the authors answer three…

  10. Strategies for Supporting the Sensory-Based Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary; Baker, Pamela Hudson; Murray-Slutsky, Carolyn; Paris, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of behavioral problems in school settings is essential. When the function of behavior communicates a sensory-based need, as it does for many learners with autism, teachers need to know what to do. Therefore, it is important for teachers to have varied strategies available for use in the support of such learners. The authors present…

  11. Writing Their Words: Strategies for Supporting Young Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn W.; Giles, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Young children benefit from having their stories written down and shared with others. The authors highlight two strategies for supporting young writers: taking dictation and translating "kid writing." They explain why both are important in introducing the purpose of writing and the functions of printed language. The article offers tips to teachers…

  12. Where Does Handwriting Fit in? Strategies to Support Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    In today's environment of high-stakes testing, handwriting is a skill that is often overlooked in order to focus on other areas of the curriculum. However, research indicates that handwriting is tied to academic achievement, especially composition and literacy skills. This article provides strategies that can be used to support students with…

  13. Low carbon transportation in Thailand: CO2 mitigation strategy in 2050.

    PubMed

    Chunark, Puttipong; Thepkhun, Panida; Promjiraprawat, Kamphol; Winyuchakrit, Pornphimol; Limmeechokchai, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) involve the collaboration on reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing countries with suitable countermeasures relevant to the state of technological and economic conditions prevalent in the country. This study proposes appropriate GHG countermeasures in Thai transport NAMAs, which are based on the implementation of transport demand management, modal shift, fuel switching, and advanced technologies in the timeframe between 2005 and 2050. Furthermore, this study considers the impacts of CO2 mitigation through the proposed countermeasures on energy security and GHG emissions. Results of analyses on low carbon transportation are also useful to other developing countries. Finally, the concept of marginal abatement cost is employed to investigate cost-effective mitigation countermeasures.

  14. Support for health promoting schools: a typology of supporting strategies in Austrian provinces.

    PubMed

    Gugglberger, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Schools that want to implement health promotion (HP) are often confronted with obstacles that they cannot overcome by themselves and therefore need support from their environment. However, the issue of which kind of support is needed for HP implementation is complex. A systems approach suggests that the individual logic of each school be considered and that supporting strategies be flexible to specific needs. This article pursues the question which types of support for health promoting schools are offered on a provincial level in Austria. Using a grounded theory approach, 18 in-depth interviews with representatives of provincial organizations and 26 documents relevant for school HP were analysed. As a result, five different strategies of supporting health promoting schools have been identified in Austria: (i) organize exchange among schools, (ii) establish certification and quality control of school health efforts, (iii) offer consultation and information, (iv) carry out a specific HP programme and (v) coordinate HP actors and information. These strategies are usually combined and rarely occur in their pure form. It was also determined that the coordination of the different strategies and human resources for HP are missing for schools in Austria. It is argued that each of these supporting strategies has benefits and limitations for schools and the providers, and that they all have the potential to respond to the school as a complex social system.

  15. Comparison of different UHI mitigation strategies: the street- versus roof-level implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Georgescu, M.; Norford, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    Many mitigation approaches have been proposed to ameliorate the deleterious aspects of urbalization on climate, with special focus on the notorious urban heat island (UHI) effect. Of these approaches, high reflectance roof (cool roof) and pavement (cool pavement) and green roof or greenery are most commonly used and widely studied. However, the debate regarding the better implementation of cool and green technology is still ongoing. In this study, numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to evaluate the mitigation effect of the cool and green implementations at the city scale. The effects of roof-level and street-level implementations are compared in the context of a tropical urban environment.

  16. NICU nurse educators: what evidence supports your teaching strategies?

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2013-01-01

    One of our roles as nurse educators is to teach best practices related to patient care. However, have you ever stopped to think about what evidence supports your teaching strategies? Just as our patients deserve care that is based on the best available evidence, our learners also deserve education that is based on evidence.1-3 With so many advances in knowledge, technology, and even life itself, it is interesting that education has changed very little over the past 100 years. A study among 946 nurse educators documented that most teach the way they were taught.4 In addition, even after learning new strategies, educators often continue teaching in the manner they are most comfortable. However, this trend is beginning to change. Nurse educators are becoming increasingly aware of and willing to try new and innovative teaching strategies. Educators are also seeking out evidence-based teaching strategies and are becoming more involved in nursing education research.

  17. Using empirical models of species colonization under multiple threatening processes to identify complementary threat-mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mortelliti, Alessio; Kay, Geoffrey M; Florance, Daniel; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-08-01

    Approaches to prioritize conservation actions are gaining popularity. However, limited empirical evidence exists on which species might benefit most from threat mitigation and on what combination of threats, if mitigated simultaneously, would result in the best outcomes for biodiversity. We devised a way to prioritize threat mitigation at a regional scale with empirical evidence based on predicted changes to population dynamics-information that is lacking in most threat-management prioritization frameworks that rely on expert elicitation. We used dynamic occupancy models to investigate the effects of multiple threats (tree cover, grazing, and presence of an hyperaggressive competitor, the Noisy Miner (Manorina melanocephala) on bird-population dynamics in an endangered woodland community in southeastern Australia. The 3 threatening processes had different effects on different species. We used predicted patch-colonization probabilities to estimate the benefit to each species of removing one or more threats. We then determined the complementary set of threat-mitigation strategies that maximized colonization of all species while ensuring that redundant actions with little benefit were avoided. The single action that resulted in the highest colonization was increasing tree cover, which increased patch colonization by 5% and 11% on average across all species and for declining species, respectively. Combining Noisy Miner control with increasing tree cover increased species colonization by 10% and 19% on average for all species and for declining species respectively, and was a higher priority than changing grazing regimes. Guidance for prioritizing threat mitigation is critical in the face of cumulative threatening processes. By incorporating population dynamics in prioritization of threat management, our approach helps ensure funding is not wasted on ineffective management programs that target the wrong threats or species.

  18. Carbon Geography. The political economy of congressional support for legislation intended to mitigate greenhouse gas production

    SciTech Connect

    CRAGG, MICHAEL I.; ZHOU, YUYU; GURNEY, KEVIN; KAHN, MATTHEW E.

    2012-04-20

    Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would -free rideII and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of pro-greenII votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representative’s ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

  19. A Dualistic Stream Classification System for Oregon: In Support of a Stream Compensatory Mitigation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, T.; Wigington, P. J.; Comeleo, R. L.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Brooks, J.; Patil, S.; Sobota, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    To meet the goals of the U.S. federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and Oregon's Removal-Fill (R-F) Law, unavoidable impacts to jurisdictional waters, including streams and rivers, must be compensated for through compensatory mitigation under the CWA Section 404 and R-F permitting programs. Compensatory mitigation for impacts to the stream resource is not routinely required, as it generally is for wetlands, and that which does occur is often opportunistic or out-of-kind restoration (e.g. different stream type, wetlands) which does not provide functional replacement for impacts. As part of the effort to improve compensatory mitigation outcomes in Oregon, a stream classification system was needed to inform a more function-based, site level assessment of streams. To meet this need, we have developed a stream/watershed classification system for streams and rivers of various sizes, based in part on a hydrologic landscape classification system, addressing local assessment units, previously developed for Oregon. The system is hierarchical, expandable, and dualistic—providing information at both the local (reach) and watershed (integrative) scales. It recognizes the hydrologic and geologic drivers of stream functions, and meets several a priori criteria established to assure statewide applicability: (1) the same variables are applied regardless of geography to assure consistency across regions, (2) classification is accomplished through an automated GIS process, (3) classes do not require field verification, (4) data used are at appropriate resolution, and (5) classes are consistent with policy intent. Each stream type is defined by basic hydrologic and physical characteristics and determinants of flow regime, and reflects broad functional expectations. Because stream processes are highly influenced by watershed scale parameters, we developed watershed scale data layers to address such questions as annual water surplus availability, seasonality of surplus release, and floodplain

  20. Evaluation of mitigation strategies in Facility Group 1 double-shell flammable-gas tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Sadasivan, P.; Kubic, W.L.; White, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is stored in underground waste storage tanks at the site. The tanks fall into two main categories: single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). There are a total of 149 SSTs and 28 DSTs. The wastes stored in the tanks are chemically complex. They basically involve various sodium salts (mainly nitrite, nitrate, carbonates, aluminates, and hydroxides), organic compounds, heavy metals, and various radionuclides, including cesium, strontium, plutonium, and uranium. The waste is known to generate flammable gas (FG) [hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons] by complex chemical reactions. The process of gas generation, retention, and release is transient. Some tanks reach a quasi-steady stage where gas generation is balanced by the release rate. Other tanks show continuous cycles of retention followed by episodic release. There currently are 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL). The objective of this report is to evaluate possible mitigation strategies to eliminate the FG hazard. The evaluation is an engineering study of mitigation concepts for FG generation, retention, and release behavior in Tanks SY-101, AN-103, AN 104, An-105, and Aw-101. Where possible, limited quantification of the effects of mitigation strategies on the FG hazard also is considered. The results obtained from quantification efforts discussed in this report should be considered as best-estimate values. Results and conclusions of this work are intended to help in establishing methodologies in the contractor`s controls selection analysis to develop necessary safety controls for closing the FG unreviewed safety question. The general performance requirements of any mitigation scheme are discussed first.

  1. Validation of a Fast-Response Urban Micrometeorological Model to Assess the Performance of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D.; Girard, P.; Overby, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Stoll, R., II; Willemsen, P.; Bailey, B.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are a real threat in many cities worldwide and mitigation measures have become a central component of urban planning strategies. Even within a city, causes of UHI vary from one neighborhood to another, mostly due the spatial variability in surface thermal properties, building geometry, anthropogenic heat flux releases and vegetation cover. As a result, the performance of UHI mitigation measures also varies in space. Hence, there is a need to develop a tool to quantify the efficiency of UHI mitigation measures at the neighborhood scale. The objective of this ongoing study is to validate the fast-response micrometeorological model QUIC EnvSim (QES). This model can provide all information required for UHI studies with a fine spatial resolution (up to 0.5m) and short computation time. QES combines QUIC, a CFD-based wind solver and dispersion model, and EnvSim, composed of a radiation model, a land-surface model and a turbulent transport model. Here, high-resolution (1 m) simulations are run over a subset of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) campus including complex buildings, various surfaces properties and vegetation. For nearly five months in 2006-07, a dense network of meteorological observations (92 weather stations over 0.1 km2) was deployed over the campus and these unique data are used here as a validation dataset. We present validation results for different test cases (e.g., sunny vs cloudy days, different incoming wind speeds and directions) and explore the effect of a few UHI mitigation strategies on the spatial distribution of near-surface air temperatures. Preliminary results suggest that QES may be a valuable tool in decision-making regarding adaptation of urban planning to UHI.

  2. Thailand's Department of Agricultural Extension and Agrochemical Dependency: Perspectives on Contributing Factors and Mitigation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne; Visetnoi, Supawan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses theoretical, policy and practical issues concerning the problem of "agrochemical dependency" in Thailand, including roles that public extension services play in advocacy or mitigation of agrochemical use. Methodology/Approach: Our research aimed to better understand department of agricultural extension…

  3. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when

  4. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    precipitation, as well as magmatic activity and eruptions. (3) Risk of collapse begins with initial magmatic activity and increases as intrusion proceeds. An archetypal debris flow from volcanic terrain occurred in Colombia with a tectonic earthquake (M 6.4) in 1994. The Rio Piez conveyed a catastrophic wave of debris flow over 100 kilometers, coalesced from multiple slides of surflcial material weakened both by weathering and by hydrothermal alteration in a large strato- volcano. Similar seismogenic flows occurred in Mexico in 1920 (M -6.5), Chile in 1960 (M 9.2), and Ecuador in 1987 (M 6.1 and 6.9). Velocities of wave fronts in two examples were 60 to 90 km/hr (17-25 meters per second) over the initial 30 kilometers. Volcano flank and sector collapses may produce untransformed debris avalanches, as occurred initially at Mount St. Helens in 1980. However, at least as common is direct transformation of the failed mass to a debris flow. At two other volcanoes in the Cascade Range-- Mount Rainier and Mount Baker--rapid transformation and high mobility were typical of most of at least 15 Holocene flows. This danger exists downstream from many stratovolcanoes worldwide; the population at risk is near 150,000 and increasing at Mount Rainier. The first step in preventing future catastrophes is documenting past flows. Deposits of some debris flows, however, can be mistaken for those of less-mobile debris avalanches on the basis of mounds formed by buoyed megaclasts. Megaclasts may record only the proximal phase of a debris flow that began as a debris avalanche. Runout may have extended much farther, and thus furore flow mobility may be underestimated. Processes and behaviors of megaclast-bearing paleoflows are best inferred from the intermegaclast matrix. Mitigation strategy can respond to volcanic flows regardless of type and trigger by: (1) Avoidance: Limit settlement in flow pathways to numbers that can be evacuated after event warnings (flow is occurring). (2) Instrumental even

  5. Understanding and improving mitigation strategies for reducing catchment scale nutrient loads using high resolution observations and uncertainty analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, A.; Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Stirling, M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges in catchment water quality management is tackling the problem of reducing water pollution from agriculture whilst ensuring food security nationally. Improvements to catchment management plans are needed if we are to enhance biodiversity and maintain good ecological status in freshwater ecosystems, while producing enough food to support a growing global population. In order to plan for a more sustainable and secure future, research needs to quantify the uncertainties and understand the complexities in the source-mobilisation-delivery-impact continuum of pollution and nutrients at all scales. In the UK the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to improve water quality specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture by enhanced high resolution monitoring and targeted mitigation experiments. The DTC project aims to detect shifts in the baseline trend of the most ecologically-significant pollutants resulting from targeted on-farm measures at field to farm scales and assessing their effects on ecosystem function. The DTC programme involves three catchments across the UK that are indicative of three different typologies and land uses. This paper will focus on the Hampshire Avon DTC, where a total of 12 parameters are monitored by bank-side stations at two sampling sites, including flow, turbidity, phosphate and nitrate concentrations at 30 min resolution. This monitoring is supported by daily resolution sampling at 5 other sites and storm sampling at all locations. Part of the DTC project aims to understand how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Baseline monitoring is currently underway and early results show that high-resolution data is essential at this sub-catchment scale to understand important process dynamics. This is critical if we are to design

  6. Crime, violence, and behavioral health: collaborative community strategies for risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A

    2015-06-01

    Criminal conduct is not always violent, and violence does not always lead to criminal charges. Moreover, crime and violence have multifaceted etiologies. Most violence in society is not attributable to mental illness. Where there is a small relationship between violence and mental illness, the risk of violence increases for individuals with substance use histories. Underlying trauma can also play a role. Antisocial attitudes, behaviors, and peer groups further increase the risk that individuals, including those with mental illness, will find themselves at risk of criminal recidivism. Criminal histories among public mental health populations, and mental health and substance use disorders among criminal populations are each higher than general population comparisons. Care within behavioral health settings should therefore target decreased criminal recidivism and decreased violence as part of recovery for those individuals at risk, using trauma-informed approaches and peer supports. Interventions that show promise bring criminal justice and behavioral health systems together, and include police-based diversion, specialty courts, court-based alternatives to incarceration, and coordinated re-entry programs. This article reviews these options along with specific risk management strategies, such as using risk, needs, and responsivity factors as a means of improving overall outcomes for persons with mental illness, while minimizing their risk of further criminalization and victimization.

  7. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  8. The third hans cloos lecture. Urban landslides: Socioeconomic impacts and overview of mitigative strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, R.L.; Highland, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of population pressures, hillsides in the world's urban areas are being developed at an accelerating rate. This development increases the risk for urban landslides triggered by rainfall or earthquake activity. To counter this risk, four approaches have been employed by landslide managers and urban planners: (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas; (2) implementing and enforcing excavation, grading, and construction codes; (3) protecting existing developments by physical mitigation measures and (4) developing and installing monitoring and warning systems. Where they have been utilized, these approaches generally have been effective in reducing the risk due to landslide hazards. In addition to these practices, landslide insurance holds promise as a mitigative measure by reducing the financial impact of landslides on individual property owners. Until recently, however, such insurance has not been widely available and, where it is available, it is so expensive that it has been little used. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  9. Combining Turbine Blade-Strike and Life Cycle Models to Assess Mitigation Strategies for Fish Passing Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, John W.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Leonardsson, Kjell; Zabel, Richard W.; Lundqvist, Hans

    2008-08-01

    Combining the two models produced a rapid, cost effective tool for assessing dam passage impacts to fish populations and prioritizing among mitigation strategies for conserving fish stocks in regulated rivers. Estimated mortality of juvenile and adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta) passing turbines at two dams in northern Sweden was significantly higher for Kaplan turbines compared to Francis turbines, and for adult fish compared to juveniles based on blade strike models. Mean probability of mortality ranged from 6.7% for salmon smolts passing Francis turbines to >100% for adult salmon passing Kaplan turbines. Life cycle modeling allowed benefits to be assessed for three alternatives that mitigated this mortality. Salmon population responses varied considerably among alternatives and rivers: growth rates improved as much as 17.9%, female escapements increased up to 669%, and more than 1,300 additional female salmon were produced in one case. Protecting both smolts and adults provided benefits, and in one river, mitigating turbine mortality alone was estimated to have met the production capacity of the available habitat.

  10. COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Michalak, Sarah; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

    2012-03-10

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

  11. A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

  12. Human effects on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems: Integrating scientific approaches to support management and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Crook, David A; Lowe, Winsor H; Allendorf, Frederick W; Erős, Tibor; Finn, Debra S; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Hadwen, Wade L; Harrod, Chris; Hermoso, Virgilio; Jennings, Simon; Kilada, Raouf W; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Hansen, Michael M; Page, Timothy J; Riginos, Cynthia; Fry, Brian; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the drivers and implications of anthropogenic disturbance of ecological connectivity is a key concern for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Here, we review human activities that affect the movements and dispersal of aquatic organisms, including damming of rivers, river regulation, habitat loss and alteration, human-assisted dispersal of organisms and climate change. Using a series of case studies, we show that the insight needed to understand the nature and implications of connectivity, and to underpin conservation and management, is best achieved via data synthesis from multiple analytical approaches. We identify four key knowledge requirements for progressing our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic impacts on ecological connectivity: autecology; population structure; movement characteristics; and environmental tolerance/phenotypic plasticity. Structuring empirical research around these four broad data requirements, and using this information to parameterise appropriate models and develop management approaches, will allow for mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25917446

  13. A Technique for Producing Large Dual-Layer Pellets in Support of Disruption Mitigation Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephen Kirk; Leachman, J. W.; Meitner, Steven J; Baylor, Larry R; Foust, Charles R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, Thomas C

    2011-01-01

    A special single-shot pellet injection system that produces and accelerates large cryogenic pellets (~16 mm diameter and composed of D2 or Ne) to relatively high speeds (>300 and 600 m/s, respectively) was previously developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, a similar system was installed on DIII-D and used successfully in disruption mitigation experiments. To circumvent some operational issues with injecting the large Ne pellets, a technique has been developed in which a relatively thin layer (0.1 to 1.0 mm) of D2 is frozen on the inner wall of the pipe-gun barrel, followed by filling the core with solid Ne. The technique and the initial laboratory tests are described, as well as the implementation and operational issues for fusion experiments.

  14. Human effects on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems: Integrating scientific approaches to support management and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Crook, David A; Lowe, Winsor H; Allendorf, Frederick W; Erős, Tibor; Finn, Debra S; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Hadwen, Wade L; Harrod, Chris; Hermoso, Virgilio; Jennings, Simon; Kilada, Raouf W; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Hansen, Michael M; Page, Timothy J; Riginos, Cynthia; Fry, Brian; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the drivers and implications of anthropogenic disturbance of ecological connectivity is a key concern for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Here, we review human activities that affect the movements and dispersal of aquatic organisms, including damming of rivers, river regulation, habitat loss and alteration, human-assisted dispersal of organisms and climate change. Using a series of case studies, we show that the insight needed to understand the nature and implications of connectivity, and to underpin conservation and management, is best achieved via data synthesis from multiple analytical approaches. We identify four key knowledge requirements for progressing our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic impacts on ecological connectivity: autecology; population structure; movement characteristics; and environmental tolerance/phenotypic plasticity. Structuring empirical research around these four broad data requirements, and using this information to parameterise appropriate models and develop management approaches, will allow for mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-07-18

    The objective of this document is to propose a strategy for addressing applicable LDMM-related criteria in order to determine an allowable leakage volume for SSTs targeted for waste retrieval using sluicing. A strategy is required to work through the individual ALV criterion (and related issues) in a prioritized,orderly, and efficient manner. All components of the strategy are based upon LDMM-related issues, functions and requirements,and technology alternatives.

  16. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  17. The impact of potential mitigation strategies on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease in white-tailed deer in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda D; Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Norby, Bo; Wagner, G Gale

    2010-05-01

    The United States has been free of FMD since the 1920s. Faced with an incursion of FMD virus that might involve wildlife species, it is crucial that appropriate mitigation strategies be applied rapidly to control the disease. Disease spread models can be used to evaluate the design of optimal strategies. Using a previously developed susceptible-infected-recovered geographic automata model (Sirca) to simulate the spread of FMD through white-tailed deer populations in south Texas, we conducted a series of experiments to determine how pre-emptive mitigation strategies applied to white-tailed deer populations might impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of outbreaks following FMD virus incursion. Based on previously derived deer distributions in the two ecoregions found within the study area, simulated outbreaks were evaluated by comparing the median number of deer predicted to be infected and the median area predicted affected for a baseline scenario and 3 mitigation strategies: targeted cull, random cull and targeted depopulation buffer. Substantial differences were observed in the predicted magnitude of outbreaks both by mitigation strategy and by ecoregion: depending on the ecoregion, the creation of a targeted depopulation buffer could reduce the number of deer predicted infected by up to 52%, and the area affected by up to 31%. Results suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion that involves wildlife species, such as white-tailed deer in south Texas, might depend on both where the incursion occurs and the type of pre-emptive mitigation strategy applied.

  18. Strategies to Mitigate a Mycobacterium marinum Outbreak in a Zebrafish Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Kathy; Mittge, Erika; Melancon, Ellie; Montgomery, Rebecca; McFadden, Marcie; Camoriano, Javier; Kent, Michael L.; Whipps, Christopher M.; Peirce, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, the zebrafish research facility at the University of Oregon experienced an outbreak of Mycobacterium marinum that affected both research fish and facility staff. A thorough review of risks to personnel, the zebrafish veterinary care program, and zebrafish husbandry procedures at the research facility followed. In the years since 2011, changes have been implemented throughout the research facility to protect the personnel, the fish colony, and ultimately the continued success of the zebrafish model research program. In this study, we present the history of the outbreak, the changes we implemented, and recommendations to mitigate pathogen outbreaks in zebrafish research facilities. PMID:27351618

  19. The relevance of uncertainty in future crop production for mitigation strategy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieler, K.; Levermann, A.; Elliott, J.; Heinke, J.; Arneth, A.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Deryng, D.; Döll, P.; Falloon, P.; Fekete, B.; Folberth, C.; Friend, A. D.; Gellhorn, C.; Gosling, S. N.; Haddeland, I.; Khabarov, N.; Lomas, M.; Masaki, Y.; Nishina, K.; Neumann, K.; Oki, T.; Pavlick, R.; Ruane, A. C.; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, C.; Stacke, T.; Stehfest, E.; Tang, Q.; Wisser, D.; Huber, V.; Piontek, F.; Warszawski, L.; Schewe, J.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2014-09-01

    In order to achieve climate change mitigation, long-term decisions are required that must be reconciled with other societal goals that draw on the same resources. For example, ensuring food security for a growing population may require an expansion of crop land, thereby reducing natural carbon sinks or the area available for bio-energy production. Here, we show that current impact-model uncertainties pose an important challenge to long-term mitigation planning and propose a new risk-assessment and decision framework that accounts for competing interests. Based on cross-sectorally consistent simulations generated within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) we discuss potential gains and limitations of additional irrigation and trade-offs of the expansion of agricultural land as two possible response measures to climate change and growing food demand. We describe an illustrative example in which the combination of both measures may close the supply demand gap while leading to a loss of approximately half of all natural carbon sinks. We highlight current limitations of available simulations and additional steps required for a comprehensive risk assessment.

  20. Isolating social influences on vulnerability to earthquake shaking: identifying cost-effective mitigation strategies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhloscaidh, Mairead Nic; McCloskey, John; Pelling, Mark; Naylor, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Until expensive engineering solutions become more universally available, the objective targeting of resources at demonstrably effective, low-cost interventions might help reverse the trend of increasing mortality in earthquakes. Death tolls in earthquakes are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as the exposure of the population to strong shaking, and the resilience of the exposed population along with supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. The identification of socio-economic factors that contribute to earthquake mortality is crucial to identifying and developing successful risk management strategies. Here we develop a quantitative methodology more objectively to assess the ability of communities to withstand earthquake shaking, focusing on, in particular, those cases where risk management performance appears to exceed or fall below expectations based on economic status. Using only published estimates of the shaking intensity and population exposure for each earthquake, data that is available for earthquakes in countries irrespective of their level of economic development, we develop a model for mortality based on the contribution of population exposure to shaking only. This represents an attempt to remove, as far as possible, the physical causes of mortality from our analysis (where we consider earthquake engineering to reduce building collapse among the socio-economic influences). The systematic part of the variance with respect to this model can therefore be expected to be dominated by socio-economic factors. We find, as expected, that this purely physical analysis partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures, for example GDP, focusing analytical attention on the power of economic measures to explain variance in observed distributions of earthquake risk. The model allows the definition of a vulnerability index which, although broadly it demonstrates the expected income-dependence of vulnerability to

  1. Spatial Analysis in Support of Community Health Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; South, Andrew P.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Huo, Shuyan; Liu, Lin; Greenberg, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Using vital records and census data representing 165,136 singleton births from 2003–2006, geospatial filtering and density estimates enabled the calculation of preterm birth rates at each geographical point within three urban Ohio counties. Adjusted attributable risk calculations were used to identify risk factors associated with regions of high and low rates of preterm birth. Among the three counties, affected populations varied in size as well as in demographic composition. Variation in the risk factors from one region to another suggests that a single one size fits all intervention strategy would be unlikely to efficiently or effectively impact the complex preterm birth problem. Although more useful in areas with a heterogeneous distribution of preterm birth, application of the presented approach supports the development of efficient community-level health intervention strategies by identifying communities with the highest potential impact and allowing for the prioritization of efforts on specific risk factors within those communities. PMID:23304301

  2. Nutrients recycling strategy for microalgae-based CO2 mitigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Xinyi

    Coal-fired electricity production is the major emitter of CO2 and other greenhouse gases including NOx and SO x. Microalgae-based CO2 mitigation systems have been proposed to reduce the net CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. This study focused on developing an optimum culture media and exploring the possibilities for recycling nutrients, which were added as commercial mineralized chemicals at the beginning of cultivation. In order to release the nutrients embedded in the cells so that they can be used as a nutrient source for new cells, Scenedesmus biomass was digested by anaerobic bacteria. Results showed that thermal pretreatment enhanced the methane production rate for the first 7 days of digestion. Three operational factors were tested: heating temperature, heating duration and NaOH dosage. The combination of 10 min heating with 3˜6% NaOH at 50 °C gave the highest cell wall destruction for all samples except oven-dried algae. The anaerobic digestate, rich in mineralized nutrients including ammonium and phosphate, potassium and magnesium ions, was tested as a possible nutrient source for the algae cultivation. To cope with the high solid content of the digestates, the dosage of the digestates was reduced or the solid particles were removed prior to addition to the microalgae. Both approaches worked well in terms of providing nutrients with minimal effect on light penetration. Using digestates without any sterilization did not cause contamination or other deleterious effects on the Scenedesmus growth rate. Harvesting microalgae cells was critical to ensure a continuous and robust growth rate. The used media could be recycled at least four times without altering the algae growth. Nutrient replenishment was the key for a healthy culture when used media was incorporated. The combination of used media and digestates can sustain a normal algae growth. Life cycle assessment was conducted on the system including the photobioreactor, the anaerobic digester, the

  3. Two Strategies for the Development of Mitochondrion-Targeted Small Molecule Radiation Damage Mitigators

    SciTech Connect

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Beck, Barbara; Wang Wei; Doemling, Alexander; Epperly, Michael W.; Shields, Donna; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Frantz, Marie-Celine; Wipf, Peter; Tyurina, Yulia; Kagan, Valerian E.; Wang, Hong

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere MCF201-89, and the p53/mdm2/mdm4 protein complex inhibitor BEB55 to mitigate radiation effects by clonogenic survival curves with the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 and the human bone marrow stromal (KM101) and pulmonary epithelial (IB3) cell lines. The p53-dependent mechanism of action was tested with p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup -/-} murine bone marrow stromal cell lines. C57BL/6 NHsd female mice were injected i.p. with JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55 individually or in combination, after receiving 9.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Results: Each drug, JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55, individually or as a mixture of all three compounds increased the survival of 32D cl 3 (p = 0.0021, p = 0.0011, p = 0.0038, and p = 0.0073, respectively) and IB3 cells (p = 0.0193, p = 0.0452, p = 0.0017, and p = 0.0019, respectively) significantly relative to that of control irradiated cells. KM101 cells were protected by individual drugs (p = 0.0007, p = 0.0235, p = 0.0044, respectively). JP4-039 and MCF201-89 increased irradiation survival of both p53{sup +/+} (p = 0.0396 and p = 0.0071, respectively) and p53{sup -/-} cells (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively), while BEB55 was ineffective with p53{sup -/-} cells. Drugs administered individually or as a mixtures of all three after TBI significantly increased mouse survival (p = 0.0234, 0.0009, 0.0052, and 0.0167, respectively). Conclusion: Mitochondrial targeting of small molecule radiation mitigators decreases irradiation-induced cell death in vitro and prolongs survival of lethally irradiated mice.

  4. Arsenic as a food chain contaminant: mechanisms of plant uptake and metabolism and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is an environmental and food chain contaminant. Excessive accumulation of As, particularly inorganic arsenic (As(i)), in rice (Oryza sativa) poses a potential health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Rice is efficient at As accumulation owing to flooded paddy cultivation that leads to arsenite mobilization, and the inadvertent yet efficient uptake of arsenite through the silicon transport pathway. Iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon interact strongly with As during its route from soil to plants. Plants take up arsenate through the phosphate transporters, and arsenite and undissociated methylated As species through the nodulin 26-like intrinsic (NIP) aquaporin channels. Arsenate is readily reduced to arsenite in planta, which is detoxified by complexation with thiol-rich peptides such as phytochelatins and/or vacuolar sequestration. A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops.

  5. Arsenic as a food chain contaminant: mechanisms of plant uptake and metabolism and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is an environmental and food chain contaminant. Excessive accumulation of As, particularly inorganic arsenic (As(i)), in rice (Oryza sativa) poses a potential health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Rice is efficient at As accumulation owing to flooded paddy cultivation that leads to arsenite mobilization, and the inadvertent yet efficient uptake of arsenite through the silicon transport pathway. Iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon interact strongly with As during its route from soil to plants. Plants take up arsenate through the phosphate transporters, and arsenite and undissociated methylated As species through the nodulin 26-like intrinsic (NIP) aquaporin channels. Arsenate is readily reduced to arsenite in planta, which is detoxified by complexation with thiol-rich peptides such as phytochelatins and/or vacuolar sequestration. A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops. PMID:20192735

  6. Trends and drivers of debris accumulation on Maui shorelines: Implications for local mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Blickley, Lauren C; Currie, Jens J; Kaufman, Gregory D

    2016-04-15

    Marine debris, particularly plastic, is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific. Here we present results from the first study to quantify and compare the types and amounts of marine debris on Maui shorelines. Surveys were conducted monthly between May 2013 and December 2014, with additional daily surveys conducted on Maui's north shore during January 2015. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites, with plastics being the most prevalent type of debris at all sites. Large debris loads on windward shores were attributed to the influence of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and northerly trade winds. Daily surveys resulted in a significantly higher rate of debris deposition than monthly surveys. The efficacy of local policy in debris mitigation showed promise, but was dependent upon the level of enforcement and consumer responsibility. PMID:26926778

  7. Strategy for Mitigating Collision Between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levi, Joshua A.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Mission Operations project, the French space agency Centre National d tudes Spatiales, the Argentinian space agency Comisi n Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, and the United States Geological Survey all operate spacecraft in sun-synchronous frozen orbits. The orbits are planned to not place any of the spacecraft at risk of colliding with another. However, evolution of these orbits over time has com-promised the safe interaction between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constella-tion. This paper analyzes the interactions between the Landsat-5 spacecraft and the Afternoon Constellation members over a period of 6 years, describing the current risk and plan to mitigate collisions in the future.

  8. Trends and drivers of debris accumulation on Maui shorelines: Implications for local mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Blickley, Lauren C; Currie, Jens J; Kaufman, Gregory D

    2016-04-15

    Marine debris, particularly plastic, is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific. Here we present results from the first study to quantify and compare the types and amounts of marine debris on Maui shorelines. Surveys were conducted monthly between May 2013 and December 2014, with additional daily surveys conducted on Maui's north shore during January 2015. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites, with plastics being the most prevalent type of debris at all sites. Large debris loads on windward shores were attributed to the influence of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and northerly trade winds. Daily surveys resulted in a significantly higher rate of debris deposition than monthly surveys. The efficacy of local policy in debris mitigation showed promise, but was dependent upon the level of enforcement and consumer responsibility.

  9. Predicting Hotspots of Human-Elephant Conflict to Inform Mitigation Strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Marino, Jorgelina; Chen, Yong; Tao, Qing; Sullivan, Casey D; Shi, Kun; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China's largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades. We analyzed government data on the compensation costs of elephant-caused damage in Xishuangbanna between 2008 and 2012 to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of conflict, in terms of their occurrence, frequency and distribution. More than 18,261 incidents were reported, including episodes involving damage to rubber trees (n = 10,999), damage to crops such as paddy, upland rice, corn, bananas and sugarcane (n = 11,020), property loss (n = 689) and attacks on humans (n = 19). The conflict data reconfirmed the presence of elephants in areas which have lacked records since the late 1990s. Zero Altered Negative Binomial models revealed that the risk of damage to crops and plantations increased with proximity to protected areas, increasing distance from roads, and lower settlement density. The patterns were constant across seasons and types of crop damaged. Damage to rubber trees was essentially incidental as elephants searched for crops to eat. A predictive map of risks revealed hotspots of conflict within and around protected areas, the last refuges for elephants in the region, and along habitat corridors connecting them. Additionally, we analyzed how mitigation efforts can best diminish the risk of conflict while minimizing financial costs and adverse biological impacts. Our analytical approach can be adopted, adjusted and expanded to other areas with historical records of human-wildlife conflict.

  10. Predicting Hotspots of Human-Elephant Conflict to Inform Mitigation Strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Marino, Jorgelina; Chen, Yong; Tao, Qing; Sullivan, Casey D; Shi, Kun; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China's largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades. We analyzed government data on the compensation costs of elephant-caused damage in Xishuangbanna between 2008 and 2012 to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of conflict, in terms of their occurrence, frequency and distribution. More than 18,261 incidents were reported, including episodes involving damage to rubber trees (n = 10,999), damage to crops such as paddy, upland rice, corn, bananas and sugarcane (n = 11,020), property loss (n = 689) and attacks on humans (n = 19). The conflict data reconfirmed the presence of elephants in areas which have lacked records since the late 1990s. Zero Altered Negative Binomial models revealed that the risk of damage to crops and plantations increased with proximity to protected areas, increasing distance from roads, and lower settlement density. The patterns were constant across seasons and types of crop damaged. Damage to rubber trees was essentially incidental as elephants searched for crops to eat. A predictive map of risks revealed hotspots of conflict within and around protected areas, the last refuges for elephants in the region, and along habitat corridors connecting them. Additionally, we analyzed how mitigation efforts can best diminish the risk of conflict while minimizing financial costs and adverse biological impacts. Our analytical approach can be adopted, adjusted and expanded to other areas with historical records of human-wildlife conflict. PMID:27631976

  11. Modelling global distribution, risk and mitigation strategies of floating plastic pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Sherman, Peter; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Lavender Law, Kara

    2016-04-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North Pacific and North Atlantic accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass. We use a rigorous statistical framework to standardise a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and couple this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons. A large fraction of the uncertainty in these estimates comes from sparse sampling in coastal and Southern Hemisphere regions. We then use this global distribution of small floating plastic debris to map out where in the ocean the risk to marine life (in particular seabirds and plankton growth) is greatest, using a quantitative risk framework. We show that the largest risk occurs not necessarily in regions of high plastic concentration, but rather in regions of extensive foraging with medium-high plastic concentrations such as coastal upwelling regions and the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the estimates of distribution to investigate where in the ocean plastic can most optimally be removed, assuming hypothetical clean-up booms following the ideas from The Ocean Cleanup project. We show that mitigation of the plastic problem can most aptly be done near coastlines, particularly in Asia, rather than in the centres of the gyres. Based on these results, we propose more focus on the coastal zones when

  12. Predicting Hotspots of Human-Elephant Conflict to Inform Mitigation Strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China’s largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades. We analyzed government data on the compensation costs of elephant-caused damage in Xishuangbanna between 2008 and 2012 to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of conflict, in terms of their occurrence, frequency and distribution. More than 18,261 incidents were reported, including episodes involving damage to rubber trees (n = 10,999), damage to crops such as paddy, upland rice, corn, bananas and sugarcane (n = 11,020), property loss (n = 689) and attacks on humans (n = 19). The conflict data reconfirmed the presence of elephants in areas which have lacked records since the late 1990s. Zero Altered Negative Binomial models revealed that the risk of damage to crops and plantations increased with proximity to protected areas, increasing distance from roads, and lower settlement density. The patterns were constant across seasons and types of crop damaged. Damage to rubber trees was essentially incidental as elephants searched for crops to eat. A predictive map of risks revealed hotspots of conflict within and around protected areas, the last refuges for elephants in the region, and along habitat corridors connecting them. Additionally, we analyzed how mitigation efforts can best diminish the risk of conflict while minimizing financial costs and adverse biological impacts. Our analytical approach can be adopted, adjusted and expanded to other areas with historical records of human-wildlife conflict. PMID:27631976

  13. Writing for publication: pressures, barriers and support strategies.

    PubMed

    Keen, Adam

    2007-07-01

    This paper details the increasing pressure that exists on academic and clinical staff to publish in the context of personal and professional development. Numerous barriers to writing for publication are considered along with suggested strategies for encouraging staff to work towards publication. Although the paper identifies a wealth of literature describing how to go about writing for publication, it is argued that this is of limited use in the support of individual authors, and that most authors learn academic writing skills through a process of trial and error. The paper is intended to encourage those wanting to write for publication, whilst trying to persuade those with influence on developing academic writing to think more broadly in regards to the support provided and need for research.

  14. Strategies for organizational change from group homes to individualized supports.

    PubMed

    Walker, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to transform. Although the approach taken by each organization was unique, there were also some common strategies, which included generating commitment to common values and mission, a turn or return to authentic person-centered planning, shifting power and control, using community supports and relationships, moving away from facility-based settings, and nurturing staff engagement. Ultimately, organizational change is an ongoing process that requires organizational perseverance and commitment.

  15. Strategies for organizational change from group homes to individualized supports.

    PubMed

    Walker, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to transform. Although the approach taken by each organization was unique, there were also some common strategies, which included generating commitment to common values and mission, a turn or return to authentic person-centered planning, shifting power and control, using community supports and relationships, moving away from facility-based settings, and nurturing staff engagement. Ultimately, organizational change is an ongoing process that requires organizational perseverance and commitment. PMID:23025642

  16. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  17. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Llena

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided. PMID:27266719

  18. Mentoring K scholars: strategies to support research mentors.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Ellen L; Schiro, Stephanie; Fleming, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present strategies utilized to support K scholar research mentors. K scholars are generally assistant professors who are close to developing independent research programs. Of all the various types of mentees, K scholars offer the greatest challenges, as well as the greatest rewards, for research mentors. To see one's mentee achieve independent PI status and become an established investigator is one of the great joys of being a research mentor. Research mentors for K scholars, however, may not directly benefit from their mentoring relationship, neither in terms of obtaining data to support their research program or laboratory, nor in assistance with grants or scientific papers. There is a pressing need for the research community to address the workload, institutional expectations, and reward system for research mentors. The dearth of research mentors and role models in clinical translational science parallels the decreasing number of physicians choosing careers in clinical research. While there is limited empirical information on the effectiveness of mentor support mechanisms, this white paper concludes that providing mentor support is critical to expanding the available pool of mentors, as well as providing training opportunities for K scholars.

  19. iRESM INITIATIVE UNDERSTANDING DECISION SUPPORT NEEDS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION --US Midwest Region—

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Jennie S.; Runci, Paul J.; Moss, Richard H.; Anderson, Kate L.

    2010-10-01

    The impacts of climate change are already affecting human and environmental systems worldwide, yet many uncertainties persist in the prediction of future climate changes and impacts due to limitations in scientific understanding of relevant causal factors. In particular, there is mounting urgency to efforts to improve models of human and environmental systems at the regional scale, and to integrate climate, ecosystem and energy-economic models to support policy, investment, and risk management decisions related to climate change mitigation (i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (i.e., responding to climate change impacts). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a modeling framework, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), to address regional human-environmental system interactions in response to climate change and the uncertainties therein. The framework will consist of a suite of integrated models representing regional climate change, regional climate policy, and the regional economy, with a focus on simulating the mitigation and adaptation decisions made over time in the energy, transportation, agriculture, and natural resource management sectors.

  20. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  1. Implications of surface seepage on the effectiveness of geologic storage of carbon dioxide as a climate change mitigation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Hepple, Robert P.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-30

    The probability that long-term geologic storage or sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) will become an important climate change mitigation strategy will depend on a number of factors, namely (1) availability, capacity and location of suitable sites, (2) the cost of geologic storage compared to other climate change mitigation options, and (3) public acceptance. Whether or not a site is suitable will be determined by establishing that it can meet a set of performance requirements for safe and effective geologic storage (PRGS). To date, no such PRGS have been developed. Establishing effective PRGS must start with an evaluation of how much CO{sub 2} might be stored and for how long the CO{sub 2} must remain underground to meet goals for controlling atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. These requirements then provide a context for addressing the issue of what, if any, is an ''acceptable surface seepage rate''? This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of CO{sub 2} storage amounts, time-scales, and concordant performance requirements.

  2. A New Subcarrier Allocation Strategy for MIMO-OFDMA Multicellular Networks Based on Cooperative Interference Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Gkonis, Panagiotis K.; Seimeni, Maria A.; Asimakis, Nikolaos P.; Kaklamani, Dimitra I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the performance of a new subcarrier allocation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) multicellular networks which employ Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. For this reason, a hybrid system-link level simulator has been developed executing independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in parallel. Up to two tiers of cells around the central cell are taken into consideration and increased loading per cell. The derived results indicate that this strategy can provide up to 12% capacity gain for 16-QAM modulation and two tiers of cells around the central cell in a symmetric 2 × 2 MIMO configuration. This gain is derived when comparing the proposed strategy to the traditional approach of allocating subcarriers that maximize only the desired user's signal. PMID:24683351

  3. a Process-Based Drought Early Warning Indicator for Supporting State Drought Mitigation Decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Fernando, D. N.; Pu, B.

    2014-12-01

    Drought prone states such as Texas requires creditable and actionable drought early warning ranging from seasonal to multi-decadal scales. Such information cannot be simply extracted from the available climate prediction and projections because of their large uncertainties at regional scales and unclear connections to the needs of the decision makers. In particular, current dynamic seasonal predictions and climate projections, such as those produced by the NOAA national multi-models ensemble experiment (NMME) and the IPCC AR5 (CMIP5) models, are much more reliable for winter and spring than for the summer season for the US Southern Plains. They also show little connection between the droughts in winter/spring and those in summer, in contrast to the observed dry memory from spring to summer over that region. To mitigate the weakness of dynamic prediction/projections, we have identified three key processes behind the spring-to-summer dry memory through observational studies. Based on these key processes and related fields, we have developed a multivariate principle component statistical model to provide a probabilistic summer drought early warning indicator, using the observed or predicted climate conditions in winter and spring on seasonal scale and climate projection for the mid-21stcentury. The summer drought early warning indicator is constructed in a similar way to the NOAA probabilistic predictions that are familiar to water resource managers. The indicator skill is assessed using the standard NOAA climate prediction assessment tools, i.e., the two alternative forced choice (2AFC) and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC). Comparison with long-term observations suggest that this summer drought early warning indicator is able to capture nearly all the strong summer droughts and outperform the dynamic prediction in this regard over the US Southern Plains. This early warning indicator has been used by the state water agency in May 2014 in briefing the state

  4. Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability: Enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability are needed to reduce enterprise risk, increase resilience of rangeland/grassland ecosystems and deliver sustainable provision of ecosystem goods (e.g., livestock production) and services (e.g., wildlife habitat) from western North ...

  5. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  6. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  7. Supportive management strategies for disseminated intravascular coagulation. An international consensus.

    PubMed

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Hunt, Beverley J; Kinasewitz, Gary T; Wada, Hideo; Ten Cate, Hugo; Thachil, Jecko; Levi, Marcel; Vicente, Vicente; D'Angelo, Armando; Di Nisio, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    The cornerstone of the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the treatment of the underlying condition triggering the coagulopathy. However, a number of uncertainties remain over the optimal supportive treatment. The aim of this study was to provide evidence and expert-based recommendations on the optimal supportive haemostatic and antithrombotic treatment strategies for patients with DIC. A working group defined five relevant clinical scenarios. Published studies were systematically searched in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (up to May 2014). Seven internationally recognised experts were asked to independently provide clinical advice. A two-phase blinded data collection technique was used to reach consensus. Only three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the supportive management of DIC were identified. The RCTs (overall less than 100 patients) investigated the use of fresh frozen plasma and platelet transfusion and found no differences in survival between the intervention and control groups. The experts' approach was heterogeneous, although there was consensus that supportive management should vary according to the underlying cause, clinical manifestations and severity of blood test abnormalities. Platelet transfusion should be given to maintain platelet count > 50×10⁹/l in case of bleeding while a lower threshold of 20 to 30×10⁹/l may be used in DIC without bleeding. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin is advised until bleeding ensues or platelet count drops below 30×10⁹/l. In conclusion, in the absence of solid evidence from RCTs, an individualised supportive management of DIC is advisable based on the type of underlying disease, presence of bleeding or thrombotic complications and laboratory tests results.

  8. Mitigating crosslinking reactions through preconversion strategies. Quarterly report Number 7, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to help develop preconversion techniques that will mitigate crosslinking reactions and thereby substantially increase liquid yields during subsequent liquefaction. The immediate objective is to determine the potential for augmenting pretreatment of low-rank coals through the use of electron-transfer agents. This potential will be explored in laboratory studies through determination of the impact on the evolution of oxygen functions, crosslinking, and conversion. The pretreatments explored include several that hold promise for effecting deoxygenation (or other reduction), for example, treatment with CO/water/base and hydroquinones or other electron-transfer agents in various combinations. The effects of these pretreatments on functional group distribution, macromolecular structure, and liquefaction are to be compared with those that have shown promise in the past for improved conversions, such as simple hydrothermal pretreatment, mild hydrogenation with dispersed catalysts, and demineralization. Additional objectives are to improve test procedures for assessing the effect of the pretreatment on subsequent liquefaction and achieve also some understanding of the chemical origins of the effects observed. These tests are: (1) proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) for determining the effect of pretreatment on fluidity as liquefaction conditions (temperature, pressure) are approached; and (2) a TGA-based simulated distillation for convenient measurement of product volatility following small scale batch liquefaction. Results are presented on the following: PMRTA analyses of pretreated coals; and Development of a TGA-based simulated distillation technique.

  9. Evaluation of Surface Modification as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Misconin, Robert M.; Banks, Bruce A.; Crowder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Three surface treatments were evaluated for their ability to lower the adhesion between lunar simulant dust and AZ93, AlFEP, and AgFEP thermal control surfaces under simulated lunar conditions. Samples were dusted in situ and exposed to a standardized puff of nitrogen gas. Thermal performance before dusting, after dusting, and after part of the dust was removed by the puff of gas, were compared to perform the assessment. None of the surface treatments was found to significantly affect the adhesion of lunar simulants to AZ93 thermal control paint. Oxygen ion beam texturing also did not lower the adhesion of lunar simulant dust to AlFEP or AgFEP. But a workfunction matching coating and a proprietary Ball Aerospace surface treatment were both found to significantly lower the adhesion of lunar simulants to AlFEP and AgFEP. Based on these results, it is recommended that all these two techniques be further explored as dust mitigation coatings for AlFEP and AgFEP thermal control surfaces.

  10. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  11. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater. PMID:25374935

  12. Bloom Dynamics of Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins: Environmental Health Impacts and Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajesh P.; Madamwar, Datta; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically one of the most prolific groups of phototrophic prokaryotes in both marine and freshwater habitats. Both the beneficial and detrimental aspects of cyanobacteria are of considerable significance. They are important primary producers as well as an immense source of several secondary products, including an array of toxic compounds known as cyanotoxins. Abundant growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems due to increased anthropogenic eutrophication and global climate change has created serious concern toward harmful bloom formation and surface water contamination all over the world. Cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of several cyanotoxins in water bodies pose severe ecological consequences with high risk to aquatic organisms and global public health. The proper management for mitigating the worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is crucial for maintenance and sustainable development of functional ecosystems. Here, we emphasize the emerging information on the cyanobacterial bloom dynamics, toxicology of major groups of cyanotoxins, as well as a perspective and integrative approach to their management. PMID:26635737

  13. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater. PMID:25374935

  14. Forest policy implications of climate change: Economic impacts and potential mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, D.G.; Belli, K.L.; Watson, W.F.; Regens, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    Increasing mean global temperatures due to rising levels of carbon dioxide and other ``greenhouse`` gases in the atmosphere could affect the distribution of commercially important forests in North America significantly. The temperature increases might outpace the ability of forests to adapt, causing considerable stress and mortality to trees in the southern part of their range without a commensurate increase in growth across the expanding range. If realized, these potential biological impacts on forest distribution and health would affect management decisions substantially and could adversely impact forest-based economies in the United States. Specific effects on forest management include changes in the methods and costs of fire, insect, and disease protection; greater demands on forest lands for conversion to food production; and uncertain changes in site quality. One means of mitigating the effects of CO{sub 2} emissions is to establish tree plantations for carbon sequestration. Preliminary analyses suggest that a program aimed at marginal cropland in the South could store more than 563 million tons of carbon over 45 years, although 90 million tons would be lost due to risks associated with plantations.

  15. Effective quality control of incoming potatoes as an acrylamide mitigation strategy for the French fries industry.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Raquel Medeiros; Mestdagh, Frederic; De Muer, Nathalie; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    The correlation between sugar levels in raw material (potatoes), brown colouring and formation of acrylamide in French fries was investigated. The objective was to identify incoming potatoes (raw material) with a high potential for acrylamide formation. Ten different potato varieties commonly used in the Western European French fries industry were stored at 8 degrees C and samples were taken throughout the storage time. The current quality control used in the French fries industry for incoming potatoes is poorly correlated with acrylamide in the final product (r = 0.74). Changing the quality control parameter from colour to reducing sugars in raw material did not improve the correlation (r = 0.72). The best correlation was obtained with the Agtron colour measurement after blanching and a two-stage frying (r = -0.88). It was concluded that alternative entrance control measurements could provide better mitigation of the acrylamide issue in French fries from the start of production. These alternatives, however, are less cost-effective and more difficult to implement.

  16. Implementation of acrylamide mitigation strategies on industrial production of French fries: challenges and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Van Poucke, Christof; Kerkaert, Barbara; de Muer, Nathalie; Denon, Quenten; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated various additives or process aids on the industrial production of French fries, based on their acrylamide mitigation potential and other quality parameters. The application of acetic and citric acid, calcium lactate and asparaginase was investigated on the production of frozen par-fried French fries at the beginning and end of the 2008 and 2009 potato storage season. Despite the fact that some of these treatments significantly reduced acrylamide content of the final product in preliminary laboratory experiments, their application on the industrial production of French fries did not result in additional acrylamide reductions compared to the standard product. Asparaginase was additionally tested in a production line of chilled French fries (not par-fried). Since for this product a longer enzyme-substrate contact time is allowed, a total asparagine depletion was observed for the enzyme treated fries after four days of cold storage. French fries upon final frying presented acrylamide contents below the limit of detection (12.5 μg kg⁻¹) with no effects on the sensorial properties of the final product.

  17. Strategies to support human oocyte development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Evelyn E; McLaughlin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many young cancer patients are now being given the option to store ovarian cortical biopsies before undergoing potentially damaging chemo- or radiotherapy. This tissue mainly contains large numbers of immature primordial follicles. Currently the only option to restore fertility using this tissue is by transplantation which may not be a viable option for all patients. Greater options to realise the potential of this tissue to restore fertility could be achieved by the development of in vitro systems that support oocyte development. The ability to develop human oocytes from the most immature stages of follicles (primordial) through to maturation and fertilisation in vitro would revolutionise fertility preservation practice. This has been achieved in mouse where in vitro grown (IVG) oocytes from primordial follicles have resulted in the production of live offspring. However, developing IVG systems to support complete development of human oocytes has been more difficult because of differences in scale of timing and size. Our lab has been working on a multi-step culture system to support growth and development of bo-vine and human oocytes from primordial through to fully grown, using fresh and cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue. This review outlines the approaches being taken to obtain complete in vitro development of human oocytes and strategies for assessing the health and viability of IVG oocytes.

  18. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-11-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  19. Large-scale Individual-based Models of Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadau, Kai; Germann, Timothy; Longini, Ira; Macken, Catherine

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S. population of 281 million people, to assess the likely effectiveness of various potential intervention strategies including antiviral agents, vaccines, and modified social mobility (including school closure and travel restrictions) [1]. The heterogeneous population structure and mobility is based on available Census and Department of Transportation data where available. Our simulations demonstrate that, in a highly mobile population, restricting travel after an outbreak is detected is likely to delay slightly the time course of the outbreak without impacting the eventual number ill. For large basic reproductive numbers R0, we predict that multiple strategies in combination (involving both social and medical interventions) will be required to achieve a substantial reduction in illness rates. [1] T. C. Germann, K. Kadau, I. M. Longini, and C. A. Macken, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 5935-5940 (2006).

  20. Global scale DAYCENT model analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies for cropped soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Stehfest, Elke; Heistemann, Maik; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically result in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly N 2O and CH 4) and more NO 3 leached below the root zone and into waterways. Agricultural soils are often a source but can also be a sink of CO 2. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions are usually obtained using IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. To more realistically represent GHG emissions we used the DAYCENT biogeochemical model for non-rice major crop types (corn, wheat, soybean). IPCC methodology estimates N losses from croplands based solely on N inputs. In contrast, DAYCENT accounts for soil class, daily weather, historical vegetation cover, and land management practices such as crop type, fertilizer additions, and cultivation events. Global datasets of weather, soils, native vegetation, and cropping fractions were mapped to a 1.9° × 1.9° resolution. Non-spatial data (e.g., rates and dates of fertilizer applications) were assumed to be identical within crop types across regions. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land management alternatives intended to mitigate GHG emissions. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were reduced by a similar proportion. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer applications both led to increased (~ 6%) crop yields but the inhibitor led to a larger reduction in N losses (~ 10%). No-till cultivation, which led to C storage, combined with nitrification inhibitors, resulted in reduced GHG emissions of ~ 50% and increased crop yields of ~ 7%.

  1. Disease burden estimation to support policy decision-making and research prioritization for arsenic mitigation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Guy; Ahmed, M Feroze; Teunis, Peter; Mahmud, Shamsul Gaifur; Davison, Annette; Deere, Dan

    2007-03-01

    The main response to arsenic contamination of shallow tubewells in Bangladesh is the provision of alternative water supplies. To support decision-making in relation to alternative water supply selection, the Arsenic Policy Support Unit commissioned the development of a tool for estimating disease burdens for specific options using disability-adjusted life years as the metric. This paper describes the assumptions in dose-responses, relationships between microbial indicators and pathogens, water consumed and population characteristics used, and presents a case study of how the tool was applied. Water quality data and dose-response models were used to predict disease burdens due to microbial pathogens and arsenic. Disease burden estimates predicted by the tool were based on evidence in the published literature. There were uncertainties in key assumptions of water consumed and the ratio of microbial indicators and pathogens, which led to broad confidence intervals and the need to consider the results in a wider context and further research needs. Deep tubewells and rainwater harvesting had the lowest disease burden estimates, while pond sand filters and dug wells had much higher predicted disease burden due to frequent microbial contamination. The need for rigorous water supply protection through water safety plans was highlighted. At present, the risk assessment is useful for informing judgement by experienced water and health professionals and identifying key research questions. Improved arsenic dose-response models and a better understanding of the relationship between microbial indicators and pathogens in tropical settings are required.

  2. Clinical Decision Support Knowledge Management: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Alswailem, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems have been shown to increase quality of care, patient safety, improve adherence to guidelines for prevention and treatment, and avoid medication errors. Such systems depend mainly on two types of content; the clinical information related to patients and the medical knowledge related to the specialty that informs the system rules and alerts. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, the Health Information Technology Affairs worked on identifying best strategies and recommendations for successful CDSS knowledge management. A review of literature was conducted to identify main areas of challenges and factors of success. A qualitative survey was used over six months' duration to collect opinions, experiences and suggestions from both IT and healthcare professionals. Recommendations were categorized into ten main topics that should be addressed during the development and implementation of CDSS knowledge management tools in the hospital.

  3. Clinical Decision Support Knowledge Management: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Alswailem, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems have been shown to increase quality of care, patient safety, improve adherence to guidelines for prevention and treatment, and avoid medication errors. Such systems depend mainly on two types of content; the clinical information related to patients and the medical knowledge related to the specialty that informs the system rules and alerts. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, the Health Information Technology Affairs worked on identifying best strategies and recommendations for successful CDSS knowledge management. A review of literature was conducted to identify main areas of challenges and factors of success. A qualitative survey was used over six months' duration to collect opinions, experiences and suggestions from both IT and healthcare professionals. Recommendations were categorized into ten main topics that should be addressed during the development and implementation of CDSS knowledge management tools in the hospital. PMID:26152955

  4. Effectiveness of Internal vs. External SEU Scrubbing Mitigation Strategies in a Xilinx FPGA: Design, Test, and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Poivey C.; Petrick, D.; Espinosa, D.; Lesea, Austin; LaBel, K. A.; Friendlich, M; Kim, H; Phan, A.

    2008-01-01

    We compare two scrubbing mitigation schemes for Xilinx FPGA devices. The design of the scrubbers is briefly discussed along with an examination of mitigation limitations. Proton and Heavy Ion data are then presented and analyzed.

  5. Tools to support maintenance strategies under soft soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. W. M.; van Meerten, J. J.; Woning, M. P.; Eijbersen, M. J.; Huber, M.

    2015-11-01

    Costs for maintenance of infrastructure in municipalities with soft soil underground conditions, are estimated to be almost 40 % higher than in others. As a result, these municipalities meet financial problems that cause overdue maintenance. In some cases municipalities are even afraid to be unable to offer a minimum service level in future. In common, traditional practice, roads and sewerage systems have been constructed in trenches that consist of sandy material that replaces the upper meters of the soft soil. Under influence of its weight, this causes accelerated settlements of the construction. A number of alternative constructions have been developed, e.g. using light-weight materials to limit settlement velocity. In order to limit future maintenance costs, improvement of maintenance strategies is desired. Tools have been and will be developed to support municipalities in improving their maintenance strategies and save money by doing that. A model (BALANS) that weighs the attractiveness of alternative solutions under different soil, environmental and economic circumstances, will be presented.

  6. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    PubMed Central

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305

  7. Predicting the extinction of Ebola spreading in Liberia due to mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, L. D.; Aragão Rêgo, H. H.; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The Ebola virus is spreading throughout West Africa and is causing thousands of deaths. In order to quantify the effectiveness of different strategies for controlling the spread, we develop a mathematical model in which the propagation of the Ebola virus through Liberia is caused by travel between counties. For the initial months in which the Ebola virus spreads, we find that the arrival times of the disease into the counties predicted by our model are compatible with World Health Organization data, but we also find that reducing mobility is insufficient to contain the epidemic because it delays the arrival of Ebola virus in each county by only a few weeks. We study the effect of a strategy in which safe burials are increased and effective hospitalisation instituted under two scenarios: (i) one implemented in mid-July 2014 and (ii) one in mid-August—which was the actual time that strong interventions began in Liberia. We find that if scenario (i) had been pursued the lifetime of the epidemic would have been three months shorter and the total number of infected individuals 80% less than in scenario (ii). Our projection under scenario (ii) is that the spreading will stop by mid-spring 2015.

  8. Impact of metal-induced degradation on the determination of pharmaceutical compound purity and a strategy for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Dotterer, Sally K; Forbes, Robert A; Hammill, Cynthia L

    2011-04-01

    Case studies are presented demonstrating how exposure to traces of transition metals such as copper and/or iron during sample preparation or analysis can impact the accuracy of purity analysis of pharmaceuticals. Some compounds, such as phenols and indoles, react with metals in the presence of oxygen to produce metal-induced oxidative decomposition products. Compounds susceptible to metal-induced decomposition can degrade following preparation for purity analysis leading to falsely high impurity results. Our work has shown even metals at levels below 0.1 ppm can negatively impact susceptible compounds. Falsely low results are also possible when the impurities themselves react with metals and degrade prior to analysis. Traces of metals in the HPLC mobile phase can lead to chromatographic artifacts, affecting the reproducibility of purity results. To understand and mitigate the impact of metal induced decomposition, a proactive strategy is presented. The pharmaceutical would first be tested for reactivity with specific transition metals in the sample solvent/diluents and in the HPLC mobile phase. If found to be reactive, alternative sample diluents and/or mobile phases with less reactive solvents or addition of a metal chelator would be explored. If unsuccessful, glassware cleaning or sample solution refrigeration could be investigated. By employing this strategy during method development, robust purity methods would be delivered to the quality control laboratories, preventing future problems from potential sporadic contamination of glassware with metals. PMID:21163601

  9. Smart Oceans BC: Supporting Coastal and Ocean Natural Hazards Mitigation for British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Insua, T. L.; Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, S.

    2014-12-01

    Smart Oceans BC is a new multi-faceted program to support decision-makers faced with responding to natural disasters and hazards in Canada's Province of British Columbia. It leverages the unique capabilities of Ocean Networks Canada's cabled ocean observatories, NEPTUNE and VENUS to enhance public safety, marine safety and environmental monitoring. Smart Oceans BC combines existing and new marine sensing technology with its robust data management and archive system, Oceans 2.0, to deliver information and science for good ocean management and responsible ocean use. Smart Oceans BC includes new ocean observing infrastructure for: public safety, through natural hazard detection for earthquake groundshaking and near-field tsunamis; marine safety, by monitoring and providing alerts on sea state, ship traffic, and marine mammal presence; and environmental protection, by establishing baseline data in critical areas, and providing real-time environmental observations. Here we present the elements of this new ocean observing initiative that are focused on tsunami and earthquake early warning including cabled and autonomous sensor systems, real-time data delivery, software developments that enable rapid detection, analytics used in notification development, and stakeholder engagement plans.

  10. Risk assessment and mitigation strategies for reactive metabolites in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard A; Isin, Emre M; Li, Yan; Weaver, Richard; Weidolf, Lars; Wilson, Ian; Claesson, Alf; Page, Ken; Dolgos, Hugues; Kenna, J Gerry

    2011-06-30

    Drug toxicity is a leading cause of attrition of candidate drugs during drug development as well as of withdrawal of drugs post-licensing due to adverse drug reactions in man. These adverse drug reactions cause a broad range of clinically severe conditions including both highly reproducible and dose dependent toxicities as well as relatively infrequent and idiosyncratic adverse events. The underlying risk factors can be split into two groups: (1) drug-related and (2) patient-related. The drug-related risk factors include metabolic factors that determine the propensity of a molecule to form toxic reactive metabolites (RMs), and the RM and non-RM mediated mechanisms which cause cell and tissue injury. Patient related risk factors may vary markedly between individuals, and encompass genetic and non-genetic processes, e.g. environmental, that influence the disposition of drugs and their metabolites, the nature of the adverse responses elicited and the resulting biological consequences. We describe a new strategy, which builds upon the strategies used currently within numerous pharmaceutical companies to avoid and minimize RM formation during drug discovery, and that is intended to reduce the likelihood that candidate drugs will cause toxicity in the human population. The new strategy addresses drug-related safety hazards, but not patient-related risk factors. A common target organ of toxicity is the liver and to decrease the likelihood that candidate drugs will cause liver toxicity (both non-idiosyncratic and idiosyncratic), we propose use of an in vitro Hepatic Liability Panel alongside in vitro methods for the detection of RMs. This will enable design and selection of compounds in discovery that have reduced propensity to cause liver toxicity. In vitro Hepatic Liability is assessed using toxicity assays that quantify: CYP 450 dependent and CYP 450 independent cell toxicity; mitochondrial impairment; and inhibition of the Bile Salt Export Pump. Prior to progression

  11. Risk assessment and mitigation strategies for reactive metabolites in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard A; Isin, Emre M; Li, Yan; Weaver, Richard; Weidolf, Lars; Wilson, Ian; Claesson, Alf; Page, Ken; Dolgos, Hugues; Kenna, J Gerry

    2011-06-30

    Drug toxicity is a leading cause of attrition of candidate drugs during drug development as well as of withdrawal of drugs post-licensing due to adverse drug reactions in man. These adverse drug reactions cause a broad range of clinically severe conditions including both highly reproducible and dose dependent toxicities as well as relatively infrequent and idiosyncratic adverse events. The underlying risk factors can be split into two groups: (1) drug-related and (2) patient-related. The drug-related risk factors include metabolic factors that determine the propensity of a molecule to form toxic reactive metabolites (RMs), and the RM and non-RM mediated mechanisms which cause cell and tissue injury. Patient related risk factors may vary markedly between individuals, and encompass genetic and non-genetic processes, e.g. environmental, that influence the disposition of drugs and their metabolites, the nature of the adverse responses elicited and the resulting biological consequences. We describe a new strategy, which builds upon the strategies used currently within numerous pharmaceutical companies to avoid and minimize RM formation during drug discovery, and that is intended to reduce the likelihood that candidate drugs will cause toxicity in the human population. The new strategy addresses drug-related safety hazards, but not patient-related risk factors. A common target organ of toxicity is the liver and to decrease the likelihood that candidate drugs will cause liver toxicity (both non-idiosyncratic and idiosyncratic), we propose use of an in vitro Hepatic Liability Panel alongside in vitro methods for the detection of RMs. This will enable design and selection of compounds in discovery that have reduced propensity to cause liver toxicity. In vitro Hepatic Liability is assessed using toxicity assays that quantify: CYP 450 dependent and CYP 450 independent cell toxicity; mitochondrial impairment; and inhibition of the Bile Salt Export Pump. Prior to progression

  12. FINAL REPORT on Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Hee C. NO; Nam Z. Cho

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Generation IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification & validation are of very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air ingress will occur through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. This study indicates that depending on the location and the size of the pipe break, the air ingress phenomena are different. In an effort to estimate the proper safety margin, experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model are required. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation, eventually. This 3-year project (FY 2008–FY 2010) is focused on various issues related to the VHTR air-ingress accident, including (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) structural tests of the oxidized core bottom structures, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.

  13. A Systematic Review of Biochar Research, with a Focus on Its Stability in situ and Its Promise as a Climate Mitigation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Gurwick, Noel P.; Moore, Lisa A.; Kelly, Charlene; Elias, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Claims about the environmental benefits of charring biomass and applying the resulting “biochar” to soil are impressive. If true, they could influence land management worldwide. Alleged benefits include increased crop yields, soil fertility, and water-holding capacity; the most widely discussed idea is that applying biochar to soil will mitigate climate change. This claim rests on the assumption that biochar persists for hundreds or thousands of years, thus storing carbon that would otherwise decompose. We conducted a systematic review to quantify research effort directed toward ten aspects of biochar and closely evaluated the literature concerning biochar's stability. Findings We identified 311 peer-reviewed research articles published through 2011. We found very few field studies that addressed biochar's influence on several ecosystem processes: one on soil nutrient loss, one on soil contaminants, six concerning non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes (some of which fail to support claims that biochar decreases non-CO2 GHG fluxes), and 16–19 on plants and soil properties. Of 74 studies related to biochar stability, transport or fate in soil, only seven estimated biochar decomposition rates in situ, with mean residence times ranging from 8 to almost 4,000 years. Conclusions Our review shows there are not enough data to draw conclusions about how biochar production and application affect whole-system GHG budgets. Wide-ranging estimates of a key variable, biochar stability in situ, likely result from diverse environmental conditions, feedstocks, and study designs. There are even fewer data about the extent to which biochar stimulates decomposition of soil organic matter or affects non-CO2 GHG emissions. Identifying conditions where biochar amendments yield favorable GHG budgets requires a systematic field research program. Finally, evaluating biochar's suitability as a climate mitigation strategy requires comparing its effects with alternative uses of

  14. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture is extremely important to Sinaloa contributing 32.31% of the value of all national agricultural production, while the state occupies only 2.9% of the Mexico's area. However it has caused an imbalance in nature due to the low efficiency of irrigation being 49% and using 93% of the surface waters of the region, hence the importance of promoting water awareness. The Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa (PLECASIN) 2013- 2015 is a product of the workshop held with water advisers representing 14 utilities, and sponsored by CEAPAS and CONAGUA to address water resources issues in the state, low dam levels and the high level of non-payment, through involving society in the management of water resources. The workshop established strategies to achieve the objective of the National Water Awareness Program (PCA): "Contribute to strengthening the participation of users, organized society and citizens in water management and promote the culture of its good use, through consultation and promotion of cultural and educational activities in coordination with the states, to promote the importance of water resources in social welfare, economic development and the preservation of the ecological wealth, to achieve development sustainable of the nation". PLECASIN was developed using the methodology of strategic planning, beginning with a diagnosis of PCA and the development of strategies pertinent to the current environment in Sinaloa. Activities in the workshop included: defining the vision, mission and objectives, stakeholder analysis, SWOT Matrix, and finally the development of the Logical Framework Analysis Matrix. In addition, the workshop applied the PEEAES tools, using primarily the book of the 5 Waters and application of innovative technologies. The Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa designed and implemented an Environmental Education Strategy (PEEAES) to foster an environmental awareness through non-formal educational process and includes: a mobile environmental

  15. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types was used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climat...

  16. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types were used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The Thorn...

  17. Physiological Implications, Performance Assessment and Risk Mitigation Strategies of Women in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    PubMed

    Greeves, Julie P

    2015-11-01

    Women have historically featured in military conflicts, but were not formally integrated into the military until the 20th century; occupations were mainly restricted to clerical or support roles. An increasing number of occupations have been opened to women and the higher physical demands of combat roles present new challenges. Inherent biological differences between sexes require women to work harder when undertaking the same tasks as men. This is reflected, in part, by the greater risk of musculoskeletal injuries of women observed notably during integrated military training. Gender "neutral" occupational standards, based on the physical requirements of the role, will ensure that women are suitably selected to cope with the demands of military tasks with a minimal risk of injury and to operational effectiveness. Initiatives such as reduced running mileage and single-sex training have contributed to a reduction in lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries, but the risk of injury remains higher in women. Nevertheless, women experience substantial gains in aerobic power and strength with appropriate and targeted training, narrowing the gap in physical performance between the sexes. Evidence-based occupational standards and optimal training programs provide short-term solutions for integrating women in support combat, and indeed direct combat roles. PMID:26506206

  18. Physiological Implications, Performance Assessment and Risk Mitigation Strategies of Women in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    PubMed

    Greeves, Julie P

    2015-11-01

    Women have historically featured in military conflicts, but were not formally integrated into the military until the 20th century; occupations were mainly restricted to clerical or support roles. An increasing number of occupations have been opened to women and the higher physical demands of combat roles present new challenges. Inherent biological differences between sexes require women to work harder when undertaking the same tasks as men. This is reflected, in part, by the greater risk of musculoskeletal injuries of women observed notably during integrated military training. Gender "neutral" occupational standards, based on the physical requirements of the role, will ensure that women are suitably selected to cope with the demands of military tasks with a minimal risk of injury and to operational effectiveness. Initiatives such as reduced running mileage and single-sex training have contributed to a reduction in lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries, but the risk of injury remains higher in women. Nevertheless, women experience substantial gains in aerobic power and strength with appropriate and targeted training, narrowing the gap in physical performance between the sexes. Evidence-based occupational standards and optimal training programs provide short-term solutions for integrating women in support combat, and indeed direct combat roles.

  19. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  20. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, M; Ferrara, R M; Rana, G; Acutis, M

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH3) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH3 emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH3 emission process was exhausted in the first 24-48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH3 losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH3 losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions.

  1. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  2. Investigating coping strategies and social support among Canadian melanoma patients: A survey approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Melanie; Cyr, Annette; Gregorio, Nancy; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Complex support needs are involved in coping with a diagnosis of melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived social support levels and utilization of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies by Canadian melanoma patients. The impact of social support level on coping strategy utilization was also examined. Social support and coping strategies were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and the 28-item Brief COPE, respectively. Perceived levels of emotional/informational support were significantly lower than affectionate support and positive social interaction. Acceptance, active coping, and use of emotional support were the most frequently utilized coping strategies. Patients with higher perceived levels of social support had significantly higher adaptive coping scores than patients with lower levels of social support. Health care professionals have an important role in promoting awareness of and access to emotional and informational support resources in order to improve perceived social support levels. PMID:26642495

  3. The Effect of a Course Management System (CMS)-Supported Strategy Instruction on EFL Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Talley, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of a Moodle-supported strategy instruction on both reading comprehension and strategy use among EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. Specific reading strategy training was first integrated into a Moodle system, which included reading exercises on problem identification, monitoring comprehension,…

  4. The Evolution of Operational Satellite Based Remote Sensing in Support of Weather Analysis, Nowcasting, and Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Data Information Service (NESDIS) is to provide timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources to promote, protect, and enhance America’s economy, security, environment, and quality of life. To fulfill its responsibilities, NESDIS acquires and manages America’s operational environmental satellites, operates the NOAA National Data Centers, provides data and information services including Earth system monitoring, performs official assessments of the environment, and conducts related research. The Nation’s fleet of operational environmental satellites has proven to be very critical in the detection, analysis, and forecast of natural or man-made phenomena. These assets have provided for the protection of people and property while safeguarding the Nation’s commerce and enabling safe and effective military operations. This presentation will take the audience through the evolution of operational satellite based remote sensing in support of weather forecasting, nowcasting, warning operations, hazard detection and mitigation. From the very first experiments involving radiation budget to today’s fleet of Geostationary and Polar Orbiting satellites to tomorrow’s constellation of high resolution imagers and hyperspectral sounders, environmental satellites sustain key observations for current and future generations.

  5. Expert witness blinding strategies to mitigate bias in radiology malpractice cases: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Durand, Daniel J; Robertson, Christopher T; Agarwal, Gautam; Duszak, Richard; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Itri, Jason N; Fotenos, Anthony; Savoie, Brent; Ding, Alexander; Lewin, Jonathan S

    2014-09-01

    Like all physicians, radiologists in the United States are subject to frequent and costly medical malpractice claims. Legal scholars and physicians concur that the US civil justice system is neither precise nor accurate in determining whether malpractice has truly occurred in cases in which claims are made. Sometimes, this inaccuracy is driven by biases inherent in medical expert-witness opinions. For example, expert-witness testimony involving "missed" radiology findings can be negatively affected by several cognitive biases, such as contextual bias, hindsight bias, and outcome bias. Biases inherent in the US legal system, such as selection bias, compensation bias, and affiliation bias, also play important roles. Fortunately, many of these biases can be significantly mitigated or eliminated through the use of appropriate blinding techniques. This paper reviews the major works on expert-witness blinding in the legal scholarship and the radiology professional literature. Its purpose is to acquaint the reader with the evidence that unblinded expert-witness testimony is tainted by multiple sources of bias and to examine proposed strategies for addressing these biases through blinding. PMID:25041992

  6. Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination with sodium dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele S; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C

    2010-07-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6-888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines.

  7. Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination with sodium dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele S; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C

    2010-07-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6-888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines. PMID:20595492

  8. Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Mitigation Strategies of Cognitive Deficits in Aging with HIV: Implications for Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has given the chance to those living with HIV to keep on living, allowing them the opportunity to age and perhaps age successfully. Yet, there are severe challenges to successful aging with HIV, one of which is cognitive deficits. Nearly half of those with HIV experience cognitive deficits that can interfere with everyday functioning, medical decision making, and quality of life. Given that cognitive deficits develop with more frequency and intensity with increasing age, concerns mount that as people age with HIV, they may experience more severe cognitive deficits. These concerns become especially germane given that by 2015, 50% of those with HIV will be 50 and older, and this older cohort of adults is expected to grow. As such, this paper focuses on the etiologies of such cognitive deficits within the context of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. From this, evidence-based and hypothetical prevention (i.e., cognitive prescriptions), rehabilitation (i.e., speed of processing training), and mitigation (i.e., spaced retrieval method) strategies are reviewed. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:23431469

  9. Disinfection By-Product Formation and Mitigation Strategies in Point-of-Use Chlorination with Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lantagne, Daniele S.; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C.

    2010-01-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6–888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines. PMID:20595492

  10. FY-09 Report: Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Gen-IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have identified that an air ingress event following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization is a very important incident. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. If this accident occurs, the oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will eventually cause the release of fission products. The potential collapse of the core bottom structures causing the release of CO and fission products is one of the concerns. Therefore, experimental validation with the analytical model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model developed in this study is very important. Estimating the proper safety margin will require experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods Research and Development project. The second year of this three-year project (FY-08 to FY-10) was focused on (a) the analytical, CFD, and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow; (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments and modeling; (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) implementation of advanced

  11. Performance of Built Environment in the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake and its Implications on Seismic Risk Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    effective risk mitigation strategies, it is unfortunate that societies are not adequately prepared due to lack of implementation and, therefore, the seismic risk in the region capable of large to great earthquakes has risen to unacceptable levels which may lead to a large-scale disaster, if not mitigated.

  12. Understanding of Out-of-Band DUV light in EUV lithography: controlling impact on imaging and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, N.; Kottumakulal, R.; Hageman, J.; McNamara, J.; Hoefnagels, R.; Vaenkatesan, V.; van Dijk, A.; Ricken, K.; de Winter, L.; de Kruif, R.; Jonckheere, R.; Hollink, T.; Schiffelers, G.; van Setten, E.; Colsters, P.; Liebregts, W.; Pellens, R.; van Dijk, J.

    2015-09-01

    material (Al or BB). Finally, several OOB mitigation strategies are discussed, in particular, suppression of DUV light in the scanner (~3x improvement), recent successes of DUV suppression for 16 nm imaging resist (~1.8x improvement) and DUV reflectance mitigation in the reticle black border (~3.8x). An overview of OOB test results for multiple NXE systems will be shown including systems with new NXE:3350 optics with improved OOB suppression.

  13. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  14. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  15. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    respective CTL treatments. Overall, reductions in CH4 emissions from adding nitrate or increasing the oil content of the mixed diet were similar to those expected from previous reports. However, the lack of an effect of these mitigation strategies when used with high concentrate diets has not been previously reported. This study shows that the effect of CH4 mitigation strategies is basal diet-dependent.

  16. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, Andy; Ledgard, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO2-equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO2-equivalent emissions, particularly for CH4. While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH4 and N2O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric.

  17. Final Report. SFAA No. DEFC02-98CH10961. Technical assistance for joint implementation and other supporting mechanisms and measures for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Denise

    2001-10-15

    IIEC, a division of CERF, has developed an extensive base of experience implementing activities that support climate action by developing USIJI projects in transitional countries within Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and southern Africa. IIEC has been able to provide a range of technical and policy assistance to governments and industry in support of sustainable energy use. IIEC continues to work in key countries with local partners to develop and implement energy efficiency policies and standards, develop site-specific projects, and assist governing bodies to establish national priorities and evaluation criteria for approving GHG-mitigation projects. As part of this project, IIEC focused on promoting a series of activities in Thailand and South Africa in order to identify GHG mitigation projects and work within the national approval process of those countries. The sections of this report outline the activities conducted in each country in order to achieve that goal.

  18. Organizational Strategies for End-User Computing Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmun, Robert R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Effective support for end users of computers has been an important issue in higher education from the first applications of general purpose mainframe computers through minicomputers, microcomputers, and supercomputers. The development of end user support is reviewed and organizational models are examined. (Author/MLW)

  19. Blended Coaching: Skills and Strategies to Support Principal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Gary S.; Castagna, Claire L.; Moir, Ellen; Warren, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Research shows conclusively that principals and other school leaders are essential to school improvement, and that these individuals benefit from the intensive, contextualized support that a coach or mentor can provide. But how does a coach support a school leader in mastering the professional and emotional challenges of school leadership for a…

  20. Strategies for Providing Spiritual Care & Support to Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A; Foito, Kim; Watson, Sherylyn

    2016-01-01

    Nurse educators need to equip nursing students with suitable resources and education so they can develop their own spiritual care, as well as recognize spiritual care needs in patients. There is a paucity of literature on teaching strategies for spiritual care and prayer in undergraduate nursing programs. This article describes how one faith-based school implemented strategies to facilitate spiritual development in students, which are integrated throughout the curriculum and utilized in the U.S. and a study-abroad program in Ireland. PMID:27610908

  1. Strategies for Providing Spiritual Care & Support to Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A; Foito, Kim; Watson, Sherylyn

    2016-01-01

    Nurse educators need to equip nursing students with suitable resources and education so they can develop their own spiritual care, as well as recognize spiritual care needs in patients. There is a paucity of literature on teaching strategies for spiritual care and prayer in undergraduate nursing programs. This article describes how one faith-based school implemented strategies to facilitate spiritual development in students, which are integrated throughout the curriculum and utilized in the U.S. and a study-abroad program in Ireland.

  2. Dependability breakeven point mathematical model for production - quality strategy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcu, Adrian; Verzea, Ion; Chaib, Rachid

    2016-08-01

    This paper connects the field of dependability system with the production-quality strategies through a new mathematical model based on breakeven points. The novelties consist in the identification of the parameters of dependability system which, in safety control, represents the degree to which an item is capable of performing its required function at any randomly chosen time during its specified operating period disregarding non-operation related influences, as well as the analysis of the production-quality strategies, defining a mathematical model based on a new concept - dependability breakeven points, model validation on datasets and shows the practical applicability of this new approach.

  3. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  4. An Analytic Framework to Support E.Learning Strategy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss and demonstrate the relevance of a new conceptual framework for leading and managing the development of learning and teaching to e.learning strategy development. Design/methodology/approach: After reviewing and discussing the research literature on e.learning in higher education institutions from…

  5. Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth

    2010-01-01

    This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

  6. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  7. Authentic Leadership Strategies in Support of Mentoring Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Levy-Gazenfrantz, Tania

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether teacher-mentees perceive their mentors as authentic leaders and if so, how these perceptions affected their leadership strategies. The sample included 60 Israeli teacher-mentees from different school levels and different sectors, who volunteered to participate in the study. Semi-structured interviews…

  8. Key Reading Recovery Strategies to Support Classroom Guided Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipp, Jamie R.; Helfrich, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective teachers are continuously striving to improve their instruction. Reading Recovery teachers have detailed and specific literacy training and expertise that can be of great value to classroom teachers, especially in the area of guided reading instruction. This article explores the ways in which key Reading Recovery strategies can be…

  9. Assessment Strategies to Support Higher Level Learning in Blended Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Alison J.; Aspden, Liz J.; Bannister, Philip W.; Helm, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A level 6 module was developed in order to implement innovative assessment strategies and encourage higher level learning. The module tutor (one of this paper's authors) was seconded from teaching duties (40%) to the University's academic development unit to work on the module transformation. The rationale for the redesign of the assessment…

  10. A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy to support a national assessment of carbon stocks and fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Hawbaker, Todd; Wein, Anne; Liu, Shu-Guang; Kanengieter, Ronald; Acevedo, William

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use, land cover, disturbance regimes, and land management have considerable influence on carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes within ecosystems. Through targeted land-use and land-management activities, ecosystems can be managed to enhance carbon sequestration and mitigate fluxes of other GHGs. National-scale, comprehensive analyses of carbon sequestration potential by ecosystem are needed, with a consistent, nationally applicable land-use and land-cover (LULC) modeling framework a key component of such analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a project to analyze current and projected future GHG fluxes by ecosystem and quantify potential mitigation strategies. We have developed a unique LULC modeling framework to support this work. Downscaled scenarios consistent with IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) were constructed for U.S. ecoregions, and the FORE-SCE model was used to spatially map the scenarios. Results for a prototype demonstrate our ability to model LULC change and inform a biogeochemical modeling framework for analysis of subsequent GHG fluxes. The methodology was then successfully used to model LULC change for four IPCC SRES scenarios for an ecoregion in the Great Plains. The scenario-based LULC projections are now being used to analyze potential GHG impacts of LULC change across the U.S.

  11. A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy to support a national assessment of carbon stocks and fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Hawbaker, Todd; Wein, Anne; Liu, Shu-Guang; Kanengleter, Ronald; Acevedo, William

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use, land cover, disturbance regimes, and land management have considerable influence on carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes within ecosystems. Through targeted land-use and landmanagement activities, ecosystems can be managed to enhance carbon sequestration and mitigate fluxes of other GHGs. National-scale, comprehensive analyses of carbon sequestration potential by ecosystem are needed, with a consistent, nationally applicable land-use and land-cover (LULC) modeling framework a key component of such analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a project to analyze current and projected future GHG fluxes by ecosystem and quantify potential mitigation strategies. We have developed a unique LULC modeling framework to support this work. Downscaled scenarios consistent with IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) were constructed for U.S. ecoregions, and the FORE-SCE model was used to spatially map the scenarios. Results for a prototype demonstrate our ability to model LULC change and inform a biogeochemical modeling framework for analysis of subsequent GHG fluxes. The methodology was then successfully used to model LULC change for four IPCC SRES scenarios for an ecoregion in the Great Plains. The scenario-based LULC projections are now being used to analyze potential GHG impacts of LULC change across the U.S.

  12. A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy to support a national assessment of carbon stocks and fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, T.L.; Sleeter, B.M.; Zhu, Z.; Sayler, K.L.; Bennett, S.; Bouchard, M.; Reker, R.; Hawbaker, T.; Wein, A.; Liu, S.; Kanengieter, R.; Acevedo, W.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use, land cover, disturbance regimes, and land management have considerable influence on carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes within ecosystems. Through targeted land-use and landmanagement activities, ecosystems can be managed to enhance carbon sequestration and mitigate fluxes of other GHGs. National-scale, comprehensive analyses of carbon sequestration potential by ecosystem are needed, with a consistent, nationally applicable land-use and land-cover (LULC) modeling framework a key component of such analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a project to analyze current and projected future GHG fluxes by ecosystem and quantify potential mitigation strategies. We have developed a unique LULC modeling framework to support this work. Downscaled scenarios consistent with IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) were constructed for U.S. ecoregions, and the FORE-SCE model was used to spatially map the scenarios. Results for a prototype demonstrate our ability to model LULC change and inform a biogeochemical modeling framework for analysis of subsequent GHG fluxes. The methodology was then successfully used to model LULC change for four IPCC SRES scenarios for an ecoregion in the Great Plains. The scenario-based LULC projections are now being used to analyze potential GHG impacts of LULC change across the U.S. ?? 2011.

  13. Changing Federal Strategies for Supporting Educational Research, Development, and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    The 1994 reauthorization of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) introduced significant changes in the structure of federal support for educational research, development, and statistics. After more than 3.5 years of experience with these changes, it is time to assess the results of the new approach. Rather than looking only at…

  14. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  15. Supported Work: An Employment Strategy for the Underclass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinker, William J.

    1979-01-01

    Supported work is an employment program operated primarily by locally based nonprofit corporations that serve as the temporary employer for people who have traditionally had great difficulty in getting or holding a job. This article describes program operations, target groups, funding sources, and program impact research. (Author/SJL)

  16. Government Support for Open Educational Resources: Policy, Funding, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Foundations like Hewlett, Mellon, and Gates provided start-up funding and support that nurtured the field of open educational resources (OER) from infancy to a robust early adolescence characterized by energy and idealism (Casserly & Smith, 2008). However, foundation grants typically focus on establishing exemplars and cannot be relied on for…

  17. Tutoring: A Support Strategy for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheinheimer, David C.; Grace-Odeleye, Beverlyn; Francois, Germain E.; Kusorgbor, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal research study was conducted at a public university in Pennsylvania on a sample of 129 at-risk students from a state-funded program (Act 101) designed to provide support services for economically and educationally disadvantaged students. This research employed a non-experimental, ex post facto methodology to assess the impact of…

  18. Supporting Early Childhood Initiatives: Legislative Strategies for Everyday People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLapp, Lynn R.

    As states and communities work to improve the accessibility and quality of supports and services for young children and their families, they find that their greatest challenge is in gaining and maintaining concerted attention and resources for planning, financing, implementing, and sustaining high-quality, coherent systems. This brief addresses…

  19. Ground Support Strategies at the Turquoise Ridge Joint Venture, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandbak, L. A.; Rai, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    Weak rock masses of high grade Carlin-trend gold mineralization are encountered in the Turquoise Ridge Joint Venture underground mine. The sediments consist of very weak and altered limestone, mudstone, and carbon-rich clays. The rock mass ratings are described as very poor to poor (Bieniawski in Proceedings of the symposium on exploration for rock engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa, pp. 97-106, 1976). The undercut and fill or boxes stoping mining methods are used because of the low dipping ore body geometry, complex geology, and weak rock mass. Design criteria are chosen to keep openings in weak rock as small as possible to prevent unraveling and to minimize supplementary support. Typical ground support for drifting includes the use of bolts, mesh, spiling, and shotcrete. Quality control of cemented rock fill (CRF) through sampling and aggregate sieve testing is necessary to insure high support strength. Specific support may include shotcrete arches with steel ring sets and CRF "arches" as a replacement of weak rock masses around long-term mine openings. Movement monitoring is utilized in problem areas and is needed to quantify and validate computer modeling.

  20. Teaching strategies to support evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Winters, Charlene A; Echeverri, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is an expected core competency of all health care clinicians regardless of discipline. Use of evidence-based practice means integrating the best research with clinical expertise and patient values to achieve optimal health outcomes. Evidence-based practice requires nurses to access and appraise evidence rapidly before integrating it into clinical practice. Role modeling and integrating the skills necessary to develop evidence-based practice into clinical and nonclinical courses is an important part in developing positive attitudes toward evidence-based practice, an essential first step to using evidence to guide practice decisions. The step-by-step approach to evidence-based practice proposed by Melnyk and colleagues provides an excellent organizing framework for teaching strategies specifically designed to facilitate nurses' knowledge and skill development in evidence-based practice.

  1. Clinical Decision Support for Immunizations (CDSi): A Comprehensive, Collaborative Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Arzt, Noam H.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the requirements and current developments in clinical decision support technologies for immunizations (CDSi) in both the public health and clinical communities, with an emphasis on shareable solutions. The requirements of the Electronic Health Record Incentive Programs have raised some unique challenges for the clinical community, including vocabulary mapping, update of changing guidelines, single immunization schedule, and scalability. This article discusses new, collaborative approaches whose long-term goal is to make CDSi more sustainable for both the public and private sectors. PMID:27789956

  2. Simulation of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in Atlanta, GA Using High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data Set to Enhance Meteorological Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Dembek, Scott; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Lapenta, William; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) and associated land surface parameters in meteorological models at all scales has a major influence on modeled surface energy fluxes and boundary layer states. In urban areas, accurate representation of the land surface may be even more important than in undeveloped regions due to the large heterogeneity within the urban area. Deficiencies in the characterization of the land surface related to the spatial or temporal resolution of the data, the number of LULC classes defined, the accuracy with which they are defined, or the degree of heterogeneity of the land surface properties within each class may degrade the performance of the models. In this study, an experiment was conducted to test a new high-resolution LULC data set for meteorological simulations for the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a mesoscale meteorological model and to evaluate the effects of urban heat island (UHI) mitigation strategies on modeled meteorology for 2030. Simulation results showed that use of the new LULC data set reduced a major deficiency of the land use data used previously, specifically the poor representation of urban and suburban land use. Performance of the meteorological model improved substantially, with the overall daytime cold bias reduced by over 30%. UHI mitigation strategies were projected to offset much of a predicted urban warming between 2000 and 2030. In fact, for the urban core, the cooling due to UHI mitigation strategies was slightly greater than the warming associated with urbanization over this period. For the larger metropolitan area, cooling only partially offset the projected warming trend.

  3. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation Strategies: Summary of the E. & F. White Conference held in Sydney, Australia, December 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jon F.; Ekers, Ron D.; Bunton, John D.

    2000-12-01

    The E. & F. White Conference held in Sydney in December 1999 brought together expertise on a range of interference mitigation techniques from CSIRO, Australian and international industry and universities. Key goals were to enhance the understanding of techniques and their inter-relationship, to increase awareness of advanced technologies such as software radios and photonics, and to foster a cooperative approach to the development of interference mitigation techniques. The foremost application in mind was the square kilometre array (SKA) and the need to find ways to develop a hierarchical scheme for removing unwanted signals from astronomical data. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at the conference and summarises some of the key ideas and results that were presented.

  4. High School Teachers with Significant Teaching Experience Support the Effectiveness of Direct Instructional Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaros, John

    2014-01-01

    This research study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of direct instructional strategies regarding the achievement of students with ED. High school teachers with significant years of teaching experience in an urban setting support the effectiveness of direct instructional strategies. Teachers with 11-20 and 21-30 years of teaching…

  5. 24 CFR 92.400 - Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... housing strategies. 92.400 Section 92.400 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary....400 Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies. (a) General. HUD will provide assistance in accordance with Subtitle C of the Act. (b) Notice of funding. HUD will publish a notice in the...

  6. 24 CFR 92.400 - Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... housing strategies. 92.400 Section 92.400 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary....400 Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies. (a) General. HUD will provide assistance in accordance with Subtitle C of the Act. (b) Notice of funding. HUD will publish a notice in the...

  7. 24 CFR 92.400 - Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... housing strategies. 92.400 Section 92.400 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary....400 Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies. (a) General. HUD will provide assistance in accordance with Subtitle C of the Act. (b) Notice of funding. HUD will publish a notice in the...

  8. 24 CFR 92.400 - Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... housing strategies. 92.400 Section 92.400 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary....400 Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies. (a) General. HUD will provide assistance in accordance with Subtitle C of the Act. (b) Notice of funding. HUD will publish a notice in the...

  9. 24 CFR 92.400 - Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... housing strategies. 92.400 Section 92.400 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary....400 Coordinated Federal support for housing strategies. (a) General. HUD will provide assistance in accordance with Subtitle C of the Act. (b) Notice of funding. HUD will publish a notice in the...

  10. Assessment of Emerging Regional Air Quality (AQ) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Impacts and Potential Mitigation Strategies in U.S. Energy Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnon, Michael Mac

    The current domestic reliance on high-emitting fossil fuels for energy needs is the key driver of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions driving both climate change and regional air quality (AQ) concerns. Moving forward, emission sources in U.S. energy sectors will be subjected to changes driven by numerous phenomena, including technology evolution, environmental impacts, sustainability goals, and socioeconomic factors. This evolution will directly affect emissions source-related impacts on regional AQ that effective emissions control strategies must account for, including relative source contributions. Though previous studies have evaluated the emissions and AQ impacts of different sectors, technologies and fuels, most previous studies have assessed emissions impacts only without using advanced atmospheric models to accurately account for both spatial and temporal emissions perturbations and atmospheric chemistry and transport. In addition, few previous studies have considered the integration of multiple technologies and fuels in different U.S. regions.. Finally, most studies do not project emissions several decades into the future to assess what sources should be targeted with priority over time. These aspects are critical for understanding how both emissions sources and potential mitigation strategies impact the formation and fate of primary and secondary pollutants, including ground-level ozone and particulate matter concentrations. Therefore, this work utilizes a set of modeling tools to project and then to spatially and temporally resolve emissions as input into a 3-D Eulerian AQ model to assess how sources of emissions contribute to future atmospheric pollutant burdens. Further, analyses of the potential impacts of alternative energy strategies contained in potential mitigation strategies are conducted for priority targets to develop an understanding of how to maximize AQ benefits and avoid unforeseen deleterious tradeoffs between GHG reduction

  11. Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Groot, Jeroen C J; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Lantinga, Egbert A

    2013-01-01

    Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N), and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively), manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years) of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of processes and

  12. Building net-centric data strategies in support of a transformational MIW capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, M. A.; Stack, J.

    2010-04-01

    The Mine Warfare (MIW) Community of Interest (COI) was established to develop data strategies in support of a future information-based architecture for naval MIW. As these strategies are developed and deployed, the ability for these datafocused efforts to enable technology insertion is becoming increasingly evident. This paper explores and provides concrete examples as to the ways in which these data strategies are supporting the technology insertion process for software-based systems and ultimately contribute to the establishment of an Open Business Model virtual environment. It is through the creation of such a collaborative research platform that a truly transformation MIW capability can be realized.

  13. Integrating climate change mitigation, adaptation, communication and education strategies in Matanzas Province, Cuba: A Citizen Science Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Bueno, R. A.; Byrne, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Environment Service Center of Matanzas (ESCM), Cuba and the University of Lethbridge are collaborating on the development of climate mitigation and adaptation programs in Matanzas province. Tourism is the largest industry in Matanzas. Protecting that industry means protecting coastal zones and conservation areas of value to tourism. These same areas are critical to protecting the landscape from global environmental change: enhanced tropical cyclones, flooding, drought and a range of other environmental change impacts. Byrne (2014) adapted a multidisciplinary methodology for climate adaptation capacity definition for the population of Nicaragua. A wide array of adaptive capacity skills and resources were integrated with agricultural crop modeling to define regions of the country where adaptive capacity development were weakest and should be improved. In Matanzas province, we are developing a series of multidisciplinary mitigation and adaptation programs that builds social science and science knowledge to expand capacity within the ESCM and the provincial population. We will be exploring increased risk due to combined watershed and tropical cyclone flooding, stresses on crops, and defining a range of possibilities in shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy. The program will build ongoing interactions with thousands of Matanzas citizens through site visits carried out by numerous Cuban and visiting students participating in a four-month education semester with a number of Lethbridge and Matanzas faculty. These visits will also provide local citizens with better access to web-based interactions. We will evaluate mitigation and adaptive capacities in three municipalities and some rural areas across the province. Furthermore, we will explore better ways and means to communicate between the research and conservation staff and the larger population of the province.

  14. Using the DayCent Ecosystem Model to Predict Methane Emissions from Wetland Rice Production in Support for Mitigation Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, S. M.; Parton, W. J.; Cheng, K.; Pan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Wetland rice production is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere, and rice production is predicted to increase dramatically in the future due to expected growth in human populations. Mitigating GHG emissions from future rice production is possible with best management practices for water management, residue management and organic amendments. Policy initiatives and programs that promote practices to reduce GHG emissions from rice production will likely need robust methods for quantifying emission reductions. Frameworks based on process-based model provide one alternative for estimating emissions reductions. The advantages of this approach are that the models are relatively inexpensive to apply, incorporate a variety of management and environmental drivers influencing emissions, and can be used to predict future emissions for planning purposes. The disadvantages are that the models can be challenging to parameterize and evaluate, and require a relatively large amount of data. The DayCent ecosystem model simulates plant and soil processes, and is an example of a model that could be used to quantify emission reductions for reporting mitigation activities associated with rice production systems. DayCent estimates methane emissions, which is the major source of GHG emissions from wetland rice, but also estimates nitrous oxide emissions and soil organic C stock changes. DayCent has been evaluated using data from China, explaining 83% of the variation in methane emissions from 72 experimental rice fields. In addition, DayCent has been applied regionally in the United States to estimate methane, nitrous oxide emissions, and soil C stock changes, in compliance with the guidelines for reporting GHG emissions to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Given the cost of alternatives, process-based models such as DayCent may offer the best way forward for estimating GHG emissions from rice production, and with quantification of uncertainty

  15. Dealing with Behavior Problems: The Use of Positive Behavior Support Strategies in Summer Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKevitt, Brian C.; Dempsey, Jessica N.; Ternus, Jackie; Shriver, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Positive behavior support, with its emphasis on teaching desired actions rather than punishing undesirable actions, can be a powerful tool for managing young people's behavior. In recent years, positive behavior support (PBS) strategies have been promoted as alternatives to traditional discipline for children and youth. School use of PBS has been…

  16. Positive Behavior Support Strategies for Young Children with Severe Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Raj Narayan; Singh, Shobra; Geromette, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Positive Behavior Support (PBS) has emerged as a behavioral support that focuses on ecological relevance and meaningful outcome in the form of lifestyle change. PBS is a strategy that attempts to reduce or eliminate inappropriate behavior utilizing a multi-component behavior plan. The plan has two features: functional behavior assessment and a…

  17. Evaluation of the MindMatters Buddy Support Scheme in Southwest Sydney: Strategies, Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Raquiba J.; Bedford, Karen; Williams, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessing the strategies, achievements and challenges of implementing MindMatters and the views of partner schools towards the buddy support scheme. Design: The MindMatters buddy support scheme (2007-2008) was designed to increase the capacity of secondary schools to adopt a whole-school approach to improving health and well-being of…

  18. Strategies to improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia: the role of support services

    PubMed Central

    El-Mallakh, Peggy; Findlay, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe research over the past 10 years on the role of support services in promoting medication adherence in mental health consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted using the terms “medication adherence,” “schizophrenia,” and “support services,” using Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL. Reference lists from published studies were also reviewed to identify additional research studies. Twenty-two articles focused on support-service intervention studies, and these were selected for review. Available support-service interventions include adherence therapy, electronic reminders via text messages and telephones, cognitive–behavioral and motivational strategies, and financial incentives. Support-service intervention strategies need to be tailored to the specific needs of mental health consumers with schizophrenia. More research is needed to investigate effective support services to enhance long-term adherence and adherence to medications for medical illnesses in this population. PMID:25931823

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support Integration Strategy for 6-Crew Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Tressler, Chad H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew complement has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members. In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the t OS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station

  20. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  1. Quantifying process-based mitigation strategies in historical context: separating multiple cumulative effects on river meander migration.

    PubMed

    Fremier, Alexander K; Girvetz, Evan H; Greco, Steven E; Larsen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation in the US (i.e. NEPA) requires defining baseline conditions on current rather than historical ecosystem conditions. For ecosystems with long histories of multiple environmental impacts, this baseline method can subsequently lead to a significantly altered environment; this has been termed a 'sliding baseline'. In river systems, cumulative effects caused by flow regulation, channel revetment and riparian vegetation removal significantly impact floodplain ecosystems by altering channel dynamics and precluding subsequent ecosystem processes, such as primary succession. To quantify these impacts on floodplain development processes, we used a model of river channel meander migration to illustrate the degree to which flow regulation and riprap impact migration rates, independently and synergistically, on the Sacramento River in California, USA. From pre-dam conditions, the cumulative effect of flow regulation alone on channel migration is a reduction by 38%, and 42-44% with four proposed water diversion project scenarios. In terms of depositional area, the proposed water project would reduce channel migration 51-71 ha in 130 years without current riprap in place, and 17-25 ha with riprap. Our results illustrate the utility of a modeling approach for quantifying cumulative impacts. Model-based quantification of environmental impacts allow scientists to separate cumulative and synergistic effects to analytically define mitigation measures. Additionally, by selecting an ecosystem process that is affected by multiple impacts, it is possible to consider process-based mitigation scenarios, such as the removal of riprap, to allow meander migration and create new floodplains and allow for riparian vegetation recruitment.

  2. Quantifying process-based mitigation strategies in historical context: separating multiple cumulative effects on river meander migration.

    PubMed

    Fremier, Alexander K; Girvetz, Evan H; Greco, Steven E; Larsen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation in the US (i.e. NEPA) requires defining baseline conditions on current rather than historical ecosystem conditions. For ecosystems with long histories of multiple environmental impacts, this baseline method can subsequently lead to a significantly altered environment; this has been termed a 'sliding baseline'. In river systems, cumulative effects caused by flow regulation, channel revetment and riparian vegetation removal significantly impact floodplain ecosystems by altering channel dynamics and precluding subsequent ecosystem processes, such as primary succession. To quantify these impacts on floodplain development processes, we used a model of river channel meander migration to illustrate the degree to which flow regulation and riprap impact migration rates, independently and synergistically, on the Sacramento River in California, USA. From pre-dam conditions, the cumulative effect of flow regulation alone on channel migration is a reduction by 38%, and 42-44% with four proposed water diversion project scenarios. In terms of depositional area, the proposed water project would reduce channel migration 51-71 ha in 130 years without current riprap in place, and 17-25 ha with riprap. Our results illustrate the utility of a modeling approach for quantifying cumulative impacts. Model-based quantification of environmental impacts allow scientists to separate cumulative and synergistic effects to analytically define mitigation measures. Additionally, by selecting an ecosystem process that is affected by multiple impacts, it is possible to consider process-based mitigation scenarios, such as the removal of riprap, to allow meander migration and create new floodplains and allow for riparian vegetation recruitment. PMID:24964145

  3. Quantifying Process-Based Mitigation Strategies in Historical Context: Separating Multiple Cumulative Effects on River Meander Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fremier, Alexander K.; Girvetz, Evan H.; Greco, Steven E.; Larsen, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation in the US (i.e. NEPA) requires defining baseline conditions on current rather than historical ecosystem conditions. For ecosystems with long histories of multiple environmental impacts, this baseline method can subsequently lead to a significantly altered environment; this has been termed a ‘sliding baseline’. In river systems, cumulative effects caused by flow regulation, channel revetment and riparian vegetation removal significantly impact floodplain ecosystems by altering channel dynamics and precluding subsequent ecosystem processes, such as primary succession. To quantify these impacts on floodplain development processes, we used a model of river channel meander migration to illustrate the degree to which flow regulation and riprap impact migration rates, independently and synergistically, on the Sacramento River in California, USA. From pre-dam conditions, the cumulative effect of flow regulation alone on channel migration is a reduction by 38%, and 42–44% with four proposed water diversion project scenarios. In terms of depositional area, the proposed water project would reduce channel migration 51–71 ha in 130 years without current riprap in place, and 17–25 ha with riprap. Our results illustrate the utility of a modeling approach for quantifying cumulative impacts. Model-based quantification of environmental impacts allow scientists to separate cumulative and synergistic effects to analytically define mitigation measures. Additionally, by selecting an ecosystem process that is affected by multiple impacts, it is possible to consider process-based mitigation scenarios, such as the removal of riprap, to allow meander migration and create new floodplains and allow for riparian vegetation recruitment. PMID:24964145

  4. Impaired drug absorption due to high stomach pH: a review of strategies for mitigation of such effect to enable pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2013-11-01

    Published reports have clearly shown that weakly basic drugs which have low solubility at high pH could have impaired absorption in patients with high gastric pH thus leading to reduced and variable bioavailability. Since such reduction in exposure can lead to significant loss of efficacy, it is imperative to (1) understand the behavior of the compound as a function of stomach pH to inform of any risk of bioavailability loss in clinical studies and (2) develop a robust formulation which can provide adequate exposure in achlorhydric patients. In this review paper, we provide an overview of the factors that can cause high gastric pH in human, discuss clinical and preclinical pharmacokinetic data for weak bases under conditions of normal and high gastric pH, and give examples of formulation strategies to minimize or mitigate the reduced absorption of weakly basic drugs under high gastric pH conditions. It should be noted that the ability to overcome pH sensitivity issues is highly compound dependent and there are no obvious and general solutions to overcome such effect. Further, we discuss, along with several examples, the use of biopharmaceutical tools such as in vitro dissolution, absorption modeling, and gastric pH modified animal models to assess absorption risk of weak bases in high gastric pH and also the use of these tools to enable development of formulations to mitigate such effects.

  5. Peer Support and Psychosocial Pain Management Strategies for Children with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Laura; Ige, Teminijesu John; Fevrier, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews information on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in children. Children with this chronic illness often experience pain related to their condition. They also can experience social isolation. This paper reviews psychosocial information on peer support and cognitive behavioral pain management strategies. The information presented in this paper provides new insights for health professionals assisting children and families in coping with psychological facets of this disease. Research focusing on ways by which peers and friends can support the child's use of psychological pain management strategies will provide new information for the literature. PMID:26583153

  6. Time effects of climate change mitigation strategies for second generation biofuels and co-products with temporary carbon storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Second generation biofuels that are under development to address the climate change impacts of transportation offer different means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and storing or delaying carbon emissions relative to petroleum-based fuels depending upon the strategy used to synthesize the biofu...

  7. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  8. Increased Fitness of Rice Plants to Abiotic Stress Via Habitat Adapted Symbiosis: A Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Regina S.; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J. D. A.; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands. PMID:21750695

  9. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Redman, Regina S; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J D A; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  10. Degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies of metal cations in recycled fuel for direct methanol fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min-Jee; Park, Ka-Young; Kim, Ki-Beum; Cho, Hyejung; Choi, Hanshin; Park, Jun-Young

    2013-11-01

    Some metal contaminants, such as Al3+, Ni+2, Fe2+ and Cr3+, are produced during reactions in heat exchangers, stacks, and other fuel/water management system components. Due to the gradual build-up of these contaminants generated in the system, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) deteriorate steadily with increasing operation time. Hence, this study systematically investigates the effects of metal cations by supplying various concentrations of metal solutions to the fuel stream at constant-current densities, with the aim of understanding the mechanism and influence of metal contamination on a DMFC MEA. Various electrochemical diagnostic techniques are used to determine the main cause of MEA degradation, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrode polarization, and methanol stripping voltammetry. In addition, the critical concentration of metal cations in methanol fuel is investigated for high DMFC MEA stability. Further, various novel methods for mitigating the influence of the metal contaminants on the performance of a DMFC are suggested and verified.

  11. Impella 5.0 as a Second-Line Mechanical Circulatory Support Strategy After Extracorporeal Life Support.

    PubMed

    Schibilsky, David; Kruger, Tobias; Lausberg, Henning F; Eisenlohr, Christoph; Haller, Christoph; Nemeth, Attila; Schibilsky, Barbara; Haeberle, Helene; Rosenberger, Peter; Walker, Tobias; Schlensak, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The catheter-based Impella 5.0 left ventricular assist device is a powerful and less invasive alternative for patients in cardiogenic shock. The use as second-line therapy in patients with precedent extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has not been described before now. We analyzed our experience of consecutive patients treated with this alternative strategy. From April 2014 to December 2014, eight patients had been implanted as a second-line option after ECLS support. The reason for the change from ECLS to Impella 5.0 was absence of cardiac recovery for primary weaning and complications of ECLS therapy. The mean time of ECLS support prior to Impella implantation was 12 ± 7 days. The implantation of the Impella 5.0/CP was technically successful in all patients, and the ECLS could be explanted in all eight patients who received Impella implantation as a second-line treatment. The second-line Impella 5.0 therapy resulted in two patients who turned into left ventricular assist device (LVAD) candidates, two primary weaning candidates, and four patients who died in the setting of sepsis or absent cardiac recovery and contraindications for durable LVAD therapy. Thereby, the overall hospital discharge survival as well as the 180-day survival was 50% for Impella 5.0 implantations as second-line procedure after ECLS. The latest follow-up survival of this second-line strategy after ECLS was three out of eight, as one patient died after 299 days of LVAD support due to sepsis. The use of Impella 5.0 constitutes a possible second-line therapeutic option for those patients who do not show cardiac recovery during prolonged ECLS support or suffer from complications of ECLS therapy. This treatment allows additional time for decisions regarding cardiac recovery or indication for durable LVAD therapy. PMID:27645397

  12. Transforming nursing education: a review of stressors and strategies that support students’ professional socialization

    PubMed Central

    Del Prato, Darlene; Bankert, Esther; Grust, Patricia; Joseph, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Nurse educators are facing the challenge of creating new ways of teaching and facilitating enhanced learning experiences in clinical practice environments that are inherently complex, highly demanding, and unpredictable. The literature consistently reports the negative effects of excess stress and unsupportive relationships on wellbeing, self-efficacy, self-esteem, learning, persistence, and success. However, understanding contributing factors of stress, such as the student’s experiences of uncaring and oppressive interactions, is clearly not adequate. The transformation of nursing education requires a paradigm shift that embraces collegiality, collaboration, caring, and competence for students and the faculty. This paper reviews the literature on stress and its effects on nursing students. Grounded in theory related to stress and human caring, this paper focuses on the clinical environment and faculty-student relationships as major sources of students’ stress and offers strategies for mitigating stress while fostering learning and professional socialization of future nurses. PMID:23745082

  13. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction

  14. Effect of inclined support surface on postural strategy during anterior-posterior platform translations.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that postural coordination patterns change as a function of translation frequency. However, the effect of inclined support surface on postural strategy was not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of inclined support surface on postural strategy during platform translations. Eight healthy adults maintained their balance in stance during support surface translations in the anterior-posterior direction at two different frequencies (0.2 and 0.8[Hz]) and at three different base of support condition (LV: Level, TD: Toe Down, TU: Toe Up). For the kinematic data at slow frequency, subjects rode the platform depending on the movement of platform itself, while at fast frequency subjects fixed their head and center of mass (COM) in space. For the kinetic data at slow frequency, the ankle moment amplitude is similar among all support surface conditions, while at fast frequency the ankle moment amplitude for TU is significantly larger than LV. Result shown that the effect of inclined surface on postural strategy changed according to frequency of support surface translations.

  15. Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, S.; Colombero, C.; Comina, C.; Umili, G.

    2015-12-01

    Rock slope monitoring is a major aim in territorial risk assessment and mitigation. The use of "site specific" microseismic monitoring systems can allow to detect pre-failure signals in unstable sectors within the rock mass and to predict the possible acceleration to the failure. To this aim multi-scale geophysical methods can provide a unique tool for an high-resolution imaging of the internal structure of the rock mass and constraints on the physical state of the medium. We present here a cross-hole seismic tomography survey coupled with laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements and determination of physical properties on rock samples to characterize the damaged and potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW, Italy). Results allowed to achieve two main advances, in terms of obtaining: i) a lithological interpretation of the velocity field obtained at the site, ii) a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granite (weathering and anisotropy) of the cliff. A microseismic monitoring system developed by the University of Turin/Compagnia San Paolo, consisting of a network of 4 triaxial geophones (4.5 Hz) connected to a 12-channel data logger, has been deployed on the unstable granitic cliff. More than 2000 events with different waveforms, duration and frequency content were recorded between November 2013 and July 2014. By inspecting the acquired events we identified the key parameters for a reliable distinction among the nature of each signal, i.e. the signal shape (in terms of amplitude, duration, kurtosis) and the frequency content (maximum frequency content and frequency distribution). Four main classes of recorded signals can be recognised: microseismic events, regional earthquakes, electrical noises and calibration signals, and unclassified events (probably grouping rockfalls, quarry blasts, other anthropic and natural sources of seismic noise).

  16. Tests of the Mitigating Effects of Caring and Supportive Relationships in the Study of Abusive Disciplining Over Two Generations

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Brown, Eric C.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine evidence of the continuity in abusive discipline across two generations (G1 and G2) and the role of Safe, Stable, and Nurturing Relationships (SSNRs) as protective factors. Methods Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of the causes and consequences child maltreatment that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 children and their parents. Data were most recently collected in 2008 - 2010 from 80% of the original child sample (N = 357) when they were adults age 36 years on average. Of those assessed as adults, 268 participants (G2s) were parenting children and thus comprise the analysis sample. Analyses examined the association between physical discipline practices by G1 parents and G2’s reports of similarly severe discipline practices used in parenting their own children. Analyses also investigated the direct and interactive (protective) effects of SSNR variables that pertain to the care, warmth, and support children received from their mothers, fathers, and siblings over their lifetimes. A measure of an adult partner’s warmth and support was also included. A case-level examination of G2 harsh discipliners was included to examine other forms of past and more recent forms of abuse exposure. Results Results show a significant predictive association between physical discipline by G1 and G2 parents (Beta = .30, p < .05, OR: 1.14 [1.04 - 1.26]), after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status and gender. While being physically disciplined as a child was inversely related to reports of having had a caring relationship with one’s mother (r = -.25, p < .01), only care and support from one’s father predicted a lower risk of harsh physical discipline by G2s (Beta = -.24, p < .05, OR: .74 [.59 -.92]). None of the SSNR variables moderated the effect of G1 discipline on G2 discipline. A case-level examination of the abusive histories of G2 harsh discipliners found they had in some cases been exposed to physical

  17. Shallow Strategy Development in a Teachable Agent Environment Designed to Support Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Rod D.; Segedy, James R.; Sulcer, Brian; Jeong, Hogyeong; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    To support self-regulated learning (SRL), computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are often designed to be open-ended and multidimensional. These systems incorporate diverse features that allow students to enact and reveal their SRL strategies via the choices they make. However, research shows that students' use of such features is limited;…

  18. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Method: A literature…

  19. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  20. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls ("M" = 16.3…

  1. Parental Stress, Coping Strategies and Social Support in Families of Children with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (coping…

  2. Stakeholder supportiveness and strategic vulnerability: implications for competitive strategy in the HMO industry.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C J; Blair, J D; Smith, R R; Nix, T W; Savage, G T

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual and empirical analysis of the strategic vulnerability of HMOs shows that they are strategically vulnerable on the social dimension of stakeholder supportiveness. One of the major implications of this finding is that HMOs' cost leadership strategy cannot be sustained, given the competition from such substitutes as PPAs.

  3. Strategies and Sources of Support for Beginning Teachers of Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichsen, Patricia; Chval, Kathryn B.; Teuscher, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the support structures and strategies utilized by beginning mathematics and science teachers. The qualitative case study of 18 teachers (0-3 years of experience) includes teachers from rural, suburban and urban schools. Data collection consisted of one-hour interviews. The findings indicate participants utilized formal and…

  4. Supporting Learning from Illustrated Texts: Conceptualizing and Evaluating a Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlag, Sabine; Ploetzner, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Texts and pictures are often combined in order to improve learning. Many students, however, have difficulty to appropriately process text-picture combinations. We have thus conceptualized a learning strategy which supports learning from illustrated texts. By inducing the processes of information selection, organization, integration, and…

  5. Supporting Boys' Learning: Strategies for Teacher Practice, Pre-K--Grade 3. Early Childhood Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprung, Barbara; Froschl, Merle; Gropper, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    "Supporting Boys' Learning" will help teachers develop knowledge and strategies for teaching boys in ways that build on their strengths, respect their individual development levels, and adhere to principles of child development. There is a growing body of research that has raised concerns about boys' vulnerability in terms of social-emotional…

  6. Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

  7. Contingency Mapping: Use of a Novel Visual Support Strategy as an Adjunct to Functional Equivalence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kenneth E.; Mirenda, Pat

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of contingency mapping, a new visual support strategy designed to enhance clients' understanding of the contingencies associated with functional equivalence training (FET). The study was conducted in a general education classroom with an adolescent boy with autism who engaged in prompt dependent behavior. A…

  8. Seeds - health benefits, barriers to incorporation, and strategies for practitioners in supporting consumption among consumers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review provides an overview of the botany and classification of seeds, summarizes recent research examining the health benefits of seeds, and discusses barriers to incorporating seeds into Western diets. Strategies to help practitioners support their patients in incorporating more seed foods in...

  9. Stakeholder supportiveness and strategic vulnerability: implications for competitive strategy in the HMO industry.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C J; Blair, J D; Smith, R R; Nix, T W; Savage, G T

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual and empirical analysis of the strategic vulnerability of HMOs shows that they are strategically vulnerable on the social dimension of stakeholder supportiveness. One of the major implications of this finding is that HMOs' cost leadership strategy cannot be sustained, given the competition from such substitutes as PPAs. PMID:2670835

  10. Editorial: Social Support and Coping Strategies as Mediators of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David P. H.

    1997-01-01

    This editorial discusses two studies in this journal issue that explore mediating functions of coping strategies and social support in long-term outcomes of child abuse and neglect. It is argued that these studies provide empirical evidence of interest to social workers and mental health practitioners by identifying specific factors and strategies…

  11. Relational Communications Strategies to Support Family-Centered Neonatal Intensive Care.

    PubMed

    Benzies, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    The philosophy of family-centered care in neonatal intensive care units is intended to facilitate parental involvement, shared decision-making, and improved outcomes for infants and families. To support family-centered care, there are multiple interventions with different components and associated outcomes that have been described in the research literature. This evidence leaves many unanswered questions about how best to implement and evaluate strategies to enhance family-centered care. This article provides a brief overview of interventions designed to support family-centered care in neonatal intensive care units and offers an evidence-informed staff education strategy to enhance family-centered care. The evidence-informed relational communications strategies of circular pattern diagrams, questioning, and commendations are described, along with specific examples of how nurses can use them in in their day-to-day practice in neonatal intensive care units. PMID:27465456

  12. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Methods A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a manual search. Results Eleven studies were identified that tested implementation strategies with a randomized (n = 10) or controlled clinical trial design (n = 1). The wide range of clinical interventions, implementation strategies, and outcomes evaluated precluded meta-analysis. However, the majority of studies (n = 7; 64%) found a statistically significant effect in the hypothesized direction for at least one implementation or clinical outcome. Conclusions There is a clear need for more rigorous research on the effectiveness of implementation strategies, and we provide several suggestions that could improve this research area. PMID:24791131

  13. Development of Decision Support Tools for Maintenance Strategy of Electric Power Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsuguhiro; Okamoto, Tatsuki

    Development of decision support tools for maintenance strategy of electric power equipment based on the asset management technique becomes very intensive in order to reduce maintenance cost due to the liberalization of power business. In these years many theses have been presented about asset management in this area, but there are not yet so many concrete researches. This article introduces two approaches of decision support tool development for power equipment in CRIEPI. One is to support evaluation of dissolved gas analysis for oil-immersed transformers. It provides comparison to data obtained from the same kind of transformers, and criteria among them. The other is to evaluate average annual maintenance cost by considering an overhaul effect and failure risk. It provides an optimum overhaul strategy with suitable parameters.

  14. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    PubMed

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  15. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    PubMed

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  16. Decision support for mitigating the risk of tree induced transmission line failure in utility rights-of-way.

    PubMed

    Poulos, H M; Camp, A E

    2010-02-01

    Vegetation management is a critical component of rights-of-way (ROW) maintenance for preventing electrical outages and safety hazards resulting from tree contact with conductors during storms. Northeast Utility's (NU) transmission lines are a critical element of the nation's power grid; NU is therefore under scrutiny from federal agencies charged with protecting the electrical transmission infrastructure of the United States. We developed a decision support system to focus right-of-way maintenance and minimize the potential for a tree fall episode that disables transmission capacity across the state of Connecticut. We used field data on tree characteristics to develop a system for identifying hazard trees (HTs) in the field using limited equipment to manage Connecticut power line ROW. Results from this study indicated that the tree height-to-diameter ratio, total tree height, and live crown ratio were the key characteristics that differentiated potential risk trees (danger trees) from trees with a high probability of tree fall (HTs). Products from this research can be transferred to adaptive right-of-way management, and the methods we used have great potential for future application to other regions of the United States and elsewhere where tree failure can disrupt electrical power.

  17. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  18. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  19. Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, Sergio; Colombero, Chiara; Comina, Cesare; Ferrero, Anna Maria; Mandrone, Giuseppe; Umili, Gessica; Fiaschi, Andrea; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2015-04-01

    Rock slope monitoring is a major aim in territorial risk assessment and mitigation. The high velocity that usually characterizes the failure phase of rock instabilities makes the traditional instruments based on slope deformation measurements not applicable for early warning systems. The use of "site specific" microseismic monitoring systems, with particular reference to potential destabilizing factors, such as rainfalls and temperature changes, can allow to detect pre-failure signals in unstable sectors within the rock mass and to predict the possible acceleration to the failure. We deployed a microseismic monitoring system in October 2013 developed by the University of Turin/Compagnia San Paolo and consisting of a network of 4 triaxial 4.5 Hz seismometers connected to a 12 channel data logger on an unstable patch of the Madonna del Sasso, Italian Western Alps. The initial characterization based on geomechanical and geophysical tests allowed to understand the instability mechanism and to design a 'large aperture' configuration which encompasses the entire unstable rock and can monitor subtle changes of the mechanical properties of the medium. Stability analysis showed that the stability of the slope is due to rock bridges. A continuous recording at 250 Hz sampling frequency (switched in March 2014 to 1 kHz for improving the first arrival time picking and obtain wider frequency content information) and a trigger recording based on a STA/LTA (Short Time Average over Long Time Average) detection algorithm have been used. More than 2000 events with different waveforms, duration and frequency content have been recorded between November 2013 and March 2014. By inspecting the acquired events we identified the key parameters for a reliable distinction among the nature of each signal, i.e. the signal shape in terms of amplitude, duration, kurtosis and the frequency content in terms of range of maximum frequency content, frequency distribution in spectrograms. Four main

  20. A Decision Support Matrix (DSM) approach to mapping the impacts of flooding mitigation using a Flood Impact Model (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The village of Great Ayton on the River Leven catchment (35 km2), UK, has been impacted by a number of floods in recent years. A flood management scheme based on the installation of Natural Flood Management (NFM) interventions has commenced to deal with this issue. Evidence gathered within the subtributaries (less than 10 km2) demonstrates the potential for NFM techniques to have some effect on the local flood peaks. However, the problem arises as to how to upscale these results to the catchment scale, which involves consideration of the timing of the delivery of water from the landscape units, interactions flows at confluences, the spatial patterns of rainfall, antecedent conditions and so forth. This study uses a novel Flood Impact Model (FIM) and a nested network of observed flow measurements. Essentially the approach involves the disaggregation of the outlet hydrograph by making assumptions about the spatial distribution of runoff generation. The channel network is parameterised through a comparison of the timing of observed hydrographs at a number of nested locations within the catchment. The greater the number of flow recording instruments installed within the catchment the better network is thus defined. The Environment Agency, North Yorkshire Moor National Park, the Forestry Commission (England), local farming and town residents formed a catchment consortium for the Leven. An initial catchment plan was created and local evidence was gathered, with a flow instrumentation network installed. A simple visual Decision Support Matrix (DSM) was then used to convey the likely impacts that arise from any area undergoing future flood management measures. The DSM encourages end users to create a NFM scheme by studying the degree to which runoff can be altered locally and how that flow will be propagated through the network to the point of impact. The model contains a simple runoff generator based on the UK Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) method (though any runoff

  1. Application of Quality Assurance Strategies in Diagnostics and Clinical Support Services in Iranian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Kringos, Dionne; Ravaghi, Hamid; Manoochehri, Jila; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iran has a widespread diagnostics and clinical support services (DCSS) network that plays a crucial role in providing diagnostic and clinical support services to both inpatient and outpatient care. However, very little is known on the application of quality assurance (QA) policies in DCSS units. This study explores the extent of application of eleven QA strategies in DCSS units within Iranian hospitals and its association with hospital characteristics. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009/2010. Data were collected from 554 DCSS units among 84 hospitals. Results: The average reported application rate for the QA strategies ranged from 57%-94% in the DCSS units. Most frequently reported were checking drugs expiration dates (94%), pharmacopoeia availability (92%), equipment calibration (87%) and identifying responsibilities (86%). Least reported was external auditing of the DCSS (57%). The clinical chemistry and microbiology laboratories (84%), pharmacies, blood bank services (83%) reported highest average application rates across all questioned QA strategies. Lowest application rates were reported in human tissue banks (50%). There was no significant difference between the reported application rates in DCSS in the general/specialized, teaching/research, nonteaching/research hospitals with the exception of pharmacies and radiology departments. They reported availability of a written QA plan significantly more often in research hospitals. Nearly all QA strategies were reported to be applied significantly more often in the DCSS of Social Security Organization (SSO) and private-for-profit hospitals than in governmental hospitals. Conclusion: There is still room for strengthening the managerial cycle of QA systems and accountability in the DCSS in Iranian hospitals. Getting feedback, change and learning through application of specific QA strategies (eg, external/internal audits) can be improved. Both the effectiveness of QA

  2. Development of an Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy for Supporting Performance Assessments of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, T. J.; Price, V.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. NRC is funding research to develop an integrated ground-water monitoring strategy to support performance assessments (PA) of nuclear waste and decommissioning sites. These PAs provide the scientific and regulatory bases for a risk-informed decision as to the long-term safety of waste disposal and decommissioning sites. The strategy will assist in NRC staff reviews of predicted consequences related to potential radionuclide releases from licensed nuclear facilities. The strategy couples site characterization and PA through identification and monitoring of hydrogeologic system performance indicators such as distributions of water content in the unsaturated zone and ground-water potential in the saturated zone, as well as radionuclide concentrations. The strategy considers the need to monitor for a range of alternative conceptual ground-water models, and to quantify parameter and model uncertainties. The strategy will be tested using real-time monitoring datasets. Recognizing that each site has its unique set of features, events and processes, the strategy will focus on methods for designing monitoring systems to detect both current conditions and changes in the system's behavior relevant to radionuclide leaching and transport. Beyond identifying and mapping contaminant plumes, the monitoring goals are to: identify the presence or potential for preferential transport pathways; assess the effectiveness of contaminant isolation systems; identify and support alternative conceptual flow and transport models; and communicate the monitored performance indicators through effective data management, analysis and visualization techniques for decision makers and stakeholders. Progress to date involves the review and harmonization of monitoring programs, strategies and guidance presently used to evaluate both radioactive and toxic waste facilities.

  3. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  4. Passive injection: a CO2 sequestration strategy that mitigates the threat of induced seismicity and brine migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, D.; Pawar, R.; Kelkar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) faces several challenges including the possibility of shear movement on faults leading to the creation of CO2 leakage pathways and induced seismicity, and the migration of the brine displaced by CO2 into shallow groundwater aquifers, either through leaky wells or faults. Both of these processes are caused by fluid overpressure in the reservoir that a result of large-scale CO2 injection. We detail a novel strategy for CCS, termed passive injection, capable of emplacing megaton quantities of CO2 with no increase, transient or long-term, in reservoir pressure. The strategy leverages negative pressure gradients created by the strategic placement of brine production wells so that CO2 leaves an injection well at ambient reservoir pressure. A multi-stage, square-ring well configuration is considered, in which brine production wells are repurposed for CO2 injection upon CO2 breakthrough, and a new battery of production wells installed at a greater distance. As proof of concept, numerical simulations of passive injection are presented using the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM), multi-fluid simulator FEHM. We consider CO2 injection into a 3km-deep, confined reservoir over a period of 50 years, with up to four stages of injection and production depending on well-spacing and production pressures. Injection rates as high as 3 Mt yr-1 are achieved, with 70% utilization of the reservoir volume and long-term mass production of brine approximately 1.7 times that of CO2 sequestered (including structural and solubility trapping). The model accounts for the geomechanical effects of reservoir drawdown including surface subsidence. The induced seismic threat is quantified in terms of the change in the Coulomb Failure Stress (ΔCFS) for the conservative scenario of an optimally-oriented fault in an extensional tectonic regime. This quantity is shown to be negative in both the caprock and reservoir, which indicates that the

  5. Satellite Breakup Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leleux, Darrin P.; Smith, Jason T.

    2006-01-01

    Many satellite breakups occur as a result of an explosion of stored energy on-board spacecraft or rocket-bodies. These breakups generate a cloud of tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of debris fragments which may pose a transient elevated threat to spaceflight crews and vehicles. Satellite breakups pose a unique threat because the majority of the debris fragments are too small to be tracked from the ground. The United States Human Spaceflight Program is currently implementing a risk mitigation strategy that includes modeling breakup events, establishing action thresholds, and prescribing corresponding mitigation actions in response to satellite breakups.

  6. Coping strategies and support networks for Sjögren's syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Herman, Andrea; Taylor, Steven; Noll, Jenene

    2014-02-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that can affect any organ system in the body. The most common symptoms are dryness of the mouth and eyes resulting from chronic inflammation and a progressive loss of secretory function. As with most individuals managing a chronic condition, patients with Sjögren's are on a multipronged path to disease and symptom management. Various coping strategies are presented in this article and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. Additionally, how a support group functions and practical guidance for the initiation of a Sjögren's support group are discussed. PMID:24287199

  7. Group action planning as a support strategy for Hispanic families: parent and professional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Blue-Banning, M J; Turnbull, A P; Pereira, L

    2000-06-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted to obtain participants' preliminary reactions to the responsiveness of group action planning, a person-centered planning approach, as a support strategy for Hispanic families of individuals with disabilities. Focus group participants were 38 Hispanic parents of youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and 22 professionals who provided support services to Hispanic youth/young adults with developmental disabilities and their families. Both constituency groups identified advantages and disadvantages of group action planning. We focus our key recommendations on the implications of this information for education and human service systems as well as directions for future research. PMID:10900934

  8. Strategies for integrating mental health into schools via a multitiered system of support.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Sugai, George; Lever, Nancy; Connors, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    To fully realize the potential of mental health supports in academic settings, it is essential to consider how to effectively integrate the mental health and education systems and their respective resources, staffing, and structures. Historically, school mental health services have not effectively spanned a full continuum of care from mental health promotion to treatment, and several implementation and service challenges have evolved. After an overview of these challenges, best practices and strategies for school and community partners are reviewed to systematically integrate mental health interventions within a school's multitiered system of student support. PMID:25773320

  9. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Navigation Strategy for Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Telecommunication Relay Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jessica L.; Menon, Premkumar R.; Demcak, Stuart W.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is an orbiting asset that performs remote sensing observations in order to characterize the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars. To support upcoming NASA Mars Exploration Program Office objectives, MRO will be used as a relay communication link for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission during the MSL Entry, Descent and Landing sequence. To do so, MRO Navigation must synchronize the MRO Primary Science Orbit (PSO) with a set of target conditions requested by the MSL Navigation Team; this may be accomplished via propulsive maneuvers. This paper describes the MRO Navigation strategy for and operational performance of MSL EDL relay telecommunication support.

  10. Supporting document for the Canada-wide acid rain strategy for post-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    This report presents background and other information on the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, which puts in place a framework for addressing the remaining acid rain problem in eastern Canada, for ensuring that new acid rain problems do not occur elsewhere in Canada, and for ensuring that Canada meets its international commitments on acid rain. Background information is included on the first and second Sulphur Protocols of 1985 and 1994, the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement, and progress to date in meeting emission targets. Key features of the strategy are then presented with respect to such matters as sulphur dioxide emission reductions, pollution prevention, and research. Finally, the positions of members of the multi-stakeholder task group who developed the supporting documentation for the strategy are outlined.

  11. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  12. RFI Mitigation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    The increased sensitivity of passive instrumentation in radio astronomy and remote sensing and the intensifying active use of the spectrum have led to an increasing level of radio frequency interference (RFI) of the active services on the passive use of the spectrum. Advances in technology and computing have opened up new possibilities for mitigating the effects of certain classes of interference in the observing data. Interference in allocated bands always leads to data loss for the passive users of the spectrum even if interference mitigation is applied. However, interference mitigation in non-allocated spectral bands may facilitate the partial use of this spectrum for passive (non-interfering) observations. There is no generic method to mitigate all types of interference, so a multi-layered system approach may be advisable to reduce detrimental effects for a congested interference environment. Specific mitigation methods implemented at different points in the data acquisition chain will thus result in a cumulative mitigation effect on the data. This third RFI Mitigation Workshop considered RFI mitigation in radio astronomy in all its facets with the aim of facilitating the implementation of instrumental and data processing techniques. This workshop aimed to take a forward look at applications for the next generation of radio instruments, such as the SKA and its pathfinders and LOFAR, as well as considering their application to existing instruments. This workshop has been organized by ASTRON and NAIC, with support from the Engineering Forum of FP7 RadioNet, the SKA Project Development Office, and in collaboration with CRAF and IUCAF.

  13. Legislative and policy strategies for supporting rural health network development: lessons from the 103rd Congress.

    PubMed

    Coburn, A F; Mueller, K J

    1995-01-01

    There was considerable support in most major health reform bills considered by the 103rd Congress for the development of rural integrated service networks. The demise of comprehensive health reform, together with the pace of current market-driven changes in the health care system, suggests the need to assess the impact of specific policy strategies considered in the last Congress on rural integrated service network development. Toward this end, this article evaluates the rural health policy strategies of the major bills in relation to three essential preconditions for the development of rural integrated service networks: (1) the need for a more stable financial base for rural providers; (2) the need for administrative, service and clinical capacity to mount a successful network; and finally, (3) the need for appropriate market areas to ensure fair competition among networks and plans. Key policy strategies for supporting rural network development include reform of insurance and payment policies, expansion of targeted support and technical assistance to the underserved, limited-capacity rural areas, and policies governing purchasing groups or alliances that will ensure appropriate treatment of rural providers and networks. PMID:10141276

  14. Nursing Strategies to Support Family Members of ICU Patients at High Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Judith A.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Tulsky, James A.; Steinhauser, Karen E.; Bailey, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how family members of ICU patients at high risk of dying respond to nursing communication strategies. Background: Family members of ICU patients may face difficult decisions. Nurses are in a position to provide support. Evidence of specific strategies that nurses use to support decision-making and how family members respond to these strategies is lacking. Methods: This is a prospective, qualitative descriptive study involving the family members of ICU patients identified as being at high risk of dying. Results: Family members described five nursing approaches: Demonstrating concern, building rapport, demonstrating professionalism, providing factual information, and supporting decision-making. This study provides evidence that when using these approaches, nurses helped family members to cope; to have hope, confidence, and trust; to prepare for and accept impending death; and to make decisions. Conclusion: Knowledge lays a foundation for interventions targeting the areas important to family members and most likely to improve their ability to make decisions and their well-being. PMID:24655938

  15. The Effects of Expression: How Providing Emotional Support Online Improves Cancer Patients’ Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emotional support has traditionally been conceived as something a breast cancer patient receives. However, this framework may obscure a more complex process, facilitated by the emerging social media environment, which includes the effects of composing and sending messages to others. Accordingly, this study explores the effects of expression and reception of emotional support messages in online groups and the importance of bonding as a mediator influencing the coping strategies of breast cancer patients. Methods Data were collected as part of two National Cancer Institute–funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence. Expression and reception of emotionally supportive messages were tracked and coded for 237 breast cancer patients. Analysis resulted from merging 1) computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts, 2) action log analysis of system use, and 3) longitudinal survey data. Results As expected, perceived bonding was positively related to all four coping strategies (active coping: β = 0.251, P = .000; positive reframing: β = 0.288, P = .000; planning: β = 0.213, P = .006; humor: β = 0.159, P = .009). More importantly, expression (γ = 0.138, P = .027), but not reception (γ = −0.018, P = .741), of emotional support increases perceived bonding, which in turn mediates the effects on patients’ positive coping strategies. Conclusions There is increasing importance for scholars to distinguish the effects of expression from reception to understand the processes involved in producing psychosocial benefits. This study shows that emotional support is more than something cancer patients receive; it is part of an active, complex process that can be facilitated by social media. PMID:24395987

  16. Life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Erfani, Zahra; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and the perceived intensity of life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports are very important in everybody's well-being. This study intended to estimate the relation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and these factors. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Isfahan on 2013. Data were extracted from the framework of the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health, and nutrition. Symptoms of IBS were evaluated by Talley bowel disease questionnaire. Stressful life event, modified COPE scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were also used. About 4763 subjects were completed questionnaires. Analyzing data were done by t-test and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of all returned questionnaire, 1024 (21.5%) were diagnosed with IBS. IBS and clinically-significant IBS (IBS-S) groups have significantly experienced a higher level of perceived intensity of stressors and had a higher frequency of stressors. The mean score of social supports and the mean scores of three coping strategies (problem engagement, support seeking, and positive reinterpretation and growth) were significantly lower in subjects with either IBS-S or IBS than in those with no IBS. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association between frequency of stressors and perceived intensity of stressors with IBS (odds ratio [OR] =1.09 and OR = 1.02, respectively) or IBS-S (OR = 1.09 and OR = 1.03, respectively). Conclusions: People with IBS had higher numbers of stressors, higher perception of the intensity of stressors, less adaptive coping strategies, and less social supports which should be focused in psychosocial interventions. PMID:27761433

  17. 78 FR 7784 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials To Support Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Clinical Trials To Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological Products; Extension of Comment Period... entitled ``Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials to Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological... guidance to industry on enrichment strategies that can be used in clinical trials intended to...

  18. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 2: OSSA integrated logistics support strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to outline an Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) integrated logistics support strategy that will ensure effective logistics support of OSSA payloads at an affordable life-cycle cost. Program objectives, organizational relationships, and implementation of the logistics strategy are discussed.

  19. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  20. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  1. Chromium Stress Mitigation by Polyamine-Brassinosteroid Application Involves Phytohormonal and Physiological Strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10−9 M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  2. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for drugs with abuse liability: public interest, special interest, conflicts of interest, and the industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Wright, Curtis; Schnoll, Sidney; Bernstein, David

    2008-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) formerly known as Risk Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) are a regulatory technique for dealing with anticipated risks of new medications and are especially important for new drugs with abuse potential. This paper describes the origin and history of risk-management plans for drugs that might be abused, the proper use of these plans in minimizing the risk to the public, and the special difficulties inherent in managing risks for drugs with abuse potential. Drugs with abuse liability are distinctive since the risks inherent in manufacture and distribution include not only risks to patients prescribed the medications, but also risks to the general public including subgroups in the population not intended to get the drug and who receive no medical benefit from the medication. The crafting of risk-management plans intended to protect nonpatient populations is unique for these products. The content, extent, and level of intensity of these plans affect areas of medical ethics, civil liability, and criminal prosecution. The need for risk-management plans for drugs with abuse liability can potentially act as a deterrent to investment and is a factor in decisions concerning the development of new medications for the treatments of pain, ADHD, anxiety disorders, and addictions. This paper provides a framework for moving the process of REMS development forward and criteria for evaluating the probity and adequacy of such programs. PMID:18991964

  3. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, Silvia; Harvey, David

    2013-06-28

    performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta

  4. Strategies to support drug discovery through integration of systems and data.

    PubMed

    Waller, Chris L; Shah, Ajay; Nolte, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Much progress has been made over the past several years to provide technologies for the integration of drug discovery software applications and the underlying data bits. Integration at the application layer has focused primarily on developing and delivering applications that support specific workflows within the drug discovery arena. A fine balance between creating behemoth applications and providing business value must be maintained. Heterogeneous data sources have typically been integrated at the data level in an effort to provide a more holistic view of the data packages supporting key decision points. This review will highlight past attempts, current status, and potential future directions for systems and data integration strategies in support of drug discovery efforts. PMID:17706544

  5. Strategies to support drug discovery through integration of systems and data.

    PubMed

    Waller, Chris L; Shah, Ajay; Nolte, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Much progress has been made over the past several years to provide technologies for the integration of drug discovery software applications and the underlying data bits. Integration at the application layer has focused primarily on developing and delivering applications that support specific workflows within the drug discovery arena. A fine balance between creating behemoth applications and providing business value must be maintained. Heterogeneous data sources have typically been integrated at the data level in an effort to provide a more holistic view of the data packages supporting key decision points. This review will highlight past attempts, current status, and potential future directions for systems and data integration strategies in support of drug discovery efforts.

  6. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    , respectively) than under CT treatment (399 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) in site 2. Tillage operations had a rapid but short-lived effect on soil CO2 efflux rates, with no significant influence on the annual soil CO2 emissions. The larger amounts of plant biomass incorporated into soil annually in the reduced tillage treatments compared to the conventional tillage treatment promoted soil aggregation and the physico-chemical soil organic carbon stabilization while soil CO2 emissions did not significantly increase. According to our results, reduced-tillage is strongly recommended as a beneficial SLM strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil carbon sequestration and stabilization in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  7. Natural Hazard Mitigation thru Water Augmentation Strategies to Provide Additional Snow Pack for Water Supply and Hydropower Generation in Drought Stressed Alps/Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate variability and change are clearly stressing water supplies in high alpine regions of the Earth. These recent long-term natural hazards present critical challenges to policy makers and water managers. This paper addresses strategies to use enhanced scientific methods to mitigate the problem. Recent rapid depletions of glaciers and intense droughts throughout the world have created a need to reexamine modern water augmentation technologies for enhancing snow pack in mountainous regions. Today’s reliance on clean efficient hydroelectric power in the Alps and the Rocky Mountains poses a critical need for sustainable snow packs and high elevation water supplies through out the year. Hence, the need to make natural cloud systems more efficient precipitators during the cold season through anthropogenic weather modification techniques. The Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior, has spent over $39M in research from 1963 to 1990 to develop the scientific basis for snow pack augmentation in the headwaters of the Colorado, American, and Columbia River Basins in the western United States, and through USAID in Morocco in the High Atlas Mountains. This paper presents a brief summary of the research findings and shows that even during drought conditions potential exists for significant, cost-effective enhancement of water supplies. Examples of ground based propane and AgI seeding generators, cloud physics studies of supercooled cloud droplets and ice crystal characteristics that indicate seeding potential will be shown. Hypothetical analyses of seeding potential in 17 western states from Montana to California will be presented based on observed SNOTEL snow water equivalent measurements, and distributed by elevation and observed winter precipitation. Early studies indicated from 5 to 20% increases in snow pack were possible, if winter storm systems were seeded effectively. If this potential was realized in drought conditions observed in 2003, over 1

  8. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    yr‑1, respectively) than under CT treatment (399 g C-CO2 m‑2 yr‑1) in site 2. Tillage operations had a rapid but short-lived effect on soil CO2 efflux rates, with no significant influence on the annual soil CO2 emissions. The larger amounts of plant biomass incorporated into soil annually in the reduced tillage treatments compared to the conventional tillage treatment promoted soil aggregation and the physico-chemical soil organic carbon stabilization while soil CO2 emissions did not significantly increase. According to our results, reduced-tillage is strongly recommended as a beneficial SLM strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil carbon sequestration and stabilization in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  9. Nursing churn and turnover in Australian hospitals: nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to reveal nurses’ experiences and perceptions of turnover in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing turnover is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Method A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Results Key factors affecting nursing turnover were limited career opportunities; poor support; a lack of recognition; and negative staff attitudes. The nursing working environment is characterised by inappropriate skill-mix and inadequate patient-staff ratios; a lack of overseas qualified nurses with appropriate skills; low involvement in decision-making processes; and increased patient demands. These issues impacted upon heavy workloads and stress levels with nurses feeling undervalued and disempowered. Nurses described supportive strategies: improving performance appraisals, responsive preceptorship and flexible employment options. Conclusion Nursing turnover is influenced by the experiences of nurses. Positive steps can be made towards improving workplace conditions and ensuring nurse retention. Improving performance management and work design are strategies that nurse managers could harness to reduce turnover. PMID:24708565

  10. Summary report on safety and licensing strategy support for the ABR prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-09-18

    Argonne National Laboratory is providing support to the US Department of Energy in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in certification of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast reactor. The reactor is to be constructed as a prototype for future commercial power reactors that will produce electricity while consuming actinides recovered from light water reactor spent fuel. This prototype reactor has been called the Advanced Burner Reactor, or ABR, and is now often referred to as the advanced recycle reactor. As part of its activities, Argonne is providing technical services to assist definition of a safety and licensing strategy for the ABR prototype, and to further implementation of the strategy. In FY06, an organizational meeting was held for DOE and its laboratory contractors to discuss licensing alternatives and review previous licensing experience for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). Near the end of FY06, a report summarizing the discussions and conclusions was written. One of the top-level conclusions recorded in the report was a recommendation to follow a licensing strategy that included the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as the regulatory review and licensing authority. In FY07, activities ar Argonne to support safety and licensing progress have continued. These activities have focused on further evaluation of licensing alternatives; assessment of design, analysis, and documentation implications of licensing paths; and initial technical interactions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report summarizes FY07 activities.

  11. Impacts of the creation, expansion and management of English wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector

  12. Impacts of the creation, expansion and management of English wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-03-03

    The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector

  13. Bayesian inference-based environmental decision support systems for oil spill response strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew J; Hope, Max J

    2015-07-15

    Contingency plans are essential in guiding the response to marine oil spills. However, they are written before the pollution event occurs so must contain some degree of assumption and prediction and hence may be unsuitable for a real incident when it occurs. The use of Bayesian networks in ecology, environmental management, oil spill contingency planning and post-incident analysis is reviewed and analysed to establish their suitability for use as real-time environmental decision support systems during an oil spill response. It is demonstrated that Bayesian networks are appropriate for facilitating the re-assessment and re-validation of contingency plans following pollutant release, thus helping ensure that the optimum response strategy is adopted. This can minimise the possibility of sub-optimal response strategies causing additional environmental and socioeconomic damage beyond the original pollution event.

  14. [DECIDE: developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence].

    PubMed

    Parmelli, Elena; Amato, Laura; Saitto, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Healthcare systems are offered with a wide range of technologies and services, but they have to cope with decreasing resources and the uncertainty about what is effective and more appropriate. Making decisions about health care interventions is complex. Decisions should be informed by the best available evidence, being comprehensive to take into account all the relevant aspects (e.g. efficacy, safety, equity, costs), and taken within a limited time period. DECIDE is a project funded by the European Community that, using the GRADE methodology, aims at implementing strategies to enhance dissemination and communication of scientific evidence to support on-time evidence-based decision making in clinical practice and healthcare policies. Communication strategies are developed in order to address different target audiences, trying to meet their information needs. One key target are policy makers and managers who are responsible for coverage decision making. PMID:24326703

  15. Coping with Workplace Violence in Healthcare Settings: Social Support and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siqi; Liu, He; Ma, Hongkun; Jiao, Mingli; Li, Ye; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Yihua; Gao, Lijun; Hong, Sun; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Qiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of healthcare professionals from 19 hospitals in six cities of Heilongjiang Province, China was conducted. This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the factors influencing healthcare workers’ opinions of strategies to prevent workplace violence, using social support theory, and (2) to encourage healthcare organisations and the larger society to offer greater support to healthcare workers. The respondents exposed to workplace violence expected to receive organisational and social support. Those exposed to psychological violence had a strong opinion of the need for target training to strengthen their competence in responding to violence (OR = 1.319, 95% CI: 1.034–1.658) and enacting workplace violence legislation (OR = 1.968, 95% CI: 1.523–2.543).Those exposed to physical violence thought it might be useful to reinforce staff with back-up support (OR = 3.101, 95% CI: 1.085–8.860). Those exposed to both types of violence and those with high anxiety levels need greater support at both the organisational and societal levels. PMID:26580633

  16. Drag sails for space debris mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visagie, Lourens; Lappas, Vaios; Erb, Sven

    2015-04-01

    The prudence for satellites to have a mitigation or deorbiting strategy has been brought about by the ever increasing amount of debris in Earth orbit. Drag augmentation is a potentially passive method for de-orbiting in LEO but its collision risk mitigation efficiency is sometimes underestimated by not taking all the relevant factors into account. This paper shows that using drag augmentation from a deployable drag-sail to de-orbit a satellite in LEO will lead to a reduction in collision risk. In order to support this finding, the models that are needed in order to evaluate the collision risk of a decaying object under drag conditions are presented. A comparison is performed between the simpler Area-Time-Product (ATP) and more precise collision risk analysis, and the effects that are overlooked in the simple ATP calculation are explained.

  17. Supported employment and compensatory strategies for enhancing vocational outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, J S; Wehman, P; Morton, M V; Stonnington, H H

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological research clearly indicates that traumatic head injury has reached epidemic proportions. Incidence rates for head injury are greater than those for cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury combined. Many victims suffer from long-term impairments in functional, neurological, medical, neuropsychological and linguistic status. Emotional and behavioural problems are common as well. Additionally, family problems often ensue as a consequence of the victim's dependency and concomitant emotional changes. Investigations of post-injury vocational status indicate that unemployment rates within the first 7 years post-injury range as high as 70% for those with moderate and severe injuries. Researchers have demonstrated that the emotional and neuropsychological changes arising from injury are the greatest contributors to reduced employability. Relatively high unemployment rates strongly suggest that traditional approaches to physical and vocational rehabilitation have been entirely inadequate. To complement existing services and enhance employment outcome, two approaches have been developed and refined for use with victims of head injury. Supported employment is a unique approach which assists the client to select, obtain and maintain suitable employment on the basis of his/her interests and abilities. Compensatory strategies have been developed to help the individual offset intellectual problems which would otherwise interfere with learning job skills and maintaining production levels. Often, compensatory strategies are used in the context of a comprehensive supported employment programme. The greater use of supported employment and compensatory strategies is likely to enhance employment outcomes for those with traumatic head injury. Nevertheless, additional research is needed to more clearly identify the types of techniques which work best for each unique set of problems.

  18. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, Trenton W. J.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Muths, Erin L.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bosch, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife. Amphibian-associated chytridiomycete fungi and chytridiomycosis are already widespread, though, and we therefore focus on discussing options for mitigating the threats once disease emergence has occurred in wild amphibian populations. All strategies have shortcomings that need to be overcome before implementation, including stronger efforts towards understanding and addressing ethical and legal considerations. Even if these issues can be dealt with, all currently available approaches, or those under discussion, are unlikely to yield the desired conservation outcome of disease mitigation. The decision process for establishing mitigation strategies requires integrated thinking that assesses disease mitigation options critically and embeds them within more comprehensive strategies for the conservation of amphibian populations, communities and ecosystems.

  19. Evaluation of strategies for nature-based solutions to drought: a decision support model at the national scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Mike; Ives, Matthew; Hall, Jim

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence in support of the use of nature based solutions as a strategy to mitigate drought. Restored or constructed wetlands, grasslands and in some cases forests have been used with success in numerous case studies. Such solutions remain underused in the UK, where they are not considered as part of long-term plans for supply by water companies. An important step is the translation of knowledge on the benefits of nature based solutions at the upland/catchment scale into a model of the impact of these solutions on national water resource planning in terms of financial costs, carbon benefits and robustness to drought. Our project, 'A National Scale Model of Green Infrastructure for Water Resources', addresses this issue through development of a model that can show the costs and benefits associated with a broad roll-out of nature based solutions for water supply. We have developed generalised models of both the hydrological effects of various classes and implementations of nature-based approaches and their economic impacts in terms of construction costs, running costs, time to maturity, land use and carbon benefits. Our next step will be to compare this work with our recent evaluation of conventional water infrastructure, allowing a case to be made in financial terms and in terms of security of water supply. By demonstrating the benefits of nature based solutions under multiple possible climate and population scenarios we aim to demonstrate the potential value of using nature based solutions as a component of future long-term water resource plans. Strategies for decision making regarding the selection of nature based and conventional approaches, developed through discussion with government and industry, will be applied to the final model. Our focus is on keeping our work relevant to the requirements of decision-makers involved in conventional water planning. We propose to present the outcomes of our model for the evaluation of nature

  20. Using a simple decision support system to evaluate water saving strategies in Alicante, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzandvoort, Simone; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Morugán, Alicia; van den Elsen, Erik; Moore, Demie

    2010-05-01

    Advances in knowledge and technologies during the last decades have led to considerable water savings in many irrigated areas around the world. These have often been achieved through modern water supply methodologies involving, for example, advanced drip and sprinkler irrigation. These methods, however, are costly and socio-economically not always viable. The southern Mediterranean region is particularly susceptible to water shortage problems because of the increasing (potable) water demands for human consumption and agricultural use on the one hand, and decreasing water availability on the other hand. Conventional water resources are inefficiently used through incomplete wetting of soils due to water repellency, excessive evaporation due to ponding, and water loss due to runoff and throughflow. There is a scope for developing new and advancing existing sustainable water saving strategies in the Mediterranean area, by focusing on largely unexploited opportunities for water saving and the use of waste water as a non-conventional water resource on irrigated land. The performance of water saving strategies depends on economic, ecological and socio-cultural valuations of the techniques by stakeholders. This study was performed in the framework of the EU co-funded Water Reuse project, which aims at testing new and existing water saving strategies in the southern Mediterranean area and in NIS states. The objective of this study was to use a simple decision support system to evaluate the performance of water saving strategies for vine-growing areas in Alicante, Spain from an economic, ecological and socio-cultural point of view. Water saving strategies were selected with the aims to 1) to optimize the irrigation dose to crop requirements, 2) to improve the wetting properties of soils by preventing formation of water repellency, 3) to prevent water loss due to evaporation, and 4) to investigate the use of waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation

  1. Atmospheric Monitoring Strategy for Ground Testing of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feighery, John; Cavenall, Ivan; Knight, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and current state of atmospheric monitoring on the International Space Station to provide context from which we can imagine a more advanced and integrated system. The unique environmental hazards of human space flight are identified and categorized into groups, taking into consideration the time required for the hazard to become a threat to human health or performance. The key functions of a comprehensive monitoring strategy for a closed ecological life support system are derived from past experience and a survey of currently available technologies for monitoring air quality. Finally, a system architecture is developed incorporating the lessons learned from ISS and other analogous closed life support systems. The paper concludes by presenting recommendations on how to proceed with requirements definition and conceptual design of an air monitoring system for exploration missions.

  2. Software Process Improvement: Supporting the Linking of the Software and the Business Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, Adriano Bessa; Rocha, Ana Regina; Lima, Andreia Cavalcanti

    The market is becoming more and more competitive, a lot of products and services depend of the software product and the software is one of the most important assets, which influence the organizations’ businesses. Considering this context, we can observe that the companies must to deal with the software, developing or acquiring, carefully. One of the perspectives that can help to take advantage of the software, supporting effectively the business, is to invest on the organization’s software processes. This paper presents an approach to evaluate and improve the processes assets of the software organizations, based on internationally well-known standards and process models. This approach is supported by automated tools from the TABA Workstation and is part of a wider improvement strategy constituted of three layers (organizational layer, process execution layer and external entity layer). Moreover, this paper presents the experience of use and their results.

  3. Mitigating risk in academic preclinical drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jayme L; Inglese, James; Walters, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The number of academic drug discovery centres has grown considerably in recent years, providing new opportunities to couple the curiosity-driven research culture in academia with rigorous preclinical drug discovery practices used in industry. To fully realize the potential of these opportunities, it is important that academic researchers understand the risks inherent in preclinical drug discovery, and that translational research programmes are effectively organized and supported at an institutional level. In this article, we discuss strategies to mitigate risks in several key aspects of preclinical drug discovery at academic drug discovery centres, including organization, target selection, assay design, medicinal chemistry and preclinical pharmacology.

  4. Mitigating risk in academic preclinical drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jayme L; Inglese, James; Walters, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The number of academic drug discovery centres has grown considerably in recent years, providing new opportunities to couple the curiosity-driven research culture in academia with rigorous preclinical drug discovery practices used in industry. To fully realize the potential of these opportunities, it is important that academic researchers understand the risks inherent in preclinical drug discovery, and that translational research programmes are effectively organized and supported at an institutional level. In this article, we discuss strategies to mitigate risks in several key aspects of preclinical drug discovery at academic drug discovery centres, including organization, target selection, assay design, medicinal chemistry and preclinical pharmacology. PMID:25829283

  5. Ants in the Hospital Environment: Ecological Parameters as Support for Future Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    de Castro, M M; Almeida, M; Fernandes, E F; Prezoto, F

    2016-06-01

    Urban ants cause many losses to human society, and they represent a potential threat to public health in hospital environments due to their ability to transport pathogenic organisms. We evaluated several ecological parameters (richness, abundance, constancy, and evenness), their fluctuation during the seasons, and identified species that occur outside the natural range of the ant fauna of a hospital environment, as support for future management strategies. Ant sampling was held every 2 months by using attractive bait traps in the morning and evening, leading to the sampling of 10,342 individuals belonging to six subfamilies and 26 species. Myrmicinae showed higher richness (n = 12) and abundance (n = 7336), with Pheidole susannae Forel being the most abundant species. The most constant species (100%) were P. susannae and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith). Among the most abundant species, Monomorium floricola (Jerdon) and Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) are considered as species that occur outside the natural range. No difference was observed between species richness and abundance. The Shannon (2.247), dominance (0.1395) and evenness indices (0.6897) indicated a stability of the community throughout the year with high diversity and low dominance of species. The sampled data constitute a new series of information on a long-term ecological approach to support future management strategies in hospital environments and allow for more efficient pest control.

  6. A Strategy to Support Design Processes for Fibre Reinforced Thermoset Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascons, Marc; Blanco, Norbert; Mayugo, Joan Andreu; Matthys, Koen

    2012-06-01

    The concept stage in the design for a new composite part is a time when several fundamental decisions must be taken and a considerable amount of the budget is spent. Specialized commercial software packages can be used to support the decision making process in particular aspects of the project (e.g. material selection, numerical analysis, cost prediction,...). However, a complete and integrated virtual environment that covers all the steps in the process is not yet available for the composite design and manufacturing industry. This paper does not target the creation of such an overarching virtual tool, but instead presents a strategy that handles the information generated in each step of the design process, independently of the commercial packages used. Having identified a suitable design parameter shared in common with all design steps, the proposed strategy is able to evaluate the effects of design variations throughout all the design steps in parallel. A case study illustrating the strategy on an industrial part is presented.

  7. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring methods to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved mitigation of fugitive emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is an important emerging topic in many industrial sectors. Efficacious leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs of the future yiel...

  8. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Lawrence E.

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  9. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Lawrence E.

    2011-11-01

    This report provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  10. Strategies to address weight-based victimization: youths' preferred support interventions from classmates, teachers, and parents.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg

    2013-03-01

    Weight-Based Victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents who are overweight or obese, and is associated with numerous psychosocial and physical consequences for those who are targets of victimization. Assessing targets` preferences for different types of support and intervention has been absent in the context of weight-based victimization, but is needed to help inform potential interventions, motivate action, and identify strategies to help adolescents cope with experiences of weight-related teasing or bullying. Adolescents (14-18 years, N = 361, 40 % female, 71 % Caucasian) enrolled in national weight-loss camps completed an on-line survey. Participants who reported previous experiences of weight-based victimization were surveyed about their preferred interventions from peers, friends, teachers, Physical Education (PE) teachers/coaches, and parents. Participants indicated their preferences for specific strategies pertaining to target support, bullying intervention and prevention (e.g., inclusion in peer activities, confronting the bully, telling an adult, and improving anti-bullying policies). Friends (66 %) and peers (58 %) were the most highly preferred intervention agents followed by teachers (55 %), PE teachers/coaches (44 %), and parents (43 %). Participants who experienced more weight-based victimization expressed increased desire for intervention. The frequency of victimization, social support from friends and family, and perceived likelihood and helpfulness of intervention significantly influenced participant preferences for certain types of intervention, although preferences were generally consistent across participants' characteristics. The current study is the first to document youth's preferences for interventions in response to weight-based victimization. The findings have important implications for encouraging appropriate intervention and informing bystanders, which may help to reduce the prevalence, recurrence, and consequences for youth

  11. Postnatal Support Strategies for Improving Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Case of Caesarean Baby.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, E; Chowdhury, R B; Begum, S; Shapla, N R; Shahida, S M

    2015-10-01

    Despite awarness of the many advantages of breast feeding exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate is still lower than recommended practice and the rate is less in case of caesarean baby. In an effort towards achieving better breast feeding practices, UNICEF and WHO launched the baby friendly hospital initiative in 1991 to ensure that all maternity facilities support mothers in making the best choice about feeding. The implementation of effective programs improves rates of short and long term exclusive breast feeding even in case of caesarean baby. The objective of present study was to investigate whether postnatal support improves the rate of exclusive breast feeding in case of caesarean baby compared with usual hospital care. This was a longitudinal study over one and half year period, from April 2009 to October 2011 done in Combined Military Hospital in Mymensingh. A total of 565 pregnant women were included this study. Primary outcome was early establishment of breast feeding after caesarean section. Secondary outcome was exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital, two weeks and six weeks after caesarean section delivery. Early establishment of breast feeding within one hour after caesarean section was higher in postnatal support group than usual care group (70.29% vs. 57.14%). Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the postnatal support strategies group were significantly higher when compared with those who received usual hospital care at discharge (89.13% vs. 75.94%, p=0.004), at 2 weeks (85.51% vs. 53.38%, p<0.001) and at 6 weeks (74.64% vs. 38.35%, p<0.001). Postnatal lactation support, as single intervention based in hospital significantly improves rates of exclusive breast feeding.

  12. 77 FR 74670 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials to Support Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... Clinical Trials to Support Approval of Human Drugs and Biological Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Enrichment Strategies for Clinical Trials... provide guidance to industry on enrichment strategies that can be used in clinical trials intended...

  13. Strategies for Supporting Orphans and Vulnerable Children: An Exploratory Study of an Exemplary Model of Care in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Melynda; Singletary, Jon; Rogers, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the extent to which programs in a religiously affiliated agency in Kenya incorporate 12 internationally sanctioned strategies for supporting orphans and vulnerable children in Sub-Saharan Africa (Olson, Knight, & Foster, 2006). The results indicated that all 12 strategies were being employed, though to varying…

  14. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  15. Crossing the river: Developing a strategy to support understanding of uncertainty within probabilistic climate projections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Lamb, R.

    2010-09-01

    The UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) was established by government in 1997 to support the UK's engagement with becoming better adapted to a changing climate. As the lead organisation in the UK on climate change adaptation, UKCIP oversaw the development of the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) which were launched in June 2009 providing, for the first time, probabilistic climate projections for the UK. As with previous generations of UKCIP climate scenarios, they were freely accessible and intended for a whole spectrum of users, from technical experts to a lay audience. . Prior to the launch of UKCP09 it was acknowledged that users would need support in understanding key concepts, such as the uncertainty inherent in the projections, to be able to use them appropriately. The user support strategy was therefore developed. It is founded on robust pedagogical principles and draws on the latest thinking on public understanding of science (PUS) that places the user at the centre of the communication process. The adopted approach first identifies profiles of the key users of the climate projections and the ways in which they would use and access the data. Based on these profiles it is possible to identify a range of mechanisms that allow the user to engage with understanding the projections in different ways and situations including lectures, workshops and online learning. Within this blended strategy an exercise was developed specifically to support users' understanding of the concept of uncertainty within the probabilistic climate projections. The ‘Crossing the River' exercise encourages the participants to actively consider the nature of information they are using, and how it could be applied in a specific decision. Reflection and discussion are key elements in supporting the users' understanding of the concept and allowing them to apply the principles in the exercise to their own context. Their reflection is facilitated through a range of mechanisms that provide

  16. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  17. Technological aids to support choice strategies by three girls with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stasolla, Fabrizio; Perilli, Viviana; Di Leone, Antonia; Damiani, Rita; Albano, Vincenza; Stella, Anna; Damato, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at extending the use of assistive technology (i.e., photocells, interface and personal computer) to support choice strategies by three girls with Rett syndrome and severe to profound developmental disabilities. A second purpose of the study was to reduce stereotypic behaviors exhibited by the participants involved (i.e., body rocking, hand washing and hand mouthing). Finally, a third goal of the study was to monitor the effects of such program on the participants' indices of happiness. The study was carried out according to a multiple probe design across responses for each participant. Results showed that the three girls increased the adaptive responses and decreased the stereotyped behaviors during intervention phases compared to baseline. Moreover, during intervention phases, the indices of happiness augmented for each girl as well. Clinical, psychological and rehabilitative implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Ecological models supporting environmental decision making: a strategy for the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Grimm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Ecological models are important for environmental decision support because they allow the consequences of alternative policies and management scenarios to be explored. However, current modeling practice is unsatisfactory. A literature review shows that the elements of good modeling practice have long been identified but are widely ignored. The reasons for this might include lack of involvement of decision makers, lack of incentives for modelers to follow good practice, and the use of inconsistent terminologies. As a strategy for the future, we propose a standard format for documenting models and their analyses: transparent and comprehensive ecological modeling (TRACE) documentation. This standard format will disclose all parts of the modeling process to scrutiny and make modeling itself more efficient and coherent.

  19. Lessons Learnt from Applying Action Research to Support Strategy Formation Processes in Long-Term Care Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hendrik; Dewulf, Geert; Voordijk, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates how action research (AR) that is aimed at scaling-up experiments can be applied to support a strategy formation process (SFP) in a subsidized long-term care network. Previous research has developed numerous AR frameworks to support experiments in various domains, but has failed to explain how to apply AR and action learning…

  20. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  1. Chronic Disease Management Strategies of Early Childhood Caries: Support from the Medical and Dental Literature.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine report places chronic disease management (CDM) as an intervention on a treatment spectrum between prevention and acute care. CDM commonly focuses on conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant. Framing early childhood caries (ECC) as such a chronic condition invites dentistry to reconsider its approach to caries management and shift gears from a strictly surgical approach to one that also incorporates a medical approach. This paper's purpose was to explore the definition of and concepts inherent in CDM. An explanatory model is introduced to describe the multiple factors that influence ECC-CDM strategies. Reviewed literature suggests that early evidence from ECC-CDM interventions, along with results of pediatric asthma and diabetes CDM, supports CDM of ECC as a valid approach that is independent of both prevention and repair. Early results of ECC-CDM endeavors have demonstrated a reduction in rates of new cavitation, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared to baseline rates. ECC-CDM strategies hold strong promise to curtail caries activity while complementing dental repair when needed, thereby reducing disease progression and cavity recurrence. Institutionalizing ECC-CDM will both require and benefit from evolving health care delivery and financing systems that reward positive health outcomes.

  2. Integrating spatial support tools into strategic planning-SEA of the GMS North-South Economic Corridor Strategy and Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, Pavit; Linde, Lothar

    2011-11-15

    The GMS countries, supported by the Asian Development Bank, have adopted a holistic, multidimensional approach to strengthen infrastructural linkages and facilitate cross border trade through (i) the establishment of a trans-boundary road connecting two economic nodes across marginalised areas, followed by 2) facilitation of environmentally and socially sound investments in these newly connected areas as a means to develop livelihoods. The North-South Economic Corridor is currently in its second phase of development, with investment opportunities to be laid out in the NSEC Strategy and Action Plan (SAP). It targets the ecologically and culturally sensitive border area between PR China's Yunnan Province, Northern Lao PDR, and Thailand. A trans-boundary, cross-sectoral Strategic Environmental Assessment was conducted to support the respective governments in assessing potential environmental and social impacts, developing alternatives and mitigation options, and feeding the findings back into the SAP writing process. Given the spatial dimension of corridor development-both with regard to opportunities and risks-particular emphasis was put in the application of spatial modelling tools to help geographically locate and quantify impacts as a means to guide interventions and set priorities.

  3. Alternative Strategies for the Problem Learner: Student Support Team Strategies Manual. A Handbook collected and Adapted by the Georgia Learning Resources Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Columbus.

    The manual presents the framework of the Student Support Team (SST), an approach involving two or more professionals who develop alternative instructional strategies for students in lieu of special education placement. General considerations are offered for classroom management, curriculum adaptations, and adaptations for the visually and hearing…

  4. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention. PMID:27326460

  5. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  6. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study’s objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers’ opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention. PMID:27326460

  7. The German government's global health strategy--a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

    PubMed

    Fehr, Angela; Razum, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D) deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  8. Save the forests to mitigate climate, twice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation impacts climate in two major ways: affecting the atmospheric CO2 concentration and modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water vapor. While the mitigation effects of forest biogeochemistry have been largely investigated and are accounted for in climate protocols, the biophysical impacts of forest cover are still debated in the scientific community and are ignored in climate treaties. On the other hand, currently available model predictions of land biophysical effects are rather uncertain thus additional robust experimental evidence at the global scale is required to inform climate policy. In this work we report an observation-driven analysis of the biophysical impacts of forest losses and gains on the local climate, based on a combination of Earth observations of forest cover, surface radiometric temperatures, and in-situ air temperatures. Results show that deforestation causes significant local changes in mean air temperature. In addition, forest losses produce a substantial increase in both the diurnal and annual temperature variation at all latitudes, by increasing daytime and reducing nighttime temperatures (except in the case of snow cover when both days and nights are cooled). These experimental observations provide a global and robust quantification of the local climate sensitivities to deforestation and a novel assessment of the mitigation potentials of forests on the diurnal and seasonal temperature variations. Ultimately, these findings may support the development of land-based mitigation strategies that build on the integration of biogeochemical and biophysical effects of afforestation and deforestation.

  9. Episodic memory and organizational strategy in free recall in unipolar depression: the role of cognitive support and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Taconnat, Laurence; Baudouin, Alexia; Fay, Severine; Raz, Naftali; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; El-Hage, Wissam; Isingrini, Michel; Ergis, Anne-Marie

    2010-08-01

    Executive functioning and memory impairment have been demonstrated in adults with depression. Executive functions and memory are related, mainly when the memory tasks require controlled processes (attentional resource demanding processes)--that is, when a low cognitive support (external aid) is provided. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 45 participants: 21 with depression, and 24 healthy controls matched for age, verbal ability, education level, and anxiety score. Cognitive support was manipulated by providing a categorized word list at encoding, presented either clustered (high cognitive support) or randomized (low cognitive support) to both depressed and healthy adults. The number of words recalled was calculated, and an index of clustering was computed to assess organizational strategies. Participants were also administered cognitive tests (executive functions, cognitive speed, and categorical fluency) to explore the mediators of organizational strategies. Depressed participants had greater difficulty recalling and organizing the words, but the differences between the two groups were reduced for both measures when high cognitive support was provided at encoding. Healthy adults performed better on all cognitive tests. Statistical analyses revealed that in the depressed group, executive functions were the only variable associated with clustering and only when low cognitive support was provided. These findings support the view that the decrement in executive function due to depression may lead to impairment in organization when this mnemonic strategy has to be self-initiated.

  10. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA"s proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for the develpoment of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  11. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA's proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for development of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  12. Nonlinear regression in environmental sciences by support vector machines combined with evolutionary strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Aranildo R.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hsieh, William W.

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm combining support vector regression with evolutionary strategy (SVR-ES) is proposed for predictive models in the environmental sciences. SVR-ES uses uncorrelated mutation with p step sizes to find the optimal SVR hyper-parameters. Three environmental forecast datasets used in the WCCI-2006 contest - surface air temperature, precipitation and sulphur dioxide concentration - were tested. We used multiple linear regression (MLR) as benchmark and a variety of machine learning techniques including bootstrap-aggregated ensemble artificial neural network (ANN), SVR-ES, SVR with hyper-parameters given by the Cherkassky-Ma estimate, the M5 regression tree, and random forest (RF). We also tested all techniques using stepwise linear regression (SLR) first to screen out irrelevant predictors. We concluded that SVR-ES is an attractive approach because it tends to outperform the other techniques and can also be implemented in an almost automatic way. The Cherkassky-Ma estimate is a useful approach for minimizing the mean absolute error and saving computational time related to the hyper-parameter search. The ANN and RF are also good options to outperform multiple linear regression (MLR). Finally, the use of SLR for predictor selection can dramatically reduce computational time and often help to enhance accuracy.

  13. Supporting Greenhouse Gas Management Strategies with Observations and Analysis - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change challenges facing society in the 21st century require an improved understanding of the global carbon-cycle and of the impacts and feedbacks of past, present, and future emissions of carbon-cycle gases. Global society faces a major challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to virtually zero, most notably those of CO2, while at the same time facing variable and potentially overwhelming Earth System feedbacks. How it goes about this will depend upon the nature of impending international agreements, national laws, regional strategies, and social and economic forces. The challenge to those making observations to support, inform, or verify these reduction efforts, or to address potential Earth System feedbacks, lies in harmonizing a diverse array of observations and observing systems. Doing so is not trivial. Providing coherent, regional-scale information from these observations also requires improved modelling and ensemble reanalysis, but in the end such information must be relevant and reasonably certain. The challenge to us is to ensure a globally coherent observing and analysis system to supply the information that society will need to succeed. Policy-makers, scientists, government agencies, and businesses will need the best information available for decision-making and any observing and analysis system ultimately must be able to provide a coherent story over decades.

  14. Drug/nondrug classification using Support Vector Machines with various feature selection strategies.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Selcuk; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Goksuluk, Dincer

    2014-11-01

    In conjunction with the advance in computer technology, virtual screening of small molecules has been started to use in drug discovery. Since there are thousands of compounds in early-phase of drug discovery, a fast classification method, which can distinguish between active and inactive molecules, can be used for screening large compound collections. In this study, we used Support Vector Machines (SVM) for this type of classification task. SVM is a powerful classification tool that is becoming increasingly popular in various machine-learning applications. The data sets consist of 631 compounds for training set and 216 compounds for a separate test set. In data pre-processing step, the Pearson's correlation coefficient used as a filter to eliminate redundant features. After application of the correlation filter, a single SVM has been applied to this reduced data set. Moreover, we have investigated the performance of SVM with different feature selection strategies, including SVM-Recursive Feature Elimination, Wrapper Method and Subset Selection. All feature selection methods generally represent better performance than a single SVM while Subset Selection outperforms other feature selection methods. We have tested SVM as a classification tool in a real-life drug discovery problem and our results revealed that it could be a useful method for classification task in early-phase of drug discovery. PMID:25224081

  15. Automated support-resolution strategy for a one-way chemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanjun; Liu, Hong; Zong, Chen; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2009-07-01

    An automated support-resolution strategy was designed to couple with a flow-through immunosensing system for performing a one-way chemiluminescent (CL) multiplex immunoassay. Different from multilabel and multichannel-based detection techniques, this immunoassay method employed a single horseradish peroxidase (HRP) label in one way. With the use of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as model analytes, the capture antibodies for CEA and AFP were immobilized on the inner wall of a glass tube and the surface of paramagnetic microspheres (PMs), respectively. The on-line incubation could be performed in the glass tube after introducing the mixture of CEA, HRP-labeled anti-CEA antibody, AFP, anti-AFP immobilized PMs, and HRP-labeled anti-AFP antibody. With the use of a wash step, the formed sandwich immunocomplexes were separated automatically and the immunocomplex immobilized PMs were captured in another unmodified glass tube with a magnet. The CL signals from the two glass tubes were near-simultaneously collected with the aid of an optical shutter to perform quantitative detection. CEA and AFP could be rapidly assayed in the ranges of 1.0-60 and 1.0-80 ng/mL within 27 min. The assay results of clinical serum samples with the proposed method were in an acceptable agreement with the reference values. This system provides a promising multiplex immunoassay approach for clinical applications.

  16. CO2 mitigation via accelerated limestone weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, G.H.; Knauss, K.G.; Langer, W.H.; Caldeira, K.

    2004-01-01

    The climate and environmental impacts of the current, carbon-intensive energy usage demands that effective and practical energy alternatives and CO2 mitigation strategies be found. A discussion on CO2 mitigation via accelerated limestone weathering covers limestone and seawater availability and cost; reaction rates and densities; effectiveness in CO2 sequestration; and environmental impacts and benefits.

  17. Mission design considerations for nuclear risk mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Mike; Collins, John

    1993-01-01

    Strategies for the mitigation of the nuclear risk associated with two specific mission operations are discussed. These operations are the safe return of nuclear thermal propulsion reactors to earth orbit and the disposal of lunar/Mars spacecraft reactors.

  18. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  19. Teachers' Challenges, Strategies, and Support Needs in Schools Affected by Community Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Elisabeth F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposure to community violence compromises teacher effectiveness, student learning, and socioemotional well-being. This study examined the challenges, strategies, and support needs of teachers in urban schools affected by high levels of community violence. Methods: Twenty teachers from 3 urban middle schools with predominantly…

  20. Achieving Equitable Outcomes. A Supporting Paper to Australia's National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training, 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This paper is one of five supporting papers to "A Bridge to the Future: Australia's National Strategy for VET 1998-2003" (ED 420 764). Although some equity client groups in Australia are now relatively well represented in vocational education and training (VET), patterns of enrollment and achievement are not uniform. To respond to this situation…

  1. A New Vision for Teacher Professional Growth & Support: Six Steps to a More Powerful School System Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    One of a series of Education Resource Strategies (ERS) publications and tools, this paper explores important ways to organize and invest in Professional Growth & Support that strengthen teaching capacity and effectiveness at the system level. It draws on research, ERS experience with urban school systems nationwide, and detailed analyses of…

  2. Effects of Issue-Image Strategies, Attack and Support Appeals, Music, and Visual Content in Political Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Esther; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzed four characteristics of political commercials to determine their impact on television viewers' reactions: (1) issue versus image strategies; (2) attack versus support appeals; (3) presence and absence of music; and (4) visual content, either with families or in professional campaign settings. Memory measures and attitudes are…

  3. The Dynamics of Motivation and Learning Strategy in a Creativity-Supporting Learning Environment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lin, Chun-Hung; Jian, Pei-Hsin; Liou, Pey-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to model the processes involved in the development of creativity and discuss how motivation and teaching strategies figure into a creativity-supportive learning environment. The subjects included 28 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Instructional Media course. A questionnaire and interviews were used for…

  4. ISRU Development Strategy and Recent Activities to Support Near and Far Term Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Russell S.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Simon, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The practical expansion of humans beyond low Earth orbit into near-Earth space and out into the solar system for exploration, commercialization, tourism, and colonization will require the effective utilization of whatever indigenous resources are available to make these endeavors economically feasible and capable of extended operations. This concept of ``living off the land'' is called In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The resources available for ISRU applications vary widely, depending upon the location. However, there are resources, technologies, and processes that are common to multiple destinations and ISRU-related applications. These resources range from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor found in human habitats (surface & spacecraft) and in the Martian atmosphere, to water (ice and hydrated minerals) and various oxygen, carbon, and metal-bearing resources found on comets and asteroids, and in planetary surface materials at numerous destinations of interest (Moon, Mars, Titan, and Europa). Many parties are investigating the common technologies and processes to effectively extract and use these resources. This paper will discuss how ISRU is enabling for both near and far term human exploration missions, and present a summary of recent and on-going ISRU work sponsored by the NASA/Johnson Space Center. Technology development activities that will be described in detail include an advanced CO2 freezer acquisition system, a multi-fluid common bulkhead cryogenic storage tank, and a variety of microchannel chemical reactor concepts. Recent advanced Sabatier reactor concept development activities in preparation for later, end-to-end system testing will be described as well. This paper will also discuss an ISRU-based strategy to enable extensive robotic and human surface exploration operations and a related on-going demonstration program for a fuel cell based power plant for rover applications. Technology commonalities between ISRU, life support systems, and Extra

  5. Progress of unit based quality improvement: an evaluation of a support strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wallin, L; Bostrom, A; Harvey, G; Wikblad, K; Ewald, U

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a strategy for supporting nurses to work with quality improvement (QI). Design: Post-intervention evaluation. Study participants and intervention: 240 nurses participated in a uniformly designed 4 day basic training course in applying a model for QI. Of these, 156 nurses from over 50 healthcare institutions constituted the generic education (GE) group while 84 nurses from 42 neonatal units took part in a project to develop national guidelines, constituting the targeted intervention (TI) group. Method: Postal questionnaire 4 years after the training courses. Results: The response rate was 80% in the TI group and 64% in the GE group. Nurses in the TI group had a significantly higher rate in completing all phases of the QI cycle (p=0.0002). With no differences between the groups, 39% of all nurses were still involved in QI work 4 years after the training courses. Three factors were significantly related to nurses continuing their involvement in QI projects: remaining employed on the same unit (OR 11.3), taking courses in nursing science (OR 4.1), and maintenance of the same QI model (OR 3.1). Reported motives for remaining active in QI work were the enhancement of knowledge, influence over clinical practice, and development as a nurse. Reasons for discontinuation were organisational restructuring, a lack of facilitation and knowledge, and change of workplace. Conclusions: Participation in a national guideline project, including a common focus for improvement, facilitation and opportunities for networking, seems to have enhanced the ability to carry out the process of QI, but not to sustain the QI work over a longer period. PMID:12468689

  6. Social and ethical perspectives of landslide risk mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsnes, Bjørn; Vangelsten, Bjørn V.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide risk may be mitigated by use of a wide range of measures. Mitigation and prevention options may include (1) structural measures to reduce the frequency, severity or exposure to the hazard, (2) non-structural measures, such as land-use planning and early warning systems, to reduce the hazard frequency and consequences, and (3) measures to pool and transfer the risks. In a given situation the appropriate system of mitigation measures may be a combination of various types of measures, both structural and non-structural. In the process of choosing mitigation measures for a given landslide risk situation, the role of the geoscientist is normally to propose possible mitigation measures on basis of the risk level and technical feasibility. Social and ethical perspectives are often neglected in this process. However, awareness of the need to consider social as well as ethical issues in the design and management of mitigating landslide risk is rising. There is a growing understanding that technical experts acting alone cannot determine what will be considered the appropriate set of mitigation and prevention measures. Issues such as environment versus development, questions of acceptable risk, who bears the risks and benefits, and who makes the decisions, also need to be addressed. Policymakers and stakeholders engaged in solving environmental risk problems are increasingly recognising that traditional expert-based decision-making processes are insufficient. This paper analyse the process of choosing appropriate mitigation measures to mitigate landslide risk from a social and ethical perspective, considering technical, cultural, economical, environmental and political elements. The paper focus on stakeholder involvement in the decision making process, and shows how making strategies for risk communication is a key for a successful process. The study is supported by case study examples from Norway and Italy. In the Italian case study, three different risk mitigation

  7. Evaluation of scatter mitigation strategies for x-ray cone-beam CT: impact of scatter subtraction and anti-scatter grids on contrast-to-noise ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Dimitrios; Lasio, Giovanni; Evans, Joshua; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2007-03-01

    The large contribution of scatter to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) x-ray projections significantly degrades image quality, both through streaking and cupping artifacts and by loss of low contrast boundary detectability. The goal of this investigation is to compare the efficacy of three widely used scatter mitigation methods: subtractive scatter correction (SSC); anti-scatter grids (ASG); and beam modulating with bowtie filters; for improving signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and cupping artifacts. A simple analytic model was developed to predict scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) and CNR as a function of cylindrical phantom thickness. In addition, CBCT x-ray projections of a CatPhan QA phantom were measured, using a Varian CBCT imaging system, and computed, using an inhouse Monte Carlo photon-transport code to more realistically evaluate the impact of scatter mitigation techniques. Images formed with uncorrected sinograms acquired without ASGs and bow-tie filter show pronounced cupping artifacts and loss of contrast. Subtraction of measured scatter profiles restores image uniformity and CT number accuracy, but does not improve CNR, since the improvement in contrast almost exactly offset by the increase in relative x-ray noise. ASGs were found to modestly improve CNR (up to 20%, depending ASG primary transmission and selectivity) only in body scans, while they can reduce CNR for head phantoms where SPR is low.

  8. Sorting, Supporting, Connecting, and Transforming: Student Retention Strategies at Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty-Guenter, P.

    Drawing from an analysis of the literature on student attrition and retention at community colleges, this paper presents a typology of retention strategies as a structure by which further research can advance. Introductory material explains the typology, which categorizes retention strategies according to whether their purposes are to: (1) sort…

  9. Breakthrough Strategies: Classroom-Based Practices to Support New Majority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    "Breakthrough Strategies" identifies effective strategies that faculty have used to help New Majority students--those from minority, immigrant, or disadvantaged backgrounds--build the necessary skills to succeed in college. As the proportion of New Majority students rises, there is increased attention to helping them gain access to…

  10. Family Support Is Associated with Behavioral Strategies for Healthy Eating among Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral…

  11. Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners: Advice to Teachers. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Ursula; Hull, Oksana

    2007-01-01

    "Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners" (ED499673) examined the extent to which English language, literacy and numeracy teachers used classroom management strategies to meet the needs of adult Sudanese refugee learners. The researchers found that while teachers met the needs of these learners insofar as…

  12. Nurturing Self-Regulated Learners: Teacher, Peer, and Parental Support of Strategy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Willems, Patricia P.

    2016-01-01

    Current educational needs call for learners who are self-directed and able to engage in problem solving and higher order thinking. However, most students are not getting explicit and systematic instruction to promote development of learning strategies that can advance these goals. Educators need to cultivate strategy instruction techniques that…

  13. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  14. Tools of the Trade: Effective Strategies To Support the Collaboration of Educators in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salyer, B. Keith; Thyfault, Alberta; Curran, Christina

    This paper discusses strategies with the potential to enhance student learning, teacher collaboration, building management, and joy within the rural school setting. With the goal of fostering education that makes sense to students, three general categories of strategies are considered: curriculum, classroom management, and building management.…

  15. Identifying Effective Strategies to Providing Technical Support to One-to-One Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of this study was that while one-to-one initiatives in the K-12 environment are growing, the technical support personnel that work in these environments are experiencing problems supporting these initiatives. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify common problems of providing technical support in a one-to-one laptop program,…

  16. Zebra mussel mitigation; overview

    SciTech Connect

    Claudi, R.

    1995-06-01

    Zebra mussels cause a number of problems to industrial raw water users as well as having serious impact on civil structures exposed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water (up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used for other plant processes, such as make-up in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditions, fire protection and human consumption. All raw water systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To-date, many different chemical and non-chemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However, the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This is likely to change as the environmental constraints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase. This paper deals with the different steps raw water users should take when deciding on a mitigation strategy, the mitigation measures available to-date and those that have been proposed for the control of zebra mussels in industrial systems.

  17. Optimization strategy of axial and lateral supports for large primary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.

    1994-06-01

    A parametric study was performed to optimize the support systems of a large primary mirror. In order to analyze the support pattern locations and the levels of the support forces, finite element models of the primary mirror were employed. Influence matrices for the axial defining supports were established by combining sets of unit load cases which were applied at each of the selected support points in the mirror models. A least square algorithm was utilized to satisfy the design requirements during the optimization process. In this paper, a description of an optimization scheme to define the axial support locations and the force directions of the lateral supports is presented. The optimization procedures were applied to the GEMINI primary mirrors and the optimized force sets were verified by finite element analysis.

  18. Malaria morbidity and mortality in Ebola-affected countries caused by decreased health-care capacity, and the potential effect of mitigation strategies: a modelling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Patrick G T; White, Michael T; Griffin, Jamie T; Reynolds, Alison; Ferguson, Neil M; Ghani, Azra C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The ongoing Ebola epidemic in parts of west Africa largely overwhelmed health-care systems in 2014, making adequate care for malaria impossible and threatening the gains in malaria control achieved over the past decade. We quantified this additional indirect burden of Ebola virus disease. Methods We estimated the number of cases and deaths from malaria in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone from Demographic and Health Surveys data for malaria prevalence and coverage of malaria interventions before the Ebola outbreak. We then removed the effect of treatment and hospital care to estimate additional cases and deaths from malaria caused by reduced health-care capacity and potential disruption of delivery of insecticide-treated bednets. We modelled the potential effect of emergency mass drug administration in affected areas on malaria cases and health-care demand. Findings If malaria care ceased as a result of the Ebola epidemic, untreated cases of malaria would have increased by 45% (95% credible interval 43–49) in Guinea, 88% (83–93) in Sierra Leone, and 140% (135–147) in Liberia in 2014. This increase is equivalent to 3·5 million (95% credible interval 2·6 million to 4·9 million) additional untreated cases, with 10 900 (5700–21 400) additional malaria-attributable deaths. Mass drug administration and distribution of insecticide-treated bednets timed to coincide with the 2015 malaria transmission season could largely mitigate the effect of Ebola virus disease on malaria. Interpretation These findings suggest that untreated malaria cases as a result of reduced health-care capacity probably contributed substantially to the morbidity caused by the Ebola crisis. Mass drug administration can be an effective means to mitigate this burden and reduce the number of non-Ebola fever cases within health systems. Funding UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. PMID:25921597

  19. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  20. Strategies to support prevention, identification and management of pressure ulcers in the community.

    PubMed

    Payne, Drew

    2016-06-01

    Pressure ulcers are classified as serious incidents, cause pain and distress, and are a source of infection. Unlike patients in hospital, those in the community spend only a small amount of time with healthcare practitioners, so strategies are required to ensure they remain protected against pressure damage when community nurses are not with them. A risk assessment should be carried out to outline a patient's risks and used to develop a strategy for that person. Patients have different risks so prevention strategies need to be tailored individually. Strategies, which cover issues such as pressure-relieving equipment, mattress type, mobility aids and nutrition, should be monitored to ensure they continue to meet patients' needs, as their health, carers and other matters may change. Patients and their carers may need education on ulcers, including on myths, as it is essential they are involved. PMID:27297572

  1. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier.

  2. Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

  3. Enhanced Co-Worker Social Support in Isolated Work Groups and Its Mitigating Role on the Work-Family Conflict-Depression Loss Spiral.

    PubMed

    McTernan, Wesley P; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers) due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]). Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect). The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships. PMID:27043592

  4. Enhanced Co-Worker Social Support in Isolated Work Groups and Its Mitigating Role on the Work-Family Conflict-Depression Loss Spiral.

    PubMed

    McTernan, Wesley P; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2016-03-29

    This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers) due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]). Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect). The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships.

  5. Enhanced Co-Worker Social Support in Isolated Work Groups and Its Mitigating Role on the Work-Family Conflict-Depression Loss Spiral

    PubMed Central

    McTernan, Wesley P.; Dollard, Maureen F.; Tuckey, Michelle R.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers) due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]). Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect). The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships. PMID:27043592

  6. The role of the family environment and computer-mediated social support on breast cancer patients' coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V; Shaw, Bret R; Kim, Eunkyung; Smaglik, Paul; Roberts, Linda J; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McDowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H

    2014-09-01

    Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System "Living with Breast Cancer" intervention. Results indicate that family environment plays a crucial role in (a) predicting breast cancer patient's participation in CMSS groups and (b) moderating the effects of use of CMSS groups on breast cancer patients' coping strategies such as problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.

  7. The role of the family environment and computer-mediated social support on breast cancer patients' coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V; Shaw, Bret R; Kim, Eunkyung; Smaglik, Paul; Roberts, Linda J; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McDowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H

    2014-09-01

    Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System "Living with Breast Cancer" intervention. Results indicate that family environment plays a crucial role in (a) predicting breast cancer patient's participation in CMSS groups and (b) moderating the effects of use of CMSS groups on breast cancer patients' coping strategies such as problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. PMID:24511907

  8. Another Way to Talk: Exploring Photovoice as a Strategy to Support Safe Disclosure Among Men and Women With HIV.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Conserve, Donaldson; Zhang, Ni; Gerkovich, Mary

    2016-02-01

    HIV status disclosure can reduce stigma and facilitate medication adherence and safer sex among people living with HIV (PLH). Effective disclosure interventions are limited, however, and new strategies are necessary. We conducted a pilot Photovoice-based project with 38 PLH in four cities in the Midwest and Northeast U.S. and explored how the project affected disclosure perspectives and experiences. Participants attended three group Photovoice sessions, one individual session, and an optional photo exhibit. Qualitative strategies of theme and narrative analysis of photos and session transcripts revealed that participants discussed three categories of disclosures to others: fearful, reluctant, and open. The project supported all disclosure types, helping fearful participants manage their emotions, reluctant participants plan for more effective disclosures, and open participants share their HIV status. Pilot findings suggest that Photovoice should be further developed and studied as a safe and powerful strategy to improve disclosure and subsequent health and prevention outcomes among PLH.

  9. Positive Support Strategies for Students with Behavioral Disorders in General Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieneman, Meme; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Although it has been argued that students with behavioral disorders benefit most from placement in general education classrooms, careful and systematic support is required to insure that their placement is successful. In this article, we review supports and interventions provided at multiple levels that together are known as "positive behavior…

  10. The Utilization and Effects of Positive Behavior Support Strategies on an Urban School Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Kate; Kamps, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Rates of problem behavior at urban elementary school playgrounds are of growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of a recess intervention within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SwPBS), a systemwide, team-driven, data-based decision-making continuum of support, affected disruptive…

  11. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of vegetative compatibility groups determine biocontrol strategies to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Atehnkeng, Joseph; Donner, Matthias; Ojiambo, Peter S; Ikotun, Babatunde; Augusto, Joao; Cotty, Peter J; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2016-01-01

    Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers' income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin contamination in grain by > 96%. A total of 25 VCGs were inferred from the collected isolates based on complementation tests involving nitrate non-utilizing (nit(-)) mutants. To determine genetic diversity and distribution of VCGs across agro-ecological zones, 832 nit(-) mutants from 52 locations in 11 administrative districts were paired with one self-complementary nitrate auxotroph tester-pair for each VCG. Atoxigenic VCGs accounted for 81.1% of the 153 positive complementations recorded. Genetic diversity of VCGs was highest in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone (H = 2.61) compared with the southern Guinea savannah (H = 1.90) and northern Guinea savannah (H = 0.94) zones. Genetic richness (H = 2.60) and evenness (E5  = 0.96) of VCGs were high across all agro-ecological zones. Ten VCGs (40%) had members restricted to the original location of isolation, whereas 15 VCGs (60%) had members located between the original source of isolation and a distance

  12. Never Trust Anyone Over 30: Mitigation Strategies for Adapting to Three Decades of Persistent Degassing at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Tam, E.; Businger, S.; Horton, K. A.; Ley, D.; Petrie, L.

    2014-12-01

    As Kīlauea Volcano approaches its 33rd year of nearly continuous activity, simultaneous summit and rift eruptions continue to challenge island populations, agriculture, and infrastructure with elevated levels of acidic gases and particles. In 2008, the opening of a new summit vent attended a ten- to one hundred- fold increase in SO2 summit emissions which, combined with the ongoing east rift emissions, resulted in the highest combined annual SO2 release since regular measurements began in 1979. While the overall emissions have decreased in a step-wise manner since 2008, this large local source still contributes 20-60% of the SO2 emitted by all stationary fuel combustion sources in the U.S., and ~ 7-20% of the estimated time-averaged annual global volcanogenic SO2 contribution. Research on the long-term health and environmental effects of chronic exposure to volcanic pollution is ongoing in Hawai'i. Public health statistics suggest that incidences of respiratory emergency increased coincident with the onset of the summit eruption. From 2008-2011, Hawaii County received a Disaster Designation by the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture due to agricultural losses from the effects of volcanic emissions. A multifaceted approach is being used to address the current gas and particle hazards and to mitigate the impacts to affected areas. Multi-agency websites are providing forecast and real-time data regarding acid particle and SO2 gas concentrations to help people minimize their exposures. The short-term concentration data is linked to color-coded health-advisory levels developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Hawaii State Department of Health, with input from the National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey. Questions remain, however, on the appropriateness of the designated advisory levels for protecting chronically exposed populations, and if these tools are sufficiently useful to Hawai'i residents and visitors. Other mitigation efforts include

  13. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  14. Public Support for Smoke-Free Air Strategies Among Smokers and Nonsmokers, New York City, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction From 2010 through 2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene engaged in multiple smoke-free-air activities in collaboration with community, institution, and government partners. These included implementing a law prohibiting smoking in all parks and beaches as well as working to increase compliance with existing Smoke-free Air Act provisions. Methods We investigated trends in awareness of existing smoke-free rules publicized with new signage and public support for new smoke-free air strategies by using 3 waves of survey data from population-based samples of smoking and nonsmoking adults in New York City (2010–2012). Analyses adjusted for the influence of sociodemographic characteristics. Results Among both smokers and nonsmokers, we observed increased awareness of smoke-free regulations in outdoor areas around hospital entrances and grounds and in lines in outdoor waiting areas for buses and taxis. Regardless of smoking status, women, racial/ethnic minorities, and adults aged 25 to 44 years were more likely than men, non-Hispanic whites, and adults aged 65 years or older to support smoke-free air strategies. Conclusion New signage was successful in increasing population-wide awareness of rules. Our analysis of the association between demographic characteristics and support for tobacco control over time provide important contextual information for community education efforts on secondhand smoke and smoke-free air strategies. PMID:24480633

  15. "He Shouldn't Have Put It That Way!" How Face Threats and Mitigation Strategies Affect Person Perception in Online Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Jucks, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Instructional strategies such as prompts, requests for clarification, and explicit feedback counter social desires of autonomy and appreciation, i.e., they threaten the face of their receiver. We report an online experiment on how readers perceive instructional face threats and what they accept as appropriate. One hundred and twenty-three…

  16. Mitigation of carbon dioxide by oleaginous microalgae for lipids and pigments production: Effect of light illumination and carbon dioxide feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Thawechai, Tipawan; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2016-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was selected as potential strain for CO2 mitigation into lipids and pigments. The synergistic effects of light intensity and photoperiod were evaluated to provide the adequate light energy for this strain. The saturation light intensity was 60μmol·photon·m(-2)s(-1). With full illumination, the biomass obtained was 0.850±0.16g·L(-1) with a lipid content of 44.7±1.2%. The pigments content increased with increasing light energy supply. Three main operating factors including initial cell concentration, CO2 content and gas flow rate were optimized through Response Surface Methodology. The feedings with low CO2 content at high gas flow rate gave the maximum biomass but with low lipid content. After optimization, the biomass and lipid production were increased up to 1.30±0.103g·L(-1) and 0.515±0.010g·L(-1), respectively. The CO2 fixation rate was as high as 0.729±0.04g·L(-1)d(-1). The fatty acids of Nannochloropsis sp. lipids were mainly C16-C18 indicating its potential use as biodiesel feedstocks. PMID:27484670

  17. Mitigation of carbon dioxide by oleaginous microalgae for lipids and pigments production: Effect of light illumination and carbon dioxide feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Thawechai, Tipawan; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2016-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was selected as potential strain for CO2 mitigation into lipids and pigments. The synergistic effects of light intensity and photoperiod were evaluated to provide the adequate light energy for this strain. The saturation light intensity was 60μmol·photon·m(-2)s(-1). With full illumination, the biomass obtained was 0.850±0.16g·L(-1) with a lipid content of 44.7±1.2%. The pigments content increased with increasing light energy supply. Three main operating factors including initial cell concentration, CO2 content and gas flow rate were optimized through Response Surface Methodology. The feedings with low CO2 content at high gas flow rate gave the maximum biomass but with low lipid content. After optimization, the biomass and lipid production were increased up to 1.30±0.103g·L(-1) and 0.515±0.010g·L(-1), respectively. The CO2 fixation rate was as high as 0.729±0.04g·L(-1)d(-1). The fatty acids of Nannochloropsis sp. lipids were mainly C16-C18 indicating its potential use as biodiesel feedstocks.

  18. Mitigating the Impacts of Glint and Glare

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, Michael; Kandt, Alicen; Phillips, Steven

    2015-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, supporting the Department of the Navy Renewable Energy Program Office, has developed an innovative glint/glare analysis and visualization methodology to understand and mitigate the possible impacts of light reflecting off solar photovoltaic arrays.

  19. Elderly demand for family-based care and support: evidence from a social intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Tjerbo, Trond

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the influence of the national health insurance scheme on elderly demand for family-based care and support. It contributes to the growing concern on the rapid increase in the elderly population globally using micro-level social theory to examine the influence the health insurance has on elderly demand for family support. A qualitative case study approach is applied to construct a comprehensive and thick description of how the national health insurance scheme influences the elderly in their demand for family support.Through focused interviews and direct observation of six selected cases, in-depth information on primary carers, living arrangement and the interaction between the health insurance as structure and elders as agents are analyzed. The study highlights that the interaction between the elderly and the national health insurance scheme has produced a new stratum of relationship between the elderly and their primary carers. Consequently, this has created equilibrium between the elderly demand for support and support made available by their primary carers. As the demand of the elderly for support is declining, supply of support by family members for the elderly is also on the decline. PMID:24576369

  20. Elderly demand for family-based care and support: evidence from a social intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Tjerbo, Trond

    2013-12-06

    This paper examines the influence of the national health insurance scheme on elderly demand for family-based care and support. It contributes to the growing concern on the rapid increase in the elderly population globally using micro-level social theory to examine the influence the health insurance has on elderly demand for family support. A qualitative case study approach is applied to construct a comprehensive and thick description of how the national health insurance scheme influences the elderly in their demand for family support.Through focused interviews and direct observation of six selected cases, in-depth information on primary carers, living arrangement and the interaction between the health insurance as structure and elders as agents are analyzed. The study highlights that the interaction between the elderly and the national health insurance scheme has produced a new stratum of relationship between the elderly and their primary carers. Consequently, this has created equilibrium between the elderly demand for support and support made available by their primary carers. As the demand of the elderly for support is declining, supply of support by family members for the elderly is also on the decline.