Science.gov

Sample records for mitigation strategies supporting

  1. Mitigation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carusi, Andrea; Perozzi, Ettore; Scholl, Hans

    2005-04-01

    There are three major options for mitigation of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Deflection and disruption of NEOs require the development of new space technologies. A third option, the preparation of the target area on Earth to mitigate an impact, needs institutions for the required civil defense measures. The three options are complementary. Basic requirements for the presently most preferred strategy, deflection, are presented. To cite this article: A. Carusi et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  2. Soil mapping and processes models to support climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Jordan, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    , we discuss the most recent advances on the application of soil mapping and modeling to support climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies; and These strategies are a key component of the implementation of sustainable land management policies need to be integrated are critical to. The objective of this work is to present a review about the advantages of soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land management. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Pereira, P., Brevic, E., Cerda, A., Jordan, A. (2017) Soil mapping and processes models for sustainable land management applied to modern challenges. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (Eds.) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (Elsevier Publishing House) ISBN: 9780128052006

  3. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  4. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  5. Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Le Page, Yannick LB; Hurtt, George; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Patel, Pralit L.; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2013-02-19

    The present and future concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide depends on both anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks of carbon. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on a progressive transition to carbon12 efficient technologies to reduce industrial emissions, substantially supported by policies to maintain or enhance the terrestrial carbon stock in forests and other ecosystems. This strategy may be challenged if terrestrial sequestration capacity is affected by future climate feedbacks, but how and to what extent is little understood. Here, we show that climate mitigation strategies are highly sensitive to future natural disturbance rates (e.g. fires, hurricanes, droughts), because of potential effect of disturbances on the terrestrial carbon balance. Generally, altered disturbance rates affect the pace of societal and technological transitions required to achieve the mitigation target, with substantial consequences on the energy sector and on the global economy. Understanding the future dynamics and consequences of natural disturbances on terrestrial carbon balance is thus essential for developing robust climate mitigation strategies and policies

  6. Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Y.; Hurtt, G.; Thomson, A. M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Patel, P.; Wise, M.; Calvin, K.; Kyle, P.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.; Janetos, A.

    2013-03-01

    The present and future concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide depends on both anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks of carbon. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on a progressive transition to carbon-efficient technologies to reduce industrial emissions, substantially supported by policies to maintain or enhance the terrestrial carbon stock in forests and other ecosystems. This strategy may be challenged if terrestrial sequestration capacity is affected by future climate feedbacks, but how and to what extent is little understood. Here, we show that climate mitigation strategies are highly sensitive to future natural disturbance rates (e.g. fires, hurricanes, droughts), because of the potential effect of disturbances on the terrestrial carbon balance. Generally, altered disturbance rates affect the pace of societal and technological transitions required to achieve the mitigation target, with substantial consequences on the energy sector and the global economy. An understanding of the future dynamics and consequences of natural disturbances on terrestrial carbon balance is thus essential for developing robust climate mitigation strategies and policies.

  7. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  8. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  9. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Fraser, Christophe; Cajka, James C; Cooley, Philip C; Burke, Donald S

    2006-07-27

    Development of strategies for mitigating the severity of a new influenza pandemic is now a top global public health priority. Influenza prevention and containment strategies can be considered under the broad categories of antiviral, vaccine and non-pharmaceutical (case isolation, household quarantine, school or workplace closure, restrictions on travel) measures. Mathematical models are powerful tools for exploring this complex landscape of intervention strategies and quantifying the potential costs and benefits of different options. Here we use a large-scale epidemic simulation to examine intervention options should initial containment of a novel influenza outbreak fail, using Great Britain and the United States as examples. We find that border restrictions and/or internal travel restrictions are unlikely to delay spread by more than 2-3 weeks unless more than 99% effective. School closure during the peak of a pandemic can reduce peak attack rates by up to 40%, but has little impact on overall attack rates, whereas case isolation or household quarantine could have a significant impact, if feasible. Treatment of clinical cases can reduce transmission, but only if antivirals are given within a day of symptoms starting. Given enough drugs for 50% of the population, household-based prophylaxis coupled with reactive school closure could reduce clinical attack rates by 40-50%. More widespread prophylaxis would be even more logistically challenging but might reduce attack rates by over 75%. Vaccine stockpiled in advance of a pandemic could significantly reduce attack rates even if of low efficacy. Estimates of policy effectiveness will change if the characteristics of a future pandemic strain differ substantially from those seen in past pandemics.

  10. [Thermovalorization: new technologies, impacts and mitigation strategies].

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Loconte, V L; Signorelli, C

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades the quantity (in weight and volume) of solid waste is grown so rapidly to become a real problem especially in densely urbanized areas. The disposal of Municipal Solid Waste by incineration with energy recovery (WtE) is recognized as the most suitable system to process non-recyclable waste. However in several countries there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental impact of incinerators. Epidemiological studies, developed since the 80s, are still the subject of controversial discussion because the results of research often refer to old incinerators--built a few decades ago--and therefore more impactful. In fact inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control in these facilities tended to risk the health of plant workers and local environment. This situation furthermore contributes to increase public risk perception and the spread of the NIMBY (not in my backyard) syndrome while siting this unwanted but necessary facilities. Actually, new strategies as advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations, have resulted in large reductions in the amount of emissions. So the first aim of this work has been to understand if these high perception of risk have a reason to exist also in modern and new municipal waste incinerators. The second aim is to discover if the law, the new technologies and the mitigation strategies can really set a limit on the negative impacts on human health and on environment and if is it possible to improve or increase these strategies. Work has been divided into two parts. The first part focuses on analysis of waste environmental impact regulations, of plant operation systems and of epidemiological studies results. The second part involves the examination of the actual use of regulatory instruments, the most advanced technologies and the strategies for mitigation in the most effective new concept incinerators plants. For this verification

  11. Sexually Dimorphic Risk Mitigation Strategies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pellman, Blake A.; Schuessler, Bryan P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety—in both normal and pathological forms—is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal’s behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky “closed economy” system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging. Rats lived for an extended period (∼2 months) in enlarged chambers that consisted of a safe, bedded nest and a risky foraging area where footshocks could be delivered unpredictably. We observed that male and female rats used different strategies for responding to the threat of footshock. Whereas male rats increased the size of meals consumed to reduce the overall time spent foraging, female rats sacrificed their metabolic needs in order to avoid shocks. Ovarian hormone fluctuations were shown to exert slight but reliable rhythmic effects on risky decision-making in gonadally intact female rats. However, this did not produce significant differences in approach–avoidance trade-offs between ovariectomized and intact female groups, suggesting that male–female sex differences are not due to the activational effects of gonadal hormones but, rather, are likely to be organized during early development. PMID:28197550

  12. Sexually Dimorphic Risk Mitigation Strategies in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Blake A; Schuessler, Bryan P; Tellakat, Mohini; Kim, Jeansok J

    2017-01-01

    The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging. Rats lived for an extended period (∼2 months) in enlarged chambers that consisted of a safe, bedded nest and a risky foraging area where footshocks could be delivered unpredictably. We observed that male and female rats used different strategies for responding to the threat of footshock. Whereas male rats increased the size of meals consumed to reduce the overall time spent foraging, female rats sacrificed their metabolic needs in order to avoid shocks. Ovarian hormone fluctuations were shown to exert slight but reliable rhythmic effects on risky decision-making in gonadally intact female rats. However, this did not produce significant differences in approach-avoidance trade-offs between ovariectomized and intact female groups, suggesting that male-female sex differences are not due to the activational effects of gonadal hormones but, rather, are likely to be organized during early development.

  13. Two resource distribution strategies for dynamic mitigation of influenza pandemics.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Sánchez, Andrés; Savachkin, Alex

    2010-07-07

    As recently pointed out by the Institute of Medicine, the existing pandemic containment and mitigation models lack the dynamic decision support capabilities. We present two simulation-based optimization models for developing dynamic predictive resource distribution strategies for cross-regional pandemic outbreaks. In both models, the underlying simulation mimics the disease and population dynamics of the affected regions. The quantity-based optimization model generates a progressive allocation of limited quantities of mitigation resources, including vaccines, antiviral, administration capacities, and social distancing enforcement resources. The budget-based optimization model strives instead allocating a total resource budget. Both models seek to minimize the impact of ongoing outbreaks and the expected impact of potential outbreaks. The models incorporate measures of morbidity, mortality, and social distancing, translated into the societal and economic costs of lost productivity and medical expenses. The models were calibrated using historic pandemic data and implemented on a sample outbreak in Florida, with over four million inhabitants. The quantity-based model was found to be inferior to the budget-based model, which was advantageous in its ability to balance the varying relative cost and effectiveness of individual resources. The models are intended to assist public health policy makers in developing effective distribution policies for mitigation of influenza pandemics.

  14. Two resource distribution strategies for dynamic mitigation of influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Sánchez, Andrés; Savachkin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    As recently pointed out by the Institute of Medicine, the existing pandemic containment and mitigation models lack the dynamic decision support capabilities. We present two simulation-based optimization models for developing dynamic predictive resource distribution strategies for cross-regional pandemic outbreaks. In both models, the underlying simulation mimics the disease and population dynamics of the affected regions. The quantity-based optimization model generates a progressive allocation of limited quantities of mitigation resources, including vaccines, antiviral, administration capacities, and social distancing enforcement resources. The budget-based optimization model strives instead allocating a total resource budget. Both models seek to minimize the impact of ongoing outbreaks and the expected impact of potential outbreaks. The models incorporate measures of morbidity, mortality, and social distancing, translated into the societal and economic costs of lost productivity and medical expenses. The models were calibrated using historic pandemic data and implemented on a sample outbreak in Florida, with over four million inhabitants. The quantity-based model was found to be inferior to the budget-based model, which was advantageous in its ability to balance the varying relative cost and effectiveness of individual resources. The models are intended to assist public health policy makers in developing effective distribution policies for mitigation of influenza pandemics. PMID:21197356

  15. Seismic Mitigation Strategies for Existing School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattis, D. B.; Krimgold, F.; Green, M.

    California provides the paradigm for lessening devastating earthquake damage in U.S. buildings. This document examines specific examples of the seismic mitigation process, a process showing that seismic retrofit in existing schools in other parts of the country are possible and could lead to more general seismic rehabilitation in other buildings.…

  16. Mitigation strategies on scale-free networks against cascading failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei

    2013-05-01

    According to the dynamic characteristics of the cascading propagation, we introduce a mitigation mechanism and propose four mitigation methods on four types of nodes. By the normalized average avalanche size and a new measure, we demonstrate the efficiencies of the mitigation strategies on enhancing the robustness of scale-free networks against cascading failures and give the order of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies. Surprisingly, we find that only adopting once mitigation mechanism on a small part of the overload nodes can dramatically improve the robustness of scale-free networks. In addition, we also show by numerical simulations that the optimal mitigation method strongly depends on the total capacities of all nodes in a network and the distribution of the load in the cascading model. Therefore, according to the protection strength for scale-free networks, by the distribution of the load and the protection price of networks, we can reasonably select how many nodes and which mitigation method to efficiently protect scale-free networks at the lower price. These findings may be very useful for avoiding various cascading-failure-induced disasters in the real world and for leading to insights into the mitigation of cascading failures.

  17. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  18. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  19. Acrylamide mitigation strategies: critical appraisal of the FoodDrinkEurope toolbox.

    PubMed

    Palermo, M; Gökmen, V; De Meulenaer, B; Ciesarová, Z; Zhang, Y; Pedreschi, F; Fogliano, V

    2016-06-15

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D resources, however no comments about the pro and cons of the different measures were provided to advise the potential users. Experts of the field are aware that not all the strategies proposed have equal value in terms of efficacy and cost/benefit ratio. This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. Five authors from different geographical areas having a publication record on acrylamide mitigation strategies worked independently ranking the efficacy of the acrylamide mitigation strategies taking into account three key parameters: (i) reduction rate; (ii) side effects; and (iii) applicability and economic impact. On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. As expected, all strategies selected in the Toolbox turned out to be useful, however, not at the same level. The use of enzyme asparaginase and the selection of low sugar varieties were considered the best mitigation strategies in bakery and in potato products, respectively. According to authors' opinion most of the other mitigation strategies, although effective, either have relevant side effects on the sensory profile of the products, or they are not easy to implement in industrial production. The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context.

  20. Novel strategy to mitigate cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling via the atmospheric resistive switching mechanism of a hydrogen anode with a platinum catalyst supported on tantalum-doped titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Haruhiko; Kojima, Yuya; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new strategy for alleviating the reverse current phenomenon using a unique "atmospheric resistive switching mechanism" (ARSM) of a metal oxide semiconductor support, such that the electrical resistivity changes depending on the gas atmosphere. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using Ta-doped TiO2-supported platinum (Pt/Ta-TiO2) as the anode catalyst showed approximately one order of magnitude greater resistance in air than in hydrogen. The overpotential of the hydrogen oxidation reaction was negligible up to at least 1.5 A cm-2. The losses of electrochemically active surface area and carbon corrosion of the cathode catalyst during air/air startup cycling were significantly suppressed by the use of the Pt/Ta-TiO2 anode. The decrease in the degradation is attributed to a reduction of the reverse current due to a low oxygen reduction reaction rate at the anode, which showed high resistivity in air. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARSM in mitigating cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling.

  1. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  2. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  3. Current available strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in livestock systems: an animal welfare perspective.

    PubMed

    Llonch, P; Haskell, M J; Dewhurst, R J; Turner, S P

    2017-02-01

    Livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so will play a significant role in the mitigation effort. Recent literature highlights different strategies to mitigate GHG emissions in the livestock sector. Animal welfare is a criterion of sustainability and any strategy designed to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock production should consider animal welfare amongst other sustainability metrics. We discuss and tabulate the likely relationships and trade-offs between the GHG mitigation potential of mitigation strategies and their welfare consequences, focusing on ruminant species and on cattle in particular. The major livestock GHG mitigation strategies were classified according to their mitigation approach as reducing total emissions (inhibiting methane production in the rumen), or reducing emissions intensity (Ei; reducing CH4 per output unit without directly targeting methanogenesis). Strategies classified as antimethanogenic included chemical inhibitors, electron acceptors (i.e. nitrates), ionophores (i.e. Monensin) and dietary lipids. Increasing diet digestibility, intensive housing, improving health and welfare, increasing reproductive efficiency and breeding for higher productivity were categorized as strategies that reduce Ei. Strategies that increase productivity are very promising ways to reduce the livestock carbon footprint, though in intensive systems this is likely to be achieved at the cost of welfare. Other strategies can effectively reduce GHG emissions whilst simultaneously improving animal welfare (e.g. feed supplementation or improving health). These win-win strategies should be strongly supported as they address both environmental and ethical sustainability. In order to identify the most cost-effective measures for improving environmental sustainability of livestock production, the consequences of current and future strategies for animal welfare must be scrutinized and contrasted against their effectiveness

  4. Gaining Public Support for RFI Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    Astronomy's access to radio spectrum depends to a great extent on international and national regulatory agencies. Such regulation is inherently a political process, so support for radio astronomy by the general public is vital to success. Educating the public about a subject perceived as so highly technical can be challenging. Success in advancing public understanding of the issue and gaining public support is based on two foundations: publicizing the societal value of astronomy; and explaining the interference problem in non-technical terms that draw upon the well-understood terminology of environmental protection. Effective communication can convince non-scientists that astronomical research is a vital and beneficial activity, and that unpolluted access to the radio spectrum is essential to making the new discoveries that are astronomy's contribution to humanity. Convinced of this, the public will support imposing the expense of engineering measures designed to protect radio astronomy, just as they support spending money to protect air, water and soil from pollution.

  5. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2017-02-21

    Traffic noise and air pollution together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air pollution and traffic noise are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air pollution and noise. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  7. Mitigating crosslinking reactions through preconversion strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to develop preconversion techniques that will mitigate crosslinking reactions and thereby substantially increase liquid yields during subsequent liquefaction. The immediate objective is to explore the effect of several pretreatments on the evolution of oxygen functions, crosslinking, and conversion in laboratory studies. The pretreatments to be explored include several that hold promise for effecting deoxygenation or other reduction, for example, treatment with CO/water/base and hydroquinones, either alone or in conjunction. The effects of these pretreatments on functional group distribution, macromoleculer structure, and liquefaction will be compared with those that have shown promise in the past for improved conversions, such as simple hydrothermal pretreatment, mild hydrogenation with dispersed catalysts, and demineralization. A second objective is to develop suitable test procedures for assessing the effect of the pretreatment on subsequent liquefaction and achieve also an understanding the chemical origin of the effect. These test procedures will include the use of proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) for determining the effect of pretreatment on fluidity as liquefaction conditions (temperature, pressure) are approached. They will also involve the use of simpler and more pertinent laboratory measures of volatile product yields following the batch liquefactions that will be run to test the susceptibility of pretreated coals to subsequent liquefaction.

  8. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  9. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  10. 1999 Leak Detection and Monitoring and Mitigation Strategy Update

    SciTech Connect

    OHL, P.C.

    1999-09-23

    This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented.

  11. Comparative advantage strategy for rapid pollution mitigation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan

    2013-09-03

    Due to its sheer size and growth trend, no other country is facing more daunting challenges than China in reducing its pollutant emissions. A critical but inadequately addressed question is how rapidly China could feasibly achieve such mitigation. The stake is high not only about how much worse China's environmental quality could become but also about how the world can prevent catastrophic climate change. Through examining sulfur dioxide (SO2) mitigation in coal-fired power plants and wind energy development for carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, this article proposes a comparative advantage strategy for overcoming high barriers to fast pollution mitigation. On the demand side, China could first make progress in the deployment of more pollution control facilities and then improve their operational performance. The resulting low technological market entry barriers could help to build enough industrial capacity to meet the huge demand with prices under control. The strategy in the current practice could be improved to establish not only a large supply industry but also a strong one to enable other countries to move more rapidly in pollution mitigation.

  12. Rescinding Community Mitigation Strategies in an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a networked, agent-based computational model of a stylized community, we evaluated thresholds for rescinding 2 community mitigation strategies after an influenza pandemic. We ended child sequestering or all-community sequestering when illness incidence waned to thresholds of 0, 1, 2, or 3 cases in 7 days in 2 levels of pandemic severity. An unmitigated epidemic or strategy continuation for the epidemic duration served as control scenarios. The 0-case per 7-day rescinding threshold was comparable to the continuation strategy on infection and illness rates but reduced the number of days strategies would be needed by 6% to 32% in mild or severe pandemics. If cases recurred, strategies were resumed at a predefined 10-case trigger, and epidemic recurrence was thwarted. Strategies were most effective when used with high compliance and when combined with stringent rescinding thresholds. The need for strategies implemented for control of an influenza pandemic was reduced, without increasing illness rates. PMID:18325247

  13. The Urban Heat Island Phenomenon and Potential Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Gorsevski, Virginia; Russell, Camille; Quattrochi, Dale; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A survey of urban heat island research is provided to describe how heat islands develop, urban landscape and meteorological characteristics that facilitate development, use of aircraft remote sensing data, and why heat islands are of interest to planners, elected officials, and the public. The roles of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal agencies, national laboratories and universities, state and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOS) in studying the urban heat island effect and developing mitigation strategies are explored. Barriers that hamper mitigation efforts and case studies in Atlanta and Salt Lake City are discussed.

  14. Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Sarah E.; Wright, André-Denis G.; McBride, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo. PMID:21253540

  15. Reassessing Biological Threats: Implications for Cooperative Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Summer Elise; Petzing, Stephanie Rachel; Young, Catharine Grace

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapon threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a greater appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition, we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation.

  16. Reassessing Biological Threats: Implications for Cooperative Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Summer Elise; Petzing, Stephanie Rachel; Young, Catharine Grace

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapon threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a greater appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition, we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation. PMID:26649289

  17. Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are part of a natural process of hillslope erosion that can result in catastrophic loss of life and extensive property damage in mountainous, densely populated areas. As global population expansion on or near steep hillslopes continues, the human and economic costs associated with landslides will increase. Landslide hazard mitigation strategies generally involve hazard assessment mapping, warning systems, control structures, and regional landslide planning and policy development. To be sustainable, hazard mitigation requires that management of natural resources is closely connected to local economic and social interests. A successful strategy is dependent on a combination of multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering approaches, and the political will to take action at the local community to national scale.

  18. Ocean Fertilization and Other Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2008-07-29

    In order to evaluate ocean fertilization in the larger context of other proposed strategies for reducing the threat of the global warming, a wide range of different climate change mitigation approaches are compared in terms of their long-term potential, stage of development, relative costs and potential risks, as well as public acceptance. This broad comparative analysis is carried out for the following climate change mitigation strategies: supply-side and end-use efficiency improvements, terrestrial and geological carbon sequestration, CO2 ocean disposal and iron fertilization, nuclear power, and renewable energy generation from biomass, passive solar, solar thermal, photovoltaics, hydroelectric and wind. In addition, because of the inherent problems of conducting an objective comparative cost-benefit analysis, two non-technological solutions to global warming are also discussed: curbing population growth and transitioning to a steady-state economy.

  19. Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools for Noise Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated a new five year program this year, the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program, a program which will investigate airframe and engine system noise reduction. QAT will also address community noise impact. As part of this community noise impact component, NASA will investigate air traffic management (ATM) challenges in reducing noise. In particular, controller advisory automation aids will be developed to aid the air traffic controller in addressing noise concerns as he/she manages traffic in busy terminal areas. NASA has developed controller automation tools to address capacity concerns and the QAT strategy for ATM Low Noise Operations is to build upon this tool set to create added advisories for noise mitigation. The tools developed for capacity will be briefly reviewed, followed by the QAT plans to address ATM noise concerns. A major NASA goal in global civil aviation is to triple the aviation system throughput in all-weather conditions while maintaining safety. A centerpiece of this activity is the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an evolving suite of air traffic controller decision support tools (DSTs) to enhance capacity of arrivals and departures in both the enroute center and the TRACON. Two of these DSTs, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final approach Spacing Tool (pFAST), are in daily use at the Fort Worth Center and the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON, respectively, where capacity gains of 5-13% have been reported in recent NASA evaluations. Under the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Free Flight Phase One Program, TMA and pFAST are each being implemented at six to eight additional sites. In addition, other DSTs are being developed by NASA under the umbrella of CTAS. This means that new software will be built upon CTAS, and the paradigm of real-time simulation evaluation followed by field site development and evaluation will be the pathway for the new tools. Additional information is included in the

  20. Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools for Noise Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated a new five year program this year, the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program, a program which will investigate airframe and engine system noise reduction. QAT will also address community noise impact. As part of this community noise impact component, NASA will investigate air traffic management (ATM) challenges in reducing noise. In particular, controller advisory automation aids will be developed to aid the air traffic controller in addressing noise concerns as he/she manages traffic in busy terminal areas. NASA has developed controller automation tools to address capacity concerns and the QAT strategy for ATM Low Noise Operations is to build upon this tool set to create added advisories for noise mitigation. The tools developed for capacity will be briefly reviewed, followed by the QAT plans to address ATM noise concerns. A major NASA goal in global civil aviation is to triple the aviation system throughput in all-weather conditions while maintaining safety. A centerpiece of this activity is the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an evolving suite of air traffic controller decision support tools (DSTs) to enhance capacity of arrivals and departures in both the enroute center and the TRACON. Two of these DSTs, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final approach Spacing Tool (pFAST), are in daily use at the Fort Worth Center and the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON, respectively, where capacity gains of 5-13% have been reported in recent NASA evaluations. Under the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Free Flight Phase One Program, TMA and pFAST are each being implemented at six to eight additional sites. In addition, other DSTs are being developed by NASA under the umbrella of CTAS. This means that new software will be built upon CTAS, and the paradigm of real-time simulation evaluation followed by field site development and evaluation will be the pathway for the new tools. Additional information is included in the

  1. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.

    1997-02-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O&M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R&D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment).

  2. Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

  3. An Investigation of Corrosion Mitigation Strategies for Aging Post Tensioned Cables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    ER D C/ IT L TR -1 7- 1 Navigation Systems Research Program An Investigation of Corrosion Mitigation Strategies for Aging Post-Tensioned...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Navigation Systems Research Program ERDC/ITL TR-17-1 January 2017 An Investigation of Corrosion Mitigation Strategies ...9 2 Corrosion Mitigation Strategies

  4. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on belatacept.

    PubMed

    Sam, Teena; Gabardi, Steven; Tichy, Eric M

    2013-03-01

    To review the elements and components of the risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) for the costimulation blocker belatacept and associated implications for health care providers working with transplant recipients. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (January 1990 to March 2012) were searched by using risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, belatacept, and organ transplant as search terms (individual organs were also searched). Retrieved articles were supplemented with analysis of information obtained from the Federal Register, the Food and Drug Administration, and the manufacturer of belatacept. REMS are risk-management strategies implemented to ensure that a product's benefits outweigh its known safety risks. Although belatacept offers a novel strategy in maintenance immunosuppression and was associated with superior renal function compared with cyclosporine in phase 2 and 3 trials, belatacept is also associated with increased risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and central nervous system infections. The Food and Drug Administration required development of a REMS program as part of belatacept's approval process to ensure safe and appropriate use of the medication and optimization of its risk-benefit profile. Elements of the belatacept REMS include a medication guide that must be dispensed with each infusion and a communication plan. In the management of a complex population of patients, it is essential that those who care for transplant recipients, and patients, recognize the implications of potential and known risks of belatacept. The REMS program aims to facilitate careful selection and education of patients and vigilant monitoring.

  5. Numerical simulations of urban heat island mitigation strategies in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roland; Zuvela-Aloise, Maja

    2013-04-01

    Effects of change in land use on daytime urban heat island (UHI) of Vienna is investigated using the local-scale atmospheric model MUKLIMO3 developed at the German Weather Service (DWD). Assuming that the observed trend towards urbanization negatively impacts the heat stress of urban areas, it becomes increasingly important to develop UHI mitigation strategies that aims to reduce the urban heat stress. The purpose of this study is to gain a further understanding of the structure of the daytime UHI in Vienna and to investigate the question to what degree changes in the urban land use affect the near-surface climate and heat stress in the city. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of the UHI is obtained by the computation of the mean annual number of summer days (Tmax × 25° C) of the 1981-2010 period using the so-called cuboid method (DWD). A set of mitigation strategies is developed and applied to MUKLIMO3 simulation experiments. The strategies take into account the change in urban land use as well as the modification of land use features. Results confirm the importance of green areas, water ways and pervious surfaces in the city. In addition, the size, location and distribution of new vegetated areas, i.e. parks, can crucially alter the urban heat stress. In view of the unique character of the city, the realization of adequate mitigation strategies is mainly limited to the existing urban land use. The obtained model results are intended to provide additional information for the city planners.

  6. Enhancing the Global Carbon Sink: A Key Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's terrestrial ecosystems absorb about one-third of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions from the atmosphere each year, greatly reducing the climate forcing those emissions would otherwise cause. This puts the size of the terrestrial carbon sink on par with the most aggressive climate mitigation measures proposed. Moreover, the land sink has been keeping pace with rising emissions and has roughly doubled over the past 40 years. But there is a fundamental lack of understanding of why the sink has been increasing and what its future trajectory could be. In developing climate mitigation strategies, governments have a very limited scientific basis for projecting the contributions of their domestic sinks, and yet at least 117 of the 160 COP21 signatories stated they will use the land sink in their Nationally Defined Contribution (NDC). Given its potentially critical role in reducing net emissions and the importance of UNFCCC land sinks in future mitigation scenarios, a first-principles understanding of the dynamics of the land sink is needed. For expansion of the sink, new approaches and ecologically-sound technologies are needed. Carefully conceived terrestrial carbon sequestration could have multiple environmental benefits, but a massive expansion of land carbon sinks using conventional approaches could place excessive demands on the world's land, water, and fertilizer nutrients. Meanwhile, rapid climatic change threatens to undermine or reverse the sink in many ecosystems. We need approaches to protect the large sinks that are currently assumed useful for climate mitigation. Thus we highlight the need for a new research agenda aimed at predicting, protecting, and enhancing the global carbon sink. Key aspects of this agenda include building a predictive capability founded on observations, theory and models, and developing ecological approaches and technologies that are sustainable and scalable, and potentially provide co-benefits such as healthier soils, more

  7. Roadmap to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) success

    PubMed Central

    Balian, John D.; Malhotra, Rachpal; Perentesis, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Medical safety-related risk management is a rapidly evolving and increasingly important aspect of drug approval and market longevity. To effectively meet the challenges of this new era, we describe a risk management roadmap that proactively yet practically anticipates risk-management requirements, provides the foundation for enduring yet appropriately flexible risk-management practices, and leverages these techniques to efficiently and effectively utilize risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS)/risk minimization programs as market access enablers. This fully integrated risk-management paradigm creates exciting opportunities for newer tools, techniques, and approaches to more successfully optimize product development, approval, and commercialization, with patients as the ultimate beneficiaries. PMID:25083193

  8. Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing this final rule to require domestic and foreign food facilities that are required to register under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) to address hazards that may be introduced with the intention to cause wide scale public health harm. These food facilities are required to conduct a vulnerability assessment to identify significant vulnerabilities and actionable process steps and implement mitigation strategies to significantly minimize or prevent significant vulnerabilities identified at actionable process steps in a food operation. FDA is issuing these requirements as part of our implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA).

  9. Contamination Mitigation Strategies for Long Duration Human Spaceflight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Ruthan; Lupisella, Mark; Bleacher, Jake; Farrell, William

    2017-01-01

    Contamination control issues are particularly challenging for long-term human spaceflight and are associated with the search for life, dynamic environmental conditions, human-robotic-environment interaction, sample collection and return, biological processes, waste management, long-term environmental disturbance, etc. These issues impact mission success, human health, planetary protection, and research and discovery. Mitigation and control techniques and strategies may include and integrate long-term environmental monitoring and reporting, contamination control and planetary protection protocols, habitation site design, habitat design, and surface exploration and traverse pathways and area access planning.

  10. Induced seismicity and carbon storage: Risk assessment and mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua A.; Foxall, William; Bachmann, Corinne; Chiaramonte, Laura; Daley, Thomas M.

    2016-01-28

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is widely recognized as an important strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Like all technologies, however, sequestration projects create a number of potential environmental and safety hazards that must be addressed. These include earthquakes—from microseismicity to large, damaging events—that can be triggered by altering pore-pressure conditions in the subsurface. To date, measured seismicity due to CO2 injection has been limited to a few modest events, but the hazard exists and must be considered. There are important similarities between CO2 injection and fluid injection from other applications that have induced significant events—e.g. geothermal systems, waste-fluid injection, hydrocarbon extraction, and others. There are also important distinctions among these technologies that should be considered in a discussion of seismic hazard. This report focuses on strategies for assessing and mitigating risk during each phase of a CO2 storage project. Four key risks related to fault reactivation and induced seismicity were considered. Induced slip on faults could potentially lead to: (1) infrastructure damage, (2) a public nuisance, (3) brine-contaminated drinking water, and (4) CO2-contaminated drinking water. These scenarios lead to different types of damage—to property, to drinking water quality, or to the public welfare. Given these four risks, this report focuses on strategies for assessing (and altering) their likelihoods of occurrence and the damage that may result. This report begins with an overview of the basic physical mechanisms behind induced seismicity. This science basis—and its gaps—is crucial because it forms the foundation for risk assessment and mitigation. Available techniques for characterizing and monitoring seismic behavior are also described. Again, this technical basis—and its limitations—must be factored into the risk

  11. MitiGate; an online meta-analysis database for quantification of mitigation strategies for enteric methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Veneman, Jolien B; Saetnan, Eli R; Clare, Amanda J; Newbold, Charles J

    2016-12-01

    The body of peer-reviewed papers on enteric methane mitigation strategies in ruminants is rapidly growing and allows for better estimation of the true effect of each strategy though the use of meta-analysis methods. Here we present the development of an online database of measured methane mitigation strategies called MitiGate, currently comprising 412 papers. The database is accessible through an online user-friendly interface that allows data extraction with various levels of aggregation on one hand and data-uploading for submission to the database allowing for future refinement and updates of mitigation estimates as well as providing easy access to relevant data for integration into modelling efforts or policy recommendations. To demonstrate and verify the usefulness of the MitiGate database those studies where methane emissions were expressed per unit of intake (293 papers resulting in 845 treatment comparisons) were used in a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of the current database estimated the effect size of each of the mitigation strategies as well as the associated variance and measure of heterogeneity. Currently, under-representation of certain strategies, geographic regions and long term studies are the main limitations in providing an accurate quantitative estimation of the mitigation potential of each strategy under varying animal production systems. We have thus implemented the facility for researchers to upload meta-data of their peer reviewed research through a simple input form in the hope that MitiGate will grow into a fully inclusive resource for those wishing to model methane mitigation strategies in ruminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  13. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  14. SEU mitigation strategies for SRAM-based FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pei; Zhang, Jian

    2011-08-01

    The type of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) technology and device family used in a design is a key factor for system reliability. Though antifuse-based FPGAs are widely used in aerospace because of their high reliability, current antifuse-based FPGA devices are expensive and leave no room for mistakes or changes since they are not reprogrammable. The substitute for antifuse-based FPGAs are needed in aerospace design, they should be both reprogrammable and highly reliable to Single Event Upset effects (SEUs). SRAM-based FPGAs are widely and systematically used in complex embedding digital systems both in a single chip industry and commercial applications. They are reprogrammable and high in density because of the smaller SRAM cells and logic structures. But the SRAM-based FPGAs are especially sensitive to cosmic radiation because the configuration information is stored in SRAM memory. The ideal FPGA for aerospace use should be high-density SRAM-based which is also insensitive to cosmic radiation induced SEUs. Therefore, in order to enable the use of SRAM-based FPGAs in safety critical applications, new techniques and strategies are essential to mitigate the SEU errors in such devices. In order to improve the reliability of SRAM-based FPGAs which are very sensitive to SEU errors, techniques such as reconfiguration and Triple Module Redundancy (TMR) are widely used in the aerospace electronic systems to mitigate the SEU and Single Event Functional Interrupt (SEFI) errors. Compared to reconfiguration and triplication, scrubbing and partial reconfiguration will utilize fewer or even no internal resources of FPGA. What's more, the detection and repair process can detect and correct SEU errors in configuration memories of the FPGA without affecting or interrupting the proper working of the system while reconfiguration would terminate the operation of the FPGA. This paper presents a payload system realized on Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA which mitigates SEU effects in the

  15. Wake Mitigation Strategies for Optimizing Wind Farm Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilip, Deepu; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Although wind turbines are designed individually for optimum power production, they are often arranged into groups of closely spaced turbines in a wind farm rather than in isolation. Consequently, most turbines in a wind farm do not operate in unobstructed wind flows, but are affected by the wakes of turbines in front of them. Such wake interference significantly reduces the overall power generation from wind farms and hence, development of effective wake mitigation strategies is critical for improving wind farm efficiency. One approach towards this end is based on the notion that the operation of each turbine in a wind farm at its optimum efficiency might not lead to optimum power generation from the wind farm as a whole. This entails a down regulation of individual turbines from its optimum operating point, which can be achieved through different methods such as pitching the turbine blades, changing the turbine tip speed ratio or yawing of the turbine, to name a few. In this study, large-eddy simulations of a two-turbine arrangement with the second turbine fully in the wake of the first are performed. Different wake mitigation techniques are applied to the upstream turbine, and the effects of these on its wake characteristics are investigated. Results for the combined power from the two turbines for each of these methods are compared to a baseline scenario where no wake mitigation strategies are employed. Analysis of the results shows the potential for improved power production from such wake control methods. It should be noted, however, that the magnitude of the improvement is strongly affected by the level of turbulence in the incoming atmospheric flow.

  16. Patent cliff mitigation strategies: giving new life to blockbusters.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    With several blockbuster drugs on the brink of another significant patent expiry cliff, innovator pharmaceutical firms are at risk of losing billions of dollars in sales to generic competition. With issues such as staggering R&D costs, reduced productivity and increasing governmental emphasis on pharmacoeconomics, timely planning and implementation of product lifecycle management strategies is becoming indispensable. A variety of strategies designed to mitigate the post-patent expiry revenue loss exist. These approaches range from fairly straightforward measures, such as strategic price cuts and launching own or authorized generics, to complex and lengthy ones, such as new formulations and indications that require companies to reinvent their pharmaceuticals. As patent expiries loom and product pipelines continue to remain thin, proactive planning for generic entry will be critical for pharma companies to drive growth and earnings in a sustainable manner.

  17. Efficient mitigation strategies for epidemics in rural regions.

    PubMed

    Scoglio, Caterina; Schumm, Walter; Schumm, Phillip; Easton, Todd; Roy Chowdhury, Sohini; Sydney, Ali; Youssef, Mina

    2010-07-13

    Containing an epidemic at its origin is the most desirable mitigation. Epidemics have often originated in rural areas, with rural communities among the first affected. Disease dynamics in rural regions have received limited attention, and results of general studies cannot be directly applied since population densities and human mobility factors are very different in rural regions from those in cities. We create a network model of a rural community in Kansas, USA, by collecting data on the contact patterns and computing rates of contact among a sampled population. We model the impact of different mitigation strategies detecting closely connected groups of people and frequently visited locations. Within those groups and locations, we compare the effectiveness of random and targeted vaccinations using a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered compartmental model on the contact network. Our simulations show that the targeted vaccinations of only 10% of the sampled population reduced the size of the epidemic by 34.5%. Additionally, if 10% of the population visiting one of the most popular locations is randomly vaccinated, the epidemic size is reduced by 19%. Our results suggest a new implementation of a highly effective strategy for targeted vaccinations through the use of popular locations in rural communities.

  18. New aspects and strategies for methane mitigation from ruminants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Choudhury, Prasanta Kumar; Carro, Maria Dolores; Griffith, Gareth Wyn; Dagar, Sumit Singh; Puniya, Monica; Calabro, Serena; Ravella, Sreenivas Rao; Dhewa, Tejpal; Upadhyay, Ramesh Chandra; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Wanapat, Metha; Puniya, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for sustainable animal production is compelling researchers to explore the potential approaches to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from livestock that are mainly produced by enteric fermentation. Some potential solutions, for instance, the use of chemical inhibitors to reduce methanogenesis, are not feasible in routine use due to their toxicity to ruminants, inhibition of efficient rumen function or other transitory effects. Strategies, such as use of plant secondary metabolites and dietary manipulations have emerged to reduce the methane emission, but these still require extensive research before these can be recommended and deployed in the livestock industry sector. Furthermore, immunization vaccines for methanogens and phages are also under investigation for mitigation of enteric methanogenesis. The increasing knowledge of methanogenic diversity in rumen, DNA sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have paved the way for chemogenomic strategies by targeting methane producers. Chemogenomics will help in finding target enzymes and proteins, which will further assist in the screening of natural as well chemical inhibitors. The construction of a methanogenic gene catalogue through these approaches is an attainable objective. This will lead to understand the microbiome function, its relation with the host and feeds, and therefore, will form the basis of practically viable and eco-friendly methane mitigation approaches, while improving the ruminant productivity.

  19. Evaluation of Different Strategies for Mitigating Azimuthally Asymmetric Tropospheric Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, Landon; Nievinski, Felipe G.; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2010-05-01

    Observations occurring at low elevation angles are beneficial for space geodetic techniques as they improve the observational geometry and redundancy of the estimated solutions. Due to horizontal variations in the Earth's neutral atmosphere, most tropospheric delay mapping functions are not capable of accurately modeling the delay at low elevation angles as they assume the Earth's atmosphere to be azimuthally symmetric. It is possible to estimate tropospheric gradient parameters to account for the bulk of the asymmetric delay, but these gradients account for only a single main direction of asymmetry, and their estimation reduces the redundancy of the solution especially for applications requiring short observation sessions. To help overcome these challenges, ray-tracing through numerical weather models (NWM) is a promising technique to model both the elevation angle- and azimuth-dependence of the tropospheric delay. We evaluate three strategies for mitigating the asymmetric tropospheric delay: (a) unaided GPS estimation; (b) NWM-aided GPS estimation; and (c) NWM-prediction (no GPS estimation). Strategy (a) consists of employing solely the GPS observations themselves to determine the tropospheric gradient parameters following the standard strategy, recommended in the updated IERS Conventions. In strategy (b) we employ a priori information provided by the NWM to constrain the direction of the delay gradient, needing to estimate only its magnitude from the GPS observations. Finally, in (c)we rely solely on the slant factors (the ratio between slant delays and zenith delay), obtained by ray-tracing in a 3D NWM. Notice that in (a) and (b) we assume the delay exhibits a single dominant direction of azimuthal asymmetry, while in (c) we make no assumptions about the nature of the asymmetries. While this work focuses on azimuthally asymmetric portion of the delay, we evaluate, en passant, the strategy of (d) constraining slant delays (or slant factors) at the observation

  20. Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

    2013-06-01

    Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (-75%) and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

  1. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  2. Radiation effects and mitigation strategies for modern FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettler, M. W.; Caffrey, M. P.; Graham, P. S.; Krone, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Array devices have become the technology of choice in small volume modern instrumentation and control systems. These devices have always offered significant advantages in flexibility, and recent advances in fabrication have greatly increased logic capacity, substantially increasing the number of applications for this technology. Unfortunately, the increased density (and corresponding shrinkage of process geometry), has made these devices more susceptible to failure due to external radiation. This has been an issue for space based systems for some time, but is now becoming an issue for terrestrial systems in elevated radiation environments and commercial avionics as well. Characterizing the failure modes of Xilinx FPGAs, and developing mitigation strategies is the subject of ongoing research by a consortium of academic, industrial, and governmental laboratories. This paper presents background information of radiation effects and failure modes, as well as current and future mitigation techniques. In particular, the availability of very large FPGA devices, complete with generous amounts of RAM and embedded processor(s), has led to the implementation of complete digital systems on a single device, bringing issues of system reliability and redundancy management to the chip level. Radiation effects on a single FPGA are increasingly likely to have system level consequences, and will need to be addressed in current and future designs.

  3. The Pitfalls of REBOA: Risk Factors and Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Anders J; Russo, Rachel M; Reva, Viktor A; Brenner, Megan L; Moore, Laura J; Ball, Chad; Bulger, Eileen; DuBose, Joseph J; Moore, Ernest E; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2017-10-04

    Despite technological advancements, REBOA is associated with significant risks due to complications of vascular access and ischemia-reperfusion. The inherent morbidity and mortality of REBOA is often compounded by coexisting injury and hemorrhagic shock. Additionally, the potential for REBOA-related injuries is exaggerated due to the growing number of interventions being performed by providers who have limited experience in endovascular techniques, inadequate resources, minimal training in the technique, and who are performing this maneuver in emergency situations. In an effort to ultimately improve outcomes with REBOA, we sought to compile a list of complications that may be encountered during REBOA usage. To address the current knowledge gap, we assembled a list of anecdotal complications from high-volume REBOA users internationally. More importantly, through a consensus model, we identify contributory factors that may lead to complications and deliberate on how to recognize, mitigate, and manage such events. An understanding of the pitfalls of REBOA and strategies to mitigate their occurrence is of vital importance to optimize patient outcomes.

  4. Effectiveness of landslide risk mitigation strategies in Shihmen Watershed, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Yi; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish landslide risk analysis procedures that can be used to analyze landslide risk in a watershed scale and to assess the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies. Landslide risk analysis encompassed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability of elements at risk, and community resilience capacity. First, landslide spatial probability, landslide temporal probability, and landslide area probability were joined to estimate the probability of landslides with an area exceeding a certain threshold in each slope unit. Second, the expected property and life losses were both analyzed in vulnerability analysis. Different elements at risk were assigned corresponding values, and then used in conjunction with the vulnerabilities to carry out quantitative analysis. Third, the resilience capacity of different communities was calculated based on the scores obtained through community checklists and the weights of individual items, including "the participation experience of disaster prevention drill," "real-time monitoring mechanism of community," "autonomous monitoring of residents," and "disaster prevention volunteer." Finally, the landslide probabilities, vulnerability analysis results, and resilience capacities were combined to assess landslide risk in Shihmen Watershed. In addition, the risks before and after the implementation of non-structural disaster prevention strategies were compared to determine the benefits of various strategies, and subsequently benefit-cost analysis was performed. Communities with high benefit-cost ratios included Hualing, Yisheng, Siouluan, and Gaoyi. The watershed as a whole had a benefit-cost ratio far greater than 1, indicating that the effectiveness of strategies was greater than the investment cost, and these measures were thus cost-effective. The results of factor sensitivity analysis revealed that changes in vulnerability and mortality rates would increase the uncertainty of risk, and that raise in annual

  5. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications.

  6. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  7. Predictive Analysis of Mechanistic Triggers and Mitigation Strategies for Pathological Scarring in Skin Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-12

    of January 12, 2017. This information is current as Scarring in Skin Wounds and Mitigation Strategies for Pathological Predictive Analysis of...Predictive Analysis of Mechanistic Triggers and Mitigation Strategies for Pathological Scarring in Skin Wounds Sridevi Nagaraja,* Lin Chen,† Jian Zhou...problem of increasing prevalence, with poorly understood mechanistic triggers and limited therapeutic options. In this study , we employed an

  8. Opioid Therapy and Sleep Disorders: Risks and Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Webster, Lynn R

    2015-10-01

    Patients with chronic pain frequently experience concomitant sleep disorders. There has been controversy on whether opioids have a beneficial or deleterious effect on sleep quality, duration and efficiency. There is also concern regarding the association between chronic opioid therapy (COT) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and the increased risk for unintentional opioid related overdose. This article provides a narrative review of the literature on the effect of opioids on sleep disorders and discusses risk assessment and mitigation strategies. A narrative review of the current literature on the effect of prescription opioids on sleep quality and efficiency, the relationship between opioids and sleep disorders and potential risk factors in patients with chronic pain. There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefit of opioids in improving sleep quality, duration and efficiency with several studies and reviews suggesting a beneficial effect of opioids on sleep and other studies demonstrating the opioids can cause sleep disturbance leading to hyperalgesia. There was credible evidence of a strong relationship between opioids and SDB with noted risk factors including use of methadone, high opioid dosing (>200 mg MED) and combining opioids with benzodiazepines. Further research is required to elucidate the effect of prescription opioids on sleep quality and pain intensity and the risks associated with opioids and SDB. The risk of SDB should be routinely assessed in patients on COT. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  10. Source attribution and mitigation strategies for air pollution in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesewetter, Gregor; Purohit, Pallav; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Liu, Jun; Amann, Markus; Bhanarkar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Indian cities, and the megacity of Delhi in particular, have suffered from high air pollution for years. Recent observations show that ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Delhi strongly exceed the Indian national ambient air quality standards as well as the World Health Organization's interim target levels. At the same time, India is experiencing strong urbanization, and both Delhi's emissions as well as the exposed population are growing. Therefore the question arises how PM2.5 concentrations will evolve in the future, and how they can be improved efficiently. In the past, typical responses of the Delhi government to high pollution episodes have been restrictions on motorized road traffic, on power plant operations and on construction activities. However, to design sustainable and efficient pollution mitigation measures, the contribution of different source sectors and spatial scales needs to be quantified. Here we combine the established emission calculation scheme of the Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model with regional chemistry-transport model simulations (0.5° resolution) as well as local particle dispersion (2 × 2 km resolution) to arrive at a source attribution of ambient PM2.5 in Delhi. Calculated concentrations compare well to observations. We find that roughly 60% of total population-weighted PM2.5 originates from sources outside the national capital territory of Delhi itself. Consequently, mitigation strategies need to involve neighboring states and address the typical sources there. We discuss the likely evolution of ambient concentrations under different scenarios which assume either current emission control legislation, or application of a Clean Air Scenario foreseeing additional regulations in non-industrial sectors which are often overlooked, such as phase-out of solid fuel cookstoves, and road paving. Only in the case where the Clean Air Scenario is applied both in Delhi as well as in

  11. An Interface to Drought Mitigation: Decision Support Tools from the National Drought Mitigation Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M.; Fuchs, B.; Hayes, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) (http://drought.unl.edu) has been working with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) (http://drought.gov) and other partners with a goal of developing tools to enhance drought risk management activities around the world. The NDMC is a national center founded in 1995 and located at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The NDMC conducts basic and applied research, services and decision support applications, along with maintaining a number of operational drought-related tools and products including the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR) and Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). The NDMC's newly launched National Drought Atlas (NDA) will be the focus of this presentation. Building off the concept of the original National Electronic Drought Atlas (NEDA) developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (led by Hoskings, Wallis and Guttman in the early 1990s), the original NEDA consisted of approximately 1000 stations taken from the Historical Climate Network (HCN). The period of record was limited at that time with most stations only having digital data from the late 1940s to present. For the NDMC's NDA, more than 12,000 stations with precipitation and/or temperature records from the National Weather Service Cooperative data (COOP) network were analyzed through the Regional Climate Centers' (RCCs) Applied Climate Information System (ACIS). From the initial sample set of 12,000 sites considered, over 3000 stations had at least 40 years of data and over 1700 sites had over 60 years of data meeting our criteria. A unique period of record (POR) was established for each station based on the screening criteria, with each station having a unique starting date. From the final selection of 3059 stations, all have at least 40+ years of data and 827 sites contain over 80+ years of data. In essence, the new NDA tripled the size and doubled the period of record of those sites used in

  12. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatate, D.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    This document proposes a strategy to address issues related to leakage from single-shell tanks (SSTs) during sluicing. A set of criteria are proposed to capture the relevant issues pertaining to leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM), and allow DOE-RL, the Contractor, Ecology, and Hanford Stakeholders to reach consensus on allowable leakage volumes (ALVs). Technical studies and findings that support the proposed strategy, and ALV criteria, are summarized and referenced. This document specifically addresses LDMM for SSTs at Hanford, Washington.

  13. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  14. Assessment of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in oncology: summary of the oncology risk evaluation and mitigation strategies workshop.

    PubMed

    Frame, James N; Jacobson, Joseph O; Vogel, Wendy H; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L; Bialecki, Alison M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Allen, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. THE WORKSHOP IDENTIFIED SEVERAL UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES RESULTING FROM CURRENT ONCOLOGY REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored-and therefore not accessible-to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication.

  15. The effectiveness of cool and green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect at the city-scale is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in conjunction with the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM). Specifically, the cooling impacts of green roof and cool (white/high-albedo) roof strategies over the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area during a heat wave period (7 June-10 June 2008) are assessed using the optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM described in the companion paper by Li and Bou-Zeid (2014). Results indicate that the surface UHI effect (defined based on the urban-rural surface temperature difference) is reduced significantly more than the near-surface UHI effect (defined based on urban-rural 2 m air temperature difference) when these mitigation strategies are adopted. In addition, as the green and cool roof fractions increase, the surface and near-surface UHIs are reduced almost linearly. Green roofs with relatively abundant soil moisture have comparable effect in reducing the surface and near-surface UHIs to cool roofs with an albedo value of 0.7. Significant indirect effects are also observed for both green and cool roof strategies; mainly, the low-level advection of atmospheric moisture from rural areas into urban terrain is enhanced when the fraction of these roofs increases, thus increasing the humidity in urban areas. The additional benefits or penalties associated with modifications of the main physical determinants of green or cool roof performance are also investigated. For green roofs, when the soil moisture is increased by irrigation, additional cooling effect is obtained, especially when the ‘unmanaged’ soil moisture is low. The effects of changing the albedo of cool roofs are also substantial. These results also underline the capabilities of the WRF-PUCM framework to support detailed analysis and diagnosis of the UHI phenomenon, and of its different mitigation strategies.

  16. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Susan C; Peterson, Janet; Yektashenas, Behin

    2012-02-01

    The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices.

  17. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  18. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster's mitigation communication and education strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won't be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  19. Biomechanical strategies for mitigating collision damage in insect wings: structural design versus embedded elastic materials.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2014-04-01

    The wings of many insects accumulate considerable wear and tear during their lifespan, and this irreversible structural damage can impose significant costs on insect flight performance and survivability. Wing wear in foraging bumblebees (and likely many other species) is caused by inadvertent, repeated collisions with vegetation during flight, suggesting the possibility that insect wings may display biomechanical adaptations to mitigate the damage associated with collisions. We used a novel experimental technique to artificially induce wing wear in bumblebees and yellowjacket wasps, closely related species with similar life histories but distinct wing morphologies. Wasps have a flexible resilin joint (the costal break) positioned distally along the leading edge of the wing, which allows the wing tip to crumple reversibly when it hits an obstacle, whereas bumblebees lack an analogous joint. Through experimental manipulation of its stiffness, we found that the costal break plays a critical role in mitigating collision damage in yellowjacket wings. However, bumblebee wings do not experience as much damage as would be expected based on their lack of a costal break, possibly due to differences in the spatial arrangement of supporting wing veins. Our results indicate that these two species utilize different wing design strategies for mitigating damage resulting from collisions. A simple inertial model of a flapping wing reveals the biomechanical constraints acting on the costal break, which may help explain its absence in bumblebee wings.

  20. Israel wildfires: future trends, impacts and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, Lea

    2017-04-01

    potential risks and management strategic. Moreover, national agencies and local authorities must decide on a range of post-fire measures to mitigate risks quickly since most large fires occur late in summer shortly before the winter season. Possible climate changes, socio-economic trends, and intense land use pressures are contributing factors in a national challenge to deal with forest fires along the WUI. However, in order to support integrated fire preparedness, response, management and recovery at the national, regional and local scales, stronger research and planning effort are required. This includes long-term monitoring programs and a systematic, standardized data acquisition scheme, compiling fire history, landscape-fire spread, mitigation and assessment of the immediate fire effects, land use changes and weather data. Knowledge of both short and long-term impacts of wildfire is essential for effective risk assessment, policy formulation and wildfire management.

  1. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  2. Supporting Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    INTRODUCTION There are many opinions on the potentials for GHG mitigation in agriculture, but it is not always clear which among these are the most reliable and useful. The issues are complex, and the opinions as many and varied as those who have been brave enough to put their ideas forward. This co...

  3. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process

  4. Assuring safety of inherently unsafe medications: the FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lewis S; Loh, Meredith; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2014-06-01

    The decision to approve a drug for clinical use is based on an understanding of its benefits versus the risks. Although efficacy is generally understood at the time of submission to the FDA for approval, the risks are more difficult to assess. Both PubMed (from 2000 to 2012) and the FDA website (www.fda.gov) were searched using the search terms "risk evaluation and mitigation strategy" (REMS). Articles for review were selected by relevance to topic, and their references were searched as well for additional relevant resources. Since the search results were not expected to contain research studies, formal quality assessment and inclusion and exclusion criteria were not utilized resulting in a narrative review. Few directly relevant research studies exist, although supporting documents such as government reports were available. For effective drugs with unclear or concerning safety records, the FDA has the option of requiring a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, which allows a systematic approach to track and assure safe medication use. Over 100 different medications are currently covered by REMS, and each REMS is developed individually based on the needs of the specific drug or class. Although likely associated with improvements in medication safety, the potential benefit, limitations, and consequences of REMS are not yet fully understood.

  5. Ambient Air Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Exposures to Mobile Source PM2.5 Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation discussing ambient air mitigation strategies for near-road exposures. The presentation provides an overview of multiple methods, but focuses on the role roadside features (sound walls, vegetation) may play. This presentation summarizes preoviously published work by...

  6. Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Cesar; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Stutzki, Fabian; Jansen, Florian; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-08-12

    Mode instabilities have quickly become the most limiting effect when it comes to scaling the output average power of fiber laser systems. In consequence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies to mitigate it and, thus, to increase the power threshold at which it appears. Passive mitigation strategies can be classified into intrinsic, which are related to the fiber design, and extrinsic, which require a modification of the setup. In order to evaluate the impact of mitigation strategies, a means to calculate its power threshold and predict its behavior is required. In this paper we present a simple semi-analytic formula that is able to predict the changes of the mode instability threshold by analyzing the strength of the thermally-induced waveguide perturbations. Furthermore, we propose two passive mitigation strategies, one intrinsic and one extrinsic, that should lead to a significant increase of the power threshold of mode instabilities.

  7. Ambient Air Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Exposures to Mobile Source PM2.5 Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation discussing ambient air mitigation strategies for near-road exposures. The presentation provides an overview of multiple methods, but focuses on the role roadside features (sound walls, vegetation) may play. This presentation summarizes preoviously published work by...

  8. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  9. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  10. Financial Impact of Cancer Drug Wastage and Potential Cost Savings From Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Caitlyn Y W; Cheung, Matthew C; Charbonneau, Lauren F; Prica, Anca; Ng, Pamela; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-07-01

    Cancer drug wastage occurs when a parenteral drug within a fixed vial is not administered fully to a patient. This study investigated the extent of drug wastage, the financial impact on the hospital budget, and the cost savings associated with current mitigation strategies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals of various sizes. We recorded the actual amount of drug wasted over a 2-week period while using current mitigation strategies. Single-dose vial cancer drugs with the highest wastage potentials were identified (14 drugs). To calculate the hypothetical drug wastage with no mitigation strategies, we determined how many vials of drugs would be needed to fill a single prescription. The total drug costs over the 2 weeks ranged from $50,257 to $716,983 in the three institutions. With existing mitigation strategies, the actual drug wastage over the 2 weeks ranged from $928 to $5,472, which was approximately 1% to 2% of the total drug costs. In the hypothetical model with no mitigation strategies implemented, the projected drug cost wastage would have been $11,232 to $149,131, which accounted for 16% to 18% of the total drug costs. As a result, the potential annual savings while using current mitigation strategies range from 15% to 17%. The financial impact of drug wastage is substantial. Mitigation strategies lead to substantial cost savings, with the opportunity to reinvest those savings. More research is needed to determine the appropriate methods to minimize risk to patients while using the cost-saving mitigation strategies.

  11. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    PubMed

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  12. Decision-Support System for Mitigating Long-Term Flood Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H. R.; van Delden, H.; Newman, J. P.; Riddell, G. A.; Zecchin, A. C.; Dandy, G. C.; Newland, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term flood risk in urban areas is expected to increase as a result of a number of factors, such as an increase in the severity of flood events due to the impact of climate change and the exposure of a larger number of people to flooding as a result of population growth. In order to facilitate the development of long-term flood mitigation plans, a framework for a decision-support system (DSS) is presented in this paper. The framework consists of an integrated model (see Figure) consisting of dynamic, spatially distributed land-use and flood inundation models. It also enables the impact of various flood mitigation strategies to be assessed, such as spatial planning, land management, structural measures (e.g. levees, changes in building codes), and community education. The framework considers a number of external drivers that are represented in the form of long-term planning scenarios. These include the impact of climate drivers on the extent of flooding via the flood inundation model and the impact of population and economic drivers on the size and distribution of the population via the land use allocation model. Using this framework, a DSS is being developed and applied to the Greater Adelaide region of South Australia. This DSS includes an intuitive, user-friendly interface for enabling different planning scenarios and mitigation portfolios to be selected, as well as temporal changes in flood risk maps under each of these scenarios to be observed. Changes in flood risk maps are investigated over a 30-year period with climate drivers represented by different representative concentration pathways, population drivers represented by different population projections and economic drivers represented by different employment rates. The impact of different combinations of mitigation measures is also investigated. The results indicate that climate, population and economic drivers have a significant impact on the temporal evolution of flood risk for the case study area

  13. Effects of hyperthermia as a mitigation strategy in DNA damage-based cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Mantso, Theodora; Goussetis, George; Franco, Rodrigo; Botaitis, Sotiris; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis

    2016-06-01

    Utilization of thermal therapy (hyperthermia) is defined as the application of exogenous heat induction and represents a concept that is far from new as it goes back to ancient times when heat was used for treating various diseases, including malignancies. Such therapeutic strategy has gained even more popularity (over the last few decades) since various studies have shed light into understanding hyperthermia's underlying molecular mechanism(s) of action. In general, hyperthermia is applied as complementary (adjuvant) means in therapeutic protocols combining chemotherapy and/or irradiation both of which can induce irreversible cellular DNA damage. Furthermore, according to a number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, hyperthermia has been shown to enhance the beneficial effects of DNA targeting therapeutic strategies by interfering with DNA repair response cascades. Therefore, the continuously growing evidence supporting hyperthermia's beneficial role in cancer treatment can also encourage its application as a DNA repair mitigation strategy. In this review article, we aim to provide detailed information on how hyperthermia acts on DNA damage and repair pathways and thus potentially contributing to various adjuvant therapeutic protocols relevant to more efficient cancer treatment strategies.

  14. EPA Releases Technical Guides to Support Vapor Intrusion Assessment and Mitigation Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released two technical guides to support assessment and mitigation activities at sites where vapor intrusion is an actual or potential concern.

  15. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programs in solid organ transplantation: the promises of information technology.

    PubMed

    Tsapepas, Demetra S; McKeen, Jaclyn T; Martin, Spencer T; Walker-McDermott, Jennifer K; Yang, Alex; Hirsch, Jamie; Mohan, Sumit; Tiwari, Ruchi

    2014-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) required by the Food and Drug Administration are implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing safe use throughout the life of a pharmaceutical agent. Healthcare organizations have begun to adopt information technologies with clinical decision support (CDS) to ensure safe use of medications. Systems have been expanded and customized to also ensure compliance with regulatory standards. End users who are unfamiliar with particular medication use provisions are at risk of unknowingly inappropriately fulfilling specific components. Institution-specific customization of vendor-provided CDS is useful to enhance provider awareness and ensure compliance with standards. Integration of health information technology systems to fulfill REMS requirements is novel and important to ensure consistency as healthcare standards evolve.

  16. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programs in solid organ transplantation: the promises of information technology

    PubMed Central

    Tsapepas, Demetra S; McKeen, Jaclyn T; Martin, Spencer T; Walker-McDermott, Jennifer K; Yang, Alex; Hirsch, Jamie; Mohan, Sumit; Tiwari, Ruchi

    2014-01-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) required by the Food and Drug Administration are implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing safe use throughout the life of a pharmaceutical agent. Healthcare organizations have begun to adopt information technologies with clinical decision support (CDS) to ensure safe use of medications. Systems have been expanded and customized to also ensure compliance with regulatory standards. End users who are unfamiliar with particular medication use provisions are at risk of unknowingly inappropriately fulfilling specific components. Institution-specific customization of vendor-provided CDS is useful to enhance provider awareness and ensure compliance with standards. Integration of health information technology systems to fulfill REMS requirements is novel and important to ensure consistency as healthcare standards evolve. PMID:24573422

  17. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement

  18. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  19. Medicine shortages: a commentary on causes and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Swathi; Hedman, Lisa; Forte, Gilles; Hill, Suzanne

    2016-09-29

    Shortages of medicines and vaccines have been reported in countries of all income levels in recent years. Shortages can result from one or multiple causes, including shortages of raw materials, manufacturing capacity problems, industry consolidation, marketing practices, and procurement and supply chain management. Existing approaches to mitigate shortages include advance notice systems managed through medicine regulatory authorities, special programmes that track medicines, and interventions to improve efficiency of the medicine supply chain. Redistribution of supplies at the national level can mitigate some shortages in the short term. International redistribution and exceptional regulatory approvals may be used in limited circumstances, with the understanding that such approaches are complex and may introduce cost and quality risks. If it is necessary to prioritise patients to receive a medicine that is in shortage, evidence-based practice should be used to ensure optimal allocation. Important steps in reducing medicine shortages and their impact include identifying medicines that are most at risk, developing reporting systems to share information on current and emerging shortages, and improving data from medicine supply chains.

  20. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    PubMed

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifiability in biobanks: models, measures, and mitigation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Loukides, Grigorios; Benitez, Kathleen; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2013-01-01

    The collection and sharing of person-specific biospecimens has raised significant questions regarding privacy. In particular, the question of identifiability, or the degree to which materials stored in biobanks can be linked to the name of the individuals from which they were derived, is under scrutiny. The goal of this paper is to review the extent to which biospecimens and affiliated data can be designated as identifiable. To achieve this goal, we summarize recent research in identifiability assessment for DNA sequence data, as well as associated demographic and clinical data, shared via biobanks. We demonstrate the variability of the degree of risk, the factors that contribute to this variation, and potential ways to mitigate and manage such risk. Finally, we discuss the policy implications of these findings, particularly as they pertain to biobank security and access policies. We situate our review in the context of real data sharing scenarios and biorepositories. PMID:21739176

  2. Behavioral Health and Performance, Risk to Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren; Whitemire, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the working of the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) group, which supports the research element which manages an integrated program for future space flight. The BHP operations group supports astronauts and their families in all phases of the International Space Station Mission, and post mission effects.

  3. Strategies for Supporting Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robin A.; Thompson, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Programs for teenage mothers provided through school districts or community agencies often have their own curricular agenda for teaching teenage mothers about the proper care of and nutrition for infants and the typical stages of child development, but not all programs are successful in supporting the development of positive early relationships…

  4. Strategies to Support Productive Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warshauer, Hiroko K.

    2015-01-01

    An episode in which students encounter difficulty while working on a challenging task can be viewed as an opportunity for them to grapple with important mathematical ideas. Teachers can use these instances to acknowledge struggle as a natural part of learning while providing appropriate guidance and support to maintain the mathematical goals and…

  5. Strategies for Supporting Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robin A.; Thompson, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Programs for teenage mothers provided through school districts or community agencies often have their own curricular agenda for teaching teenage mothers about the proper care of and nutrition for infants and the typical stages of child development, but not all programs are successful in supporting the development of positive early relationships…

  6. Proactive strategies in personal dose monitoring, prevention and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish Kumar

    At certain threshold, nuclear radiation (like x-rays and gamma-rays) may adversely impact the health of living tissues. The exposure to these radiations in nuclear facilities is measured by devices called dosimeters. The devices are generally worn on the torso and are monitored by health physics division to report the radiation dose received by the personnel. However, this approach is not proactive--since the dosimeters reflect the dose that has already been absorbed in the body of the wearer. This work presents a scheme to proactively avoid large dose acquisition at radiation-prone facilities. The work was divided into three major segments: (i) identify and characterize radioactive source(s), (ii) determine the impact of localized source(s), and (iii) estimate the integrated doses in traversing/evacuating the facility. The scope of this work does not extend to the development of "proactive" dosimeter. However, the approaches developed in these segments will be integrated into a dose monitoring system that would prevent or mitigate large dose acquisition. This work also has applications in nuclear facilities, hospitals, homeland security, and border protection.

  7. Mitigating crosslinking reactions through preconversion strategies. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to develop preconversion techniques that will mitigate crosslinking reactions and thereby substantially increase liquid yields during subsequent liquefaction. The immediate objective is to explore the effect of several pretreatments on the evolution of oxygen functions, crosslinking, and conversion in laboratory studies. The pretreatments to be explored include several that hold promise for effecting deoxygenation or other reduction, for example, treatment with CO/water/base and hydroquinones, either alone or in conjunction. The effects of these pretreatments on functional group distribution, macromoleculer structure, and liquefaction will be compared with those that have shown promise in the past for improved conversions, such as simple hydrothermal pretreatment, mild hydrogenation with dispersed catalysts, and demineralization. A second objective is to develop suitable test procedures for assessing the effect of the pretreatment on subsequent liquefaction and achieve also an understanding the chemical origin of the effect. These test procedures will include the use of proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) for determining the effect of pretreatment on fluidity as liquefaction conditions (temperature, pressure) are approached. They will also involve the use of simpler and more pertinent laboratory measures of volatile product yields following the batch liquefactions that will be run to test the susceptibility of pretreated coals to subsequent liquefaction.

  8. Medical mitigation strategies for acute radiation exposure during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Slava; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2006-02-01

    The United States Government has recently refocused their space program on manned missions to the Moon by 2018 and later to Mars. While there are many potential risks associated with exploration-class missions, one of the most serious and unpredictable is the effect of acute space radiation exposure, and the space program must make every reasonable effort to mitigate this risk. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth's magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Either can cause acute and chronic medical illness. Numerous researchers are currently examining the ability of GCR exposure to induce the development of genetic changes that lead to malignancies and other delayed effects. However, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE event and the potential impact on the mission and crew. This review paper will provide the readers with medical management options for an acute radiation event based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and evidence-based critical analysis of the scientific literature. It is the goal of this paper to stimulate debate regarding the definition of safety parameters for exploration-class missions to determine the level of medical care necessary to provide for the crew that will undertake such missions.

  9. Conservation strategies to mitigate impacts from climate change in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Timothy J; Solórzano, Luis A

    2008-05-27

    Protected area systems and conservation corridors can help mitigate the impacts of climate change on Amazonian biodiversity. We propose conservation design criteria that will help species survive in situ or adjust range distributions in response to increased drought. The first priority is to protect the western Amazon, identified as the 'Core Amazon', due to stable rainfall regimes and macro-ecological phenomena that have led to the evolution of high levels of biodiversity. Ecotones can buffer the impact from climate change because populations are genetically adapted to climate extremes, particularly seasonality, because high levels of habitat diversity are associated with edaphic variability. Future climatic tension zones should be surveyed for geomorphological features that capture rain or conserve soil moisture to identify potential refugia for humid forest species. Conservation corridors should span environmental gradients to ensure that species can shift range distributions. Riparian corridors provide protection to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Multiple potential altitudinal corridors exist in the Andes, but natural and anthropogenic bottlenecks will constrain the ability of species to shift their ranges and adapt to climate change. Planned infrastructure investments are a serious threat to the potential to consolidate corridors over the short and medium term.

  10. Basic Strategies of Dynamic Supportive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Misch, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Supportive therapy is the psychotherapeutic approach employed with the majority of mentally ill individuals. Nevertheless, most mental health professional training programs dedicate little time and effort to the teaching and learning of supportive therapy, and many mental health professionals are unable to clearly and concisely articulate the nature or process of supportive work. Although supportive therapy incorporates many specific techniques from a wide variety of psychotherapy schools, it can be conceptualized as consisting of a more limited number of underlying strategies. The fundamental strategies that underpin effective supportive therapy with mentally ill individuals are described. PMID:11069130

  11. Genome sequencing of rumen bacteria and archaea and its application to methane mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Leahy, S C; Kelly, W J; Ronimus, R S; Wedlock, N; Altermann, E; Attwood, G T

    2013-06-01

    Ruminant-derived methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, is a consequence of microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of livestock. Development of mitigation strategies to reduce CH4 emissions from farmed animals is currently the subject of both scientific and environmental interest. Methanogens are the sole producers of ruminant CH4, and therefore CH4 abatement strategies can either target the methanogens themselves or target the other members of the rumen microbial community that produce substrates necessary for methanogenesis. Understanding the relationship that methanogens have with other rumen microbes is crucial when considering CH4 mitigation strategies for ruminant livestock. Genome sequencing of rumen microbes is an important tool to improve our knowledge of the processes that underpin those relationships. Currently, several rumen bacterial and archaeal genome projects are either complete or underway. Genome sequencing is providing information directly applicable to CH4 mitigation strategies based on vaccine and small molecule inhibitor approaches. In addition, genome sequencing is contributing information relevant to other CH4 mitigation strategies. These include the selection and breeding of low CH4-emitting animals through the interpretation of large-scale DNA and RNA sequencing studies and the modification of other microbial groups within the rumen, thereby changing the dynamics of microbial fermentation.

  12. An Optimal Mitigation Strategy Against the Asteroid Impact Threat with Short Warning Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) Phase 2 study entitled "An Innovative Solution to NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development." This NIAC Phase 2 study was conducted at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) of Iowa State University in 2012-2014. The study objective was to develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation strategy for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (less than 5 years). The mitigation strategy described in this paper is intended to optimally reduce the severity and catastrophic damage of the NEO impact event, especially when we don't have sufficient warning times for non-disruptive deflection of a hazardous NEO. This paper provides an executive summary of the NIAC Phase 2 study results.

  13. Kinematic strategies for mitigating gust perturbations in insects.

    PubMed

    Vance, J T; Faruque, I; Humbert, J S

    2013-03-01

    Insects are attractive models for the development of micro-aerial vehicles (MAVs) due to their relatively simple sensing, actuation and control architectures as compared to vertebrates, and because of their robust flight ability in dynamic and heterogeneous environments, characterized by turbulence and gusts of wind. How do insects respond to gust perturbations? We investigated this question by perturbing freely-flying honey bees and stalk-eye flies with low-pressure bursts of compressed air to simulate a wind gust. Body and wing kinematics were analyzed from flight sequences, recorded using three high-speed digital video cameras. Bees quickly responded to body rotations caused by gusts through bilateral asymmetry in stroke amplitude, whereas stalk-eye flies used a combination of asymmetric stroke amplitude and wing rotation angle. Both insects coordinated asymmetric and symmetric kinematics in response to gusts, which provides model strategies for simple yet robust flight characteristics for MAVs.

  14. Pharmacogenomics as a risk mitigation strategy for chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Brian C; McLeod, Howard L

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the heart can result from both traditional chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin, and newer 'targeted' therapies, such as trastuzumab. This chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity is potentially life-threatening and necessitates limiting or discontinuing an otherwise-effective cancer treatment. Clinical strategies focus on surveillance rather than prevention, although there are no specific therapies for this highly morbid adverse effect. Current models for prospectively predicting risk of chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity are limited. Cardiotoxicity can occur idiosyncratically in patients without obvious demographic risk factors, suggesting a genetically determined susceptibility, and candidate-gene studies have identified a limited number of variants that increase risk. In this commentary we indicate a need for more powerful means to identify risk prospectively, and suggest that broad pharmacogenomic approaches may be fruitful.

  15. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Shi, Xiaolei; Burk, Caitlin M; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have emerged to reduce/eliminate the allergenicity of peanuts or to better treat peanut-allergic individuals. In this review, we give an overview of peanut allergy, with a focus on peanut proteins, including the impact of thermal processing on peanut protein structure and detection in food matrices. We discuss several strategies currently being investigated to mitigate peanut allergy, including genetic engineering, novel processing strategies, and immunotherapy in terms of mechanisms, recent research, and limitations. All strategies are discussed with considerations for both peanut-allergic individuals and the numerous industries/government agencies involved throughout peanut production and utilization.

  16. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  17. 75 FR 34453 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a...

  18. 78 FR 78067 - Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public Meeting on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... December 24, 2013 Part V Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 16 and 121 Focused Mitigation Strategies To Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration; Public..., 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...

  19. 76 FR 14413 - Risk Mitigation Strategies To Address Potential Procoagulant Activity in Immune Globulin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...) pathophysiology of arterial and venous thrombosis in this context; (3) research to identify specific procoagulant...) the role of activated Coagulation Factor XIa in IGIV-associated thrombosis; (6) test methods for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Mitigation Strategies To Address Potential...

  20. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Robert M. Scheller

    2011-01-01

    We investigated questions about the ability of broad silvicultural strategies to achieve multiple objectives (reduce disturbance losses, maintain the abundance of preferred species, mitigate fragmentation and loss of age-class diversity, and sequester aboveground carbon) under future climate conditions in Siberia. We conducted a factorial experiment using the LANDIS-II...

  1. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law.

  2. A Dynamic Model for the Evaluation of Aircraft Engine Icing Detection and Control-Based Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Jones, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Aircraft flying in regions of high ice crystal concentrations are susceptible to the buildup of ice within the compression system of their gas turbine engines. This ice buildup can restrict engine airflow and cause an uncommanded loss of thrust, also known as engine rollback, which poses a potential safety hazard. The aviation community is conducting research to understand this phenomena, and to identify avoidance and mitigation strategies to address the concern. To support this research, a dynamic turbofan engine model has been created to enable the development and evaluation of engine icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies. This model captures the dynamic engine response due to high ice water ingestion and the buildup of ice blockage in the engines low pressure compressor. It includes a fuel control system allowing engine closed-loop control effects during engine icing events to be emulated. The model also includes bleed air valve and horsepower extraction actuators that, when modulated, change overall engine operating performance. This system-level model has been developed and compared against test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine undergoing engine icing studies in an altitude test facility and also against outputs from the manufacturers customer deck. This paper will describe the model and show results of its dynamic response under open-loop and closed-loop control operating scenarios in the presence of ice blockage buildup compared against engine test cell data. Planned follow-on use of the model for the development and evaluation of icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies will also be discussed. The intent is to combine the model and control mitigation logic with an engine icing risk calculation tool capable of predicting the risk of engine icing based on current operating conditions. Upon detection of an operating region of risk for engine icing events, the control mitigation logic will seek to change the

  3. Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rescuing amphibian diversity is an achievable conservation challenge. Disease mitigation is one essential component of population management. Here we assess existing disease mitigation strategies, some in early experimental stages, which focus on the globally emerging chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We discuss the precedent for each strategy in systems ranging from agriculture to human medicine, and the outlook for each strategy in terms of research needs and long-term potential. Results We find that the effects of exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis occur on a spectrum from transient commensal to lethal pathogen. Management priorities are divided between (1) halting pathogen spread and developing survival assurance colonies, and (2) prophylactic or remedial disease treatment. Epidemiological models of chytridiomycosis suggest that mitigation strategies can control disease without eliminating the pathogen. Ecological ethics guide wildlife disease research, but several ethical questions remain for managing disease in the field. Conclusions Because sustainable conservation of amphibians in nature is dependent on long-term population persistence and co-evolution with potentially lethal pathogens, we suggest that disease mitigation not focus exclusively on the elimination or containment of the pathogen, or on the captive breeding of amphibian hosts. Rather, successful disease mitigation must be context specific with epidemiologically informed strategies to manage already infected populations by decreasing pathogenicity and host susceptibility. We propose population level treatments based on three steps: first, identify mechanisms of disease suppression; second, parameterize epizootiological models of disease and population dynamics for testing under semi-natural conditions; and third, begin a process of adaptive management in field trials with natural populations. PMID:21496358

  4. Patient-Stated Preferences Regarding Volume-Related Risk Mitigation Strategies for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Flythe, Jennifer E.; Mangione, Thomas W.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Larger weight gain and higher ultrafiltration rates have been associated with poorer outcomes among patients on dialysis. Dietary restrictions reduce fluid-related risk; however, adherence is challenging. Alternative fluid mitigation strategies include treatment time extension, more frequent dialysis, adjunct peritoneal dialysis, and wearable ultrafiltration devices. No data regarding patient preferences for fluid management exist. A survey was designed, tested, and administered to assess patient-stated preferences regarding fluid mitigation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A written survey concerning fluid-related symptoms, patient and treatment characteristics, and fluid management preferences was developed. The cross-sectional survey was completed by 600 patients on hemodialysis at 18 geographically diverse ambulatory facilities. Comparisons of patient willingness to engage in volume mitigation strategies across fluid symptom burden, dietary restriction experience, and patient characteristics were performed. Results Final analyses included 588 surveys. Overall, if allowed to liberalize fluid intake, 44.6% of patients were willing to extend treatment time by 15 minutes. Willingness to extend treatment time was incrementally less for longer treatment extensions; 12.2% of patients were willing to add a fourth weekly treatment session, and 13.5% of patients were willing to participate in nocturnal dialysis three nights per week. Patients more bothered by their fluid restrictions (versus less bothered) were more willing to engage in fluid mitigation strategies. Demographic characteristics and symptoms, such as cramping and dyspnea, were not consistently associated with willingness to engage in the proposed strategies. More than 25% of patients were unsure of their dry weights and typical interdialytic weight gains. Conclusions Patients were generally averse to treatment time extension>15 minutes. Patients more bothered (versus

  5. Patient-stated preferences regarding volume-related risk mitigation strategies for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Mangione, Thomas W; Brunelli, Steven M; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-08-07

    Larger weight gain and higher ultrafiltration rates have been associated with poorer outcomes among patients on dialysis. Dietary restrictions reduce fluid-related risk; however, adherence is challenging. Alternative fluid mitigation strategies include treatment time extension, more frequent dialysis, adjunct peritoneal dialysis, and wearable ultrafiltration devices. No data regarding patient preferences for fluid management exist. A survey was designed, tested, and administered to assess patient-stated preferences regarding fluid mitigation. A written survey concerning fluid-related symptoms, patient and treatment characteristics, and fluid management preferences was developed. The cross-sectional survey was completed by 600 patients on hemodialysis at 18 geographically diverse ambulatory facilities. Comparisons of patient willingness to engage in volume mitigation strategies across fluid symptom burden, dietary restriction experience, and patient characteristics were performed. Final analyses included 588 surveys. Overall, if allowed to liberalize fluid intake, 44.6% of patients were willing to extend treatment time by 15 minutes. Willingness to extend treatment time was incrementally less for longer treatment extensions; 12.2% of patients were willing to add a fourth weekly treatment session, and 13.5% of patients were willing to participate in nocturnal dialysis three nights per week. Patients more bothered by their fluid restrictions (versus less bothered) were more willing to engage in fluid mitigation strategies. Demographic characteristics and symptoms, such as cramping and dyspnea, were not consistently associated with willingness to engage in the proposed strategies. More than 25% of patients were unsure of their dry weights and typical interdialytic weight gains. Patients were generally averse to treatment time extension>15 minutes. Patients more bothered (versus less bothered) by their prescribed fluid restrictions were more willing to engage in volume

  6. Contamination mitigation strategies for scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D R G

    2015-06-01

    Modern scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) enables imaging and microanalysis at very high magnification. In the case of aberration-corrected STEM, atomic resolution is readily achieved. However, the electron fluxes used may be up to three orders of magnitude greater than those typically employed in conventional STEM. Since specimen contamination often increases with electron flux, specimen cleanliness is a critical factor in obtaining meaningful data when carrying out high magnification STEM. A range of different specimen cleaning methods have been applied to a variety of specimen types. The contamination rate has been measured quantitatively to assess the effectiveness of cleaning. The methods studied include: baking, cooling, plasma cleaning, beam showering and UV/ozone exposure. Of the methods tested, beam showering is rapid, experimentally convenient and very effective on a wide range of specimens. Oxidative plasma cleaning is also very effective and can be applied to specimens on carbon support films, albeit with some care. For electron beam-sensitive materials, cooling may be the method of choice. In most cases, preliminary removal of the bulk of the contamination by methods such as baking or plasma cleaning, followed by beam showering, where necessary, can result in a contamination-free specimen suitable for extended atomic scale imaging and analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diatom Proteomics Reveals Unique Acclimation Strategies to Mitigate Fe Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Brook L.; Faux, Jessica F.; Hippmann, Anna A.; Maldonado, Maria T.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Goodlett, David R.; Boyd, Philip W.; Strzepek, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth rates are limited by the supply of iron (Fe) in approximately one third of the open ocean, with major implications for carbon dioxide sequestration and carbon (C) biogeochemistry. To date, understanding how alteration of Fe supply changes phytoplankton physiology has focused on traditional metrics such as growth rate, elemental composition, and biophysical measurements such as photosynthetic competence (Fv/Fm). Researchers have subsequently employed transcriptomics to probe relationships between changes in Fe supply and phytoplankton physiology. Recently, studies have investigated longer-term (i.e. following acclimation) responses of phytoplankton to various Fe conditions. In the present study, the coastal diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, was acclimated (10 generations) to either low or high Fe conditions, i.e. Fe-limiting and Fe-replete. Quantitative proteomics and a newly developed proteomic profiling technique that identifies low abundance proteins were employed to examine the full complement of expressed proteins and consequently the metabolic pathways utilized by the diatom under the two Fe conditions. A total of 1850 proteins were confidently identified, nearly tripling previous identifications made from differential expression in diatoms. Given sufficient time to acclimate to Fe limitation, T. pseudonana up-regulates proteins involved in pathways associated with intracellular protein recycling, thereby decreasing dependence on extracellular nitrogen (N), C and Fe. The relative increase in the abundance of photorespiration and pentose phosphate pathway proteins reveal novel metabolic shifts, which create substrates that could support other well-established physiological responses, such as heavily silicified frustules observed for Fe-limited diatoms. Here, we discovered that proteins and hence pathways observed to be down-regulated in short-term Fe starvation studies are constitutively expressed when T. pseudonana is acclimated (i

  8. Mitigating the safety risks of drugs with a focus on opioids: are risk evaluation and mitigation strategies the answer?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Marta J

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 40% of all newly approved drugs are subject to safety restrictions inclusive of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS), which were created with the US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007. This law expanded Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to require REMS of manufacturers but left implementation to the FDA. As a result, the potential access to medications that are effective but not without safety concerns has improved, yet the converse is also true because access may be restricted due to REMS requirements (eg, physician or patient registration). With the July 2012 reauthorization of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, the FDA was given additional authorities and mandates for enhancing and modernizing the drug safety system-specifically, measuring the effectiveness of REMS as well as standardizing and better integrating REMS into the overall health care system. So, are REMS, which were conceived as a tool to improve medication safety, working? Specifically, are REMS achieving their intended outcomes (mitigating safety risks of effective drugs) without causing unintended consequences (creating a burden to the health care system and physicians and/or diminishing patient access to drugs)? Sitting squarely in the crosshairs, the approved shared REMS for extended-release/long-acting opioid analgesics provide a lens through which this question can be examined. This article discusses the current status, stakeholders, and key policy issues for clinicians with a focus on the shared REMS for opioids, as well as the anticipated role of clinicians in optimizing patient care in the new world of REMS. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the formal countermeasures and informal strategies used to mitigate SPAD risk in train driving.

    PubMed

    Naweed, Anjum; Rainbird, Sophia; Chapman, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Various countermeasures are used to mitigate signal passed at danger (SPAD) events on railways, yet they continue. While risk factors that destabilise cognitive processes have been identified, less has been published on the relationship between these factors and the informal strategies that drivers themselves adopt to reduce individual SPAD risk. This study aimed to address this gap and used a participative approach to collect and thematically analyse data from 28 drivers across eight rail organisations in Australia and New Zealand. The results showed not all formal countermeasures were considered effective, and identified several informal strategies. These aimed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain connectedness to signals. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk. This paper explores the relationship between the established risks and identified strategies towards evaluating the utility of formal and informal mitigations. The research has application to the investigation of collision risk in all transport domains. Practitioner Summary: A participative approach was used to investigate SPAD mitigation techniques in train driving, and to explore risk-strategy relationship dynamics. Several informal strategies designed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain signal connectedness were identified. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk.

  10. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, Kerstin; Lindeskog, Mats; Olin, Stefan; Hassler, John; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate-economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model). We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road). For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  11. Interspecific Variation in Bumblebee Performance on Pollen Diet: New Insights for Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    De Jonghe, Roland; Michez, Denis; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Bumblebees (i.e. Bombus genus) are major pollinators of flowering wild plants and crops. Although many species are currently in decline, a number of them remain stable or are even expanding. One factor potentially driving changes in bumblebee distribution is the suitability of plant communities. Actually, bees probably have specific nutritional requirements that could shape their floral choices and constraint them in the current context of global change. However, most studies primarily focus on one bumblebee species at a time, making comparative studies scarce. Herein we performed comparative bioassays on three bumblebee species (i.e. Bombus hypnorum, B. pratorum and B. terrestris) fed on three different pollen diets with distinct nutritive content (Cistus, Erica and Salix pollen diets). Micro-colony performance was compared through different developmental and resource collection parameters for understanding the impact of change in pollen diet on different bumblebee species. The evidence suggests that B. terrestris is by far the most competitive species because of its performance compared to the other species, regardless of pollen diet. Our results also highlight a Bombus species effect as pollen diet impacts the micro-colonies in different ways according to the actual bumblebee species. Such interspecific variation in Bombus performance in response to a dietetic change underlines the importance of considering different bumblebee species in mitigation strategies. Such comparative studies are good advice for developing appropriate suites of plant species that can benefit threatened species while supporting stable or expanding ones. PMID:28005943

  12. Interspecific Variation in Bumblebee Performance on Pollen Diet: New Insights for Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Romain; Roger, Nathalie; De Jonghe, Roland; Michez, Denis; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Bumblebees (i.e. Bombus genus) are major pollinators of flowering wild plants and crops. Although many species are currently in decline, a number of them remain stable or are even expanding. One factor potentially driving changes in bumblebee distribution is the suitability of plant communities. Actually, bees probably have specific nutritional requirements that could shape their floral choices and constraint them in the current context of global change. However, most studies primarily focus on one bumblebee species at a time, making comparative studies scarce. Herein we performed comparative bioassays on three bumblebee species (i.e. Bombus hypnorum, B. pratorum and B. terrestris) fed on three different pollen diets with distinct nutritive content (Cistus, Erica and Salix pollen diets). Micro-colony performance was compared through different developmental and resource collection parameters for understanding the impact of change in pollen diet on different bumblebee species. The evidence suggests that B. terrestris is by far the most competitive species because of its performance compared to the other species, regardless of pollen diet. Our results also highlight a Bombus species effect as pollen diet impacts the micro-colonies in different ways according to the actual bumblebee species. Such interspecific variation in Bombus performance in response to a dietetic change underlines the importance of considering different bumblebee species in mitigation strategies. Such comparative studies are good advice for developing appropriate suites of plant species that can benefit threatened species while supporting stable or expanding ones.

  13. Mitigation strategies to reduce pesticide inputs into ground- and surface water and their effectiveness; a review.

    PubMed

    Reichenberger, Stefan; Bach, Martin; Skitschak, Adrian; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the current knowledge on mitigation strategies to reduce pesticide inputs into surface water and groundwater, and their effectiveness when applied in practice is reviewed. Apart from their effectiveness in reducing pesticide inputs into ground- and surface water, the mitigation measures identified in the literature are evaluated with respect to their practicability. Those measures considered both effective and feasible are recommended for implementing at the farm and catchment scale. Finally, recommendations for modelling are provided using the identified reduction efficiencies. Roughly 180 publications directly dealing with or being somehow related to mitigation of pesticide inputs into water bodies were examined. The effectiveness of grassed buffer strips located at the lower edges of fields has been demonstrated. However, this effectiveness is very variable, and the variability cannot be explained by strip width alone. Riparian buffer strips are most probably much less effective than edge-of-field buffer strips in reducing pesticide runoff and erosion inputs into surface waters. Constructed wetlands are promising tools for mitigating pesticide inputs via runoff/erosion and drift into surface waters, but their effectiveness still has to be demonstrated for weakly and moderately sorbing compounds. Subsurface drains are an effective mitigation measure for pesticide runoff losses from slowly permeable soils with frequent waterlogging. For the pathways drainage and leaching, the only feasible mitigation measures are application rate reduction, product substitution and shift of the application date. There are many possible effective measures of spray drift reduction. While sufficient knowledge exists for suggesting default values for the efficiency of single drift mitigation measures, little information exists on the effect of the drift reduction efficiency of combinations of measures. More research on possible interactions between different drift

  14. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Holmner, Åsa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT)’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

  15. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  16. PREFERENCE EVALUATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR MULTIPLE UTILITIES OF HEAT MITIGATION PROJECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hideharu; Nakatani, Jun; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    Heat mitigation projects, such as green roof, waterfront, mist spraying and water-retentive pavement, are mainly intended to decrease outdoor temperature, while some of them have multiple utilities including increase of species, mitigation of flood, improvement of spatial design and environmental enlightenment in addition to decrease in outdoor temperature. This paper proposes and demonstrates a decision support method for alternative design based on prioritization and preference evaluation for multiple utilities of heat mitigation projects. First, applying analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the priority order of project implementation was decided based on subjective evaluation of multi-stakeholders such as benefit recipients, experts and project implementers on multiple utilities of the projects. Then, the preference structure of office workers as benefit recipients of projects was identified using conjoint analysis, each utility was evaluated in monetary value, and discussed which aspects should be emphasized on detailed project planning.

  17. Coordinating Mitigation Strategies for Meeting In-Stream Flow Requirements in the Skagit River Basin, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, J.; Yang, Q.; Brady, M.; Jessup, E.; Yoder, J.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, the Washington State Supreme Court ruled against a 2001 amendment that set aside groundwater reservations for development within the Skagit River Basin (Swinomish Indian Tribal Community v. Washington State Department of Ecology). As a consequence, hundreds of properties no longer have a secure, uninterruptible water right and must be fully mitigated to offset their impacts on minimum in-stream flows. To date, no solutions have been amenable to the private, tribal and government parties involved. The objective of this study is to identify implementable, alternative water mitigation strategies for meeting minimum in-stream flow requirements while providing non-interruptible water to 455 property owners without legal water rights in the Skagit Basin. Three strategies of interest to all parties involved were considered: 1) streamflow augmentation from small-gauge municipal pipes, or trucked water deliveries for either 2) direct household use or 3) streamflow augmentation. Each mitigation strategy was assessed under two different demand scenarios and five augmentation points along 19 sub-watershed (HUC12) stream reaches. Results indicate that water piped for streamflow augmentation could provide mitigation at a cost of <10,000 per household for 20 - 60% of the properties in question, but a similar approach could be up to twenty times more expensive for those remaining properties in basins furthest from existing municipal systems. Trucked water costs also increase for upper basin properties, but over a 20-year period are still less expensive for basins where piped water costs would be high (e.g., 100,000 for trucking vs. $200,000 for piped water). This work suggests that coordination with municipal water systems to offset in-stream flow reductions, in combination with strategic mobile water delivery, could provide mitigation solutions within the Skagit Basin that may satisfy concerned parties.

  18. Organizational pressures and mitigating strategies in small commercial aviation: findings from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Bearman, Chris; Paletz, Susannah B F; Orasanu, Judith; Brooks, Benjamin P

    2009-12-01

    Recent attention has focused on the way in which organizational factors can erode safety in aviation, particularly in regions that have a high accident rate, such as Alaska. The present study builds on this work by examining the direct and indirect pressures that can be exerted on pilots by Alaskan operators. In addition, the paper examines ways in which organizations and individuals manage the effects of pressure. Using the critical incident method to uncover situations where the pilot's skills had been challenged, 28 pilots who flew in Alaska were interviewed. A bottom-up qualitative analysis revealed a range of organizational pressures and mitigating strategies. Pilots in Alaska encountered both implicit and explicit norms and expectations to fly in marginal conditions. Pressure also arose from pilots' awareness of the need for their company to make money and from perceived job competition. Some Alaskan operators were able to mitigate the effects of pressure on their pilots and some pilots reported mitigating pressure to fly by managing their employer's expectations and re-emphasizing safety. Organizational factors were found to be an important source of pressure for pilots and are likely to contribute to the high accident rate in Alaska. Balancing the competing demands of safety and productivity may be extremely difficult for many small operators, which places a heavy reliance on the decision making of individuals. Both the subtle pressures on individual pilots and strategies for mitigating those pressures are, therefore, extremely important to safety and productivity in small-scale commercial aviation.

  19. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, P. Sol; Nisbet, Erik C.; Myers, Teresa A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine how attention to science and political news may influence public knowledge, perceived harm, and support for climate mitigation policies. Previous research examining these relationships has not fully accounted for how political ideology shapes the mental processes through which the public interprets media discourses about climate change. We incorporate political ideology and the concept of motivated cognition into our analysis to compare and contrast two prominent models of opinion formation, the scientific literacy model, which posits that disseminating scientific information will move public opinion towards the scientific consensus, and the motivated reasoning model, which posits that individuals will interpret information in a biased manner. Our analysis finds support for both models of opinion formation with key differences across ideological groups. Attention to science news was associated with greater perceptions of harm and knowledge for conservatives, but only additional knowledge for liberals. Supporting the literacy model, greater knowledge was associated with more support for climate mitigation for liberals. In contrast, consistent with motivated reasoning, more knowledgeable conservatives were less supportive of mitigation policy. In addition, attention to political news had a negative association with perceived harm for conservatives but not for liberals.

  20. A review of proton exchange membrane water electrolysis on degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Liu, Gaoyang; Wei, Bing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang

    2017-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) is an advanced and effective solution to the primary energy storage technologies. A better understanding of performance and durability of PEMWE is critical for the engineers and researchers to further advance this technology for its market penetration, and for the manufacturers of PEM water electrolyzers to implement quality control procedures for the production line or on-site process monitoring/diagnosis. This paper reviews the published works on performance degradations and mitigation strategies for PEMWE. Sources of degradation for individual components are introduced. With degradation causes discussed and degradation mechanisms examined, the review emphasizes on feasible strategies to mitigate the components degradation. To avoid lengthy real lifetime degradation tests and their high costs, the importance of accelerated stress tests and protocols is highlighted for various components. In the end, R&D directions are proposed to move the PEMWE technology forward to become a key element in future energy scenarios.

  1. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food

    PubMed Central

    Brorby, Gregory P.; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds. PMID:27102178

  2. Core Strategies to Support English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sheldon; Eslami, Zohreh R.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2012-01-01

    Reading and vocabulary instruction can serve as an instructional process to respond to English language learner (ELL) needs. The purpose of this review of literature was to determine whether reading and vocabulary instruction should be used as core strategies for supporting ELLs requiring interventions as a response to the Texas English Language…

  3. Core Strategies to Support English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sheldon; Eslami, Zohreh R.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2012-01-01

    Reading and vocabulary instruction can serve as an instructional process to respond to English language learner (ELL) needs. The purpose of this review of literature was to determine whether reading and vocabulary instruction should be used as core strategies for supporting ELLs requiring interventions as a response to the Texas English Language…

  4. Adaptive vaccination strategies to mitigate pandemic influenza: Mexico as a case study.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Wang, Xiaohong; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Miller, Mark A

    2009-12-03

    We explore vaccination strategies against pandemic influenza in Mexico using an age-structured transmission model calibrated against local epidemiological data from the Spring 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. In the context of limited vaccine supplies, we evaluate age-targeted allocation strategies that either prioritize youngest children and persons over 65 years of age, as for seasonal influenza, or adaptively prioritize age groups based on the age patterns of hospitalization and death monitored in real-time during the early stages of the pandemic. Overall the adaptive vaccination strategy outperformed the seasonal influenza vaccination allocation strategy for a wide range of disease and vaccine coverage parameters. This modeling approach could inform policies for Mexico and other countries with similar demographic features and vaccine resources issues, with regard to the mitigation of the S-OIV pandemic. We also discuss logistical issues associated with the implementation of adaptive vaccination strategies in the context of past and future influenza pandemics.

  5. Improved Wavelength Detuning Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation Strategy for Polar Direct Drive at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; McKenty, P. W.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) reduces absorbed light and implosion velocity, alters time-resolved scattered-light spectra, and redistributes absorbed and scattered light. These effects reduce target performance in both symmetric direct-drive and polar-direct-drive (PDD) experiments on the OMEGA Laser System and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The CBET package (Adaawam) incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO is an integral part of the 3-D ray-trace package (Mazinisin). The CBET exchange occurs primarily over the equatorial region in PDD, where successful mitigation strategies concentrate. Detuning the initial laser wavelength (dλ0) reduces the CBET interaction volume, which can be combined with other mitigation domains (e.g., spatial and temporal). By judiciously selecting the ring and/or port +/-dλ0 in each hemisphere, using new DRACO diagnostic abilities, improved wavelength detuning strategies trade-off overall energy absorption for improved hemispherical energy balance control. These balanced-wavelength detuning strategies improve performance for high-convergence implosions. Simulations (2-D DRACO) predict improved implosion performance and control in both the shell trajectory and morphology for planned intermediate PDD experiments on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Investigation of Coating and Corrosion Mitigation Strategies in Magnesium/Mixed Metal Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsmark, Joy H.; McCune, Robert C.; Giles, Terry; Audette, Michelle; Snowden, Jasmine; Stalker, Jeff; Morey, Matthew; O'Keefe, Matt; Castano, Carlos

    The US Automotive Materials Partnership through the Magnesium-Intensive Front End Development Project (MFERD) is currently investigating a number of joining, coating and corrosion mitigation strategies to incorporate magnesium components into the automotive body-in-white with the ultimate goal of decreasing vehicle curb weight, thus improving fuel economy. Because Mg is anodic to all other structural metals, this is a key hurdle to Mg component implementation in vehicles. This paper will discuss the results of a study to examine the effectiveness of different corrosion mitigation strategies in joined plate assemblies and provide some insight into the systems challenges of incorporation of Mg parts into a vehicle. Details of a statistically-designed experiment developed to explore the interaction of several materials of construction (magnesium, steel and aluminum), pretreatment and topcoatings, joining methods and standardized test protocols including SAE J-2334 and ASTM B-117 are discussed. A number of avenues have emerged from this study as potential strategies for corrosion mitigation.

  7. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis with bioaugmentation: characteristics of effective probiotics and strategies for their selection and use.

    PubMed

    Bletz, Molly C; Loudon, Andrew H; Becker, Matthew H; Bell, Sara C; Woodhams, Douglas C; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N

    2013-06-01

    Probiotic therapy through bioaugmentation is a feasible disease mitigation strategy based on growing evidence that microbes contribute to host defences of plants and animals. Amphibians are currently threatened by the rapid global spread of the pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. Bioaugmentation of locally occurring protective bacteria on amphibians has mitigated this disease effectively in laboratory trials and one recent field trial. Areas still naïve to Bd provide an opportunity for conservationists to proactively implement probiotic strategies to prevent further amphibian declines. In areas where Bd is endemic, bioaugmentation can facilitate repatriation of susceptible amphibians currently maintained in assurance colonies. Here, we synthesise the current research in amphibian microbial ecology and bioaugmentation to identify characteristics of effective probiotics in relation to their interactions with Bd, their host, other resident microbes and the environment. To target at-risk species and amphibian communities, we develop sampling strategies and filtering protocols that result in probiotics that inhibit Bd under ecologically relevant conditions and persist on susceptible amphibians. This filtering tool can be used proactively to guide amphibian disease mitigation and can be extended to other taxa threatened by emerging infectious diseases.

  8. A Decision Support System for Mitigating Stream Temperature Impacts in the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing demands on the limited and variable water supply across the West can result in insufficient streamflow to sustain healthy fish habitat. We develop an integrated decision support system (DSS) for modeling and mitigating stream temperature impacts and demonstrate it on the Sacramento River system in California. Water management in the Sacramento River is a complex task with a diverse set of demands ranging from municipal supply to mitigation of fisheries impacts due to high water temperatures. Current operations utilize the temperature control device (TCD) structure at Shasta Dam to mitigate these high water temperatures downstream at designated compliance points. The TCD structure at Shasta Dam offers a rather unique opportunity to mitigate water temperature violations through adjustments to both release volume and temperature. In this study, we develop and evaluate a model-based DSS with four broad components that are coupled to produce the decision tool for stream temperature mitigation: (i) a suite of statistical models for modeling stream temperature attributes using hydrology and climate variables of critical importance to fish habitat; (ii) a reservoir thermal model for modeling the thermal structure and, consequently, the water release temperature, (iii) a stochastic weather generator to simulate weather sequences consistent with seasonal outlooks; and, (iv) a set of decision rules (i.e., 'rubric') for reservoir water releases in response to outputs from the above components. Multiple options for modifying releases at Shasta Dam were considered in the DSS, including mixing water from multiple elevations through the TCD and using different acceptable levels of risk. The DSS also incorporates forecast uncertainties and reservoir operating options to help mitigate stream temperature impacts for fish habitat, while efficiently using the reservoir water supply and cold pool storage. The use of these coupled tools in simulating impacts of future climate

  9. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts in the forestry sector, especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where forests are vulnerable and sensitive to the increasing probability and severity of climatic extremes, especially to droughts. For providing information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options for the Carpathian basin, a GIS-supported Decision Support System is under development. This study focuses on the future tendencies of climate indicators that determine the distribution, growth, health status and production of forests as well as the potential pests and diseases. For the analyses the climate database of the Decision Support System has been applied, which contains daily time series for precipitation and temperature means and extremes as well as derived climate indices for 1961-2100. For the future time period, simulation results of 12 regional climate models are included (www.ensembles-eu.org) based on the A1B emission scenario. The main results can be summarized as follows: · The projected change of the climate indices (e.g. total number of hot days, frost days, dry days, consecutive dry periods) and forestry indices (e.g. Ellenberg climate quotient, Forestry aridity index; Tolerance index for beech) indicates the warming and drying of the growing season towards the end of the 21st century. These can have severe consequences on the ecosystem services of forests. · The climatic suitable area of the native tree species is projected to move northwards and upwards in the mountains, respectively. For beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) this shift would mean the drastic shrink of the distribution area in the analyzed region. · The characteristic climate conditions that are expected in the Carpathian basin in the second half of the century, are now located southeastern from the case study region. In this way, the potential future provenance regions can be determined. Results provide input for the climate

  10. Group protocol to mitigate disaster stress and enhance social support in adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J B; Hardin, S B; Weinrich, S; McGeorge, S; Lopez, J; Pesut, D

    1992-01-01

    Literature reports that cognitive understanding and social support can mitigate stress in both adults and adolescents. As a subcomponent of the Carolina Adolescent Health Project (CAHP), this research evaluated the efficacy of a Cognitive Social Support (CSS) group protocol designed to mitigate the disaster stress of adolescents who had been exposed seriously to Hurricane Hugo. A purposive sample of 259 students participated in and evaluated the CSS. This article reports the specific structure, content, process, rationale, and cost of the CSS. Evaluations indicated that 82% of the students evaluated the small-group component of the CSS as "very good" or "excellent," while 70% rated the large-group component as "very good" or "excellent."

  11. Agent-based simulation for weekend-extension strategies to mitigate influenza outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical strategies are vital in curtailing impacts of influenza and have been intensively studied in public health. However, few strategies have explicitly utilized the weekend effect, which has been widely reported to be capable of reducing influenza infections. This study aims to explore six weekend-extension strategies against seasonal and pandemic flu outbreaks. Methods The weekend-extension strategies were designed to extend regular two-day weekend by one, two and three days, respectively, and in combination with either a continuous or discontinuous pattern. Their effectiveness was evaluated using an established agent-based spatially explicit simulation model in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, US. Results If the extensions last more than two days, the weekend-extension strategies can remarkably reduce the overall disease attack rate of seasonal flu. Particularly, a three-day continuous extension is sufficient to suppress the epidemic and confine the spread of disease. For the pandemic flu, the weekend-extension strategies only produce a few mitigation effects until the extensions exceed three days. Sensitivity analysis indicated that a compliance level above 75% is necessary for the weekend-extension strategies to take effects. Conclusion This research is the first attempt to incorporate the weekend effect into influenza mitigation strategies. The results suggest that appropriate extensions of the regular two-day weekend can be a potential measure to fight against influenza outbreaks, while minimizing interruptions on normal rhythms of socio-economy. The concept of weekend extension would be particularly useful if there were a lack of vaccine stockpiles, e.g., in countries with limited health resources, or in the case of unknown emerging infectious diseases. PMID:21718518

  12. Methane mitigation in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Wiggins, E. B.; Miu, J. C. L.; Carranza, V.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cities generate a large fraction of anthropogenic methane emissions that are increasing with urbanization and greater reliance on natural gas as fuel. New measurements of methane in cities suggest an as-yet unrealized potential for city-scale methane mitigation. We present high-resolution methane observations from four cities in North America to demonstrate the utility of methane surveys for identifying urban methane sources. We used portable, continuous on-road measurements to determine the spatial distribution of methane in Fairbanks, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Across cities, methane tended to be highly concentrated in space, suggesting discrete, point emission sources. Elevated methane levels were found near known emission sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment facilities, and natural gas-fueled power plants, and revealed the location of fugitive leaks in natural gas infrastructure. The mix of sources and sizes of methane leaks varied among cities, highlighting a need for locally adaptive emissions regulation. Urban methane observations can inform anthropogenic processes in development of methane mitigation strategies. We discuss specific examples of how continuous atmospheric measurements can enhance the design of mitigation strategies in these cities, and potential contributions of these approaches to cross-sectoral efforts to reduce methane emissions at the city level.

  13. Potential Risks and Mitigation Strategies Before the Conduct of a Clinical Trial: An Industry Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Seema; Kapatkar, Vaibhavi K; Mourya, Meenakshi; Roy, Sucheta; Jha, Shailendra; Reddy, Rajasekhar; Kadhe, Ganesh; Mane, Amey; Sawant, Sandesh

    2016-01-01

    Conduct of clinical trials has undergone substantial changes over the last two decades. Newer markets, evolving guidelines and documentation and high cost involved in conducting the trials have led pharmaceutical companies to prepare a risk mitigation plan. Extensive monitoring of potential risks is an essential element of clinical trials which helps to ensure quality and integrity of a clinical investigation. Every clinical trial has pre (before the trial), conduct and post phase. This article which has been developed as a result of extensive research at ground level by a reputed pharmaceutical company to identify the potential stages of risks that could affect the overall quality and safety of a trial and its outcome during the pre-phase of trial (the stage of the trial where the study design is being planned before initiation of the clinical trial). It includes risks associated with basic study concept, protocol design, Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) and Clinical Trial Authorization (CTA) application signing, vendors of central drug laboratory, site and investigator selection, Clinical Research Coordinator (CRC) meet, Informed Consent Form (ICF), Case Report Form (CRF)/ Status Report Form (SRF) preparation, Ethics Committee (EC) submission, etc. have been highlighted. The risk based mitigation strategy (to develop an effective risk monitoring plan before staring a clinical trial) has also been suggested by authors. A well-tailored and integrated plan, recognition of potential risks and their mitigation strategy can result in the pre exclusion or end to end solution of all the risks associated with pre- phase of clinical trials.

  14. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  15. Towards a Comprehensive Strategy to Mitigate Dissemination of Environmental Sources of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Vikesland, Peter J; Pruden, Amy; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Aga, Diana S; Buergmann, Helmut; Li, Xiangdong; Manaia, Célia M; Nambi, Indumathi M; Wigginton, Krista R; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-10-04

    Antibiotic resistance is a pervasive global health threat. To combat the spread of resistance, it is necessary to consider all possible sources and understand the pathways and mechanisms by which resistance disseminates. Best management practices are urgently needed to provide barriers to the spread of resistance and maximize the lifespan of antibiotics as a precious resource. Herein we advise upon the need for coordinated national and international strategies, highlighting three essential components: 1) Monitoring, 2) Risk Assessment, and 3) Mitigation of antibiotic resistance. Central to all three components is What exactly to monitor, assess, and mitigate? We address this question within an environmental framework, drawing from fundamental microbial ecological processes driving the spread of resistance.

  16. Mitigating amphibian disease: strategies to maintain wild populations and control chytridiomycosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodhams, Douglas C.; Bosch, Jaime; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Cashins, Scott; Davis, Leyla R.; Lauer, Antje; Muths, Erin L.; Puschendorf, Robert; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Sheafor, Brandon; Voyles, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Because sustainable conservation of amphibians in nature is dependent on long-term population persistence and co-evolution with potentially lethal pathogens, we suggest that disease mitigation not focus exclusively on the elimination or containment of the pathogen, or on the captive breeding of amphibian hosts. Rather, successful disease mitigation must be context specific with epidemiologically informed strategies to manage already infected populations by decreasing pathogenicity and host susceptibility. We propose population level treatments based on three steps: first, identify mechanisms of disease suppression; second, parameterize epizootiological models of disease and population dynamics for testing under semi-natural conditions; and third, begin a process of adaptive management in field trials with natural populations.

  17. The impacts of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; LePage, Y.; Patel, P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Clarke, L.; Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence that anthropogenic climate change may alter patterns of tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial distribution, which in turn will alter the carbon balance of terrestrial systems in the large regions impacted by these storms. Recent studies project up to a doubling of major storms (Saffir-Simpson Scale 3-5) over the next century. Single large storms have been shown to be capable of causing committed carbon emissions equivalent to the annual U.S. carbon sink. These changes have the potential to affect climate mitigation strategies, most of which rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink to restrain the accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Altered patterns of disturbances and the resulting changes to the carbon balance of terrestrial systems could impact the magnitude of emissions to mitigate, the economic value of ecosystem carbon storage, and thus future land-use patterns, food prices and energy technology. Here we investigate the potential consequences of altered tropical cyclone activity on climate mitigation strategies using a fully integrated model (iED) that links advanced ecological and socio-economic models. The model combines the regional integrated assessment algorithms of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), with the climate- sensitive ecosystem and carbon modeling in the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, and the land-use mapping algorithms of the Global Land-use Model (GLM). We explore a range of scenarios of altered future tropical cyclone frequency, intensity and spatial pattern, the resulting effects on the terrestrial carbon balance, and the coupled effects on the food and energy sector under a range of future climate mitigation goals.

  18. Potential Upstream Strategies for the Mitigation of Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment: a Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Blair, Benjamin D

    2016-06-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a class of pollutants of emerging concern, and there is growing evidence that these pollutants can cause damage to the aquatic environment. As regulations to address these concerns are expected in developed nations, decision-makers are looking to the scientific community for potential solutions. To inform these regulatory efforts, further information on the potential strategies to reduce the levels of pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment is needed. End-of-pipe (i.e., wastewater treatment) technologies that can remove pharmaceuticals exist; however, they are costly to install and operate. Thus, the goal of this brief review is to look beyond end-of-pipe solutions and present various upstream mitigation strategies discussed within the scientific literature. Programs such as pharmaceutical take-back programs currently exist to attempt to reduce pharmaceutical concentrations in the environment, although access and coverage are often limited for many programs. Other potential strategies include redesigning pharmaceuticals to minimize aquatic toxicity, increasing the percent of the pharmaceuticals metabolized in the body, selecting less harmful pharmaceuticals for use, starting new prescriptions at lower dosages, selecting pharmaceuticals with lower excretion rates, and implementing source treatment such as urine separating toilets. Overall, this brief review presents a summary of the upstream preventative recommendations to mitigate pharmaceuticals from entering the aquatic environment with an emphasis on regulatory efforts in the USA and concludes with priorities for further research.

  19. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, David W.; White, Joshua A.

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  20. Contamination Detection and Mitigation Strategies for Unsymmetric Dimethylhydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide Non-Combustion Product Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benjamin; Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Baker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Dimethylamine and nitrite, which are non-combustion reaction products of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, can contaminate spacesuits during extra-vehicular activity (EVA) operations. They can react with water in the International Space Station (ISS) airlock to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a carcinogen. Detection methods for assessing nitrite and dimethylamine contamination were investigated. The methods are based on color-forming reactions in which intensity of color is proportional to concentration. A concept color detection kit using a commercially available presumptive field test for methamphetamine coupled with nitrite test strips was developed and used to detect dimethylamine and nitrite. Contamination mitigation strategies were also developed.

  1. Methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable critical infrastructure equipment and mitigation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Lon Andrew; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NSCD), Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), contracted Sandia National Laboratories to develop a generic methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable, critical infrastructure assets and the development of mitigation strategies for their loss or compromise. The initial project has been divided into three discrete deliverables: (1) A generic methodology report suitable to all Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) Sectors (this report); (2) a sector-specific report for Electrical Power Distribution; and (3) a sector-specific report for the water sector, including generation, water treatment, and wastewater systems. Specific reports for the water and electric sectors are available from Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. Strategies, Protections and Mitigations for Electric Grid from Electromagnetic Pulse Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Rita Ann; Frickey, Steven Jay

    2016-01-01

    The mission of DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance the security and reliability of America’s energy infrastructure and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. One of the threats OE is concerned about is a high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) from a nuclear explosion and eletro-magnetic pulse (EMP) or E1 pulse can be generated by EMP weapons. DOE-OE provides federal leadership and technical guidance in addressing electric grid issues. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was chosen to conduct the EMP study for DOE-OE due to its capabilities and experience in setting up EMP experiments on the electric grid and conducting vulnerability assessments and developing innovative technology to increase infrastructure resiliency. This report identifies known impacts to EMP threats, known mitigations and effectiveness of mitigations, potential cost of mitigation, areas for government and private partnerships in protecting the electric grid to EMP, and identifying gaps in our knowledge and protection strategies.

  3. Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Policy decisions regarding climate change mitigation are increasingly incorporating the beneficial and adverse health impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Studies of such co-benefits and co-harms involve modeling approaches requiring a range of analytic decisions that affect the model output. Objective: Our objective was to assess analytic decisions regarding model framework, structure, choice of parameters, and handling of uncertainty when modeling health co-benefits, and to make recommendations for improvements that could increase policy uptake. Methods: We describe the assumptions and analytic decisions underlying models of mitigation co-benefits, examining their effects on modeling outputs, and consider tools for quantifying uncertainty. Discussion: There is considerable variation in approaches to valuation metrics, discounting methods, uncertainty characterization and propagation, and assessment of low-probability/high-impact events. There is also variable inclusion of adverse impacts of mitigation policies, and limited extension of modeling domains to include implementation considerations. Going forward, co-benefits modeling efforts should be carried out in collaboration with policy makers; these efforts should include the full range of positive and negative impacts and critical uncertainties, as well as a range of discount rates, and should explicitly characterize uncertainty. We make recommendations to improve the rigor and consistency of modeling of health co-benefits. Conclusion: Modeling health co-benefits requires systematic consideration of the suitability of model assumptions, of what should be included and excluded from the model framework, and how uncertainty should be treated. Increased attention to these and other analytic decisions has the potential to increase the policy relevance and application of co-benefits modeling studies, potentially helping policy makers to maximize mitigation potential while

  4. 'High-health, high-performance' horses: risk mitigation strategies for OIE-listed diseases.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; Murray, G; Timoney, P

    2015-12-01

    The 'high-health, high-performance' (HHP) horse concept has been developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) together with the F6ddration Equestre Internationale and the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. This concept is outlined in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Chapter 4.16). It aims to address impediments to the international movement of competition horses through a harmonised, practically feasible, globally applicable framework based on simplified certification requirements for the temporary importation of HHP horses and for their return to their country of usual residence. Based on the principle of compartmentalisation, the high health status of these horses would be established by the application, at all times, of stringent health management practices and biosecurity measures to create and maintain a functional separation between horses within the defined compartment and all other equids. These provisions are intended to mitigate the risk of disease spread for most OIE-listed diseases. For six OIE-listed diseases (African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine piroplasmosis, glanders and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis), the OIE recommends disease-specific mitigation measures, which have been included in a model HHP Veterinary Certificate, to provide additional guarantees to mitigate the risk of disease spread. This article presents the HH P disease risk mitigation strategy. It demonstrates how continuous observance of the HHP biosecurity measures and health management practices provides a scientific rationale for limiting the list of diseases for which HHP horses should be screened with respect to their temporary importation for competition purposes.

  5. Estimating the health effects of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies: addressing parametric, model, and valuation challenges.

    PubMed

    Remais, Justin V; Hess, Jeremy J; Ebi, Kristie L; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

    2014-05-01

    Policy decisions regarding climate change mitigation are increasingly incorporating the beneficial and adverse health impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Studies of such co-benefits and co-harms involve modeling approaches requiring a range of analytic decisions that affect the model output. Our objective was to assess analytic decisions regarding model framework, structure, choice of parameters, and handling of uncertainty when modeling health co-benefits, and to make recommendations for improvements that could increase policy uptake. We describe the assumptions and analytic decisions underlying models of mitigation co-benefits, examining their effects on modeling outputs, and consider tools for quantifying uncertainty. There is considerable variation in approaches to valuation metrics, discounting methods, uncertainty characterization and propagation, and assessment of low-probability/high-impact events. There is also variable inclusion of adverse impacts of mitigation policies, and limited extension of modeling domains to include implementation considerations. Going forward, co-benefits modeling efforts should be carried out in collaboration with policy makers; these efforts should include the full range of positive and negative impacts and critical uncertainties, as well as a range of discount rates, and should explicitly characterize uncertainty. We make recommendations to improve the rigor and consistency of modeling of health co-benefits. Modeling health co-benefits requires systematic consideration of the suitability of model assumptions, of what should be included and excluded from the model framework, and how uncertainty should be treated. Increased attention to these and other analytic decisions has the potential to increase the policy relevance and application of co-benefits modeling studies, potentially helping policy makers to maximize mitigation potential while simultaneously improving health.

  6. HYPOXIA IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO: DOES THE SCIENCE SUPPORT THE PLAN TO REDUCE, MITIGATE, AND CONTROL HYPOXIA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    We update and reevaluate the scientific information on the distribution, history and causes of continental shelf hypoxia that supports the 2001 "Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxiain the Northern Gulf of Mexico," incorporating data, publications, and res...

  7. HYPOXIA IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO: DOES THE SCIENCE SUPPORT THE PLAN TO REDUCE, MITIGATE, AND CONTROL HYPOXIA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    We update and reevaluate the scientific information on the distribution, history and causes of continental shelf hypoxia that supports the 2001 "Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxiain the Northern Gulf of Mexico," incorporating data, publications, and res...

  8. Doctors with dyslexia: strategies and support.

    PubMed

    Locke, Rachel; Alexander, Gail; Mann, Richard; Kibble, Sharon; Scallan, Samantha

    2016-10-06

    Looking beyond dyslexia as an individual doctor's issue requires adjusting a working environment to better serve the needs of doctors with dyslexia. With an increasing number of doctors disclosing dyslexia at medical school, how can educators best provide this support? Our research looks at the impact of dyslexia on clinical practice and the coping strategies used by doctors to minimise the effect. Qualitative data were collected from 14 doctors with dyslexia using semi-structured interviews and by survey. 'In situ' demonstration interviews were conducted in order to understand how dyslexia is managed in the workplace from first-hand experience. Employers and educators who have responsibility for meeting the needs of this group were also consulted. Even in cases of doctors who had a diagnosis, they often did not disclose their dyslexia to their employer. Study participants reported having developed individual ways of coping and devised useful 'workarounds'. Support from employers comes in the form of 'reasonable adjustments', although from our data we cannot be sure that such adjustments contribute to an 'enabling' work environment. Supportive characteristics included the opportunity to shadow others and the time and space to complete paperwork on a busy ward. How can educators best provide support [for doctors with dyslexia]? Doctors with dyslexia need to be helped to feel comfortable enough to disclose. Educators need to challenge any negative assumptions that exist as well as promote understanding about the elements that contribute to a positive working environment. As a result of the research there is now practice available for educators to identify evidence-based strategies and resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  9. Types and Origins of Debris Found on Maui Shorelines: Implications for Mitigation Policies and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blickley, L.; Currie, J. J.; Kaufman, G. D.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific Ocean. The proximity of the Main Hawaiian Islands to these "garbage patches" represents an ongoing concern with little understanding of debris origins or efficacy of current mitigation policies. Debris accumulation surveys were conducted monthly between October 2013 and August 2014 and daily during January 2015 at 3 beaches on Maui's coastline. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites and were influenced by both environmental and anthropogenic factors. Debris accumulation was strongly influenced by the temporal scale of sampling, with daily surveys showing a significant increase in accumulation rate. Plastics were the most common debris item at each site ranging from local, land-based debris including cigarette butts, straws, and food wrappers, to foreign, ocean-based debris such as oyster spacer tubes and hagfish traps. The results of this study indicate that the passage of a tobacco free beaches bill on Maui has not significantly reduced the amount of tobacco related debris. Alternatively, a ban on plastic grocery bags has eliminated this type of debris from Maui's shorelines, with no bags found at any of the sampling sites. The wide spread origins of collected debris further suggests that mitigation strategies to reduce debris will need to take place across hundreds of local municipalities. The efficacy of marine debris policies furthermore depends on enforcement and implementation strategy, as current results suggest policy enforcement at the producer level affords more effective results than that at the consumer level. Local debris mitigation actions have nevertheless been shown to affect debris loads, and municipalities are therefore encouraged to adopt a holistic combination of policy, community-based debris removal programs, increased public awareness, and ongoing monitoring to address marine debris.

  10. An evaluation of a mitigation strategy for deer-vehicle collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, John A.; Rosa, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    High mule deer Odocoileus hemionus mortality in southwestern Utah led to the establishment of a mitigation strategy with two major objectives: 1) reduction of wildlife-vehicle collisions and 2) restoration of landscape connectivity to facilitate wildlife movement across the roaded landscape. During our study, we assessed the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in reducing mule deer mortality in the following ways: 1) we compared the number of deer-vehicle collisions in the newly fenced area with a control area without fencing; 2) we analyzed the ‘end-of-the-fence’ problem, defined here as increased mortality of mule deer at the ends of the 2.4-m high exclusion fences; and 3) we evaluated the frequency of animal crossings of the new underpasses using remotely-sensed cameras and compared them with crossing frequency rates for a 20-year-old control underpass. We compared six years of pre-construction mortality (during 1998-2003) with two years of post-construction data on mortality (during 2005-2006) and found a 98.5% decline in deer mortalities in the treatment (i.e. fenced, jump-outs and underpasses) vs a 2.9% decline in the control (i.e. no fences, no jump-outs and no underpasses). We detected no end-of-the-fence problems related to deer mortality. Migratory movements during fall and spring were clearly reflected in the use of underpass. Overall results demonstrated that the mitigation strategy was effective and reduced the number of deer-vehicle accidents, while allowing wildlife movement across the landscape.

  11. Mechanisms of accelerated degradation in the front cells of PEMFC stacks and some mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Pei, Pucheng; He, Yongling; Yuan, Xing; Chao, Pengxiang; Wang, Xizhong

    2013-11-01

    The accelerated degradation in the front cells of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell(PEMFC) stack seriously reduces the reliability and durability of the whole stack. Most researches only focus on the size and configuration of the gas intake manifold, which may lead to the maldistribution of flow and pressure. In order to find out the mechanisms of the accelerated degradation in the front cells, an extensive program of experimental and simulation work is initiated and the results are reported. It is found that after long-term lifetime tests the accelerated degradation in the front cells occurs in all three fuel cell stacks with different flow-fields under the U-type feed configuration. Compared with the rear cells of the stack, the voltage of the front cells is much lower at the same current densities and the membrane electrode assembly(MEA) has smaller active area, more catalyst particle agglomeration and higher ohmic impedance. For further investigation, a series of three dimensional isothermal numerical models are built to investigate the degradation mechanisms based on the experimental data. The simulation results reveal that the dry working condition of the membrane and the effect of high-speed gas scouring the MEA are the main causes of the accelerated degradation in the front cells of a PEM fuel cell stack under the U-type feed configuration. Several mitigation strategies that would mitigate these phenomena are presented: removing cells that have failed and replacing them with those of the same aging condition as the average of the stack; choosing a Z-type feed pattern instead of a U-type one; putting several air flow-field plates without MEA in the front of the stack; or exchanging the gas inlet and outlet alternately at a certain interval. This paper specifies the causes of the accelerated degradation in the front cells and provides the mitigation strategies.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceutical-based Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Strategies1

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James G.; Oudin, Noemie; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2010-01-01

    We used a hybrid transmission and economic model to evaluate the relative merits of stockpiling antiviral drugs and vaccine for pandemic influenza mitigation. In the absence of any intervention, our base-case assumptions generated a population clinical attack rate of 31.1%. For at least some parameter values, population prepandemic vaccination strategies were effective at containing an outbreak of pandemic influenza until the arrival of a matched vaccine. Because of the uncertain nature of many parameters, we used a probabilistic approach to determine the most cost-effective strategies. At a willingness to pay of >A$24,000 per life-year saved, more than half the simulations showed that a prepandemic vaccination program combined with antiviral treatment was cost-effective in Australia. PMID:20113551

  13. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R.

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  14. Effective Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Public Health Impacts of Heatwaves for Brookline, MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalzadeh Fard, B.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Studies on urban areas show a significant increase in frequency and intensity of heatwaves over the past decades, and predict the same trend for future. Since heatwaves have been responsible for a large number of life losses, urgent adaptation and mitigation strategies are required in the policy and decision making level for a sustainable urban planning. The Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory at Northeastern University, under the aegis of Thriving Earth Exchange of AGU, is working with the town of Brookline to understand the potential public health impacts of anticipated heatwaves. We consider the most important social and physical factors to obtain vulnerability and exposure parameters for each census block group of the town. Utilizing remote sensing data, we locate Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) during a recent heatwave event, as the hazard parameter. We then create priority risk map using the risk framework. Our analyses show spatial correlations between the UHIs and social factors such as poverty, and physical factors such as land cover variations. Furthermore, we investigate the future heatwave frequency and intensity increases by analyzing the climate models predictions. For future changes of UHIs, land cover changes are investigated using available predictive data. Also, socioeconomic predictions are carried out to complete the futuristic models of heatwave risks. Considering plausible scenarios for Brookline, we develop different risk maps based on the vulnerability, exposure and hazard parameters. Eventually, we suggest guidelines for Heatwave Action Plans for prioritizing effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in urban planning for the town of Brookline.

  15. The evaluation of several corrosion mitigation strategies for oil coolers used by the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, Thomas E.; Levin, Bruce L.; Enos, David George

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this study was to first establish the fitness for service of the carbon steel based oil coolers presently located at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry sites, and second, to compare quantitatively the performance of two proposed corrosion mitigation strategies. To address these goals, a series of flow loops were constructed to simulate the conditions present within the oil coolers allowing the performance of each corrosion mitigation strategy, as well as the baseline performance of the existing systems, to be assessed. As prior experimentation had indicated that the corrosion and fouling was relatively uniform within the oil coolers, the hot and cold side of the system were simulated, representing the extremes of temperature observed within a typical oil cooler. Upon completion of the experiment, the depth of localized attack observed on carbon steel was such that perforation of the tube walls would likely result within a 180 day drawdown procedure at West Hackberry. Furthermore, considering the average rate of wall recession (from LPR measurements), combined with the extensive localized attack (pitting) which occurred in both environments, the tubing wall thickness remaining after 180 days would be less than that required to contain the operating pressures of the oil coolers for both sites. Finally, the inhibitor package, while it did reduce the measured corrosion rate in the case of the West Hackberry solutions, did not provide a sufficient reduction in the observed attack to justify its use.

  16. [Key microbial processes in nitrous oxide emissions of agricultural soil and mitigation strategies].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, which does not only have a strong influence on the global climate change but also depletes the ozone layer and induces the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation to ground surface, so numerous researches have been focused on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Soil is the foremost source of N2O emissions to the atmosphere, and approximately two-thirds of these emissions are generally attributed to microbiological processes including bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Here the available knowledge concerning the research progress in N2O production in agricultural soils was reviewed, including denitrification, nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and the abiotic (including soil pH, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic matter, soil humidity and temperature) and biotic factors that have direct and indirect effects on N2O fluxes from agricultural soils were also summarized. In addition, the strategies for mitigating N2O emissions and the future research direction were proposed. Therefore, these studies are expected to provide valuable and scientific evidence for the study on mitigation strategies for the emission of greenhouse gases, adjustment of nitrogen transformation processes and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency.

  17. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on the mycophenolic acid preparations.

    PubMed

    Rostas, Sara; Kim, Miae; Gabardi, Steven

    2014-03-01

    To review risks associated with mycophenolic acid (MPA) preparations and evaluate their required risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) elements. Articles were identified through a non-date-limited MEDLINE and EMBASE search using the terms fetal toxicity, teratogenicity, risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, MPA, mycophenolate mofetil, entericcoated MPA, and organ transplant. Information from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the manufacturers of the MPA preparations was also evaluated. The MPA preparations are associated with several potential risks, including gastrointestinal disturbances and myelosuppression; however, their impact on the fetus in pregnant patients taking 1 of these agents poses the greatest risk. The FDA approved REMS programs for all MPA products, both innovator and generic preparations, in September 2012. With evidence of increased risk of miscarriage and birth defects associated with MPA use, the FDA instituted a REMS program that contains both a medication guide and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). The medication guides for the MPA products, which were previously FDA approved, should continue to be distributed to patients who get either an initial prescription filled or a refill. The ETASU requires prescribers to complete training and obtain patient signatures on the Patient-Prescriber Acknowledgment Form. A single, national, voluntary pregnancy registry specific to this medication has been established, and pregnant patients should be encouraged to participate. Although the impact of the MPA REMS on clinical practice is not clear, it is a step toward increasing the understanding of fetal risks with MPA.

  18. The Gujarat Earthquake: Mitigations Failures and Lessons learnt for Future Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katuri, A. K.; Mittal, J.; Kumar, K.

    for speedy rescue and relief operations needs to be in place with improved information system for post disaster recovery. This paper draws upon the shortfalls faced in the management of Gujarat earthquake; a lesson learnt and presents a comprehensive strategy for Systems networking including the role of space programs in disaster management. The proposed structure is a top down approach for cooperation, emerging from bottom level demand. The missing key elements in the post-disaster situation were - effective information system, high resolution remote sensing data (for effective town planning), operational GIS, with support network from some or all of the governmental agencies. An integrated global communication network for wider dissemination of forecasts, warning and monitoring on a global level and sharing of related knowledge and information can play a vital role in disaster reduction. Needless to say, the local, regional and national disaster communication networks must be fully integrated in the global grid. The proposed structure for disaster management has a National Disaster Mitigation Establishment (NDME) as the apex body under the auspices of the central government, which would be networked across nations to similar other NDMEs. Each NDME would handle the coordination and monitoring of its state units which may be called as State Disaster Management Establishments (SDME). The SDMEs with various district or sub-district level units would collate data. The Network would be supported with field staff at its offices and would liaison with respective higher level DMEs where the lowest unit may be a village / town or cluster of villages. This paper emphasizes the need for comprehensive information system with Spatial Decision Support System (DSS) at three different levels for total disaster management.

  19. Disease Risk Mitigation: The Equivalence of Two Selective Mixing Strategies on Aggregate Contact Patterns & Resulting Epidemic Spread☆

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Benjamin R; Perrings, Charles; Levin, Simon; Kinzig, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The personal choices affecting the transmission of infectious diseases include the number of contacts an individual makes, and the risk-characteristics of those contacts. We consider whether these different choices have distinct implications for the course of an epidemic. We also consider whether choosing contact mitigation (how much to mix) and affinity mitigation (with whom to mix) strategies together has different epidemiological effects than choosing each separately. We use a set of differential equation compartmental models of the spread of disease, coupled with a model of selective mixing. We assess the consequences of varying contact or affinity mitigation as a response to disease risk. We do this by comparing disease incidence and dynamics under varying contact volume, contact type, and both combined across several different disease models. Specifically, we construct a change of variables that allows one to transition from contact mitigation to affinity mitigation, and vice versa. In the absence of asymptomatic infection we find no difference in the epidemiological impacts of the two forms of disease risk mitigation. Furthermore, since models that include both mitigation strategies are under-determined, varying both results in no outcome that could not be reached by choosing either separately. Which strategy is actually chosen then depends not on their epidemiological consequences, but on the relative cost of reducing contact volume versus altering contact type. Although there is no fundamental epidemiological difference between the two forms of mitigation, the social cost of alternative strategies can be very different. From a social perspective, therefore, whether one strategy should be promoted over another depends on economic not epidemiological factors. PMID:25150459

  20. Disease risk mitigation: the equivalence of two selective mixing strategies on aggregate contact patterns and resulting epidemic spread.

    PubMed

    Morin, Benjamin R; Perrings, Charles; Levin, Simon; Kinzig, Ann

    2014-12-21

    The personal choices affecting the transmission of infectious diseases include the number of contacts an individual makes, and the risk-characteristics of those contacts. We consider whether these different choices have distinct implications for the course of an epidemic. We also consider whether choosing contact mitigation (how much to mix) and affinity mitigation (with whom to mix) strategies together has different epidemiological effects than choosing each separately. We use a set of differential equation compartmental models of the spread of disease, coupled with a model of selective mixing. We assess the consequences of varying contact or affinity mitigation as a response to disease risk. We do this by comparing disease incidence and dynamics under varying contact volume, contact type, and both combined across several different disease models. Specifically, we construct a change of variables that allows one to transition from contact mitigation to affinity mitigation, and vice versa. In the absence of asymptomatic infection we find no difference in the epidemiological impacts of the two forms of disease risk mitigation. Furthermore, since models that include both mitigation strategies are underdetermined, varying both results in no outcome that could not be reached by choosing either separately. Which strategy is actually chosen then depends not on their epidemiological consequences, but on the relative cost of reducing contact volume versus altering contact type. Although there is no fundamental epidemiological difference between the two forms of mitigation, the social cost of alternative strategies can be very different. From a social perspective, therefore, whether one strategy should be promoted over another depends on economic not epidemiological factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitigation of methane emissions in cities: How new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Francesca M.; Ehleringer, James R.; Bush, Susan E.; Duren, Riley M.; Miller, Charles E.; Lai, Chun-Ta; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Carranza, Valerie; Randerson, James T.

    2016-09-01

    Cities generate 70% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a fraction that is growing with global urbanization. While cities play an important role in climate change mitigation, there has been little focus on reducing urban methane (CH4) emissions. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for CH4 mitigation in cities by describing emission processes, the role of measurements, and a need for new institutional partnerships. Urban CH4 emissions are likely to grow with expanding use of natural gas and organic waste disposal systems in growing population centers; however, we currently lack the ability to quantify this increase. We also lack systematic knowledge of the relative contribution of these distinct source sectors on emissions. We present new observations from four North American cities to demonstrate that CH4 emissions vary in magnitude and sector from city to city and hence require different mitigation strategies. Detections of fugitive emissions from these systems suggest that current mitigation approaches are absent or ineffective. These findings illustrate that tackling urban CH4 emissions will require research efforts to identify mitigation targets, develop and implement new mitigation strategies, and monitor atmospheric CH4 levels to ensure the success of mitigation efforts. This research will require a variety of techniques to achieve these objectives and should be deployed in cities globally. We suggest that metropolitan scale partnerships may effectively coordinate systematic measurements and actions focused on emission reduction goals.

  2. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven

    2013-03-01

    To review the history of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mToR) inhibitors, evaluate their required REMS elements, and delineate the reasons for them being released from their REMS requirements. Articles were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-July 2012) using the search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, everolimus, sirolimus and organ transplant (individual organs also were searched). Information from the Federal Register, the Food and Drug Administration, and the manufacturers of the mToR inhibitors was also evaluated. REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. The mToR inhibitors have been associated with several potential risks, including proteinuria, graft thrombosis, and wound-healing complications. The Food and Drug Administration approved REMS programs for both sirolimus and everolimus. The manufacturers of both medications complied with the components of their approved REMS, but after less than 2 years, both medications have been relieved of their REMS obligations. The only element of the sirolimus REMS was a medication guide, whereas the everolimus REMS consisted of a medication guide and a communication plan. The sirolimus REMS was implemented more than 10 years after its initial approval by the Food and Drug Administration, but was released from its REMS requirement within 7 months of its implementation. The everolimus REMS was instituted upon initial approval and was removed approximately 2 years later. Both medications' REMS were always intended to educate health care providers and patients about the potential risks associated with this transplant immunosuppressant. Transplant practitioners should be familiar with the mToR inhibitors' associated risks and properly educate patients regarding the

  3. A guide to understanding and implementing risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven; Tichy, Eric M

    2013-03-01

    To review the components of the Congressional mandate for risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) managed by the Food and Drug Administration and assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplant arena. A non-date-limited search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-June 2012) was conducted by using the following search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, and organ transplant, including a query of the individual organs. Information from the Federal Register and the Food and Drug Administration was also evaluated. REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. Elements of REMS programs may consist of 3 levels: a medication guide, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use. A medication guide is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patients' decision making, and enhance medication adherence. Communication plans help educate health care providers and encourage adherence with REMS. The elements to assure safe use is a restrictive process implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure safe access for patients to products with known serious risks. In transplant medicine, REMS currently exist for belatacept (medication guide and communication plan) and the mycophenolic acid derivatives (medication guide and elements to assure safe use). REMS are another step in the evolution of the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents. Use of REMS in solid-organ transplant is becoming common. Transplant clinicians must provide required patient education and become involved with other aspects of REMS implementation to reduce the serious risks of pharmaceuticals and to improve patients' outcomes.

  4. Development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for Disaster Early Warning and Mitigation in the Ecowas Subregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, L. A.; Keita, M. S.; Akinyede, J. O.; Kufoniyi, O.; Erin, G.

    2015-08-01

    The West Africa Sub-region has been crisis and disaster ridden in recent times with enormous challenges for disaster mitigation. The crisis/disasters range from conflicts fuelled by political upheaval to epidemics that take their tolls on the population of some countries in the sub-region. The crisis and disaster events have overwhelming magnitudes and are highly dynamic, requiring a well-articulated plan for immediate response in order to mitigate their effects. A study carried out by the Early Warning Directorate (EWD) of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) highlighted the risks and vulnerabilities of the region despite the considerable progress made in development and peace consolidation in some parts of the region. The study identified apparent institutional and infrastructural deficiencies, such as the lack of up-to-date geospatial data and information, and inadequate platforms for data gathering and data sharing among the relevant national agencies, which have made much of the region particularly vulnerable to the emerging threats. It is against the foregoing that the development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for EWD and the ECOWAS is being proposed. In addition to the resolution of the crucial need of reliable geospatial data capacity of member states, this initiative will spearhead the realisation of a Geospatial Data Infrastructure for ECOWAS Commission, through the appropriate policy formulation and implementation. Through the proper implementation of the Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services, ECOWAS will have the capacity to provide geospatial analysis and mapping support focusing on areas related to conflict prevention and resolution, regional planning for food security, early warning of viral diseases and epidemics, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response, infrastructural development and refugee resettlement, and a host of other vital projects/programmes for promoting ECOWAS regional integration

  5. A wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.

    2016-12-01

    Heat stress is one of the most severe climate threats to the human society in a future warmer world. The situation is further compounded in urban areas by the urban heat island (UHI). Because the majority of the world's population is projected to live in cities, there is a pressing need to find effective solutions for the high temperature problem. It is now recognized that in addition to the traditional emphasis on preparedness to cope with heat stress, these solutions should include active modifications of urban land form to reduce urban temperatures. Here we use an urban climate model to investigate the effectiveness of these active methods in mitigating the urban heat, both individually and collectively. By adopting highly reflective roofs citywide, almost all the cities in the USA and in southern Canada are transformed into cold islands or "white oases" where the daytime surface temperatures are lower than those in the surrounding rural land. The average oasis effect is -3.4 ± 0.3 K (mean ± 1 standard error) for the period 2071-2100 under the RCP4.5 scenario. A UHI mitigation wedge strategy consisting of cool roof, street vegetation and reflective pavement has the potential to eliminate the daytime UHI plus the greenhouse gas induced warming.

  6. A wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Xuhui; Schultz, Natalie M.

    2017-07-01

    Heat stress is one of the most severe climate threats to human society in a future warmer world. The situation is further exacerbated in urban areas by urban heat islands (UHIs). Because the majority of world's population is projected to live in cities, there is a pressing need to find effective solutions for the heat stress problem. We use a climate model to investigate the effectiveness of various urban heat mitigation strategies: cool roofs, street vegetation, green roofs, and reflective pavement. Our results show that by adopting highly reflective roofs, almost all the cities in the United States and southern Canada are transformed into white oases - cold islands caused by cool roofs at midday, with an average oasis effect of -3.4 K in the summer for the period 2071-2100, which offsets approximately 80 % of the greenhouse gas (GHG) warming projected for the same period under the RCP4.5 scenario. A UHI mitigation wedge consisting of cool roofs, street vegetation, and reflective pavement has the potential to eliminate the daytime UHI plus the GHG warming.

  7. Modeling effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies on heat-related morbidity: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Silva, Humberto R; Phelan, Patrick E; Golden, Jay S

    2010-01-01

    A zero-dimensional energy balance model was previously developed to serve as a user-friendly mitigation tool for practitioners seeking to study the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Accordingly, this established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. In addition to modeling mitigation strategies, we present how the model can be utilized to evaluate human health vulnerability from excessive heat-related events, based on heat-related emergency service data from 2002 to 2006. The 24-h average heat index is shown to have the greatest correlation to heat-related emergency calls in the Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to a 48% reduction in annual heat-related emergency service calls, where increasing the albedo is the single most effective UHI mitigation strategy.

  8. Modeling effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies on heat-related morbidity: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Humberto R.; Phelan, Patrick E.; Golden, Jay S.

    2010-01-01

    A zero-dimensional energy balance model was previously developed to serve as a user-friendly mitigation tool for practitioners seeking to study the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Accordingly, this established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. In addition to modeling mitigation strategies, we present how the model can be utilized to evaluate human health vulnerability from excessive heat-related events, based on heat-related emergency service data from 2002 to 2006. The 24-h average heat index is shown to have the greatest correlation to heat-related emergency calls in the Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to a 48% reduction in annual heat-related emergency service calls, where increasing the albedo is the single most effective UHI mitigation strategy.

  9. Volatile N-nitrosamines in Meat Products: Potential Precursors, Influence of Processing and Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    De Mey, Eveline; De Maere, Hannelore; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2015-11-03

    Meat products can be contaminated with carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, which is ascribed to the reaction between a nitrosating agent, originating from nitrite or smoke, and a secondary amine, derived from protein and lipid degradation. Although in model systems it is demonstrated that many amine containing compounds can be converted to N-nitrosamines, the yield is dependent of reaction conditions (e.g. low pH and high temperature). In this paper the influence of the composition of the meat products (e.g. pH, aw, spices) and processing (e.g. ageing, ripening, fermentation, smoking, heat treatment and storage) on the presence and availability of the amine precursors and the N-nitrosamine formation mechanism is discussed. In addition, this paper explores the current N-nitrosamine mitigation strategies in order to obtain healthier and more natural meat products.

  10. Simulation Comparison of Wake Mitigation Control Strategies for a Two-Turbine Case

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Paul; Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; Lee, Sang; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem; Johnson, Kathryn; Churchfield, Matt; Michalakes, John; Spalart, Philippe; Moriarty, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Wind turbines arranged in a wind plant impact each other through their wakes. Wind plant control is an active research field that attempts to improve wind plant performance by coordinating control of individual turbines to take into account these turbine–wake interactions. High-fidelity simulations of a two-turbine fully waked scenario are used to investigate several wake mitigation strategies, in this paper, including modification of yaw and tilt angles of an upstream turbine to induce wake skew, as well as repositioning of the downstream turbine. The simulation results are compared through change relative to a baseline operation in terms of overall power capture and loading on the upstream and downstream turbine. Results demonstrated improved power production for all methods. Moreover, analysis of control options, including individual pitch control, shows potential to minimize the increase of, or even reduce, turbine loads.

  11. Shared risk evaluation mitigation strategy for all immediate-release transmucosal fentanyl dosage forms.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration approved a single shared Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for transmucosal immediate-release fentanyl dosage forms in December 2011. This report describes the goals, elements, and restricted distribution system of the REMS designed to reduce risk of abuse, misuse, addiction, and overdose with the drugs. Questions and answers about REMS also are presented. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced a shared REMS for all immediate-release transmucosal fentanyl dosage forms on December 29, 2011, to become effective in March 2012. That announcement is accessible at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm285345.htm. Concurrently the FDA posted a series of questions and answers on this shared REMS at: http://http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm284717.htm. Both documents are in the public domain.

  12. Eye disease resulting from increased use of fluorescent lighting as a climate change mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Walls, Helen L; Walls, Kelvin L; Benke, Geza

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of fluorescent lighting as a climate change mitigation strategy may increase eye disease. The safe range of light to avoid exposing the eye to potentially damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 2000 to 3500K and greater than 500 nanometers. Some fluorescent lights fall outside this safe range. Fluorescent lighting may increase UV-related eye diseases by up to 12% and, according to our calculations, may cause an additional 3000 cases of cataracts and 7500 cases of pterygia annually in Australia. Greater control of UV exposure from fluorescent lights is required. This may be of particular concern for aging populations in developed countries and countries in northern latitudes where there is a greater dependence on artificial lighting.

  13. Eye Disease Resulting From Increased Use of Fluorescent Lighting as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Kelvin L.; Benke, Geza

    2011-01-01

    Increased use of fluorescent lighting as a climate change mitigation strategy may increase eye disease. The safe range of light to avoid exposing the eye to potentially damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 2000 to 3500K and greater than 500 nanometers. Some fluorescent lights fall outside this safe range. Fluorescent lighting may increase UV-related eye diseases by up to 12% and, according to our calculations, may cause an additional 3000 cases of cataracts and 7500 cases of pterygia annually in Australia. Greater control of UV exposure from fluorescent lights is required. This may be of particular concern for aging populations in developed countries and countries in northern latitudes where there is a greater dependence on artificial lighting. PMID:22021286

  14. Risk Mitigation Strategies for Adverse Reactions Associated with the Disease Modifying Drugs in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Subei, Adnan M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years the number of disease modifying therapies (DMTs) have doubled in number. The thirteen approved agents have shown a wide-range of efficacy and safety in their clinical trials and post-marketing experience. While the availability of the newer agents allows for a wider selection of therapy for clinicians and patients, it requires careful understanding of the benefits and risks of each agent. Several factors such as the medication efficacy, side-effect profile, patient’s preference, and co-morbidities need to be considered. An individualized treatment approach is thus imperative. In this review, risk stratification and mitigation strategies of the various disease modifying agents will be discussed. PMID:26407624

  15. Risk Mitigation Strategies for Adverse Reactions Associated with the Disease-Modifying Drugs in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Subei, Adnan M; Ontaneda, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, the number of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has doubled in number. The 13 approved agents have shown a wide range of efficacy and safety in their clinical trials and post-marketing experience. While the availability of the newer agents allows for a wider selection of therapy for clinicians and patients, there is a need for careful understanding of the benefits and risks of each agent. Several factors such as the medication efficacy, side-effect profile, patient's preference, and co-morbidities need to be considered. An individualized treatment approach is thus imperative. In this review, risk stratification and mitigation strategies of the various disease-modifying agents are discussed.

  16. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  17. A mitigation strategy for commercial aviation impact on NOx-related O3 change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Khan, M. A. H.; Shallcross, D. E.; Derwent, R. G.; Lowenberg, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    An operational mitigation strategy for commercial aircraft impact on atmospheric composition, referred to as the turboprop replacement strategy (TRS), is described in this paper. The global air traffic between 2005 and 2011 was modeled with the TRS in which turbofan powered aircraft were replaced with nine chosen turboprop powered aircraft on all routes up to 1700 nautical miles (NM) in range. The results of this TRS double the global number of departures, as well as global mission distance, while global mission time grows by nearly a factor of 3. However, the global mission fuel and the emissions of aviation CO2, H2O, and SOx remain approximately unchanged, and the total global aviation CO, hydrocarbons (HC), and NOx emissions are reduced by 79%, 21%, and 11% on average between 2005 and 2011. The TRS lowers the global mean cruise altitude of flights up to 1700 NM by 2.7 km which leads to a significant decrease in global mission fuel burn, mission time, distance flown, and the aircraft emissions of CO2, CO, H2O, NOx, SOx, and HC above 9.2 km. The replacement of turbofans with turboprops in regional fleets on a global scale leads to an overall reduction in levels of tropospheric O3 at the current estimated mean cruise altitude near the tropopause where the radiative forcing of O3 is strongest. Further, the replacement strategy results in a reduction of ground-level aviation CO and NOx emissions by 33 and 29%, respectively, between 2005 and 2011.

  18. Evaluating the Potential Effectiveness of Compensatory Mitigation Strategies for Marine Bycatch

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Myra; Bakker, Victoria; Doak, Daniel F.; Sullivan, Ben; Lewison, Rebecca; Satterthwaite, William H.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Wolf, Shaye; Priddel, David; Arnold, Jennifer M.; Henry, Robert W.; Sievert, Paul; Croxall, John

    2008-01-01

    Conservationists are continually seeking new strategies to reverse population declines and safeguard against species extinctions. Here we evaluate the potential efficacy of a recently proposed approach to offset a major anthropogenic threat to many marine vertebrates: incidental bycatch in commercial fisheries operations. This new approach, compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch (CMMB), is conceived as a way to replace or reduce mandated restrictions on fishing activities with compensatory activities (e.g., removal of introduced predators from islands) funded by levies placed on fishers. While efforts are underway to bring CMMB into policy discussions, to date there has not been a detailed evaluation of CMMB's potential as a conservation tool, and in particular, a list of necessary and sufficient criteria that CMMB must meet to be an effective conservation strategy. Here we present a list of criteria to assess CMMB that are tied to critical ecological aspects of the species targeted for conservation, the range of possible mitigation activities, and the multi-species impact of fisheries bycatch. We conclude that, overall, CMMB has little potential for benefit and a substantial potential for harm if implemented to solve most fisheries bycatch problems. In particular, CMMB is likely to be effective only when applied to short-lived and highly-fecund species (not the characteristics of most bycatch-impacted species) and to fisheries that take few non-target species, and especially few non-seabird species (not the characteristics of most fisheries). Thus, CMMB appears to have limited application and should only be implemented after rigorous appraisal on a case-specific basis; otherwise it has the potential to accelerate declines of marine species currently threatened by fisheries bycatch. PMID:18560568

  19. Evaluating the potential effectiveness of compensatory mitigation strategies for marine bycatch.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra; Bakker, Victoria; Doak, Daniel F; Sullivan, Ben; Lewison, Rebecca; Satterthwaite, William H; McIntyre, Peter B; Wolf, Shaye; Priddel, David; Arnold, Jennifer M; Henry, Robert W; Sievert, Paul; Croxall, John

    2008-06-18

    Conservationists are continually seeking new strategies to reverse population declines and safeguard against species extinctions. Here we evaluate the potential efficacy of a recently proposed approach to offset a major anthropogenic threat to many marine vertebrates: incidental bycatch in commercial fisheries operations. This new approach, compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch (CMMB), is conceived as a way to replace or reduce mandated restrictions on fishing activities with compensatory activities (e.g., removal of introduced predators from islands) funded by levies placed on fishers. While efforts are underway to bring CMMB into policy discussions, to date there has not been a detailed evaluation of CMMB's potential as a conservation tool, and in particular, a list of necessary and sufficient criteria that CMMB must meet to be an effective conservation strategy. Here we present a list of criteria to assess CMMB that are tied to critical ecological aspects of the species targeted for conservation, the range of possible mitigation activities, and the multi-species impact of fisheries bycatch. We conclude that, overall, CMMB has little potential for benefit and a substantial potential for harm if implemented to solve most fisheries bycatch problems. In particular, CMMB is likely to be effective only when applied to short-lived and highly-fecund species (not the characteristics of most bycatch-impacted species) and to fisheries that take few non-target species, and especially few non-seabird species (not the characteristics of most fisheries). Thus, CMMB appears to have limited application and should only be implemented after rigorous appraisal on a case-specific basis; otherwise it has the potential to accelerate declines of marine species currently threatened by fisheries bycatch.

  20. Evaluating the potential effectiveness of compensatory mitigation strategies for marine bycatch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Bakker, V.; Doak, D.F.; Sullivan, B.; Lewison, R.; Satterthwaite, W.H.; McIntyre, P.B.; Wolf, S.; Priddel, D.; Arnold, J.M.; Henry, R.W.; Sievert, P.; Croxall, J.

    2008-01-01

    Conservationists are continually seeking new strategies to reverse population declines and safeguard against species extinctions. Here we evaluate the potential efficacy of a recently proposed approach to offset a major anthropogenic threat to many marine vertebrates: incidental bycatch in commercial fisheries operations. This new approach, compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch (CMMB), is conceived as a way to replace or reduce mandated restrictions on fishing activities with compensatory activities (e.g., removal of introduced predators from islands) funded by levies placed on fishers. While efforts are underway to bring CMMB into policy discussions, to date there has not been a detailed evaluation of CMMB's potential as a conservation tool, and in particular, a list of necessary and sufficient criteria that CMMB must meet to be an effective conservation strategy. Here we present a list of criteria to assess CMMB that are tied to critical ecological aspects of the species targeted for conservation, the range of possible mitigation activities, and the multi-species impact of fisheries bycatch. We conclude that, overall, CMMB has little potential for benefit and a substantial potential for harm if implemented to solve most fisheries bycatch problems. In particular, CMMB is likely to be effective only when applied to short-lived and highly-fecund species (not the characteristics of most bycatch-impacted species) and to fisheries that take few non-target species, and especially few non-seabird species (not the characteristics of most fisheries). Thus, CMMB appears to have limited application and should only be implemented after rigorous appraisal on a case-specific basis; otherwise it has the potential to accelerate declines of marine species currently threatened by fisheries bycatch. ?? 2008 Finkelstein et al.

  1. Basic mechanism of button battery ingestion injuries and novel mitigation strategies after diagnosis and removal.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Kris R; Rhoades, Keith; Milkovich, Scott; Jacobs, Ian N

    2017-06-01

    Button battery (BB) injuries continue to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality, and there is a need to confirm the mechanism of injury for development of additional mitigation strategies. Cadaveric piglet esophageal model. Lithium, silver oxide, alkaline, and zinc-air BBs were placed in thawed sections of cadaveric piglet esophagus, bathed in normal saline. Severity of gross visual burn, pH, and temperature were recorded every 30 minutes for 6 hours. In other esophageal tissue specimens, the lithium BB was removed after 24, 36, and 48 hours and the site was irrigated with either 0.25% or 3% acetic acid. Separately, ReaLemon® juice, orange juice, Coke®, Dasani® water, Pepsi®, and saline were infused over a vertically suspended esophagus with a CR2032 lithium battery every 5 minutes for 2 hours while tissue temperature and pH were measured. A gradual rise in tissue pH and minimal change in temperature was noted for all BBs. ReaLemon® and orange juice applied every 5 minutes were most effective at neutralization of tissue pH with minimal change in tissue temperature. After BB removal (24, 36, 48 hours), irrigation of esophageal tissue specimens with 50-150 mL 0.25% acetic acid neutralized the highly alkaline tissue pH. BB appear to cause an isothermic hydrolysis reaction resulting in an alkaline caustic injury. Potential new mitigation strategies include application of neutralizing weakly acidic solutions that may reduce esophageal injury progression. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1276-1282, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Substantial air quality and climate co-benefits achievable now with sectoral mitigation strategies in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Yang, Junnan; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2017-11-15

    China is the world's top carbon emitter and suffers from severe air pollution. We examine near-term air quality and CO2 co-benefits of various current sector-based policies in China. Using a 2015 base case, we evaluate the potential benefits of four sectoral mitigation strategies. All scenarios include a 20% increase in conventional air pollution controls as well as the following sector-specific fuel switching or technology upgrade strategies. Power sector (POW): 80% replacement of small coal power plants with larger more efficient ones; Industry sector (IND): 10% improvement in energy efficiency; Transport sector (TRA): replacement of high emitters with average vehicle fleet emissions; and Residential sector (RES): replacement of 20% of coal-based stoves with stoves using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Conducting an integrated assessment using the regional air pollution model WRF-Chem, we find that the IND scenario reduces national air-pollution-related deaths the most of the four scenarios examined (27,000, 24,000, 13,000 and 23,000 deaths reduced annually in IND, POW, TRA and RES, respectively). In addition, the IND scenario reduces CO2 emissions more than 8times as much as any other scenario (440, 53, 0 and 52Mt CO2 reduced in IND, POW, TRA and RES, respectively). We also examine the benefits of an industrial efficiency improvement of just 5%. We find the resulting air quality and health benefits are still among the largest of the sectoral scenarios, while the carbon mitigation benefits remain more than 3 times larger than any other scenario. Our analysis hence highlights the importance of even modest industrial energy efficiency improvements and air pollution control technology upgrades for air quality, health and climate benefits in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies to mitigate dissociative and psychotomimetic effects of ketamine in the treatment of major depressive episodes: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Matthew D; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Cha, Danielle S; Lee, Yena; Kakar, Ron; McIntyre, Roger S

    2016-03-16

    Objectives Replicated evidence has demonstrated that ketamine exerts rapid-acting and potent antidepressant effects. Notwithstanding, its promise to mitigate depressive symptoms and suicidality in antidepressant-resistant populations, several limitations and safety concerns accompany ketamine including, but not limited to, the potential for abuse and psychotomimetic/dissociative experiences. The focus of the current narrative review is to synthesise available evidence of strategies that may mitigate and fully prevent treatment-emergent psychotomimetic and dissociative effects associated with ketamine administration. Methods PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for relevant articles. Results Potential avenues investigated to minimise psychotomimetic effects associated with ketamine administration include the following: (1) altering dosing and infusion rates; (2) route of administration; (3) enantiomer choice; (4) co-administration with mood stabilisers of antipsychotics; and (5) use of alternative N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-modulating agents. Emerging evidence indicates that dissociative experiences can be significantly mitigated by using an intranasal route of administration, lower dosages, or use of alternative NMDA-modulating agents, namely lanicemine (AZD6765) and GLYX-13. Conclusions Currently, intranasal administration presents as the most promising strategy to mitigate dissociative and psychotomimetic effects; however, studies of strategies to mitigate the adverse events of ketamine are limited in number and quality and thus further investigation is still needed.

  4. Tailoring the Employment of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structure Load Mitigation Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Binita; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The currently available control concepts to mitigate aerodynamic and hydrodynamic induced support structure loads reduce either fore-aft or side-to-side damage under certain operational conditions. The load reduction is achieved together with an increase in loads in other components of the turbine e.g. pitch actuators or drive train, increasing the risk of unscheduled maintenance. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate a methodology for reduction of support structure damage equivalent loads (DEL) in fore-aft and side-to-side directions using already available control concepts. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to minimize the DELs, while limiting the collateral effects of the control algorithms for load reduction. The optimization gives trigger values of sea state condition for the activation or deactivation of certain control concepts. As a result, by accepting the consumption of a small fraction of the load reserve in the design load envelope of other turbine components, a considerable reduction of the support structure loads is facilitated.

  5. A review of PEM fuel cell durability: Degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiao Zi; Martin, Jonathan J.; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun; Shen, Jun; Wu, Shaohong; Merida, Walter

    This paper reviews publications in the literature on performance degradation of and mitigation strategies for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Durability is one of the characteristics most necessary for PEM fuel cells to be accepted as a viable product. In this paper, a literature-based analysis has been carried out in an attempt to achieve a unified definition of PEM fuel cell lifetime for cells operated either at a steady state or at various accelerated conditions. Additionally, the dependence of PEM fuel cell durability on different operating conditions is analyzed. Durability studies of the individual components of a PEM fuel cell are introduced, and various degradation mechanisms are examined. Following this analysis, the emphasis of this review shifts to applicable strategies for alleviating the degradation rate of each component. The lifetime of a PEM fuel cell as a function of operating conditions, component materials, and degradation mechanisms is then established. Lastly, this paper summarizes accelerated stress testing methods and protocols for various components, in an attempt to prevent the prolonged test periods and high costs associated with real lifetime tests.

  6. [Comment on “Old and new ideas visited for comet and asteroid hazard mitigation strategies” by J. Wakefield] Clarifying a few points about impact mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David

    The article on impact mitigation studies [Eos, August 30, 1994] raises some interesting points about the hazard of asteroid and comet impacts but betrays a major misunderstanding of the mitigation strategies under study. It refers repeatedly to Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or “Star Wars” systems and tries to discuss their merits without giving the reader any hint of what these mysterious new technologies are or how they may relate to mitigation of impacts. In fact, detecting, intercepting, and deflecting a kilometer-scale asteroid or comet at ranges from the Earth of tens of millions of kilometers has little in common with the missile detection and defense systems developed as part of the SDI program, no more than you would use a rifle to shoot down an Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile. The one example mentioned, the Air Force GEODSS system of wide-field telescopes, was not a part of SDI. In addition, the article seriously overstates the current discovery rate of kilometer-scale near Earth asteroids, which are currently found at a rate of several per year, not several per month (the several per month refers to all near Earth asteroids found, most of which are less than 1 km in diameter).

  7. The mitigating effects of maternal social support and paternal involvement on the intergenerational transmission of violence.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Melissa; Salo, Madeleine; Appleton, Allison A

    2017-09-30

    Childhood maltreatment is a strong risk factor for subsequent violence, including violent behaviors in young adulthood and offspring maltreatment after becoming a parent. Little is known about the specific circumstances under which supportive relationships may help disrupt this cycle of violence throughout the life course. We conducted two complementary analyses to assess whether maternal social support in early childhood, and also paternal involvement in middle childhood, could prevent the intergenerational transmission of violence, using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n=11,384). We found that higher levels of maternal social support in the postpartum period reduced the odds of offspring maltreatment at ages 0-8 years (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.96). When classifying mothers according to their abuse history, this protective association of social support was observed among mothers with no history of childhood maltreatment and among those with only childhood maltreatment (and not postpartum intimate partner violence [IPV]), but not among mothers who reported IPV since the child's birth. We then extended our analysis of these offspring forward in time and found that paternal involvement at ages 9-10 years was associated with a reduced risk of offspring self-reported violent perpetration at ages 18-20 years (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.77-0.94). This protective association was generally apparent among all subgroups of children, including those with a history of childhood maltreatment. Together these results highlight the protective influence of supportive relationships against the intergenerational transmission of violence, depending on abuse history, context, and timing, with important implications for the prevention of childhood maltreatment and mitigation of its negative effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho

    2008-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i

  10. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    PubMed

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  11. Promising New Teacher Support Strategies and Their Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella R.; Quartz, Karen Hunter

    1995-01-01

    Describes several promising new teacher support strategies implemented by California universities and their district partners as part of the California New Teacher Project, noting resources expended to implement each strategy. The strategies are framed according to their programmatic and economic dimensions. Strategies that make the most sense…

  12. Promising New Teacher Support Strategies and Their Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella R.; Quartz, Karen Hunter

    1995-01-01

    Describes several promising new teacher support strategies implemented by California universities and their district partners as part of the California New Teacher Project, noting resources expended to implement each strategy. The strategies are framed according to their programmatic and economic dimensions. Strategies that make the most sense…

  13. Trade study of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies to support Hanford single-shell waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to safely manage and dispose of low-level, high-level, and transuranic wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Eastern Washington. This report supports the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone No. M-45-08-T01 and addresses additional issues regarding single-shell tank leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies and provide an indication of the scope of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation activities necessary to support the Tank Waste Remedial System Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project.

  14. Simulation of targeted pollutant-mitigation-strategies to reduce nitrate and sediment hotspots in agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Teshager, Awoke Dagnew; Gassman, Philip W; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin T

    2017-12-31

    About 50% of U.S. water pollution problems are caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients from agricultural areas, despite the widespread implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). However, the effectiveness of implementation strategies and type of BMPs at watershed scale are still not well understood. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological model was used to assess the effectiveness of pollutant mitigation strategies in the Raccoon River watershed (RRW) in west-central Iowa, USA. We analyzed fourteen management scenarios based on systematic combinations of five strategies: fertilizer/manure management, changing row-crop land to perennial grass, vegetative filter strips, cover crops and shallower tile drainage systems, specifically aimed at reducing nitrate and total suspended sediment yields from hotspot areas in the RRW. Moreover, we assessed implications of climate change on management practices, and the impacts of management practices on water availability, row crop yield, and total agricultural production. Our results indicate that sufficient reduction of nitrate load may require either implementation of multiple management practices (38.5% with current setup) or conversion of extensive areas into perennial grass (up to 49.7%) to meet and maintain the drinking water standard. However, climate change may undermine the effectiveness of management practices, especially late in the 21st century, cutting the reduction by up to 65% for nitrate and more for sediment loads. Further, though our approach is targeted, it resulted in a slight decrease (~5%) in watershed average crop yield and hence an overall reduction in total crop production, mainly due to the conversion of row-crop lands to perennial grass. Such yield reductions could be quite spatially heterogeneously distributed (0 to 40%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Supporting Technology at GRC to Mitigate Risk as Stirling Power Conversion Transitions to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2009-01-01

    Stirling power conversion technology has been reaching more advanced levels of maturity during its development for space power applications. The current effort is in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Sunpower Inc., and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. Of paramount importance is the reliability of the power system and as a part of this, the Stirling power convertors. GRC has established a supporting technology effort with tasks in the areas of reliability, convertor testing, high-temperature materials, structures, advanced analysis, organics, and permanent magnets. The project utilizes the matrix system at GRC to make use of resident experts in each of the aforementioned fields. Each task is intended to reduce risk and enhance reliability of the convertor as this technology transitions toward flight status. This paper will provide an overview of each task, outline the recent efforts and accomplishments, and show how they mitigate risk and impact the reliability of the ASC s and ultimately, the ASRG.

  16. Supporting Technology at GRC to Mitigate Risk as Stirling Power Conversion Transitions to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2008-01-01

    Stirling power conversion technology has been reaching more advanced levels of maturity during its development for space power applications. The current effort is in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Sunpower Inc., and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. Of paramount importance is the reliability of the power system and as a part of this, the Stirling power convertors. GRC has established a supporting technology effort with tasks in the areas of reliability, convertor testing, high-temperature materials, structures, advanced analysis, organics, and permanent magnets. The project utilizes the matrix system at GRC to make use of resident experts in each of the aforementioned fields. Each task is intended to reduce risk and enhance reliability of the convertor as this technology transitions toward flight status. This paper will provide an overview of each task, outline the recent efforts and accomplishments, and show how they mitigate risk and impact the reliability of the ASC s and ultimately, the ASRG.

  17. Mitigation Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture and Land-Use Change: Consequences for Food Prices.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Miodrag; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Humpenöder, Florian; Müller, Christoph; Weindl, Isabelle; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Rolinski, Susanne; Biewald, Anne; Wang, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-03

    The land use sector of agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) plays a central role in ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. Yet, mitigation policies in agriculture may be in conflict with food security related targets. Using a global agro-economic model, we analyze the impacts on food prices under mitigation policies targeting either incentives for producers (e.g., through taxes) or consumer preferences (e.g., through education programs). Despite having a similar reduction potential of 43-44% in 2100, the two types of policy instruments result in opposite outcomes for food prices. Incentive-based mitigation, such as protecting carbon-rich forests or adopting low-emission production techniques, increase land scarcity and production costs and thereby food prices. Preference-based mitigation, such as reduced household waste or lower consumption of animal-based products, decreases land scarcity, prevents emissions leakage, and concentrates production on the most productive sites and consequently lowers food prices. Whereas agricultural emissions are further abated in the combination of these mitigation measures, the synergy of strategies fails to substantially lower food prices. Additionally, we demonstrate that the efficiency of agricultural emission abatement is stable across a range of greenhouse-gas (GHG) tax levels, while resulting food prices exhibit a disproportionally larger spread.

  18. Abiotic Stress Responses and Microbe-Mediated Mitigation in Plants: The Omics Strategies.

    PubMed

    Meena, Kamlesh K; Sorty, Ajay M; Bitla, Utkarsh M; Choudhary, Khushboo; Gupta, Priyanka; Pareek, Ashwani; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Prabha, Ratna; Sahu, Pramod K; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Harikesh B; Krishanani, Kishor K; Minhas, Paramjit S

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are the foremost limiting factors for agricultural productivity. Crop plants need to cope up adverse external pressure created by environmental and edaphic conditions with their intrinsic biological mechanisms, failing which their growth, development, and productivity suffer. Microorganisms, the most natural inhabitants of diverse environments exhibit enormous metabolic capabilities to mitigate abiotic stresses. Since microbial interactions with plants are an integral part of the living ecosystem, they are believed to be the natural partners that modulate local and systemic mechanisms in plants to offer defense under adverse external conditions. Plant-microbe interactions comprise complex mechanisms within the plant cellular system. Biochemical, molecular and physiological studies are paving the way in understanding the complex but integrated cellular processes. Under the continuous pressure of increasing climatic alterations, it now becomes more imperative to define and interpret plant-microbe relationships in terms of protection against abiotic stresses. At the same time, it also becomes essential to generate deeper insights into the stress-mitigating mechanisms in crop plants for their translation in higher productivity. Multi-omics approaches comprising genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics integrate studies on the interaction of plants with microbes and their external environment and generate multi-layered information that can answer what is happening in real-time within the cells. Integration, analysis and decipherization of the big-data can lead to a massive outcome that has significant chance for implementation in the fields. This review summarizes abiotic stresses responses in plants in-terms of biochemical and molecular mechanisms followed by the microbe-mediated stress mitigation phenomenon. We describe the role of multi-omics approaches in generating multi-pronged information to provide a better understanding

  19. Abiotic Stress Responses and Microbe-Mediated Mitigation in Plants: The Omics Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Kamlesh K.; Sorty, Ajay M.; Bitla, Utkarsh M.; Choudhary, Khushboo; Gupta, Priyanka; Pareek, Ashwani; Singh, Dhananjaya P.; Prabha, Ratna; Sahu, Pramod K.; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Krishanani, Kishor K.; Minhas, Paramjit S.

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are the foremost limiting factors for agricultural productivity. Crop plants need to cope up adverse external pressure created by environmental and edaphic conditions with their intrinsic biological mechanisms, failing which their growth, development, and productivity suffer. Microorganisms, the most natural inhabitants of diverse environments exhibit enormous metabolic capabilities to mitigate abiotic stresses. Since microbial interactions with plants are an integral part of the living ecosystem, they are believed to be the natural partners that modulate local and systemic mechanisms in plants to offer defense under adverse external conditions. Plant-microbe interactions comprise complex mechanisms within the plant cellular system. Biochemical, molecular and physiological studies are paving the way in understanding the complex but integrated cellular processes. Under the continuous pressure of increasing climatic alterations, it now becomes more imperative to define and interpret plant-microbe relationships in terms of protection against abiotic stresses. At the same time, it also becomes essential to generate deeper insights into the stress-mitigating mechanisms in crop plants for their translation in higher productivity. Multi-omics approaches comprising genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics integrate studies on the interaction of plants with microbes and their external environment and generate multi-layered information that can answer what is happening in real-time within the cells. Integration, analysis and decipherization of the big-data can lead to a massive outcome that has significant chance for implementation in the fields. This review summarizes abiotic stresses responses in plants in-terms of biochemical and molecular mechanisms followed by the microbe-mediated stress mitigation phenomenon. We describe the role of multi-omics approaches in generating multi-pronged information to provide a better understanding

  20. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  1. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed.

  2. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels

    PubMed Central

    Zimba, Roderick F.; Likando, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18–35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  3. The performance of an efficient dairy system using a combination of nitrogen leaching mitigation strategies in a variable climate.

    PubMed

    Beukes, P C; Romera, A J; Gregorini, P; Macdonald, K A; Glassey, C B; Shepherd, M A

    2017-12-01

    An efficient dairy system, that implemented a combination of nitrogen (N) leaching mitigation strategies including lower N fertilizer input, standing cows off pasture for part of the day in autumn and winter (stand-off), and importing limited amounts of low protein supplements was evaluated over four consecutive years of a farmlet study. This efficient system consistently demonstrated a lower measured annual N leaching of 40 to 50% compared with a baseline system representing current practice with no mitigations. To maximize return from this system fewer cows but of higher genetic merit were used resulting in an average decrease in milk production of 2% and operating profit by 5% compared with the baseline system. The magnitude of the N leaching reduction from mitigation strategies was predicted in pre-trial modelling. Using similar mechanistic models in a post-trial study, we were able to satisfactorily predict the trends in the observed N leaching data over the four years. This enabled us to use the calibrated models to explore the contributions of the different mitigation strategies to the overall leaching reduction in the efficient system. In one of the years half of the leaching reduction was achieved by the 'input' component of the strategy (less feed N flowing through the herd from lower fertilizer use, less grass grown, and low-protein supplement use), while the other half was achieved by the stand-off strategy. However, these contributions are determined by the weather of a particular year. We estimate that on average stand-off would contribute 60% and 'input' 40% to the reduction. The implication is that farmers facing nutrient loss limitations have some current and some future technologies available to them for meeting these limitations. A shift towards the mitigations described here can result in a downward trend in their own N-loss metrics. The challenge will be to negate any reductions in production and profit, and remain competitive. Copyright

  4. Hawaiian cultural influences on support for lava flow hazard mitigation measures during the January 1960 eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Kapoho, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, B.F.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.; Lachman, R.; Bonk, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    On average, 72% of respondents favored the construction of earthen barriers to hold back or divert lava and protect Kapoho, but far fewer agreed with the military's use of bombs (14%) to protect Kapoho. In contrast, about one-third of respondents conditionally agreed with the use of bombs. It is suggested that local participation in the bombing strategy may explain the increased conditional acceptance of bombs as a mitigation tool, although this can not be conclusively demonstrated. Belief in Pele and being of Hawaiian ethnicity did not reduce support for the use of barriers, but did reduce support for bombs in both bombing scenarios. The disparity in levels of acceptance of barriers versus bombing and of one bombing strategy versus another suggests that historically public attitudes toward lava flow hazard mitigation strategies were complex. A modern comparative study is needed before the next damaging eruption to inform debates and decisions about whether or not to interfere with the flow of lava. Recent changes in the current eruption of Kīlauea make this a timely topic.

  5. Quantifying carbon mitigation wedges in U.S. cities: near-term strategy analysis and critical review.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Bernard, Meghan; Chavez, Abel; Hillman, Tim; Whitaker, Michael; Thomas, Gregg; Marshall, Matthew

    2012-04-03

    A case study of Denver, Colorado explores the roles of three social actors-individual users, infrastructure designer-operators, and policy actors-in near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in U.S. cities. Energy efficiency, renewable energy, urban design, price- and behavioral-feedback strategies are evaluated across buildings-facilities, transportation, and materials/waste sectors in cities, comparing voluntary versus regulatory action configurations. GHG mitigation impact depends upon strategy effectiveness per unit, as well as societal participation rates in various action-configurations. Greatest impact occurs with regulations addressing the vast existing buildings stock in cities, followed by voluntary behavior change in electricity use/purchases, technology shifts (e.g., to teleconferencing), and green-energy purchases among individual users. A portfolio mix of voluntary and regulatory actions can yield a best-case maximum of ~1% GHG mitigation annually in buildings and transportation sectors, combined. Relying solely on voluntary actions reduces mitigation rates more than five-fold. A portfolio analysis of climate action plans in 55 U.S. cities reveals predominance of voluntary outreach programs that have low societal participation rates and hence low GHG impact, while innovative higher-impact behavioral, technological, and policy/regulatory strategies are under-utilized. Less than half the cities capitalize on cross-scale linkages with higher-impact state-scale policies. Interdisciplinary field research can help address the mis-match in plans, actions, and outcomes.

  6. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Grigas, T; Ovadnevaite, J; Ceburnis, D; Moran, E; McGovern, F M; Jennings, S G; O'Dowd, C

    2017-03-17

    Since the 1980's, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980-2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72-79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks.

  7. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C.

    2017-03-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980-2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72-79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks.

  8. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions in the state of Morelos, Mexico: a first approximation for establishing mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, María Luisa; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the authors report the first greenhouse gas emission inventory of Morelos, a state in central Mexico, in which the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been identified using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were estimated as CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq) for the years 2005, 2007, and 2009, with 2005 being treated as the base year. The percentage contributions from each category to the CO2 eq emissions in the base year were as follows: 38% from energy, 30% from industrial processes, 23% from waste, 5% from agriculture, and 4% from land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF). As observed in other state inventories in Mexico, road transportation is the main source of CO2 emissions, wastewater handling and solid waste disposal are the main sources of CH4 emissions, and agricultural soils are the source of the most significant N2O emissions. The information reported in this inventory identifies the main emission sources. Based on these results, the government can propose public policies specifically designed for the state of Morelos to establish GHG mitigation strategies in the near future.

  10. Mitigation strategies for Campylobacter spp. in broiler at pre-harvest and harvest level.

    PubMed

    Klein, Günter; Jansen, Wiebke; Kittler, Sophie; Reich, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other foodborne zoonotic agents an elimination of Campylobacter spp. from animal production, especially poultry production, seems not to be feasible. Therefore mitigation strategies focus on reduction of the Campylobacter spp. concentration in primary production and further minimalisation during processing. In primary production biosecurity measures (incl. hygiene barriers and restricted access) are the methods applied most commonly and most effectively so far. Experimental approaches and few field trials also showed that bacteriophages, electrolyzed oxidizing water, organic acids or medium chain fatty acids (applied via drinking water) are also effective in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration However this reduction cannot be transferred in all cases to the situation in the slaughterhouse. Therefore additional measures have to be taken in account in the slaughterhouse to prevent cross-contamination. Logistic or scheduled slaughter can prevent cross-contamination but cannot further reduce Campylobacter concentration. Process parameters like elevated scalding temperature can contribute to such a reduction, but may also alter the product quality. Therefore no single pre- or harvest measure is sufficient for the reduction of Campylobacter concentration, but a combination of measures in both production levels is needed.

  11. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  12. Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Andrew J.; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Pretty, Jules; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas and cause of ozone layer depletion. Global emissions continue to rise. More than two-thirds of these emissions arise from bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes in soils, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. This article summarizes the outcomes of an interdisciplinary meeting, ‘Nitrous oxide (N2O) the forgotten greenhouse gas’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, from 23 to 24 May 2011. It provides an introduction and background to the nature of the problem, and summarizes the conclusions reached regarding the biological sources and sinks of N2O in oceans, soils and wastewaters, and discusses the genetic regulation and molecular details of the enzymes responsible. Techniques for providing global and local N2O budgets are discussed. The findings of the meeting are drawn together in a review of strategies for mitigating N2O emissions, under three headings, namely: (i) managing soil chemistry and microbiology, (ii) engineering crop plants to fix nitrogen, and (iii) sustainable agricultural intensification. PMID:22451101

  13. Second-hand smoke exposure and mitigation strategies among home visitation workers.

    PubMed

    Keske, Robyn R; Rees, Vaughan W; Behm, Ilan; Wadler, Brianna M; Geller, Alan C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of workers from second-hand smoke (SHS) in occupational settings is an important policy priority, yet little attention has been given to SHS protection for home visitation health workers, who number almost 2 million in the USA. Self-reported SHS exposure, SHS mitigation strategies and suggestions for further SHS exposure reduction approaches were obtained from home visitation health workers in Massachusetts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Massachusetts Early Intervention workers (N=316) at their state-wide conference in April 2010. Eighty-three per cent of respondents reported at least 1 hour per month of SHS exposure, and 16% reported at least 11 hours per month. Nevertheless, only 22% of workers counselled clients on maintaining a smoke-free home. Fewer than 30% of workers had ever voiced concerns to their employing agency, and just 12% had raised their concerns directly with clients. Only 14% stated that their agency had rules designed to protect workers from SHS. SHS exposure occurs frequently among home visitation health workers. The data point to a substantial population who are not protected from SHS exposure by formal policies.

  14. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O’Dowd, C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980–2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72–79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks. PMID:28303958

  15. A new strategy to mitigate the initial capacity loss of lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Xin; Lin, Chi-Kai; Wang, Xiaoping; Maroni, Victor A.; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher Sean; Lu, Wenquan

    2016-08-30

    Hard carbon (non-graphitizable) and related materials, like tin, tin oxide, silicon, and silicon oxide, have a high theoretical lithium delivery capacity (>550 mAh/g depending on their structural and chemical properties) but unfortunately they also exhibit a large initial capacity loss (ICL) that overrides the true reversible capacity in a full cell. Overcoming the large ICL of hard carbon in a full-cell lithium-ion battery (LIB) necessitates a new strategy wherein a sacrificial lithium source additive, such as, Li5FeO4 (LFO), is inserted on the cathode side. Full batteries using hard carbon coupled with LFO-LiCoO2 (LCO) are currently under development at our laboratory. We find that the reversible capacity of a cathode containing LFO can be increased by 14%. Furthermore, the cycle performance of full cells with LFO additive is improved from <90% to >95%. We show that the LFO additive not only can address the irreversible capacity loss of the anode, but can also provide the additional lithium ion source required to mitigate the lithium loss caused by side reactions. In addition, we have explored the possibility to achieve higher capacity with hard carbon, whereby the energy density of full cells can be increased from ca. 300 Wh/kg to >400 Wh/kg.

  16. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Hassan, Yousef I.; Lepp, Dion; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification. PMID:28387743

  17. Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Andrew J; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Pretty, Jules; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Richardson, David J

    2012-05-05

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas and cause of ozone layer depletion. Global emissions continue to rise. More than two-thirds of these emissions arise from bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes in soils, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. This article summarizes the outcomes of an interdisciplinary meeting, 'Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) the forgotten greenhouse gas', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, from 23 to 24 May 2011. It provides an introduction and background to the nature of the problem, and summarizes the conclusions reached regarding the biological sources and sinks of N(2)O in oceans, soils and wastewaters, and discusses the genetic regulation and molecular details of the enzymes responsible. Techniques for providing global and local N(2)O budgets are discussed. The findings of the meeting are drawn together in a review of strategies for mitigating N(2)O emissions, under three headings, namely: (i) managing soil chemistry and microbiology, (ii) engineering crop plants to fix nitrogen, and (iii) sustainable agricultural intensification.

  18. Potential impacts from tephra fall to electric power systems: a review and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardman, J. B.; Wilson, T. M.; Bodger, P. S.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.

    2012-12-01

    Modern society is highly dependent on a reliable electricity supply. During explosive volcanic eruptions, tephra contamination of power networks (systems) can compromise the reliability of supply. Outages can have significant cascading impacts for other critical infrastructure sectors and for society as a whole. This paper summarises known impacts to power systems following tephra falls since 1980. The main impacts are (1) supply outages from insulator flashover caused by tephra contamination, (2) disruption of generation facilities, (3) controlled outages during tephra cleaning, (4) abrasion and corrosion of exposed equipment and (5) line (conductor) breakage due to tephra loading. Of these impacts, insulator flashover is the most common disruption. The review highlights multiple instances of electric power systems exhibiting tolerance to tephra falls, suggesting that failure thresholds exist and should be identified to avoid future unplanned interruptions. To address this need, we have produced a fragility function that quantifies the likelihood of insulator flashover at different thicknesses of tephra. Finally, based on our review of case studies, potential mitigation strategies are summarised. Specifically, avoiding tephra-induced insulator flashover by cleaning key facilities such as generation sites and transmission and distribution substations is of critical importance in maintaining the integrity of an electric power system.

  19. Controlling chemical dosing for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks using a hybrid automata control strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals such as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and iron salts are widely used to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewer networks composed of interconnected sewer pipe lines and pumping stations. Chemical dosing control is usually non-automatic and based on experience, thus often resulting in sewage reaching the discharge point receiving inadequate or even no chemical dosing. Moreover, intermittent operation of pumping stations makes traditional control theory inadequate. A hybrid automata-based (HA-based) control method is proposed in this paper to coordinate sewage pumping station operations by considering their states, thereby ensuring suitable chemical concentrations in the network discharge. The performance of the proposed control method was validated through a simulation study of a real sewer network using real sewage flow data. The physical, chemical and biological processes were simulated using the well-established SeweX model. The results suggested that the HA-based control strategy significantly improved chemical dosing control performance and sulfide mitigation in sewer networks, compared to the current common practice.

  20. Examination of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies and drug safety in the US.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Spielberger, Kerry; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Amendment Act of 2007 (FDAAA 2007) enabled the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to require risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) for a drug or biologic to ensure that its benefits outweigh the risks. This study sought to evaluate REMS approved and released by the FDA since the program inception in 2008, to assess the characteristics of REMS approved and to calculate the time lag between FDA drug application approval and REMS approval. Data were derived from Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, Approved REMS and Drugs@FDA. Data included generic availability, application type and approval date, therapeutic class and FDA review class, orphan designation, priority review and market status. The FDA approved REMS for 259 marketing applications (217 new drug applications -NDAs, 10 abbreviated NDAs, and 32 biologic license applications) in the study period. The FDA granted orphan designation to 11.4% of active ingredients with REMS and priority review to 38.4% of the NDAs with REMS. The largest number of REMS approvals was for nervous system products (31.8% of total approved REMS) and antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents (15.3%). The FDA approved REMS for one in three biologics and one in thirteen chemical entities available in the market. A pharmaceutical product can be in the market for an average of 14 years before the FDA identifies and evaluates the risk problems that warrant the approval of a REMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low dose radiation effects on the brain - from mechanisms and behavioral outcomes to mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Kolb, Bryan

    2017-07-03

    Based on the most recent estimates by the Canadian Cancer Society, 2 in 5 Canadians will develop cancer in their lifetimes. More than half of all cancer patients receive some type of radiation therapy, and all patients undergo radiation-based diagnostics. While radiation is one of the most important diagnostic and treatments modalities, high-dose cranial radiation therapy causes numerous central nervous system side-effects, including declines in cognitive function, memory, and attention. While the mechanisms of these effects have been studies, they still need to be further elucidated. On the other hand, the effects of low dose radiation as well as indirect radiation bystander effects on the brain remain elusive. We pioneered analysis of the molecular and cellular effects of low dose direct, bystander and scatter radiation on the brain. Using a rat model, we showed that low dose radiation exposures cause molecular and cellular changes in the brain and impacts animal behavior. Here we reflect upon our recent findings and current state of knowledge in the field, and suggest novel radiation effect biomarkers and means of prevention. We propose strategies and interventions to prevent and mitigate radiation effects on the brain.

  2. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ke; Harrower, William L.; Turkington, Roy; Tan, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006–2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collections. Annual acorn production was variable, but particularly low in 2011 and 2013. There was no trade-off between acorn production and acorn dry mass. However, acorns produced later in the season were significantly heavier. For most years: (i) the rate of weevil infestation was negatively density dependent (a greater proportion of acorns died with increased acorn density), (ii) the percentage germination of acorns was positively density dependent (proportionately more acorns germinated with increased density), and (iii) as the season progressed, the percentage of infested acorns declined while germination rates increased. Finally, (iv) maximum acorn production, percentage infestation and percentage germination were asynchronous. Although pre-dispersal mortality is important it is unlikely to be the primary factor leading to low recruitment of oak seedlings. PMID:27874099

  3. Jitter Test Program and On-Orbit Mitigation Strategies for Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Kenney, Thomas; Maghami, Peiman; Mule, Pete; Blaurock, Carl; Haile, William B.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) aims to study the Sun's influence on the Earth, the source, storage, and release of the solar energy, and the interior structure of the Sun. During science observations, the jitter stability at the instrument focal plane must be maintained to less than a fraction of an arcsecond for two of the SDO instruments. To meet these stringent requirements, a significant amount of analysis and test effort has been devoted to predicting the jitter induced from various disturbance sources. This paper presents an overview of the SDO jitter analysis approach and test effort performed to date. It emphasizes the disturbance modeling, verification, calibration, and validation of the high gain antenna stepping mechanism and the reaction wheels, which are the two largest jitter contributors. This paper also describes on-orbit mitigation strategies to protect the system from analysis model uncertainties. Lessons learned from the SDO jitter analyses and test programs are included in the paper to share the knowledge gained with the community.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of alternative colonoscopy surveillance strategies to mitigate metachronous colorectal cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Erenay, Fatih Safa; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Banerjee, Ritesh; Said, Adnan; Cima, Robert R

    2016-08-15

    The incidence of metachronous colorectal cancer (MCRC) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors varies significantly, and the optimal colonoscopy surveillance practice for mitigating MCRC incidence is unknown. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to compare the performances of the US Multi-Society Task Force guideline and all clinically reasonable colonoscopy surveillance strategies for 50- to 79-year-old posttreatment CRC patients with a computer simulation model. The US guideline [(1,3,5)] recommends the first colonoscopy 1 year after treatment, whereas the second and third colonoscopies are to be repeated at 3- and 5-year intervals. Some promising alternative cost-effective strategies were identified. In comparison with the US guideline, under various scenarios for a 20-year period, 1) reducing the surveillance interval of the guideline after the first colonoscopy by 1 year [(1,2,5)] would save up to 78 discounted life-years (LYs) and prevent 23 MCRCs per 1000 patients (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] ≤ $23,270/LY), 2) reducing the intervals after the first and second negative colonoscopies by 1 year [(1,2,4)] would save/prevent up to 109 discounted LYs and 36 MCRCs (ICER ≤ $52,155/LY), and 3) reducing the surveillance intervals after the first and second negative colonoscopy by 1 and 2 years [(1,2,3)] would save/prevent up to 141 discounted LYs and 50 MCRCs (ICER ≤ $63,822/LY). These strategies would require up to 1100 additional colonoscopies per 1000 patients. Although the US guideline might not be cost-effective in comparison with a less intensive oncology guideline [(3,3,5); the ICER could be as high as $140,000/LY], the promising strategies would be cost-effective in comparison with such less intensive guidelines unless the cumulative MCRC incidence were very low. The US guideline might be improved by a slight increase in the surveillance intensity at the expense of moderately increased cost. More research is warranted to explore the

  5. Home Visiting: A Service Strategy to Reduce Poverty and Mitigate Its Consequences.

    PubMed

    Minkovitz, Cynthia S; O'Neill, Kay M G; Duggan, Anne K

    2016-04-01

    Home visiting programs are increasingly recognized as an important part of the early childhood system of care in the United States. The objectives of this report are to review the rationale for home visiting; characterize the Federal Home Visiting Program; highlight the evidence of home visiting effectiveness, particularly for low income families; identify opportunities to promote coordination between medical homes and home visiting programs; and explain the critical role of research, evaluation, and quality improvement to strengthen home visiting effectiveness. Home visiting programs offer voluntary home-based services and other supports to meet the needs of vulnerable pregnant women and young families. Home visiting intends to address poverty in 2 ways. First, it promotes economic self-sufficiency directly by building parents' knowledge, skills, and motivation related to employment opportunities and by linking families with community services such as adult education and job training. Second, it mitigates the effects of poverty through direct service and community linkages to enhance parents' capacity for positive parenting and for their own health and family functioning. Home visiting has shown effectiveness in multiple domains, including family economic self-sufficiency, birth outcomes, maternal health, child health and development, and positive parenting practices. Authorized as part of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and reauthorized in 2015, the Federal Home Visiting Program invests an unprecedented $1.9 billion in the form of grants to states to expand home visiting programs and support rigorous research. As part of the early childhood system of services, home visiting programs must coordinate with other community services and supports. Programs will be most effective when resources are used efficiently, duplication of services is avoided, and alignment and reinforcement of other providers' messages are achieved. The Federal Home Visiting Program has

  6. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  7. Long-Term Tsunami Data Archive Supports Tsunami Forecast, Warning, Research, and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Paula K.; Stroker, Kelly J.; Brocko, Vanita R.; Varner, Jesse D.; McLean, Susan J.; Taylor, Lisa A.; Eakins, Barry W.; Carignan, Kelly S.; Warnken, Robin R.

    2008-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the United States began a careful review and strengthening of its programs aimed at reducing the consequences of tsunamis. Several reports and calls to action were drafted, including the Tsunami Warning and Education Act (Public Law 109-424) signed into law by the President in December 2006. NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology (WDC-GMG) maintain a national and international tsunami data archive that fulfills part of the P.L. 109-424. The NGDC/WDC-GMG long-term tsunami data archive has expanded from the original global historical event databases and damage photo collection, to include tsunami deposits, coastal water-level data, DART™ buoy data, and high-resolution coastal DEMs. These data are used to validate models, provide guidance to warning centers, develop tsunami hazard assessments, and educate the public about the risks from tsunamis. In this paper we discuss current steps and future actions to be taken by NGDC/WDC-GMG to support tsunami hazard mitigation research, to ultimately help save lives and improve the resiliency of coastal communities.

  8. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  9. Management matters: Testing a mitigation strategy of nitrous oxide emissions on managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Kathrin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Eugster, Werner; Koller, Patrick; Käslin, Florian; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange between managed grasslands and the atmosphere depends besides climate predominantly on management practices. While natural or extensively managed grasslands are known to function as GHG sinks, intensively managed grasslands are characterized by substantial nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions diminishing their sink function. One potential N2O mitigation strategy is to reduce the required amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer input by using biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via legumes. However, the effect of legumes on nitrous oxide emissions is still not fully understood. In this study we quantify net GHG fluxes from two differently managed grassland parcels (mitigation, control) and relate our results to productivity (yields). In addition, we aim at revealing the influence of various driver variables on N2O exchange. Our experimental setup consisted of an eddy covariance tower that measured the net exchange of the three major anthropogenic GHGs, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Both grassland parcels can be covered with this tower due to two prevailing wind directions. GHG flux measurements were accompanied by measurements of commonly known driver variables such as water filled pore space, soil temperature, soil oxygen concentrations and mineral N to disentangle the soil meteorological influence of N2O fluxes from human drivers. Following organic fertilizer application, we measured elevated N2O emissions (>1 nmol m-2 s-1) at the control parcel and unchanged N2O emissions at the treatment parcel. Net annual fluxes were 54% and 50% lower at the experimental parcel in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Annual yields did not significantly differ between parcels, but were slightly lower at the experimental parcel compared to the control parcel. Significantly lower nitrous oxide fluxes under experimental management indicate that nitrous oxide emissions can be effectively reduced at very low costs with a clover

  10. Microbial fuel cell as mitigation strategy for methane emissions from paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Anacleto; Boano, Fulvio; Revelli, Roberto; Ridolfi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    minimum, daily maximum and total over the whole growing season, respectively, confirming the potential validity of MFC as a novel CH4 mitigation strategy. Moreover, it is shown that transport processes limit the mitigation of CH4 emissions at high current density. Finally, in order to maximize the reduction of CH4 emissions, simulation results suggest to place the anode in the middle portion of the superficial layer.

  11. In Support of Educators: Strategies That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Kim; Juliuson, Jessica; Katz, Nevin; Parris, John

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' support of students, and the lasting effects of that support, is one of the most powerful factors in shaping a country's future. Their work is as complex and challenging as it is critical. Each student brings a wide range of ever-evolving needs and strengths. Each school and district has an ever-shifting landscape of priorities,…

  12. In Support of Educators: Strategies That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Kim; Juliuson, Jessica; Katz, Nevin; Parris, John

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' support of students, and the lasting effects of that support, is one of the most powerful factors in shaping a country's future. Their work is as complex and challenging as it is critical. Each student brings a wide range of ever-evolving needs and strengths. Each school and district has an ever-shifting landscape of priorities,…

  13. Strategies for Electronic Career Support to Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul

    As more organizations reduce their human resources management (HRM) staff and look for ways for fewer employees to do more work, interest in developing electronic career support for employees is increasing. An Intranet-based solution uses technology to provide the means for bringing career development support to employees' workstations or their…

  14. Instructional Strategies to Support Creativity and Innovation in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seechaliao, Thapanee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study focused on the instructional strategies that support creation of creative and innovative education. The sample for this study consisted of 11 experts in the field of instructional strategies that support innovation of education. Among them, five were specialists in design and development of teaching and learning, three…

  15. Using Technology to Support Visual Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bannon, Blanche; Puckett, Kathleen; Rakes, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Visual learning is a strategy for visually representing the structure of information and for representing the ways in which concepts are related. Based on the work of Ausubel, these hierarchical maps facilitate student learning of unfamiliar information in the K-12 classroom. This paper presents the research base for this Type II computer tool, as…

  16. Mutual Support: The Community Schools Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Reuben; Hodges, Rita A.; Blank, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Students learn best when their physical, mental, emotional, and other needs are met, but schools rarely have the time and resources available to meet those needs. If schools can find a way to engage families and communities, students are more likely to succeed. But how? One answer is the community schools strategy. A community school has a set of…

  17. E-health strategies to support adherence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adherence to healthy behaviors and self-care strategies is a concern among clinicians. E-health applications, such as the internet, personal communication devices, electronic health records and web portals, and electronic games, may be a way to provide health information in a way that is reliable, c...

  18. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development) and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development). Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests. PMID:21118548

  19. Well below 2 °C: Mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2017-09-01

    The historic Paris Agreement calls for limiting global temperature rise to “well below 2 °C.” Because of uncertainties in emission scenarios, climate, and carbon cycle feedback, we interpret the Paris Agreement in terms of three climate risk categories and bring in considerations of low-probability (5%) high-impact (LPHI) warming in addition to the central (˜50% probability) value. The current risk category of dangerous warming is extended to more categories, which are defined by us here as follows: >1.5 °C as dangerous; >3 °C as catastrophic; and >5 °C as unknown, implying beyond catastrophic, including existential threats. With unchecked emissions, the central warming can reach the dangerous level within three decades, with the LPHI warming becoming catastrophic by 2050. We outline a three-lever strategy to limit the central warming below the dangerous level and the LPHI below the catastrophic level, both in the near term (<2050) and in the long term (2100): the carbon neutral (CN) lever to achieve zero net emissions of CO2, the super pollutant (SP) lever to mitigate short-lived climate pollutants, and the carbon extraction and sequestration (CES) lever to thin the atmospheric CO2 blanket. Pulling on both CN and SP levers and bending the emissions curve by 2020 can keep the central warming below dangerous levels. To limit the LPHI warming below dangerous levels, the CES lever must be pulled as well to extract as much as 1 trillion tons of CO2 before 2100 to both limit the preindustrial to 2100 cumulative net CO2 emissions to 2.2 trillion tons and bend the warming curve to a cooling trend.

  20. Towards a Proactive Risk Mitigation Strategy at La Fossa Volcano, Vulcano Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biass, S.; Gregg, C. E.; Frischknecht, C.; Falcone, J. L.; Lestuzzi, P.; di Traglia, F.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive risk assessment framework was built to develop proactive risk reduction measures for Vulcano Island, Italy. This framework includes identification of eruption scenarios; probabilistic hazard assessment, quantification of hazard impacts on the built environment, accessibility assessment on the island and risk perception study. Vulcano, a 21 km2 island with two primary communities host to 900 permanent residents and up to 10,000 visitors during summer, shows a strong dependency on the mainland for basic needs (water, energy) and relies on a ~2 month tourism season for its economy. The recent stratigraphy reveals a dominance of vulcanian and subplinian eruptions, producing a range of hazards acting at different time scales. We developed new methods to probabilistically quantify the hazard related to ballistics, lahars and tephra for all eruption styles. We also elaborated field- and GIS- based methods to assess the physical vulnerability of the built environment and created dynamic models of accessibility. Results outline the difference of hazard between short and long-lasting eruptions. A subplinian eruption has a 50% probability of impacting ~30% of the buildings within days after the eruption, but the year-long damage resulting from a long-lasting vulcanian eruption is similar if tephra is not removed from rooftops. Similarly, a subplinian eruption results in a volume of 7x105 m3 of material potentially remobilized into lahars soon after the eruption. Similar volumes are expected for a vulcanian activity over years, increasing the hazard of small lahars. Preferential lahar paths affect critical infrastructures lacking redundancy, such as the road network, communications systems, the island's only gas station, and access to the island's two evacuation ports. Such results from hazard, physical and systemic vulnerability help establish proactive volcanic risk mitigation strategies and may be applicable in other island settings.

  1. Benefits of two mitigation strategies for container vessels: cleaner engines and cleaner fuels.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Yusuf; Giordano, Michael; Gutierrez, James; Welch, William A; Asa-Awuku, A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2012-05-01

    Emissions from ocean-going vessels (OGVs) are a significant health concern for people near port communities. This paper reports the emission benefits for two mitigation strategies, cleaner engines and cleaner fuels, for a 2010 container vessel. In-use emissions were measured following International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocols. The overall in-use nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission factor was 16.1 ± 0.1 gkW(-1) h(-1), lower than the Tier 1 certification (17 gkW(-1) h(-1)) and significantly lower than the benchmark value of 18.7 gkW(-1) h(-1) commonly used for estimating emission inventories. The in-use particulate matter (PM(2.5)) emission was 1.42 ± 0.04 gkW(-1) h(-1) for heavy fuel oil (HFO) containing 2.51 wt % sulfur. Unimodal (∼30 nm) and bimodal (∼35 nm; ∼75 nm) particle number size distributions (NSDs) were observed when the vessel operated on marine gas oil (MGO) and HFO, respectively. First-time emission measurements during fuel switching (required 24 nautical miles from coastline) showed that concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and particle NSD took ∼55 min to reach steady-state when switching from MGO to HFO and ∼84 min in the opposite direction. Therefore, if OGVs commence fuel change at the regulated boundary, then vessels can travel up to 90% of the distance to the port before steady-state values are re-established. The transient behavior follows a classic, nonlinear mixing function driven by the amount of fuel in day tank and the fuel consumption rate. Hence, to achieve the maximum benefits from a fuel change regulation, fuel switch boundary should be further increased to provide the intended benefits for the people living near the ports.

  2. Estimating the Cost of No-shows and Evaluating the Effects of Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Bjorn; Murr, Michael; Chermak, David; Woodall, Jonathan; Pignone, Michael; Sandler, Robert S.; Denton, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the cost of non-attendance (“no-shows”) and benefit of overbooking and interventions to reduce no-shows for an outpatient endoscopy suite. Methods We used a discrete event simulation model to determine improved overbooking scheduling policies and examine the effect of no-shows on procedure utilization and expected net gain, defined as the difference in expected revenue based on CMS reimbursement rates and variable costs based on the sum of patient waiting time and provider and staff overtime. No-show rates were estimated from historical attendance (18% on average, with a sensitivity range of 12 to 24%). We then evaluated the effectiveness of scheduling additional patients and the effect of no-show reduction interventions on the expected net gain. Results The base schedule booked 24 patients per day. The daily expected net gain with perfect attendance is $4,433.32. The daily loss attributed to the base case no-show rate of 18% is $725.42 (16.36% of net gain), ranging from $472.14 to $1,019.29 (10.7% to 23.0% of net gain). Implementing no-show interventions reduced net loss by $166.61 to $463.09 (3.8% to 10.5% of net gain). The overbooking policy of 9 additional patients per day resulted in no loss in expected net gain when compared to the reference scenario. Conclusions No-shows can significantly decrease the expected net gain of outpatient procedure centers. Overbooking can help mitigate the impact of no-shows on a suite’s expected net gain and has a lower expected cost of implementation to the provider than intervention strategies. PMID:23515215

  3. SCOPE of Pain: An Evaluation of an Opioid Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Continuing Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Zisblatt, Lara; Ng, Pamela; Hayes, Sean M.; Peloquin, Sophie; Hardesty, Ilana; White, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Due to the high prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) requiring manufacturers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioid analgesics to fund continuing education based on a FDA Blueprint. This article describes the Safe and Competent Opioid Prescribing Education (SCOPE of Pain) program, an ER/LA opioid analgesic REMS program, and its impact on clinician knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and self-reported clinical practice. Method. Participants of the 3-h SCOPE of Pain training completed pre-, immediate post- and 2-month post-assessments. Subjects. The primary target group (n = 2,850), and a subset (n = 476) who completed a 2-month post-assessment, consisted of clinicians licensed to prescribe ER/LA opioid analgesics, who care for patients with chronic pain and who completed the 3-h training between February 28, 2013 and June 13, 2014. Results. Immediately post-program, there was a significant increase in correct responses to knowledge questions (60% to 84%, P ≤ 0.02) and 87% of participants planned to make practice changes. At 2-months post-program, there continued to be a significant increase in correct responses to knowledge questions (60% to 69%, P ≤ 0.03) and 67% reported increased confidence in applying safe opioid prescribing care and 86% reported implementing practice changes. There was also an improvement in alignment of desired attitudes toward safe opioid prescribing. Conclusions. The SCOPE of Pain program improved knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and self-reported clinical practice in safe opioid prescribing. This national REMS program holds potential to improve the safe use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26304703

  4. Estimating the cost of no-shows and evaluating the effects of mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Berg, Bjorn P; Murr, Michael; Chermak, David; Woodall, Jonathan; Pignone, Michael; Sandler, Robert S; Denton, Brian T

    2013-11-01

    To measure the cost of nonattendance ("no-shows") and benefit of overbooking and interventions to reduce no-shows for an outpatient endoscopy suite. We used a discrete-event simulation model to determine improved overbooking scheduling policies and examine the effect of no-shows on procedure utilization and expected net gain, defined as the difference in expected revenue based on Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services reimbursement rates and variable costs based on the sum of patient waiting time and provider and staff overtime. No-show rates were estimated from historical attendance (18% on average, with a sensitivity range of 12%-24%). We then evaluated the effectiveness of scheduling additional patients and the effect of no-show reduction interventions on the expected net gain. The base schedule booked 24 patients per day. The daily expected net gain with perfect attendance is $4433.32. The daily loss attributed to the base case no-show rate of 18% is $725.42 (16.4% of net gain), ranging from $472.14 to $1019.29 (10.7%-23.0% of net gain). Implementing no-show interventions reduced net loss by $166.61 to $463.09 (3.8%-10.5% of net gain). The overbooking policy of 9 additional patients per day resulted in no loss in expected net gain when compared with the reference scenario. No-shows can significantly decrease the expected net gain of outpatient procedure centers. Overbooking can help mitigate the impact of no-shows on a suite's expected net gain and has a lower expected cost of implementation to the provider than intervention strategies.

  5. Well below 2 °C: Mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2017-09-26

    The historic Paris Agreement calls for limiting global temperature rise to "well below 2 °C." Because of uncertainties in emission scenarios, climate, and carbon cycle feedback, we interpret the Paris Agreement in terms of three climate risk categories and bring in considerations of low-probability (5%) high-impact (LPHI) warming in addition to the central (∼50% probability) value. The current risk category of dangerous warming is extended to more categories, which are defined by us here as follows: >1.5 °C as dangerous; >3 °C as catastrophic; and >5 °C as unknown, implying beyond catastrophic, including existential threats. With unchecked emissions, the central warming can reach the dangerous level within three decades, with the LPHI warming becoming catastrophic by 2050. We outline a three-lever strategy to limit the central warming below the dangerous level and the LPHI below the catastrophic level, both in the near term (<2050) and in the long term (2100): the carbon neutral (CN) lever to achieve zero net emissions of CO2, the super pollutant (SP) lever to mitigate short-lived climate pollutants, and the carbon extraction and sequestration (CES) lever to thin the atmospheric CO2 blanket. Pulling on both CN and SP levers and bending the emissions curve by 2020 can keep the central warming below dangerous levels. To limit the LPHI warming below dangerous levels, the CES lever must be pulled as well to extract as much as 1 trillion tons of CO2 before 2100 to both limit the preindustrial to 2100 cumulative net CO2 emissions to 2.2 trillion tons and bend the warming curve to a cooling trend. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Adherence to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) requirements for monthly testing of liver function.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Nunes, Anthony P; Lin, Nancy D; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Noone, Joshua; Tangirala, Krishna; Johnston, Stephen; Gutierrez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS), as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medications with the potential for harm, are increasingly incorporating rigid protocols for patient evaluation, but little is known about compliance with these programs. Despite the inherent limitations, data on administrative claims may provide an opportunity to investigate adherence to these programs. We assessed adherence to liver function test (LFT) requirements included in the REMS program for bosentan through use of administrative claims. Patients observed in the Optum Research Database who were initiators of bosentan from November 20, 2001 to March 31, 2013 were included. Adherence to LFTs was calculated using pharmacy claims for bosentan dispensation and medical claims for laboratory services, and was assessed at the time of drug initiation and within specified time intervals throughout follow-up. Of 742 patients, 523 (70.5%) had ≥1 qualifying LFT. Among patients with ≥12 dispensations, claims for LFTs at individual dispensations were 53.2-64.0%. Median proportion of dispensations with ≥1 LFT was 0.8 among patients with ≥6 (interquartile range, 0.7-1.0) or ≥12 (0.7-0.9) dispensations. Adherence was 90-100% for 33.3% of all initiators, whereas 29.3% of initiators were non-adherent (defined as <50% of on-therapy LFTs). Analyses of administrative claims suggest that the REMS program for bosentan may not have adequately guaranteed adherence to the program's monthly monitoring of LFTs. Such investigations of existing REMS programs may provide insight on how to accomplish more successful evaluation of REMS.

  7. SCOPE of Pain: An Evaluation of an Opioid Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Continuing Education Program.

    PubMed

    Alford, Daniel P; Zisblatt, Lara; Ng, Pamela; Hayes, Sean M; Peloquin, Sophie; Hardesty, Ilana; White, Julie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) requiring manufacturers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioid analgesics to fund continuing education based on a FDA Blueprint. This article describes the Safe and Competent Opioid Prescribing Education (SCOPE of Pain) program, an ER/LA opioid analgesic REMS program, and its impact on clinician knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and self-reported clinical practice. Participants of the 3-h SCOPE of Pain training completed pre-, immediate post- and 2-month post-assessments. The primary target group (n = 2,850), and a subset (n = 476) who completed a 2-month post-assessment, consisted of clinicians licensed to prescribe ER/LA opioid analgesics, who care for patients with chronic pain and who completed the 3-h training between February 28, 2013 and June 13, 2014. Immediately post-program, there was a significant increase in correct responses to knowledge questions (60% to 84%, P ≤ 0.02) and 87% of participants planned to make practice changes. At 2-months post-program, there continued to be a significant increase in correct responses to knowledge questions (60% to 69%, P ≤ 0.03) and 67% reported increased confidence in applying safe opioid prescribing care and 86% reported implementing practice changes. There was also an improvement in alignment of desired attitudes toward safe opioid prescribing. The SCOPE of Pain program improved knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and self-reported clinical practice in safe opioid prescribing. This national REMS program holds potential to improve the safe use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Pain Medicine. 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food: Workshop Proceedings.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul; Brorby, Gregory P; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-05-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Application of two passive strategies on the load mitigation of large offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzadeh, Rasoul; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the numerical results of two passive strategies to reduce the support structure loads of a large offshore wind turbine. In the first approach, an omnidirectional tuned mass damper is designed and implemented in the tower top to alleviate the structural vibrations. In the second approach, a viscous fluid damper model which is diagonally attached to the tower at two points is developed. Aeroelastic simulations are performed for the offshore 10MW INNWIND.EU reference wind turbine mounted on a jacket structure. Lifetime damage equivalent loads are evaluated at the tower base and compared with those for the reference wind turbine. The results show that the integrated design can extend the lifetime of the support structure.

  10. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  11. Strategies for Building Social Support for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    At-risk families cope with many issues simultaneously and are often overwhelmed. To assist families, early childhood professionals must offer community- and family-centered support through collaborations with social service providers and outreach professionals. Educational professionals working in high-needs schools must re-examine their funding…

  12. Strategies for Building Social Support for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    At-risk families cope with many issues simultaneously and are often overwhelmed. To assist families, early childhood professionals must offer community- and family-centered support through collaborations with social service providers and outreach professionals. Educational professionals working in high-needs schools must re-examine their funding…

  13. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  14. An Optimal Mitigation Strategy Against the Asteroid Impact Threat with Short Warning Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent; Pitz, Alan; Kaplinger, Brian; Hawkins, Matt; Winkler, Tim; Premaratne, Pavithra; Vardaxis, George; Lyzhoft, Joshua; Zimmerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    To develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation technique for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (i.e., when we don't have sufficient warning times for a deflection mission).

  15. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  16. Coping strategies, social support and responsibility in chemical intolerance.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Maria; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2010-08-01

    To study coping strategies, social support and responsibility for improvement in chemical intolerance (CI). Limited knowledge of CI among health professionals and lay persons places demands on the chemically intolerant individual's coping strategies and perception of social support and ability to take responsibility for improvement. However, there is sparse literature on these issues in CI. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, quasi-experimental study. Fifty-nine persons with mild, 92 with moderate and 31 with severe CI participated by rating (i) usage and effectiveness of six problem- and six emotion-focused coping strategies, (ii) emotional, instrumental and informative support provided by various sources and (iii) society's and the inflicted individual's responsibility for improvement. The participants reported that the most commonly used and effective coping strategies were avoiding odorous/pungent environments and asking persons to limit their use of odorous/pungent substances (problem-focused strategies) as well as accepting the situation and reprioritising (emotion-focused strategies). High intolerance severity was associated with problem-focused coping strategies and relatively low intolerance with emotion-focused strategies. More emotional than instrumental and informative support was perceived, predominantly from the partner and other family members. Responsibility attributed to society was also found to increase from mild to moderate/severe intolerance. Certain coping strategies are more commonly used and perceived as more effective than others in CI. However, intolerance severity plays a role regarding both coping strategies and responsibility. Emotional support appears to be the most available type of support. For improved care, certain coping strategies may be suggested by nurses, the healthcare system needs to provide better social support to these patients and the issue of responsibility for improvement may be discussed with the patient.

  17. Does Supportive Parenting Mitigate the Longitudinal Effects of Peer Victimization on Depressive Thoughts and Symptoms in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Bilsky, Sarah A.; Cole, David A.; Dukewich, Tammy L.; Martin, Nina C.; Sinclair, Keneisha R.; Tran, Cong V.; Roeder, Kathryn M.; Felton, Julia W.; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Maxwell, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Cohen and Wills (Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A., 1985, Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357) described two broad models whereby social support could mitigate the deleterious effects of stress on health: a main effect model and stress-buffering model. A specific application of these models was tested in a three-wave, multimethod study of 1888 children to assess ways parental support (social support) mitigates the effects of peer victimization (stress) on children’s depressive symptoms and depression-related cognitions (health-related outcomes). Results revealed that (a) both supportive parenting and peer victimization had main effects on depressive symptoms and cognitions; (b) supportive parenting and peer victimization did not interact in the prediction of depressive thoughts and symptoms; (c) these results generalized across age and gender; and (d) increases in depressive symptoms were related to later reduction of supportive parenting and later increase in peer victimization. Although supportive parenting did not moderate the adverse outcomes associated with peer victimization, results show that its main effect can counterbalance or offset these effects to some degree. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23713500

  18. Optimizing U.S. mitigation strategies for the light-duty transportation sector: what we learn from a bottom-up model.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alex; Plevin, Richard; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

    2008-11-15

    Few integrated analysis models examine significant U.S. transportation greenhouse gas emission reductions within an integrated energy system. Our analysis, using a bottom-up MARKet ALocation (MARKAL) model, found that stringent system-wide CO2 reduction targets will be required to achieve significant CO2 reductions from the transportation sector. Mitigating transportation emission reductions can result in significant changes in personal vehicle technologies, increases in vehicle fuel efficiency, and decreases in overall transportation fuel use. We analyze policy-oriented mitigation strategies and suggest that mitigation policies should be informed by the transitional nature of technology adoptions and the interactions between the mitigation strategies, and the robustness of mitigation strategies to long-term reduction goals, input assumptions, and policy and social factors. More research is needed to help identify robust policies that will achieve the best outcome in the face of uncertainties.

  19. Nutritional support strategies for malnourished cancer patients.

    PubMed

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    2005-01-01

    A large body of evidence exists, which demonstrates the importance of nutritional support in cancer. The nutritional needs of patients with cancer may differ from those of the healthy population due to hypermetabolism, impaired organ function, increased nutrient losses and therapy-related malnutrition. Patients with cancer often have increased requirements for both macro- and micronutrients due to long periods of undernutrition prior to diagnosis. The aim of nutritional support should be the prevention or reversal of malnutrition, and this should be initiated as early as possible to improve outcomes. Oral supplementation is a simple, non-invasive method of increasing the nutrient intake of those patients who are unable to meet nutritional requirements, despite dietary counselling. Enteral tube feeding is indicated for patients who are unable to meet their nutritional needs by oral intake alone, and has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Novel approaches in oral supplementation include the use of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a compound under investigation for its role in preventing and treating cancer-associated malnutrition. Individual studies suggest that EPA attenuates cancer-associated wasting and improves immune function. In addition, it has been shown to have anti-tumour effects and improve clinical outcomes. However, results are not consistent for all patient groups and further research is required.

  20. Recruiting Strategies to Support the Armys All-Volunteer Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Bruce R. Orvis, Steven Garber, Philip Hall-Partyka, Christopher E. Maerzluft, Tiffany Tsai Recruiting Strategies to Support the Army’s All ...the Army’s All -Volunteer Force cost and did so by increasing amounts, respectively. Under average conditions, more recruiters, a larger EDEP, or...Recruiting Strategies to Support the Army’s All -Volunteer Force Other Policy Changes: Waivers, Quality Marks, and Prior Service Accessions

  1. Learning Strategies in Web-Supported Collaborative Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Web-based learning promotes computer-mediated interaction and student-centred learning in most higher education institutions. To fulfil their academic requirements, students develop appropriate strategies to support learning. Purposes of this study were to: (1) examine the relationship between students study strategies (assessed by Learning and…

  2. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  3. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  4. Supporting Knowledge Mobilization and Research Impact Strategies in Grant Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, David; Jensen, Krista E.; Johnny, Michael; Poetz, Anneliese

    Each application to the National Science Foundation (NSF) must contain a Broader Impact (BI) strategy. Similarly, grant applications for most research funders in Canada and the UK require strategies to support the translation of research into impacts on society; however, the guidance provided to researchers is too general to inform the specific…

  5. Comparison of different UHI mitigation strategies: the street- versus roof-level implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Georgescu, M.; Norford, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    Many mitigation approaches have been proposed to ameliorate the deleterious aspects of urbalization on climate, with special focus on the notorious urban heat island (UHI) effect. Of these approaches, high reflectance roof (cool roof) and pavement (cool pavement) and green roof or greenery are most commonly used and widely studied. However, the debate regarding the better implementation of cool and green technology is still ongoing. In this study, numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to evaluate the mitigation effect of the cool and green implementations at the city scale. The effects of roof-level and street-level implementations are compared in the context of a tropical urban environment.

  6. Interlanguage Request Modification: The Use of Lexical/Phrasal Downgraders and Mitigating Supportive Moves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economidou-Kogetsidis, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify and interpret the exact aspects of Greek interlanguage modification which present deviations from native usage. As such, it is an investigation of Greek ESL university students' request modification and a comparison to British English native speakers. More specifically, it concentrates on the mitigating function…

  7. A Dualistic Stream Classification System for Oregon: In Support of a Stream Compensatory Mitigation Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    To meet the goals of the U.S. federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and Oregon’s Removal-Fill (R-F) Law, unavoidable impacts to jurisdictional waters, including streams and rivers, must be compensated for through compensatory mitigation under the CWA Section 404 and R-F permitting ...

  8. A Dualistic Stream Classification System for Oregon: In Support of a Stream Compensatory Mitigation Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    To meet the goals of the U.S. federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and Oregon’s Removal-Fill (R-F) Law, unavoidable impacts to jurisdictional waters, including streams and rivers, must be compensated for through compensatory mitigation under the CWA Section 404 and R-F permitting ...

  9. Using empirical models of species colonization under multiple threatening processes to identify complementary threat-mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mortelliti, Alessio; Kay, Geoffrey M; Florance, Daniel; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-08-01

    Approaches to prioritize conservation actions are gaining popularity. However, limited empirical evidence exists on which species might benefit most from threat mitigation and on what combination of threats, if mitigated simultaneously, would result in the best outcomes for biodiversity. We devised a way to prioritize threat mitigation at a regional scale with empirical evidence based on predicted changes to population dynamics-information that is lacking in most threat-management prioritization frameworks that rely on expert elicitation. We used dynamic occupancy models to investigate the effects of multiple threats (tree cover, grazing, and presence of an hyperaggressive competitor, the Noisy Miner (Manorina melanocephala) on bird-population dynamics in an endangered woodland community in southeastern Australia. The 3 threatening processes had different effects on different species. We used predicted patch-colonization probabilities to estimate the benefit to each species of removing one or more threats. We then determined the complementary set of threat-mitigation strategies that maximized colonization of all species while ensuring that redundant actions with little benefit were avoided. The single action that resulted in the highest colonization was increasing tree cover, which increased patch colonization by 5% and 11% on average across all species and for declining species, respectively. Combining Noisy Miner control with increasing tree cover increased species colonization by 10% and 19% on average for all species and for declining species respectively, and was a higher priority than changing grazing regimes. Guidance for prioritizing threat mitigation is critical in the face of cumulative threatening processes. By incorporating population dynamics in prioritization of threat management, our approach helps ensure funding is not wasted on ineffective management programs that target the wrong threats or species.

  10. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  11. Validation of a Fast-Response Urban Micrometeorological Model to Assess the Performance of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D.; Girard, P.; Overby, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Stoll, R., II; Willemsen, P.; Bailey, B.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are a real threat in many cities worldwide and mitigation measures have become a central component of urban planning strategies. Even within a city, causes of UHI vary from one neighborhood to another, mostly due the spatial variability in surface thermal properties, building geometry, anthropogenic heat flux releases and vegetation cover. As a result, the performance of UHI mitigation measures also varies in space. Hence, there is a need to develop a tool to quantify the efficiency of UHI mitigation measures at the neighborhood scale. The objective of this ongoing study is to validate the fast-response micrometeorological model QUIC EnvSim (QES). This model can provide all information required for UHI studies with a fine spatial resolution (up to 0.5m) and short computation time. QES combines QUIC, a CFD-based wind solver and dispersion model, and EnvSim, composed of a radiation model, a land-surface model and a turbulent transport model. Here, high-resolution (1 m) simulations are run over a subset of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) campus including complex buildings, various surfaces properties and vegetation. For nearly five months in 2006-07, a dense network of meteorological observations (92 weather stations over 0.1 km2) was deployed over the campus and these unique data are used here as a validation dataset. We present validation results for different test cases (e.g., sunny vs cloudy days, different incoming wind speeds and directions) and explore the effect of a few UHI mitigation strategies on the spatial distribution of near-surface air temperatures. Preliminary results suggest that QES may be a valuable tool in decision-making regarding adaptation of urban planning to UHI.

  12. Evaluation of mitigation strategies in Facility Group 1 double-shell flammable-gas tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Sadasivan, P.; Kubic, W.L.; White, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is stored in underground waste storage tanks at the site. The tanks fall into two main categories: single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). There are a total of 149 SSTs and 28 DSTs. The wastes stored in the tanks are chemically complex. They basically involve various sodium salts (mainly nitrite, nitrate, carbonates, aluminates, and hydroxides), organic compounds, heavy metals, and various radionuclides, including cesium, strontium, plutonium, and uranium. The waste is known to generate flammable gas (FG) [hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons] by complex chemical reactions. The process of gas generation, retention, and release is transient. Some tanks reach a quasi-steady stage where gas generation is balanced by the release rate. Other tanks show continuous cycles of retention followed by episodic release. There currently are 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL). The objective of this report is to evaluate possible mitigation strategies to eliminate the FG hazard. The evaluation is an engineering study of mitigation concepts for FG generation, retention, and release behavior in Tanks SY-101, AN-103, AN 104, An-105, and Aw-101. Where possible, limited quantification of the effects of mitigation strategies on the FG hazard also is considered. The results obtained from quantification efforts discussed in this report should be considered as best-estimate values. Results and conclusions of this work are intended to help in establishing methodologies in the contractor`s controls selection analysis to develop necessary safety controls for closing the FG unreviewed safety question. The general performance requirements of any mitigation scheme are discussed first.

  13. Thailand's Department of Agricultural Extension and Agrochemical Dependency: Perspectives on Contributing Factors and Mitigation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne; Visetnoi, Supawan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses theoretical, policy and practical issues concerning the problem of "agrochemical dependency" in Thailand, including roles that public extension services play in advocacy or mitigation of agrochemical use. Methodology/Approach: Our research aimed to better understand department of agricultural extension…

  14. Goals, obstacles and effective strategies of wildfire mitigation programs in the Wildland-Urban Interface

    Treesearch

    Margaret A. Reams; Terry K. Haines; Cheryl R. Renner; Michael W. Wascom; Harish Kingre

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic expansion into the Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) places property, natural assets, and human life at risk from wildfire destruction. The U.S. National Fire Plan encourages communities to implement laws and outreach programs for pre-fire planning to mitigate the risk to area residents. Starting in 2003, we surveyed the administrators of regulatory and...

  15. Thailand's Department of Agricultural Extension and Agrochemical Dependency: Perspectives on Contributing Factors and Mitigation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne; Visetnoi, Supawan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses theoretical, policy and practical issues concerning the problem of "agrochemical dependency" in Thailand, including roles that public extension services play in advocacy or mitigation of agrochemical use. Methodology/Approach: Our research aimed to better understand department of agricultural extension…

  16. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Morzillo, Anita T; Mertig, Angela G; Hollister, Jeffrey W; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species' historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  17. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  18. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when

  19. Modeling nexus of urban heat island mitigation strategies with electricity/power usage and consumer costs: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Humberto; Fillpot, Baron S.

    2016-11-01

    A reduction in both power and electricity usage was determined using a previously validated zero-dimensional energy balance model that implements mitigation strategies used to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The established model has been applied to show the change in urban characteristic temperature when executing four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. Separately, a correlation analysis was performed involving meteorological data and total daily energy (TDE) consumption where the 24-h average temperature was shown to have the greatest correlation to electricity service data in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA, metropolitan region. A methodology was then developed for using the model to predict TDE consumption reduction and corresponding cost-saving analysis when implementing the four mitigation strategies. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to the largest percent reduction in annual energy usage, where increasing the thermal conductivity is the single most effective mitigation strategy. The single least effective mitigation strategy, increasing the emissivity by 5% from the baseline value, resulted in an average calculated reduction of about 1570 GWh in yearly energy usage with a corresponding 157 million dollar cost savings. When the four parameters were increased in unison by 20% from baseline values, an average calculated reduction of about 2050 GWh in yearly energy usage was predicted with a corresponding 205 million dollar cost savings.

  20. The online community based decision making support system for mitigating biased decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sunghyun; Seo, Jiwan; Choi, Seungjin; Kim, Junho; Han, Sangyong

    2016-10-01

    As the Internet technology and social media advance, various information and opinions are shared and distributed through the online communities. However, the existence of implicit and explicit bias of opinions may have a potential influence on the outcomes. Compared to the importance of mitigating biased information, the study in this field is relatively young and does not address many important issues. In this paper we propose the noble approach to mitigate the biased opinions using conventional machine learning methods. The proposed method extracts the useful features such as inclination and sentiment of the community members. They are classified based on their previous behavior, and the propensity of the members is understood. This information on each community and its members is very useful and improve the ability to make an unbiased decision. The proposed method presented in this paper is shown to have the ability to assist optimal, fair and good decision making while also reducing the influence of implicit bias.

  1. Carbon Geography. The political economy of congressional support for legislation intended to mitigate greenhouse gas production

    SciTech Connect

    CRAGG, MICHAEL I.; ZHOU, YUYU; GURNEY, KEVIN; KAHN, MATTHEW E.

    2012-04-20

    Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would -free rideII and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of pro-greenII votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representative’s ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

  2. A Dualistic Stream Classification System for Oregon: In Support of a Stream Compensatory Mitigation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, T.; Wigington, P. J.; Comeleo, R. L.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Brooks, J.; Patil, S.; Sobota, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    To meet the goals of the U.S. federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and Oregon's Removal-Fill (R-F) Law, unavoidable impacts to jurisdictional waters, including streams and rivers, must be compensated for through compensatory mitigation under the CWA Section 404 and R-F permitting programs. Compensatory mitigation for impacts to the stream resource is not routinely required, as it generally is for wetlands, and that which does occur is often opportunistic or out-of-kind restoration (e.g. different stream type, wetlands) which does not provide functional replacement for impacts. As part of the effort to improve compensatory mitigation outcomes in Oregon, a stream classification system was needed to inform a more function-based, site level assessment of streams. To meet this need, we have developed a stream/watershed classification system for streams and rivers of various sizes, based in part on a hydrologic landscape classification system, addressing local assessment units, previously developed for Oregon. The system is hierarchical, expandable, and dualistic—providing information at both the local (reach) and watershed (integrative) scales. It recognizes the hydrologic and geologic drivers of stream functions, and meets several a priori criteria established to assure statewide applicability: (1) the same variables are applied regardless of geography to assure consistency across regions, (2) classification is accomplished through an automated GIS process, (3) classes do not require field verification, (4) data used are at appropriate resolution, and (5) classes are consistent with policy intent. Each stream type is defined by basic hydrologic and physical characteristics and determinants of flow regime, and reflects broad functional expectations. Because stream processes are highly influenced by watershed scale parameters, we developed watershed scale data layers to address such questions as annual water surplus availability, seasonality of surplus release, and floodplain

  3. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    precipitation, as well as magmatic activity and eruptions. (3) Risk of collapse begins with initial magmatic activity and increases as intrusion proceeds. An archetypal debris flow from volcanic terrain occurred in Colombia with a tectonic earthquake (M 6.4) in 1994. The Rio Piez conveyed a catastrophic wave of debris flow over 100 kilometers, coalesced from multiple slides of surflcial material weakened both by weathering and by hydrothermal alteration in a large strato- volcano. Similar seismogenic flows occurred in Mexico in 1920 (M -6.5), Chile in 1960 (M 9.2), and Ecuador in 1987 (M 6.1 and 6.9). Velocities of wave fronts in two examples were 60 to 90 km/hr (17-25 meters per second) over the initial 30 kilometers. Volcano flank and sector collapses may produce untransformed debris avalanches, as occurred initially at Mount St. Helens in 1980. However, at least as common is direct transformation of the failed mass to a debris flow. At two other volcanoes in the Cascade Range-- Mount Rainier and Mount Baker--rapid transformation and high mobility were typical of most of at least 15 Holocene flows. This danger exists downstream from many stratovolcanoes worldwide; the population at risk is near 150,000 and increasing at Mount Rainier. The first step in preventing future catastrophes is documenting past flows. Deposits of some debris flows, however, can be mistaken for those of less-mobile debris avalanches on the basis of mounds formed by buoyed megaclasts. Megaclasts may record only the proximal phase of a debris flow that began as a debris avalanche. Runout may have extended much farther, and thus furore flow mobility may be underestimated. Processes and behaviors of megaclast-bearing paleoflows are best inferred from the intermegaclast matrix. Mitigation strategy can respond to volcanic flows regardless of type and trigger by: (1) Avoidance: Limit settlement in flow pathways to numbers that can be evacuated after event warnings (flow is occurring). (2) Instrumental even

  4. An enhanced export coefficient based optimization model for supporting agricultural nonpoint source pollution mitigation under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Rong, Qiangqiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Chen, Bing; Yue, Wencong; Yin, Xin'an; Tan, Qian

    2017-02-15

    In this research, an export coefficient based dual inexact two-stage stochastic credibility constrained programming (ECDITSCCP) model was developed through integrating an improved export coefficient model (ECM), interval linear programming (ILP), fuzzy credibility constrained programming (FCCP) and a fuzzy expected value equation within a general two stage programming (TSP) framework. The proposed ECDITSCCP model can effectively address multiple uncertainties expressed as random variables, fuzzy numbers, pure and dual intervals. Also, the model can provide a direct linkage between pre-regulated management policies and the associated economic implications. Moreover, the solutions under multiple credibility levels can be obtained for providing potential decision alternatives for decision makers. The proposed model was then applied to identify optimal land use structures for agricultural NPS pollution mitigation in a representative upstream subcatchment of the Miyun Reservoir watershed in north China. Optimal solutions of the model were successfully obtained, indicating desired land use patterns and nutrient discharge schemes to get a maximum agricultural system benefits under a limited discharge permit. Also, numerous results under multiple credibility levels could provide policy makers with several options, which could help get an appropriate balance between system benefits and pollution mitigation. The developed ECDITSCCP model can be effectively applied to addressing the uncertain information in agricultural systems and shows great applicability to the land use adjustment for agricultural NPS pollution mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The third hans cloos lecture. Urban landslides: Socioeconomic impacts and overview of mitigative strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, R.L.; Highland, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of population pressures, hillsides in the world's urban areas are being developed at an accelerating rate. This development increases the risk for urban landslides triggered by rainfall or earthquake activity. To counter this risk, four approaches have been employed by landslide managers and urban planners: (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas; (2) implementing and enforcing excavation, grading, and construction codes; (3) protecting existing developments by physical mitigation measures and (4) developing and installing monitoring and warning systems. Where they have been utilized, these approaches generally have been effective in reducing the risk due to landslide hazards. In addition to these practices, landslide insurance holds promise as a mitigative measure by reducing the financial impact of landslides on individual property owners. Until recently, however, such insurance has not been widely available and, where it is available, it is so expensive that it has been little used. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  7. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  8. Hyper-velocity impact risk assessment and mitigation strategies in the context of future X-ray astronomy missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinati, Emanuele; Rott, Martin; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Future X-ray astronomy missions will be based on instruments with apertures much larger than those used up to now. Therefore, the risk posed by hyper-velocity dust grains in the space environment to the onboard instrumentation will increase, especially when a larger aperture is combined with a longer focal length. Starting from the lessons learned from the XMM and Swift satellites, we review the question of hyper-velocity impacts and discuss the expected impact-rate, risk of damage and possible mitigation strategies in the context of LOFT, eROSITA and ATHENA.

  9. Understanding and improving mitigation strategies for reducing catchment scale nutrient loads using high resolution observations and uncertainty analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, A.; Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Stirling, M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges in catchment water quality management is tackling the problem of reducing water pollution from agriculture whilst ensuring food security nationally. Improvements to catchment management plans are needed if we are to enhance biodiversity and maintain good ecological status in freshwater ecosystems, while producing enough food to support a growing global population. In order to plan for a more sustainable and secure future, research needs to quantify the uncertainties and understand the complexities in the source-mobilisation-delivery-impact continuum of pollution and nutrients at all scales. In the UK the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to improve water quality specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture by enhanced high resolution monitoring and targeted mitigation experiments. The DTC project aims to detect shifts in the baseline trend of the most ecologically-significant pollutants resulting from targeted on-farm measures at field to farm scales and assessing their effects on ecosystem function. The DTC programme involves three catchments across the UK that are indicative of three different typologies and land uses. This paper will focus on the Hampshire Avon DTC, where a total of 12 parameters are monitored by bank-side stations at two sampling sites, including flow, turbidity, phosphate and nitrate concentrations at 30 min resolution. This monitoring is supported by daily resolution sampling at 5 other sites and storm sampling at all locations. Part of the DTC project aims to understand how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Baseline monitoring is currently underway and early results show that high-resolution data is essential at this sub-catchment scale to understand important process dynamics. This is critical if we are to design

  10. Combining Turbine Blade-Strike and Life Cycle Models to Assess Mitigation Strategies for Fish Passing Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, John W.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Leonardsson, Kjell; Zabel, Richard W.; Lundqvist, Hans

    2008-08-01

    Combining the two models produced a rapid, cost effective tool for assessing dam passage impacts to fish populations and prioritizing among mitigation strategies for conserving fish stocks in regulated rivers. Estimated mortality of juvenile and adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta) passing turbines at two dams in northern Sweden was significantly higher for Kaplan turbines compared to Francis turbines, and for adult fish compared to juveniles based on blade strike models. Mean probability of mortality ranged from 6.7% for salmon smolts passing Francis turbines to >100% for adult salmon passing Kaplan turbines. Life cycle modeling allowed benefits to be assessed for three alternatives that mitigated this mortality. Salmon population responses varied considerably among alternatives and rivers: growth rates improved as much as 17.9%, female escapements increased up to 669%, and more than 1,300 additional female salmon were produced in one case. Protecting both smolts and adults provided benefits, and in one river, mitigating turbine mortality alone was estimated to have met the production capacity of the available habitat.

  11. COMPARISON OF RADIO-FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR DISPERSED PULSE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, John; Vander Wiel, Scott; Michalak, Sarah; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Siemion, Andrew; Werthimer, Daniel

    2012-03-10

    Impulsive radio-frequency signals from astronomical sources are dispersed by the frequency-dependent index of refraction of the interstellar media and so appear as chirped signals when they reach Earth. Searches for dispersed impulses have been limited by false detections due to radio-frequency interference (RFI) and, in some cases, artifacts of the instrumentation. Many authors have discussed techniques to excise or mitigate RFI in searches for fast transients, but comparisons between different approaches are lacking. This work develops RFI mitigation techniques for use in searches for dispersed pulses, employing data recorded in a 'Fly's Eye' mode of the Allen Telescope Array as a test case. We gauge the performance of several RFI mitigation techniques by adding dispersed signals to data containing RFI and comparing false alarm rates at the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the added signals. We find that Huber filtering is most effective at removing broadband interferers, while frequency centering is most effective at removing narrow frequency interferers. Neither of these methods is effective over a broad range of interferers. A method that combines Huber filtering and adaptive interference cancelation provides the lowest number of false positives over the interferers considered here. The methods developed here have application to other searches for dispersed pulses in incoherent spectra, especially those involving multiple beam systems.

  12. Strategies to mitigate diffuse phosphorus pollution during rewetting of fen peat soils.

    PubMed

    Meissner, R; Rupp, H; Seeger, J; Leinweber, P

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of fen peat soils (Eutric Histosols) for agricultural purposes, started in Europe about 250 years ago, resulting in decreased soil fertility, increased oxidation of peat and corresponding greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere, nutrient transfer to aquatic ecosystems and losses in total area of the former native wetlands. To prevent these negative environmental effects set-aside programs and rewetting measures were promoted in recent years. Literature results and practical experiences showed that large scale rewetting of intensively used agricultural Histosols may result in mobilisation of phosphorus (P), its transport to adjacent surface waters and an accelerated eutrophication. The paper summarises results from an international European Community sponsored research project and demonstrates how results obtained at different scales and from different scientific disciplines were compiled to derive a strategy to carry out rewetting measures. Based on this findings a simple decision support system (DSS) for a hydrologically sensitive area in the Droemling catchment in north-eastern Germany was developed and since 2005 practically used to prevent freshwater resources from non point P pollution.

  13. Crime, violence, and behavioral health: collaborative community strategies for risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A

    2015-06-01

    Criminal conduct is not always violent, and violence does not always lead to criminal charges. Moreover, crime and violence have multifaceted etiologies. Most violence in society is not attributable to mental illness. Where there is a small relationship between violence and mental illness, the risk of violence increases for individuals with substance use histories. Underlying trauma can also play a role. Antisocial attitudes, behaviors, and peer groups further increase the risk that individuals, including those with mental illness, will find themselves at risk of criminal recidivism. Criminal histories among public mental health populations, and mental health and substance use disorders among criminal populations are each higher than general population comparisons. Care within behavioral health settings should therefore target decreased criminal recidivism and decreased violence as part of recovery for those individuals at risk, using trauma-informed approaches and peer supports. Interventions that show promise bring criminal justice and behavioral health systems together, and include police-based diversion, specialty courts, court-based alternatives to incarceration, and coordinated re-entry programs. This article reviews these options along with specific risk management strategies, such as using risk, needs, and responsivity factors as a means of improving overall outcomes for persons with mental illness, while minimizing their risk of further criminalization and victimization.

  14. Landslide databases to compare regional repair and mitigation strategies of transportation infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlers, Annika; Damm, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Regional data of the Central German Uplands are extracted from the German landslide database in order to understand the complex interactions between landslide risks and public risk awareness considering transportation infrastructure. Most information within the database is gathered by means of archive studies from inventories of emergency agencies, state, press and web archives, company and department records as well as scientific and (geo)technical literature. The information includes land use practices, repair and mitigation measures with resultant costs of the German road network as well as railroad and waterway networks. It therefore contains valuable information of historical and current landslide impacts, elements at risk and provides an overview of spatiotemporal changes in social exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards over the last 120 years. On a regional scale the recorded infrastructure damages, and consequential repair or mitigation measures were categorized and classified, according to relevant landslide types, processes and types of infrastructure. In a further step, the data of recent landslides are compared with historical and modern repair and mitigation measures and are correlated with socioeconomic concepts. As a result, it is possible to identify some complex interactions between landslide hazard, risk perception, and damage impact, including time lags and intensity thresholds. The data reveal distinct concepts of repairing respectively mitigating landslides on different types of transportation infrastructure, which are not exclusively linked to higher construction efforts (e.g. embankments on railroads and channels), but changing levels of economic losses and risk perception as well. In addition, a shift from low cost prevention measures such as the removal of loose rock and vegetation, rock blasting, and catch barriers towards expensive mitigation measures such as catch fences, soil anchoring and rock nailing over time can be noticed

  15. Large-scale restoration mitigate land degradation and support the establishment of green infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóthmérész, Béla; Mitchley, Jonathan; Jongepierová, Ivana; Baasch, Annett; Fajmon, Karel; Kirmer, Anita; Prach, Karel; Řehounková, Klára; Tischew, Sabine; Twiston-Davies, Grace; Dutoit, Thierry; Buisson, Elise; Jeunatre, Renaud; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Török, Péter

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining the human well-being and the quality of life, it is essential to develop and support green infrastructure (strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services). For developing and sustaining green infrastructure the conservation and restoration of biodiversity in natural and traditionally managed habitats is essential. Species-rich landscapes in Europe have been maintained over centuries by various kinds of low-intensity use. Recently, they suffered by losses in extent and diversity due to land degradation by intensification or abandonment. Conservation of landscape-scale biodiversity requires the maintenance of species-rich habitats and the restoration of lost grasslands. We are focusing on landscape-level restoration studies including multiple sites in wide geographical scale (including Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, and UK). In a European-wide perspective we aimed at to address four specific questions: (i) What were the aims and objectives of landscape-scale restoration? (ii) What results have been achieved? (iii) What are the costs of large-scale restoration? (iv) What policy tools are available for the restoration of landscape-scale biodiversity? We conclude that landscape-level restoration offers exciting new opportunities to reconnect long-disrupted ecological processes and to restore landscape connectivity. Generally, these measures enable to enhance the biodiversity at the landscape scale. The development of policy tools to achieve restoration at the landscape scale are essential for the achievement of the ambitious targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the European Biodiversity Strategy for ecosystem restoration.

  16. Is There Any Hope? How Climate Change News Imagery and Text Influence Audience Emotions and Support for Climate Mitigation Policies.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Lauren; Hart, P Sol

    2017-08-02

    Using a national sample, this study experimentally tests the effects of news visuals and texts that emphasize either the causes and impacts of climate change or actions that can be taken to address climate change. We test the effects of variations in text and imagery on discrete emotions (i.e., hope, fear, and anger) and, indirectly, on support for climate mitigation policies. Political ideology is examined as a moderator. The findings indicate that news images and texts that focus on climate-oriented actions can increase hope and, in the case of texts, decrease fear and anger, and these effects generally hold across the ideological spectrum. In turn, the influence of emotions on policy support depends on ideology: Hope and fear increase support for climate policies for all ideological groups but particularly conservatives, whereas anger polarizes the opinions of liberals and conservatives. Implications for climate change communication that appeals to emotions are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Health Co-Benefits: A Structured Review of Lifestyle-Related Climate Change Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Quam, Vivian G M; Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel B M; Lucas, Rebekah A I

    2017-04-27

    This is the first structured review to identify and summarize research on lifestyle choices that improve health and have the greatest potential to mitigate climate change. Two literature searches were conducted on: (1) active transport health co-benefits, and (2) dietary health co-benefits. Articles needed to quantify both greenhouse gas emissions and health or nutrition outcomes resulting from active transport or diet changes. A data extraction tool (PRISMA) was created for article selection and evaluation. A rubric was devised to assess the biases, limitations and uncertainties of included articles. For active transport 790 articles were retrieved, nine meeting the inclusion criteria. For diet 2524 articles were retrieved, 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 31 articles were reviewed and assessed using the rubric, as one article met the inclusion criteria for both active transport and diet co-benefits. Methods used to estimate the effect of diet or active transport modification vary greatly precluding meta-analysis. The scale of impact on health and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) outcomes depends predominately on the aggressiveness of the diet or active transport scenario modelled, versus the modelling technique. Effective mitigation policies, infrastructure that supports active transport and low GHGE food delivery, plus community engagement are integral in achieving optimal health and GHGE outcomes. Variation in culture, nutritional and health status, plus geographic density will determine which mitigation scenario(s) best suit individual communities.

  18. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Health Co-Benefits: A Structured Review of Lifestyle-Related Climate Change Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Vivian G. M.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel B. M.; Lucas, Rebekah A. I.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first structured review to identify and summarize research on lifestyle choices that improve health and have the greatest potential to mitigate climate change. Two literature searches were conducted on: (1) active transport health co-benefits, and (2) dietary health co-benefits. Articles needed to quantify both greenhouse gas emissions and health or nutrition outcomes resulting from active transport or diet changes. A data extraction tool (PRISMA) was created for article selection and evaluation. A rubric was devised to assess the biases, limitations and uncertainties of included articles. For active transport 790 articles were retrieved, nine meeting the inclusion criteria. For diet 2524 articles were retrieved, 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 31 articles were reviewed and assessed using the rubric, as one article met the inclusion criteria for both active transport and diet co-benefits. Methods used to estimate the effect of diet or active transport modification vary greatly precluding meta-analysis. The scale of impact on health and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) outcomes depends predominately on the aggressiveness of the diet or active transport scenario modelled, versus the modelling technique. Effective mitigation policies, infrastructure that supports active transport and low GHGE food delivery, plus community engagement are integral in achieving optimal health and GHGE outcomes. Variation in culture, nutritional and health status, plus geographic density will determine which mitigation scenario(s) best suit individual communities. PMID:28448460

  19. A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

  20. A Deterministic Model to Quantify Risk and Guide Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Bluetongue Virus Transmission in California Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Christie; Shelley, Courtney; MacLachlan, N James; Gardner, Ian; Hartley, David; Barker, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV) has been changing recently, perhaps as a result of climate change. To evaluate the risk of BTV infection and transmission in a BTV-endemic region of California, sentinel dairy cows were evaluated for BTV infection, and populations of Culicoides vectors were collected at different sites using carbon dioxide. A deterministic model was developed to quantify risk and guide future mitigation strategies to reduce BTV infection in California dairy cattle. The greatest risk of BTV transmission was predicted within the warm Central Valley of California that contains the highest density of dairy cattle in the United States. Temperature and parameters associated with Culicoides vectors (transmission probabilities, carrying capacity, and survivorship) had the greatest effect on BTV's basic reproduction number, R0. Based on these analyses, optimal control strategies for reducing BTV infection risk in dairy cattle will be highly reliant upon early efforts to reduce vector abundance during the months prior to peak transmission.

  1. Mitigating cascades in sandpile models: an immunization strategy for systemic risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Antonio; Zlatić, Vinko; Caldarelli, Guido; D'Agostino, Gregorio

    2016-10-01

    We use a simple model of distress propagation (the sandpile model) to show how financial systems are naturally subject to the risk of systemic failures. Taking into account possible network structures among financial institutions, we investigate if simple policies can limit financial distress propagation to avoid system-wide crises, i.e. to dampen systemic risk. We therefore compare different immunization policies (i.e. targeted helps to financial institutions) and find that the information coming from the network topology allows to mitigate systemic cascades by targeting just few institutions.

  2. Strategies to Mitigate a Mycobacterium marinum Outbreak in a Zebrafish Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Kathy; Mittge, Erika; Melancon, Ellie; Montgomery, Rebecca; McFadden, Marcie; Camoriano, Javier; Kent, Michael L.; Whipps, Christopher M.; Peirce, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, the zebrafish research facility at the University of Oregon experienced an outbreak of Mycobacterium marinum that affected both research fish and facility staff. A thorough review of risks to personnel, the zebrafish veterinary care program, and zebrafish husbandry procedures at the research facility followed. In the years since 2011, changes have been implemented throughout the research facility to protect the personnel, the fish colony, and ultimately the continued success of the zebrafish model research program. In this study, we present the history of the outbreak, the changes we implemented, and recommendations to mitigate pathogen outbreaks in zebrafish research facilities. PMID:27351618

  3. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  4. The impact of potential mitigation strategies on the predicted spread of foot and mouth disease in white-tailed deer in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda D; Ward, Michael P; Laffan, Shawn W; Norby, Bo; Wagner, G Gale

    2010-05-01

    The United States has been free of FMD since the 1920s. Faced with an incursion of FMD virus that might involve wildlife species, it is crucial that appropriate mitigation strategies be applied rapidly to control the disease. Disease spread models can be used to evaluate the design of optimal strategies. Using a previously developed susceptible-infected-recovered geographic automata model (Sirca) to simulate the spread of FMD through white-tailed deer populations in south Texas, we conducted a series of experiments to determine how pre-emptive mitigation strategies applied to white-tailed deer populations might impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of outbreaks following FMD virus incursion. Based on previously derived deer distributions in the two ecoregions found within the study area, simulated outbreaks were evaluated by comparing the median number of deer predicted to be infected and the median area predicted affected for a baseline scenario and 3 mitigation strategies: targeted cull, random cull and targeted depopulation buffer. Substantial differences were observed in the predicted magnitude of outbreaks both by mitigation strategy and by ecoregion: depending on the ecoregion, the creation of a targeted depopulation buffer could reduce the number of deer predicted infected by up to 52%, and the area affected by up to 31%. Results suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion that involves wildlife species, such as white-tailed deer in south Texas, might depend on both where the incursion occurs and the type of pre-emptive mitigation strategy applied.

  5. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-07-18

    The objective of this document is to propose a strategy for addressing applicable LDMM-related criteria in order to determine an allowable leakage volume for SSTs targeted for waste retrieval using sluicing. A strategy is required to work through the individual ALV criterion (and related issues) in a prioritized,orderly, and efficient manner. All components of the strategy are based upon LDMM-related issues, functions and requirements,and technology alternatives.

  6. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  7. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert D.; Scyphers, Steven B.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders’ perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state’s management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders’ support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that

  8. Strategies for discovery of small molecule radiation protectors and radiation mitigators.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Joel S; Clump, David; Kagan, Valerian; Bayir, Hülya; Lazo, John S; Wipf, Peter; Li, Song; Gao, Xiang; Epperly, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial targeted radiation damage protectors (delivered prior to irradiation) and mitigators (delivered after irradiation, but before the appearance of symptoms associated with radiation syndrome) have been a recent focus in drug discovery for (1) normal tissue radiation protection during fractionated radiotherapy, and (2) radiation terrorism counter measures. Several categories of such molecules have been discovered: nitroxide-linked hybrid molecules, including GS-nitroxide, GS-nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, p53/mdm2/mdm4 inhibitors, and pharmaceutical agents including inhibitors of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway and the anti-seizure medicine, carbamazepine. Evaluation of potential new radiation dose modifying molecules to protect normal tissue includes: clonogenic radiation survival curves, assays for apoptosis and DNA repair, and irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant stores. Studies of organ specific radioprotection and in total body irradiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome in the mouse model for protection/mitigation facilitate rational means by which to move candidate small molecule drugs along the drug discovery pipeline into clinical development.

  9. Strategies for Discovery of Small Molecule Radiation Protectors and Radiation Mitigators

    PubMed Central

    Greenberger, Joel S.; Clump, David; Kagan, Valerian; Bayir, Hülya; Lazo, John S.; Wipf, Peter; Li, Song; Gao, Xiang; Epperly, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial targeted radiation damage protectors (delivered prior to irradiation) and mitigators (delivered after irradiation, but before the appearance of symptoms associated with radiation syndrome) have been a recent focus in drug discovery for (1) normal tissue radiation protection during fractionated radiotherapy, and (2) radiation terrorism counter measures. Several categories of such molecules have been discovered: nitroxide-linked hybrid molecules, including GS-nitroxide, GS-nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, p53/mdm2/mdm4 inhibitors, and pharmaceutical agents including inhibitors of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway and the anti-seizure medicine, carbamazepine. Evaluation of potential new radiation dose modifying molecules to protect normal tissue includes: clonogenic radiation survival curves, assays for apoptosis and DNA repair, and irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant stores. Studies of organ specific radioprotection and in total body irradiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome in the mouse model for protection/mitigation facilitate rational means by which to move candidate small molecule drugs along the drug discovery pipeline into clinical development. PMID:22655254

  10. The relevance of uncertainty in future crop production for mitigation strategy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieler, K.; Levermann, A.; Elliott, J.; Heinke, J.; Arneth, A.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Deryng, D.; Döll, P.; Falloon, P.; Fekete, B.; Folberth, C.; Friend, A. D.; Gellhorn, C.; Gosling, S. N.; Haddeland, I.; Khabarov, N.; Lomas, M.; Masaki, Y.; Nishina, K.; Neumann, K.; Oki, T.; Pavlick, R.; Ruane, A. C.; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, C.; Stacke, T.; Stehfest, E.; Tang, Q.; Wisser, D.; Huber, V.; Piontek, F.; Warszawski, L.; Schewe, J.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2014-09-01

    In order to achieve climate change mitigation, long-term decisions are required that must be reconciled with other societal goals that draw on the same resources. For example, ensuring food security for a growing population may require an expansion of crop land, thereby reducing natural carbon sinks or the area available for bio-energy production. Here, we show that current impact-model uncertainties pose an important challenge to long-term mitigation planning and propose a new risk-assessment and decision framework that accounts for competing interests. Based on cross-sectorally consistent simulations generated within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) we discuss potential gains and limitations of additional irrigation and trade-offs of the expansion of agricultural land as two possible response measures to climate change and growing food demand. We describe an illustrative example in which the combination of both measures may close the supply demand gap while leading to a loss of approximately half of all natural carbon sinks. We highlight current limitations of available simulations and additional steps required for a comprehensive risk assessment.

  11. A built-in strategy to mitigate transgene spreading from genetically modified corn.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement.

  12. Engaging Climate Change Mitigation Strategies as Citizen-Scientists at SUNY College at Oneonta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, T. D.; McEnroe, N. A.

    2009-12-01

    At SUNY College at Oneonta, we have developed a new course on Global Climate Change that seeks to educate students on the science and policy considerations related to the ongoing discussion of the causes and effects of climatic change. In this course, taught by the Department of Earth Sciences, we engage not only the science behind how and why the climate is changing, but there is a curricular emphasis on improving how we communicate about climate change science. Class activities include developing personal action plans that include evaluation of how effective their plans will be and the challenges they will face; a mock town-hall meeting that will help student-scientists put themselves into different roles in the community and attempt to see things from different perspectives, and a term-project where students will go in-depth on a proposed mitigation plan (local, regional, national, or international), weigh the pros and cons, and recommend a course of action in terms that a lay person can understand. Our goal is to produce citizen-scientists who can communicate more effectively in public about the science and the stakes of mitigating climate change.

  13. A Built-In Strategy to Mitigate Transgene Spreading from Genetically Modified Corn

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

  14. The Integrated Scorecard in support of corporate sustainability strategies.

    PubMed

    Journeault, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Organizations have increasingly recognized the importance and benefits of developing a sustainability strategy that incorporates environmental and social responsibilities. However, the simultaneous integration of the economic, environmental and social aspects remains a major concern for organizations. The Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) represents one of the most promising strategic tools to help organizations face these challenges and support their sustainability strategy. However, past research has provided unclear, incomplete and even contradictory SBSC frameworks while offering little knowledge about how to integrate stakeholder management as well as environmental and social performance within the balanced scorecard to successfully support a corporate sustainability strategy. The aim of this study is to address these issues and limitations by proposing the Integrated Scorecard, a specific SBSC that integrates the three pillars of sustainability performance within four different perspectives, namely environmental, social and economic performance, stakeholder management, internal business processes, and skills and capabilities. This study provides a conceptual approach to the Integrated Scorecard and illustrates, through the use of two practical illustrations, the ability of this framework to support the corporate sustainability strategy by identifying the core sustainability objectives that organizations should achieve when creating value, facilitating the understanding of the contribution of environmental and social initiatives on economic performance, allowing the monitoring and measurement of the strategy's level of achievement, and creating synergy between sustainability performance management and reporting.

  15. Increasing Students' Opportunities to Respond: A Strategy for Supporting Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Holly M.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a rationale for using a low-intensity support, increasing opportunities to respond, to promote students' academic engagement and decrease disruptive behaviors. A step-by-step guide to implementing this strategy in the classroom setting is presented.

  16. Supporting Classroom Transitions between Daily Routines: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Horn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide tools for preschool professionals to plan for transitions between daily routines, to identify challenging transitions during the day, and to offer strategies to support transitions in classrooms to prevent challenging behaviors from occurring due to frequent changes. Specifically, the authors answer three…

  17. Mobile-Device-Supported Strategy for Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kuo-En; Lan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Chien-Mei; Sung, Yao-Ting

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper explores the feasibility of using of a wireless handheld system (WHS) that supports the individual and co-operative reading activities of students and helps teachers implement reading strategy instruction in Chinese language classes. The experimental findings demonstrate that the WHS benefits students applying…

  18. Strategies for Supporting the Sensory-Based Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary; Baker, Pamela Hudson; Murray-Slutsky, Carolyn; Paris, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of behavioral problems in school settings is essential. When the function of behavior communicates a sensory-based need, as it does for many learners with autism, teachers need to know what to do. Therefore, it is important for teachers to have varied strategies available for use in the support of such learners. The authors present…

  19. Positioning a University Outreach Center: Strategies for Support and Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skivington, Kristen D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that a strong case can be made for supporting outreach as a value-added function in a university. Specific strategies for positioning outreach within the university by developing a power base are outlined. The case of the University of Michigan-Flint is offered as an example of this approach. Seven lessons learned in the process are noted.…

  20. Teaching Strategies: Supporting EAL Students in Learning Biology Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Primani; Cooper, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to teaching strategies that can be used to support English as Additional Language (EAL) students in learning biology terminology. The paper begins with an overview of EAL students and considers the difficulties that they may face in the classroom along with the challenges that mainstream teachers may have…

  1. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  2. Increasing Students' Opportunities to Respond: A Strategy for Supporting Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Holly M.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a rationale for using a low-intensity support, increasing opportunities to respond, to promote students' academic engagement and decrease disruptive behaviors. A step-by-step guide to implementing this strategy in the classroom setting is presented.

  3. Positioning a University Outreach Center: Strategies for Support and Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skivington, Kristen D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that a strong case can be made for supporting outreach as a value-added function in a university. Specific strategies for positioning outreach within the university by developing a power base are outlined. The case of the University of Michigan-Flint is offered as an example of this approach. Seven lessons learned in the process are noted.…

  4. Strategies for Supporting the Sensory-Based Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary; Baker, Pamela Hudson; Murray-Slutsky, Carolyn; Paris, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of behavioral problems in school settings is essential. When the function of behavior communicates a sensory-based need, as it does for many learners with autism, teachers need to know what to do. Therefore, it is important for teachers to have varied strategies available for use in the support of such learners. The authors present…

  5. Two Strategies for the Development of Mitochondrion-Targeted Small Molecule Radiation Damage Mitigators

    SciTech Connect

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Beck, Barbara; Wang Wei; Doemling, Alexander; Epperly, Michael W.; Shields, Donna; Goff, Julie P.; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Frantz, Marie-Celine; Wipf, Peter; Tyurina, Yulia; Kagan, Valerian E.; Wang, Hong

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere MCF201-89, and the p53/mdm2/mdm4 protein complex inhibitor BEB55 to mitigate radiation effects by clonogenic survival curves with the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 and the human bone marrow stromal (KM101) and pulmonary epithelial (IB3) cell lines. The p53-dependent mechanism of action was tested with p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup -/-} murine bone marrow stromal cell lines. C57BL/6 NHsd female mice were injected i.p. with JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55 individually or in combination, after receiving 9.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Results: Each drug, JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55, individually or as a mixture of all three compounds increased the survival of 32D cl 3 (p = 0.0021, p = 0.0011, p = 0.0038, and p = 0.0073, respectively) and IB3 cells (p = 0.0193, p = 0.0452, p = 0.0017, and p = 0.0019, respectively) significantly relative to that of control irradiated cells. KM101 cells were protected by individual drugs (p = 0.0007, p = 0.0235, p = 0.0044, respectively). JP4-039 and MCF201-89 increased irradiation survival of both p53{sup +/+} (p = 0.0396 and p = 0.0071, respectively) and p53{sup -/-} cells (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively), while BEB55 was ineffective with p53{sup -/-} cells. Drugs administered individually or as a mixtures of all three after TBI significantly increased mouse survival (p = 0.0234, 0.0009, 0.0052, and 0.0167, respectively). Conclusion: Mitochondrial targeting of small molecule radiation mitigators decreases irradiation-induced cell death in vitro and prolongs survival of lethally irradiated mice.

  6. Nutrients recycling strategy for microalgae-based CO2 mitigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Xinyi

    Coal-fired electricity production is the major emitter of CO2 and other greenhouse gases including NOx and SO x. Microalgae-based CO2 mitigation systems have been proposed to reduce the net CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. This study focused on developing an optimum culture media and exploring the possibilities for recycling nutrients, which were added as commercial mineralized chemicals at the beginning of cultivation. In order to release the nutrients embedded in the cells so that they can be used as a nutrient source for new cells, Scenedesmus biomass was digested by anaerobic bacteria. Results showed that thermal pretreatment enhanced the methane production rate for the first 7 days of digestion. Three operational factors were tested: heating temperature, heating duration and NaOH dosage. The combination of 10 min heating with 3˜6% NaOH at 50 °C gave the highest cell wall destruction for all samples except oven-dried algae. The anaerobic digestate, rich in mineralized nutrients including ammonium and phosphate, potassium and magnesium ions, was tested as a possible nutrient source for the algae cultivation. To cope with the high solid content of the digestates, the dosage of the digestates was reduced or the solid particles were removed prior to addition to the microalgae. Both approaches worked well in terms of providing nutrients with minimal effect on light penetration. Using digestates without any sterilization did not cause contamination or other deleterious effects on the Scenedesmus growth rate. Harvesting microalgae cells was critical to ensure a continuous and robust growth rate. The used media could be recycled at least four times without altering the algae growth. Nutrient replenishment was the key for a healthy culture when used media was incorporated. The combination of used media and digestates can sustain a normal algae growth. Life cycle assessment was conducted on the system including the photobioreactor, the anaerobic digester, the

  7. Strategy for Mitigating Collision Between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levi, Joshua A.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Mission Operations project, the French space agency Centre National d tudes Spatiales, the Argentinian space agency Comisi n Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, and the United States Geological Survey all operate spacecraft in sun-synchronous frozen orbits. The orbits are planned to not place any of the spacecraft at risk of colliding with another. However, evolution of these orbits over time has com-promised the safe interaction between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constella-tion. This paper analyzes the interactions between the Landsat-5 spacecraft and the Afternoon Constellation members over a period of 6 years, describing the current risk and plan to mitigate collisions in the future.

  8. Trends and drivers of debris accumulation on Maui shorelines: Implications for local mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Blickley, Lauren C; Currie, Jens J; Kaufman, Gregory D

    2016-04-15

    Marine debris, particularly plastic, is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific. Here we present results from the first study to quantify and compare the types and amounts of marine debris on Maui shorelines. Surveys were conducted monthly between May 2013 and December 2014, with additional daily surveys conducted on Maui's north shore during January 2015. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites, with plastics being the most prevalent type of debris at all sites. Large debris loads on windward shores were attributed to the influence of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and northerly trade winds. Daily surveys resulted in a significantly higher rate of debris deposition than monthly surveys. The efficacy of local policy in debris mitigation showed promise, but was dependent upon the level of enforcement and consumer responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NICU nurse educators: what evidence supports your teaching strategies?

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2013-01-01

    One of our roles as nurse educators is to teach best practices related to patient care. However, have you ever stopped to think about what evidence supports your teaching strategies? Just as our patients deserve care that is based on the best available evidence, our learners also deserve education that is based on evidence.1-3 With so many advances in knowledge, technology, and even life itself, it is interesting that education has changed very little over the past 100 years. A study among 946 nurse educators documented that most teach the way they were taught.4 In addition, even after learning new strategies, educators often continue teaching in the manner they are most comfortable. However, this trend is beginning to change. Nurse educators are becoming increasingly aware of and willing to try new and innovative teaching strategies. Educators are also seeking out evidence-based teaching strategies and are becoming more involved in nursing education research.

  10. Predicting Hotspots of Human-Elephant Conflict to Inform Mitigation Strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China’s largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades. We analyzed government data on the compensation costs of elephant-caused damage in Xishuangbanna between 2008 and 2012 to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of conflict, in terms of their occurrence, frequency and distribution. More than 18,261 incidents were reported, including episodes involving damage to rubber trees (n = 10,999), damage to crops such as paddy, upland rice, corn, bananas and sugarcane (n = 11,020), property loss (n = 689) and attacks on humans (n = 19). The conflict data reconfirmed the presence of elephants in areas which have lacked records since the late 1990s. Zero Altered Negative Binomial models revealed that the risk of damage to crops and plantations increased with proximity to protected areas, increasing distance from roads, and lower settlement density. The patterns were constant across seasons and types of crop damaged. Damage to rubber trees was essentially incidental as elephants searched for crops to eat. A predictive map of risks revealed hotspots of conflict within and around protected areas, the last refuges for elephants in the region, and along habitat corridors connecting them. Additionally, we analyzed how mitigation efforts can best diminish the risk of conflict while minimizing financial costs and adverse biological impacts. Our analytical approach can be adopted, adjusted and expanded to other areas with historical records of human-wildlife conflict. PMID:27631976

  11. Predicting Hotspots of Human-Elephant Conflict to Inform Mitigation Strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Marino, Jorgelina; Chen, Yong; Tao, Qing; Sullivan, Casey D; Shi, Kun; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China's largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades. We analyzed government data on the compensation costs of elephant-caused damage in Xishuangbanna between 2008 and 2012 to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of conflict, in terms of their occurrence, frequency and distribution. More than 18,261 incidents were reported, including episodes involving damage to rubber trees (n = 10,999), damage to crops such as paddy, upland rice, corn, bananas and sugarcane (n = 11,020), property loss (n = 689) and attacks on humans (n = 19). The conflict data reconfirmed the presence of elephants in areas which have lacked records since the late 1990s. Zero Altered Negative Binomial models revealed that the risk of damage to crops and plantations increased with proximity to protected areas, increasing distance from roads, and lower settlement density. The patterns were constant across seasons and types of crop damaged. Damage to rubber trees was essentially incidental as elephants searched for crops to eat. A predictive map of risks revealed hotspots of conflict within and around protected areas, the last refuges for elephants in the region, and along habitat corridors connecting them. Additionally, we analyzed how mitigation efforts can best diminish the risk of conflict while minimizing financial costs and adverse biological impacts. Our analytical approach can be adopted, adjusted and expanded to other areas with historical records of human-wildlife conflict.

  12. Modelling global distribution, risk and mitigation strategies of floating plastic pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Sherman, Peter; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Lavender Law, Kara

    2016-04-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North Pacific and North Atlantic accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass. We use a rigorous statistical framework to standardise a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and couple this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons. A large fraction of the uncertainty in these estimates comes from sparse sampling in coastal and Southern Hemisphere regions. We then use this global distribution of small floating plastic debris to map out where in the ocean the risk to marine life (in particular seabirds and plankton growth) is greatest, using a quantitative risk framework. We show that the largest risk occurs not necessarily in regions of high plastic concentration, but rather in regions of extensive foraging with medium-high plastic concentrations such as coastal upwelling regions and the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the estimates of distribution to investigate where in the ocean plastic can most optimally be removed, assuming hypothetical clean-up booms following the ideas from The Ocean Cleanup project. We show that mitigation of the plastic problem can most aptly be done near coastlines, particularly in Asia, rather than in the centres of the gyres. Based on these results, we propose more focus on the coastal zones when

  13. Exploring the roots of unintended safety threats associated with the introduction of hospital ePrescribing systems and candidate avoidance and/or mitigation strategies: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mozaffar, Hajar; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Williams, Robin; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-09-01

    Hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems offer a wide range of patient safety benefits. Like other hospital health information technology interventions, however, they may also introduce new areas of risk. Despite recent advances in identifying these risks, the development and use of ePrescribing systems is still leading to numerous unintended consequences, which may undermine improvement and threaten patient safety. These negative consequences need to be analysed in the design, implementation and use of these systems. We therefore aimed to understand the roots of these reported threats and identify candidate avoidance/mitigation strategies. We analysed a longitudinal, qualitative study of the implementation and adoption of ePrescribing systems in six English hospitals, each being conceptualised as a case study. Data included semistructured interviews, observations of implementation meetings and system use, and a collection of relevant documents. We analysed data first within and then across the case studies. Our dataset included 214 interviews, 24 observations and 18 documents. We developed a taxonomy of factors underlying unintended safety threats in: (1) suboptimal system design, including lack of support for complex medication administration regimens, lack of effective integration between different systems, and lack of effective automated decision support tools; (2) inappropriate use of systems-in particular, too much reliance on the system and introduction of workarounds; and (3) suboptimal implementation strategies resulting from partial roll-outs/dual systems and lack of appropriate training. We have identified a number of system and organisational strategies that could potentially avoid or reduce these risks. Imperfections in the design, implementation and use of ePrescribing systems can give rise to unintended consequences, including safety threats. Hospitals and suppliers need to implement short- and long-term strategies in terms of the

  14. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  15. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  16. Human effects on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems: Integrating scientific approaches to support management and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Crook, David A; Lowe, Winsor H; Allendorf, Frederick W; Erős, Tibor; Finn, Debra S; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Hadwen, Wade L; Harrod, Chris; Hermoso, Virgilio; Jennings, Simon; Kilada, Raouf W; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Hansen, Michael M; Page, Timothy J; Riginos, Cynthia; Fry, Brian; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the drivers and implications of anthropogenic disturbance of ecological connectivity is a key concern for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Here, we review human activities that affect the movements and dispersal of aquatic organisms, including damming of rivers, river regulation, habitat loss and alteration, human-assisted dispersal of organisms and climate change. Using a series of case studies, we show that the insight needed to understand the nature and implications of connectivity, and to underpin conservation and management, is best achieved via data synthesis from multiple analytical approaches. We identify four key knowledge requirements for progressing our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic impacts on ecological connectivity: autecology; population structure; movement characteristics; and environmental tolerance/phenotypic plasticity. Structuring empirical research around these four broad data requirements, and using this information to parameterise appropriate models and develop management approaches, will allow for mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of rapid transport of pesticides from sloping farmland to surface waters: processes and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyu; Zhu, Bo; Katou, Hidetaka

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides applied to sloping farmland may lead to surface water contamination through rapid transport processes as influenced by the complex topography and high spatial variability of soil properties and land use in hilly or mountainous regions. However, the fate of pesticides applied to sloping farmland has not been sufficiently elucidated. This article reviews the current understanding of pesticide transport from sloping farmland to surface water. It examines overland flow and subsurface lateral flow in areas where surface soil is underlain by impervious subsoil or rocks and tile drains. It stresses the importance of quantifying and modeling the contributions of various pathways to rapid pesticide loss at catchment and regional scales. Such models could be used in scenario studies for evaluating the effectiveness of possible mitigation strategies such as constructing vegetated strips, depressions, wetlands and drainage ditches, and implementing good agricultural practices. Field monitoring studies should also be conducted to calibrate and validate the transport models as well as biophysical-economic models, to optimize mitigation measures in areas dominated by sloping farmland.

  18. Accounting for Human Health and Ecosystems Quality in Developing Sustainable Energy Products: The Implications of Wood Biomass-based Electricity Strategies to Climate Change Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldu, Yemane W.

    The prospect for transitions and transformations in the energy sector to mitigate climate change raises concerns that actions should not shift the impacts from one impact category to another, or from one sustainability domain to another. Although the development of renewables mostly results in low environmental impacts, energy strategies are complex and may result in the shifting of impacts. Strategies to climate change mitigation could have potentially large effects on human health and ecosystems. Exposure to air pollution claimed the lives of about seven million people worldwide in 2010, largely from the combustion of solid fuels. The degradation of ecosystem services is a significant barrier to achieving millennium development goals. This thesis quantifies the biomass resources potential for Alberta; presents a user-friendly and sector-specific framework for sustainability assessment; unlocks the information and policy barriers to biomass integration in energy strategy; introduces new perspectives to improve understanding of the life cycle human health and ecotoxicological effects of energy strategies; provides insight regarding the guiding measures that are required to ensure sustainable bioenergy production; validates the utility of the Environmental Life Cycle Cost framework for economic sustainability assessment; and provides policy-relevant societal cost estimates to demonstrate the importance of accounting for human health and ecosystem externalities in energy planning. Alberta is endowed with a wealth of forest and agricultural biomass resources, estimated at 458 PJ of energy. Biomass has the potential to avoid 11-15% of GHG emissions and substitute 14-17% of final energy demand by 2030. The drivers for integrating bioenergy sources into Alberta's energy strategy are economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation policy objectives. Bioenergy pathways significantly improved both human health and ecosystem quality from coal

  19. A new subcarrier allocation strategy for MIMO-OFDMA multicellular networks based on cooperative interference mitigation.

    PubMed

    Gkonis, Panagiotis K; Seimeni, Maria A; Asimakis, Nikolaos P; Kaklamani, Dimitra I; Venieris, Iakovos S

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the performance of a new subcarrier allocation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) multicellular networks which employ Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. For this reason, a hybrid system-link level simulator has been developed executing independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in parallel. Up to two tiers of cells around the central cell are taken into consideration and increased loading per cell. The derived results indicate that this strategy can provide up to 12% capacity gain for 16-QAM modulation and two tiers of cells around the central cell in a symmetric 2 × 2 MIMO configuration. This gain is derived when comparing the proposed strategy to the traditional approach of allocating subcarriers that maximize only the desired user's signal.

  20. A New Subcarrier Allocation Strategy for MIMO-OFDMA Multicellular Networks Based on Cooperative Interference Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Gkonis, Panagiotis K.; Seimeni, Maria A.; Asimakis, Nikolaos P.; Kaklamani, Dimitra I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the performance of a new subcarrier allocation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) multicellular networks which employ Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. For this reason, a hybrid system-link level simulator has been developed executing independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in parallel. Up to two tiers of cells around the central cell are taken into consideration and increased loading per cell. The derived results indicate that this strategy can provide up to 12% capacity gain for 16-QAM modulation and two tiers of cells around the central cell in a symmetric 2 × 2 MIMO configuration. This gain is derived when comparing the proposed strategy to the traditional approach of allocating subcarriers that maximize only the desired user's signal. PMID:24683351

  1. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic with pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccines.

    PubMed

    Milne, George; Kelso, Joel; Kelly, Heath

    2010-04-06

    The recent worldwide spread of the swine-origin H1N1 2009 influenza outbreak has resulted in its designation as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. While it appears to result in mild symptoms, concern still exists that a more severe influenza pandemic with a high case fatality ratio might arise by reassortment or mutation of the currently circulating avian influenza (H5N1) virus. Given that recently developed candidate pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccines have shown potential for cross-strain protection, we investigated alternative vaccination strategies that exploit such vaccines using an agent-based simulation model of an actual community of approximately 30 000 people in a developed country. Assuming that a two-dose vaccination regimen would be required, we examined three vaccination strategies: pre-emptive, with vaccination applied prior to emergence of human-transmissible H5N1 influenza; reactive, where vaccination was initiated immediately after the first cases in the community were diagnosed; and a 'split' strategy where the first dose was administered pre-emptively during the pre-pandemic phase, with the second dose administered reactively. We showed that by effectively moving the delay between first and second doses into the pre-pandemic period, the split vaccination strategy achieved a substantially better attack rate reduction than the reactive strategy. Our results for an influenza strain with a reproduction number of 1.5 suggest reactive vaccination strategies that may be applicable to the current H1N1 2009 pandemic.

  2. A review of 'green' strategies to prevent or mitigate microbiologically influenced corrosion.

    PubMed

    Little, Brenda; Lee, Jason; Ray, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Two approaches to control microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) have been developed that do not require the use of biocides. These strategies include the following: i) use of biofilms to inhibit or prevent corrosion, and ii) manipulation (removal or addition) of an electron acceptor, (e.g. oxygen, sulphate or nitrate) to influence the microbial population. In both approaches the composition of the microbial community is affected by small perturbations in the environment (e.g. temperature, nutrient concentration and flow) and the response of microorganisms cannot be predicted with certainty. The following sections will review the literature on the effectiveness of these environmentally friendly, "green," strategies for controlling MIC.

  3. Evaluating the demand for carbon sequestration in olive grove soils as a strategy toward mitigating climate change.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Entrena, Macario; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Gómez-Limón, José A; Espinosa-Goded, María; Castro-Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-12-15

    In this paper we present an estimate of the economic value of carbon sequestration in olive grove soils derived from the implementation of different agricultural management systems. Carbon sequestration is considered jointly with other environmental co-benefits, such as enhanced erosion prevention and increased biodiversity. The estimates have been obtained using choice experiments and show that there is a significant demand from society for these environmental services. From a policy perspective, an agri-environmental scheme that delivers the highest level of each environmental service would be valued by society at 121 Euros per hectare. If we focus on carbon sequestration, each ton of CO(2) would be valued at 17 Euros. These results show that there is scope to include agricultural soil carbon sequestration in climate change mitigation strategies and to provide guidance for setting payments for agri-environmental schemes promoting soil management changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementation of DoS attack and mitigation strategies in IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Julia; Meng, Ke; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Roger

    2010-04-01

    IEEE 802.11 wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) becomes very prevalent nowadays. Either as a simple range extender for a home wired Ethernet interface, or as a wireless deployment throughout an enterprise, WLAN provides mobility, convenience, and low cost. However, an IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network uses the frequency of unlicensed 2.4GHz, which makes the network unsafe and more vulnerable than traditional Ethernet networks. As a result, anyone who is familiar with wireless network may initiate a Denial of Service (DoS) attack to influence the common communication of the network or even make it crash. In this paper, we present our studies on the DoS attacks and mitigation strategies for IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and describe some initial implementations using IEEE 802.11b/g wireless devices.

  5. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater. PMID:25374935

  6. Mitigating crosslinking reactions through preconversion strategies. Quarterly report Number 7, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to help develop preconversion techniques that will mitigate crosslinking reactions and thereby substantially increase liquid yields during subsequent liquefaction. The immediate objective is to determine the potential for augmenting pretreatment of low-rank coals through the use of electron-transfer agents. This potential will be explored in laboratory studies through determination of the impact on the evolution of oxygen functions, crosslinking, and conversion. The pretreatments explored include several that hold promise for effecting deoxygenation (or other reduction), for example, treatment with CO/water/base and hydroquinones or other electron-transfer agents in various combinations. The effects of these pretreatments on functional group distribution, macromolecular structure, and liquefaction are to be compared with those that have shown promise in the past for improved conversions, such as simple hydrothermal pretreatment, mild hydrogenation with dispersed catalysts, and demineralization. Additional objectives are to improve test procedures for assessing the effect of the pretreatment on subsequent liquefaction and achieve also some understanding of the chemical origins of the effects observed. These tests are: (1) proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) for determining the effect of pretreatment on fluidity as liquefaction conditions (temperature, pressure) are approached; and (2) a TGA-based simulated distillation for convenient measurement of product volatility following small scale batch liquefaction. Results are presented on the following: PMRTA analyses of pretreated coals; and Development of a TGA-based simulated distillation technique.

  7. Bloom Dynamics of Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins: Environmental Health Impacts and Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajesh P.; Madamwar, Datta; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically one of the most prolific groups of phototrophic prokaryotes in both marine and freshwater habitats. Both the beneficial and detrimental aspects of cyanobacteria are of considerable significance. They are important primary producers as well as an immense source of several secondary products, including an array of toxic compounds known as cyanotoxins. Abundant growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems due to increased anthropogenic eutrophication and global climate change has created serious concern toward harmful bloom formation and surface water contamination all over the world. Cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of several cyanotoxins in water bodies pose severe ecological consequences with high risk to aquatic organisms and global public health. The proper management for mitigating the worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is crucial for maintenance and sustainable development of functional ecosystems. Here, we emphasize the emerging information on the cyanobacterial bloom dynamics, toxicology of major groups of cyanotoxins, as well as a perspective and integrative approach to their management. PMID:26635737

  8. Evaluation of Surface Modification as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Misconin, Robert M.; Banks, Bruce A.; Crowder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Three surface treatments were evaluated for their ability to lower the adhesion between lunar simulant dust and AZ93, AlFEP, and AgFEP thermal control surfaces under simulated lunar conditions. Samples were dusted in situ and exposed to a standardized puff of nitrogen gas. Thermal performance before dusting, after dusting, and after part of the dust was removed by the puff of gas, were compared to perform the assessment. None of the surface treatments was found to significantly affect the adhesion of lunar simulants to AZ93 thermal control paint. Oxygen ion beam texturing also did not lower the adhesion of lunar simulant dust to AlFEP or AgFEP. But a workfunction matching coating and a proprietary Ball Aerospace surface treatment were both found to significantly lower the adhesion of lunar simulants to AlFEP and AgFEP. Based on these results, it is recommended that all these two techniques be further explored as dust mitigation coatings for AlFEP and AgFEP thermal control surfaces.

  9. Load Mitigation with Bending/Twist-coupled Blades on Rotors using Modern Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobitz, Don W.; Veers, Paul S.

    2003-04-01

    The prospect of installing blades that twist as they bend and/or extend on horizontal axis wind turbines provides opportunities for enhanced energy capture and/or load mitigation. Although this coupling could be achieved in either an active or a passive manner, the passive approach is much more attractive owing to its simplicity and economy. As an example, a blade design might employ coupling between bending and twisting, so that as the blade bends owing to the action of the aerodynamic loads, it also twists, modifying the aerodynamic performance in some way. For reducing loads the blades are designed to twist towards feather as they bend. For variable-speed pitch-controlled rotors, dynamic computer simulations with turbulent inflow show that twist coupling substantially decreases fatigue damage over all wind speeds, without reducing average power. Maximum loads also decrease modestly. For constant-speed stall-controlled and variable-speed stall-controlled rotors, significant decreases in fatigue damage are observed at the lower wind speeds and smaller decreases at the higher wind speeds. Maximum loads also decrease slightly. As a general observation, whenever a rotor is operating in the linear aerodynamic range (lower wind speeds for stall control and all wind speeds for pitch control), substantial reductions in fatigue damage are realized.

  10. Mitigating crosslinking reactions through preconversion strategies. Quarterly report Number 6, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to help develop preconversion techniques that will mitigate crosslinking reactions and thereby substantially increase liquid yields during subsequent liquefaction. The immediate objective is to determine the potential for augmenting pretreatment of low-rank coals through the use of electron-transfer agents. This potential will be explored in laboratory studies through determination of the impact on the evolution of oxygen functions, crosslinking, and conversion. The pretreatments explored include several that hold promise for effecting deoxygenation (or other reduction), for example, treatment with CO/water/base and hydroquinones or other electron-transfer agents in various combinations. The effects of these pretreatments on functional group distribution, macromolecular structure, and liquefaction are to be compared with those that have shown promise in the past for improved conversions, such as simple hydrothermal pretreatment, mild hydrogenation with dispersed catalysts, and demineralization. Additional objectives are to improve test procedures for assessing the effect of the pretreatment on subsequent liquefaction and achieve also some understanding of the chemical origins of the effects observed. These tests are: (1) proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) for determining the effect of pretreatment on fluidity as liquefaction conditions (temperature, pressure) are approached; and (2) a TGA-based simulated distillation for convenient measurement of product volatility following small scale batch liquefaction. Results are presented on the following: Pretreatment and liquefaction of Wyodak and Zap lignite coals; Evolution of oxygen functional groups; PMRTA analyses of pretreated coals; and Development of a TGA-based simulated distillation technique.

  11. Bloom Dynamics of Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins: Environmental Health Impacts and Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Madamwar, Datta; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically one of the most prolific groups of phototrophic prokaryotes in both marine and freshwater habitats. Both the beneficial and detrimental aspects of cyanobacteria are of considerable significance. They are important primary producers as well as an immense source of several secondary products, including an array of toxic compounds known as cyanotoxins. Abundant growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems due to increased anthropogenic eutrophication and global climate change has created serious concern toward harmful bloom formation and surface water contamination all over the world. Cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of several cyanotoxins in water bodies pose severe ecological consequences with high risk to aquatic organisms and global public health. The proper management for mitigating the worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is crucial for maintenance and sustainable development of functional ecosystems. Here, we emphasize the emerging information on the cyanobacterial bloom dynamics, toxicology of major groups of cyanotoxins, as well as a perspective and integrative approach to their management.

  12. Implementation of a Noise Mitigation Strategy for a High-Pressure Xenon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Allen; Milbrath, Brian D.; Pitts, W. K.; Smith, Leon E.

    2005-10-23

    High-pressure xenon (HPXe) detectors have historically been unable to achieve or even approach the theoretically predicted energy resolution, a phenomenon usually attributed to problems with microphonic, vibrational, or acoustic noise. All these noises are expected to have characteristic frequency signatures. We have determined the effects of external acoustic noise signals on the resolution of HPXe spectrometers and implemented a technique to reduce or eliminate the resolution loss caused by external acoustic noise in real time. Using a precision waveform generator as the driver on a 400-watt speaker, we determined the response of a commercial HPXe detector to a variety of constant frequency acoustic noise signals by performing a fast Fourier transform on a buffered detector output signal and noting distortions to the spectral response of the frequency domain. A data acquisition package was developed using the frequency response information to perform real time digital signal noise filtering on each gamma-ray pulse. With external acoustic noise, the measured resolution of HPXe gamma-ray energy spectra was degraded by a factor of 2 to 3. With the noise mitigating data acquisition package the spectroscopic resolution was restored to values comparable to the resolution measured under ideal (non-noisy) conditions.

  13. Phase defect mitigation strategy: fiducial mark requirements on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murachi, Tetsunori; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Oh, Sung Hyun

    2012-03-01

    For Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography (EUVL), fabrication of defect free multi-layered (ML) mask blanks is one of the difficult challenges. ML defects come from substrate defects and adders during ML coating, cannot be removed, and are called as phase defect. If we can accept ML blanks with certain number of phase defects, the blank yield will be drastically up. In order to use such blanks, the phase defects need to be identified and located during ML blank defect inspection before absorber patterning. To locate phase defects on the blanks accurately and precisely, Fiducial Marks (FM) on ML blanks are needed for mask alignment and defect location information. The proposed requirement of defect location accuracy is <=20 nm [1]. In this paper, we will present the result of feasibility study on the requirements of FM on EUVL mask by simulations & experiments to establish the phase defect mitigation method with EUV Actinic Blank Inspection (ABI) tool. And the optimum ranges of FM line width, depth, and fabrication method on EUVL mask based on above results are >= 5 um line width, >= 100 nm depth FM etched into ML respectively, and additional finer FMs for magnified optics.

  14. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  15. Impact of climate change on health and strategies for mitigation and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Deb, Alok K; Kanungo, Suman; Deb, Manjari; Nair, Gopinath B

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its negative impacts on health are now globally recognized. A wide variety of diseases and health conditions - ranging from heat and radiation-related illnesses to water and vector-borne diseases, under-nutrition, respiratory and cardiac problems, drowning, injuries and mental stress arising from extreme and sudden weather events and their resultant population displacements - all have been associated with various components of changing climate. However, the exact nature and extent of such impacts are yet to be firmly established since many other non-climate factors also produce or affect similar outcomes. This calls for more research specially from the underdeveloped countries, where such impacts are disproportionately more but reliable data are remarkably less. Recognizing the importance of human influences on global warming, almost all countries in the world have undertaken some kind of policies and measures to mitigate adverse climatic changes. Unfortunately, even without further addition of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in our climate, the amount of GHGs already released has the potential to continue the damages for many more decades to come. Thus, all countries should also place priorities in assessing their own vulnerabilities from climate change and take adaptive measures accordingly. As climate change exerts its impact simultaneously in many non-health sectors as well, this would require strong intersectoral cooperation at various levels.

  16. iRESM INITIATIVE UNDERSTANDING DECISION SUPPORT NEEDS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION --US Midwest Region—

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Jennie S.; Runci, Paul J.; Moss, Richard H.; Anderson, Kate L.

    2010-10-01

    The impacts of climate change are already affecting human and environmental systems worldwide, yet many uncertainties persist in the prediction of future climate changes and impacts due to limitations in scientific understanding of relevant causal factors. In particular, there is mounting urgency to efforts to improve models of human and environmental systems at the regional scale, and to integrate climate, ecosystem and energy-economic models to support policy, investment, and risk management decisions related to climate change mitigation (i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (i.e., responding to climate change impacts). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a modeling framework, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), to address regional human-environmental system interactions in response to climate change and the uncertainties therein. The framework will consist of a suite of integrated models representing regional climate change, regional climate policy, and the regional economy, with a focus on simulating the mitigation and adaptation decisions made over time in the energy, transportation, agriculture, and natural resource management sectors.

  17. 1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program—Landslide recognition, hazard assessment, and mitigation support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2017-01-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program conducts landslide hazard assessments, pursues landslide investigations and forecasts, provides technical assistance to respond to landslide emergencies, and engages in outreach. All of these activities benefit from the availability of high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) elevation information in the form of light detection and ranging (lidar) data and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data. Research on landslide processes addresses critical questions of where and when landslides are likely to occur as well as their size, speed, and effects. This understanding informs the development of methods and tools for hazard assessment and situational awareness used to guide efforts to avoid or mitigate landslide impacts. Such research is essential for the USGS to provide improved information on landslide potential associated with severe storms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, coastal wave erosion, and wildfire burn areas.Decisionmakers in government and the private sector increasingly depend on information the USGS provides before, during, and following disasters so that communities can live, work, travel, and build safely. The USGS 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply lidar-derived superior terrain data to address landslide applications and a wide range of other urgent needs nationwide. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  19. Dental opioid prescribing practices and risk mitigation strategy implementation: Identification of potential targets for provider-level intervention

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Leite, Renata S.; Melvin, Cathy L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the regular use of immediate release opioids for dental pain management, as well as documented opioid misuse among dental patients, the dental visit may provide a viable point of intervention to screen, identify, and educate patients regarding the risks associated with prescription opioid misuse and diversion. The aims of this statewide survey of dental practitioners were to assess: (a) awareness of the scope of prescription opioid misuse and diversion; (b) current opioid prescribing practices; (c) use of and opinions regarding risk mitigation strategies; and, (d) use and perceived utility of drug monitoring programs. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed dentists (N=87) participating in statewide professional and alumni organizations. Dentists were invited via email and listserv announcement to participate in a one-time, online, 59-item, self-administered survey. Results A majority of respondents reported prescribing opioids (n=66; 75.8%). A minority of respondents (n=38; 44%) reported regularly screening for current prescription drug abuse. Dentists reported low rates of requesting prior medical records (n=5; 5.8%). Only 38% (n=33) of respondents had ever accessed a prescription drug-monitoring program (PDMP), and only 4 (4.7%) consistently used a PDMP. Dentists reporting prior training in drug diversion were significantly more likely to have accessed their PDMP, p<0.01. Interest in continuing education regarding assessment of prescription drug abuse/diversion and use of drug monitoring programs was high. Conclusions Although most dentists received training related to prescribing opioids, findings identified a gap in existing dental training in the assessment/identification of prescription opioid misuse and diversion. Findings also identified gaps in the implementation of recommended risk mitigation strategies, including screening for prescription drug abuse, consistent provision of patient education, and use of a PDMP prior to prescribing

  20. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  1. Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability: Enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability are needed to reduce enterprise risk, increase resilience of rangeland/grassland ecosystems and deliver sustainable provision of ecosystem goods (e.g., livestock production) and services (e.g., wildlife habitat) from western North ...

  2. Global scale DAYCENT model analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies for cropped soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Stehfest, Elke; Heistemann, Maik; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically result in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly N 2O and CH 4) and more NO 3 leached below the root zone and into waterways. Agricultural soils are often a source but can also be a sink of CO 2. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions are usually obtained using IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. To more realistically represent GHG emissions we used the DAYCENT biogeochemical model for non-rice major crop types (corn, wheat, soybean). IPCC methodology estimates N losses from croplands based solely on N inputs. In contrast, DAYCENT accounts for soil class, daily weather, historical vegetation cover, and land management practices such as crop type, fertilizer additions, and cultivation events. Global datasets of weather, soils, native vegetation, and cropping fractions were mapped to a 1.9° × 1.9° resolution. Non-spatial data (e.g., rates and dates of fertilizer applications) were assumed to be identical within crop types across regions. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land management alternatives intended to mitigate GHG emissions. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were reduced by a similar proportion. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer applications both led to increased (~ 6%) crop yields but the inhibitor led to a larger reduction in N losses (~ 10%). No-till cultivation, which led to C storage, combined with nitrification inhibitors, resulted in reduced GHG emissions of ~ 50% and increased crop yields of ~ 7%.

  3. a Process-Based Drought Early Warning Indicator for Supporting State Drought Mitigation Decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Fernando, D. N.; Pu, B.

    2014-12-01

    Drought prone states such as Texas requires creditable and actionable drought early warning ranging from seasonal to multi-decadal scales. Such information cannot be simply extracted from the available climate prediction and projections because of their large uncertainties at regional scales and unclear connections to the needs of the decision makers. In particular, current dynamic seasonal predictions and climate projections, such as those produced by the NOAA national multi-models ensemble experiment (NMME) and the IPCC AR5 (CMIP5) models, are much more reliable for winter and spring than for the summer season for the US Southern Plains. They also show little connection between the droughts in winter/spring and those in summer, in contrast to the observed dry memory from spring to summer over that region. To mitigate the weakness of dynamic prediction/projections, we have identified three key processes behind the spring-to-summer dry memory through observational studies. Based on these key processes and related fields, we have developed a multivariate principle component statistical model to provide a probabilistic summer drought early warning indicator, using the observed or predicted climate conditions in winter and spring on seasonal scale and climate projection for the mid-21stcentury. The summer drought early warning indicator is constructed in a similar way to the NOAA probabilistic predictions that are familiar to water resource managers. The indicator skill is assessed using the standard NOAA climate prediction assessment tools, i.e., the two alternative forced choice (2AFC) and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC). Comparison with long-term observations suggest that this summer drought early warning indicator is able to capture nearly all the strong summer droughts and outperform the dynamic prediction in this regard over the US Southern Plains. This early warning indicator has been used by the state water agency in May 2014 in briefing the state

  4. Large-scale Individual-based Models of Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadau, Kai; Germann, Timothy; Longini, Ira; Macken, Catherine

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S. population of 281 million people, to assess the likely effectiveness of various potential intervention strategies including antiviral agents, vaccines, and modified social mobility (including school closure and travel restrictions) [1]. The heterogeneous population structure and mobility is based on available Census and Department of Transportation data where available. Our simulations demonstrate that, in a highly mobile population, restricting travel after an outbreak is detected is likely to delay slightly the time course of the outbreak without impacting the eventual number ill. For large basic reproductive numbers R0, we predict that multiple strategies in combination (involving both social and medical interventions) will be required to achieve a substantial reduction in illness rates. [1] T. C. Germann, K. Kadau, I. M. Longini, and C. A. Macken, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 5935-5940 (2006).

  5. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-11-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  6. Effectiveness of Internal vs. External SEU Scrubbing Mitigation Strategies in a Xilinx FPGA: Design, Test, and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Poivey C.; Petrick, D.; Espinosa, D.; Lesea, Austin; LaBel, K. A.; Friendlich, M; Kim, H; Phan, A.

    2008-01-01

    We compare two scrubbing mitigation schemes for Xilinx FPGA devices. The design of the scrubbers is briefly discussed along with an examination of mitigation limitations. Proton and Heavy Ion data are then presented and analyzed.

  7. Control strategy optimization for attainment and exposure mitigation: case study for ozone in Macon, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Daniel S; Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G

    2006-09-01

    Implementation of more stringent 8-hour ozone standards has led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to designate nonattainment status to 474 counties nationwide, many of which had never previously violated air quality standards. As states select emission control measures to achieve attainment in these regions, their choices pose significant implications to local economies and the health of their citizens. Considering a case study of one such nonattainment region, Macon, Georgia, we develop a menu of potential controls that could be implemented locally or in neighboring parts of the state. The control menu offers the potential to control about 20-35% of ozone precursor emissions in most Georgia regions, but marginal costs increase rapidly beyond 15-20%. We link high-order ozone sensitivities with the control menu to identify cost-optimized strategies for achieving attainment and for alternative goals such as reducing spatially averaged or population-weighted ozone concentrations. Strategies targeted toward attainment of Macon ozone would prioritize local reductions of nitrogen oxides, whereas controls in the more densely populated Atlanta region are shown to be more effective for reducing statewide potential population exposure to ozone. A U.S. EPA-sanctioned approach for demonstrating ozone attainment with photochemical models is shown to be highly dependent on the choice of a baseline period and may not foster optimal strategies for assuring attainment and protecting human health.

  8. An alternate diafiltration strategy to mitigate protein precipitation for low solubility proteins.

    PubMed

    Gefroh, Eva; Lutz, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Application of the minimum diafiltration (DF) time solution for a monoclonal antibody resulted in a 20-h process time rather than the expected 12 h. Further investigation indicated high turbidity associated with a product solubility issue that caused a flux decline. As a result, the gel flux model and the associated minimum DF time were not predictive. Multiwell plate solubility screening confirmed that the protein passed through a region of low solubility during the ultrafiltration step. Multiple approaches to address this issue were considered and a new strategy involving variable volume diafiltration (VVDF) was developed. Process modeling and simulation were used to predict performance and to select a value of the DF ratio control parameter (buffer flow/permeate flow = 0.65). Feasibility testing at the bench and pilot scales confirmed that the new strategy reduced solubility issues, fit within existing manufacturing tank volume and system area constraints, matched model predictions, and did not present significant implementation issues. Recommendations are made regarding the general value of this strategy, when it should be used, and how to implement it. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    PubMed Central

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305

  10. Predicting the extinction of Ebola spreading in Liberia due to mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, L. D.; Aragão Rêgo, H. H.; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The Ebola virus is spreading throughout West Africa and is causing thousands of deaths. In order to quantify the effectiveness of different strategies for controlling the spread, we develop a mathematical model in which the propagation of the Ebola virus through Liberia is caused by travel between counties. For the initial months in which the Ebola virus spreads, we find that the arrival times of the disease into the counties predicted by our model are compatible with World Health Organization data, but we also find that reducing mobility is insufficient to contain the epidemic because it delays the arrival of Ebola virus in each county by only a few weeks. We study the effect of a strategy in which safe burials are increased and effective hospitalisation instituted under two scenarios: (i) one implemented in mid-July 2014 and (ii) one in mid-August—which was the actual time that strong interventions began in Liberia. We find that if scenario (i) had been pursued the lifetime of the epidemic would have been three months shorter and the total number of infected individuals 80% less than in scenario (ii). Our projection under scenario (ii) is that the spreading will stop by mid-spring 2015.

  11. Predicting the extinction of Ebola spreading in Liberia due to mitigation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, L. D.; Aragão Rêgo, H. H.; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus is spreading throughout West Africa and is causing thousands of deaths. In order to quantify the effectiveness of different strategies for controlling the spread, we develop a mathematical model in which the propagation of the Ebola virus through Liberia is caused by travel between counties. For the initial months in which the Ebola virus spreads, we find that the arrival times of the disease into the counties predicted by our model are compatible with World Health Organization data, but we also find that reducing mobility is insufficient to contain the epidemic because it delays the arrival of Ebola virus in each county by only a few weeks. We study the effect of a strategy in which safe burials are increased and effective hospitalisation instituted under two scenarios: (i) one implemented in mid-July 2014 and (ii) one in mid-August—which was the actual time that strong interventions began in Liberia. We find that if scenario (i) had been pursued the lifetime of the epidemic would have been three months shorter and the total number of infected individuals 80% less than in scenario (ii). Our projection under scenario (ii) is that the spreading will stop by mid-spring 2015. PMID:26190582

  12. Decision Making Support System (DMSS) For Water Resources And Flood Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaiful Ridwan Radzi, Mohd

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a significant issue in low-lying parts of the catchment in Malaysia, leading to flood damage & disruption in major storm events. Recognising the potential to reduce damage, the decision making support system (DMSS) has been developed to optimise the operation of the water resources assets to both maximise the effectiveness of flood control & maximize the availability of water for public supply & irrigation demand under drought conditions. DMSS functions as to reduce human error during critical times. The tools optimized rules for barrage, sluice gates, pumping station & dams. Its provide priority for flood zone protection & fuzzy logic supervisory control for all equipment.

  13. A Deterministic Model to Quantify Risk and Guide Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Bluetongue Virus Transmission in California Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Christie; Shelley, Courtney; MacLachlan, N. James; Gardner, Ian; Hartley, David; Barker, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV) has been changing recently, perhaps as a result of climate change. To evaluate the risk of BTV infection and transmission in a BTV-endemic region of California, sentinel dairy cows were evaluated for BTV infection, and populations of Culicoides vectors were collected at different sites using carbon dioxide. A deterministic model was developed to quantify risk and guide future mitigation strategies to reduce BTV infection in California dairy cattle. The greatest risk of BTV transmission was predicted within the warm Central Valley of California that contains the highest density of dairy cattle in the United States. Temperature and parameters associated with Culicoides vectors (transmission probabilities, carrying capacity, and survivorship) had the greatest effect on BTV’s basic reproduction number, R0. Based on these analyses, optimal control strategies for reducing BTV infection risk in dairy cattle will be highly reliant upon early efforts to reduce vector abundance during the months prior to peak transmission. PMID:27812161

  14. Deliberating A Contract Type Based Risk Mitigation Strategy For South African Defense Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    committed to these programs within the specified period. The report further stated that the SA DOD has acknowledged to the Minister of Defence that...supports the PPPFA and agency specific regulations is called Public Financial Management Act (PFMA) (Public Finance Management Act No. 1 of 1999...criteria to offer selection. The department of finance provided an oversight to this requirement. The expected final delivery of Gripens was in 2011

  15. Disease burden estimation to support policy decision-making and research prioritization for arsenic mitigation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Guy; Ahmed, M Feroze; Teunis, Peter; Mahmud, Shamsul Gaifur; Davison, Annette; Deere, Dan

    2007-03-01

    The main response to arsenic contamination of shallow tubewells in Bangladesh is the provision of alternative water supplies. To support decision-making in relation to alternative water supply selection, the Arsenic Policy Support Unit commissioned the development of a tool for estimating disease burdens for specific options using disability-adjusted life years as the metric. This paper describes the assumptions in dose-responses, relationships between microbial indicators and pathogens, water consumed and population characteristics used, and presents a case study of how the tool was applied. Water quality data and dose-response models were used to predict disease burdens due to microbial pathogens and arsenic. Disease burden estimates predicted by the tool were based on evidence in the published literature. There were uncertainties in key assumptions of water consumed and the ratio of microbial indicators and pathogens, which led to broad confidence intervals and the need to consider the results in a wider context and further research needs. Deep tubewells and rainwater harvesting had the lowest disease burden estimates, while pond sand filters and dug wells had much higher predicted disease burden due to frequent microbial contamination. The need for rigorous water supply protection through water safety plans was highlighted. At present, the risk assessment is useful for informing judgement by experienced water and health professionals and identifying key research questions. Improved arsenic dose-response models and a better understanding of the relationship between microbial indicators and pathogens in tropical settings are required.

  16. School closure as an influenza mitigation strategy: how variations in legal authority and plan criteria can alter the impact

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background States’ pandemic influenza plans and school closure statutes are intended to guide state and local officials, but most faced a great deal of uncertainty during the 2009 influenza H1N1 epidemic. Questions remained about whether, when, and for how long to close schools and about which agencies and officials had legal authority over school closures. Methods This study began with analysis of states’ school-closure statutes and pandemic influenza plans to identify the variations among them. An agent-based model of one state was used to represent as constants a population’s demographics, commuting patterns, work and school attendance, and community mixing patterns while repeated simulations explored the effects of variations in school closure authority, duration, closure thresholds, and reopening criteria. Results The results show no basis on which to justify statewide rather than school-specific or community-specific authority for school closures. Nor do these simulations offer evidence to require school closures promptly at the earliest stage of an epidemic. More important are criteria based on monitoring of local case incidence and on authority to sustain closure periods sufficiently to achieve epidemic mitigation. Conclusions This agent-based simulation suggests several ways to improve statutes and influenza plans. First, school closure should remain available to state and local authorities as an influenza mitigation strategy. Second, influenza plans need not necessarily specify the threshold for school closures but should clearly define provisions for early and ongoing local monitoring. Finally, school closure authority may be exercised at the statewide or local level, so long as decisions are informed by monitoring incidence in local communities and schools. PMID:23148556

  17. FINAL REPORT on Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Hee C. NO; Nam Z. Cho

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Generation IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification & validation are of very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air ingress will occur through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. This study indicates that depending on the location and the size of the pipe break, the air ingress phenomena are different. In an effort to estimate the proper safety margin, experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model are required. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation, eventually. This 3-year project (FY 2008–FY 2010) is focused on various issues related to the VHTR air-ingress accident, including (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) structural tests of the oxidized core bottom structures, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.

  18. Supporting novice clinicians cognitive strategies: System design perspective

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Roosan; Mayer, Jeanmarie; Clutter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Infections occur among all clinical domains. The changing nature of microbes, viruses and infections poses a great threat to the overall well-being in medicine. Clinicians in the infectious disease (ID) domain deal with diagnostic as well as treatment uncertainty in their everyday practice. Our current health information technology (HIT) systems do not consider the level of clinician expertise into the system design process. Thus, information is presented to both novice and expert ID clinicians in identical ways. The purpose of this study was to identify the cognitive strategies novice ID clinicians use in managing complex cases to make better recommendations for system design. In the process, we interviewed 14 ID experts and asked them to give us a detailed description of how novice clinicians would have dealt with complex cases. From the interview transcripts, we identified four major themes that expert clinicians suggested about novices’ cognitive strategies including: A) dealing with uncertainty, B) lack of higher macrocognition, C) oversimplification of problems through heuristics and D) dealing with peer pressure. Current and future innovative decision support tools embedded in the electronic health record that can match these cognitive strategies may hold the key to cognitively supporting novice clinicians. The results of this study may open up avenues for future research and suggest design directions for better healthcare systems. PMID:27275020

  19. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture is extremely important to Sinaloa contributing 32.31% of the value of all national agricultural production, while the state occupies only 2.9% of the Mexico's area. However it has caused an imbalance in nature due to the low efficiency of irrigation being 49% and using 93% of the surface waters of the region, hence the importance of promoting water awareness. The Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa (PLECASIN) 2013- 2015 is a product of the workshop held with water advisers representing 14 utilities, and sponsored by CEAPAS and CONAGUA to address water resources issues in the state, low dam levels and the high level of non-payment, through involving society in the management of water resources. The workshop established strategies to achieve the objective of the National Water Awareness Program (PCA): "Contribute to strengthening the participation of users, organized society and citizens in water management and promote the culture of its good use, through consultation and promotion of cultural and educational activities in coordination with the states, to promote the importance of water resources in social welfare, economic development and the preservation of the ecological wealth, to achieve development sustainable of the nation". PLECASIN was developed using the methodology of strategic planning, beginning with a diagnosis of PCA and the development of strategies pertinent to the current environment in Sinaloa. Activities in the workshop included: defining the vision, mission and objectives, stakeholder analysis, SWOT Matrix, and finally the development of the Logical Framework Analysis Matrix. In addition, the workshop applied the PEEAES tools, using primarily the book of the 5 Waters and application of innovative technologies. The Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa designed and implemented an Environmental Education Strategy (PEEAES) to foster an environmental awareness through non-formal educational process and includes: a mobile environmental

  20. Literature review and risk mitigation strategy for unintended consequences of computerized physician order entry.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) is a form of patient management health technology software used for providers to enter medical orders into a computer system. CPOE is a health care solution used to improve patient safety and quality of care, decrease costs, and reduce the risk of medical errors. However, there are unintended consequences to electronic health records that can actually cause an increase in medical errors. Two areas of concern that risk management practitioners need to monitor and analyze are the effects of CPOE on nurse-physician communication and operational workflows. A strategic proactive plan will reduce the likelihood of adverse events, specifically medication errors. Providers and nurses will require focused education on effective communication strategies and leadership will need to promote a culture of safety.

  1. Forest Conversion: Impact on Total Greenhouse Gas Balance and Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papen, H.; Brueggemann, N.; Gasche, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2006-12-01

    At present, large efforts are undertaken in wide parts of Germany and Europe to create the scientific and socio-economic data basis that can be used by political decision makers and foresters for developing and implementing a future-oriented forestry allowing a sustainable use of forests under changing environmental conditions (e.g. climate change and increasing N-deposition). Different forest management strategies are available to initiate forest conversion, in particular "clear-cutting" and "selective cutting". Although these forest conversion strategies are widely used, little information is available about their individual effects on the biosphere-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange and on the total greenhouse gas balance (CO2 + N2O + CH4) of the system. The results obtained from continuous long-term measurements (1999-2005) of N2O and CH4 fluxes from the soil of different experimental sites (untreated spruce control site, selective-cutting site, clear-cut site) at the Höglwald Forest, Bavaria, Germany show that conversion of N-affected forest plantations by clear-cutting leads to an enormous release of N2O from the soil into the atmosphere, not only during the first year after treatment, but for several consecutive years, and simultaneously to a marked reduction in the uptake capacity of the soil for CH4. Although selective cutting also enhances the source strength for N2O and reduces the CH4 sink strength, respectively, the effects are by far less pronounced as compared to clear-cutting. Establishing the total greenhouse gas balance (CH4, N2O, CO2) for a forest rotation time of 80 years by considering the huge differences in global warming potentials of these greenhouse gases revealed that the enhanced N2O emissions and reduced CH4 deposition rates due to different forest conversion practices can compensate CO2 sequestration benefits to a significant extent.

  2. A Systematic Review of Biochar Research, with a Focus on Its Stability in situ and Its Promise as a Climate Mitigation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Gurwick, Noel P.; Moore, Lisa A.; Kelly, Charlene; Elias, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Claims about the environmental benefits of charring biomass and applying the resulting “biochar” to soil are impressive. If true, they could influence land management worldwide. Alleged benefits include increased crop yields, soil fertility, and water-holding capacity; the most widely discussed idea is that applying biochar to soil will mitigate climate change. This claim rests on the assumption that biochar persists for hundreds or thousands of years, thus storing carbon that would otherwise decompose. We conducted a systematic review to quantify research effort directed toward ten aspects of biochar and closely evaluated the literature concerning biochar's stability. Findings We identified 311 peer-reviewed research articles published through 2011. We found very few field studies that addressed biochar's influence on several ecosystem processes: one on soil nutrient loss, one on soil contaminants, six concerning non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes (some of which fail to support claims that biochar decreases non-CO2 GHG fluxes), and 16–19 on plants and soil properties. Of 74 studies related to biochar stability, transport or fate in soil, only seven estimated biochar decomposition rates in situ, with mean residence times ranging from 8 to almost 4,000 years. Conclusions Our review shows there are not enough data to draw conclusions about how biochar production and application affect whole-system GHG budgets. Wide-ranging estimates of a key variable, biochar stability in situ, likely result from diverse environmental conditions, feedstocks, and study designs. There are even fewer data about the extent to which biochar stimulates decomposition of soil organic matter or affects non-CO2 GHG emissions. Identifying conditions where biochar amendments yield favorable GHG budgets requires a systematic field research program. Finally, evaluating biochar's suitability as a climate mitigation strategy requires comparing its effects with alternative uses of

  3. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types was used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climat...

  4. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types were used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The Thorn...

  5. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types was used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climat...

  6. LAND USE AS A MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS ON TWO WATERSHEDS IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study uses an integrative approach to study the water quality impacts of future global climate and land use changes. In this study, changing land use types were used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The Thorn...

  7. Physiological Implications, Performance Assessment and Risk Mitigation Strategies of Women in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    PubMed

    Greeves, Julie P

    2015-11-01

    Women have historically featured in military conflicts, but were not formally integrated into the military until the 20th century; occupations were mainly restricted to clerical or support roles. An increasing number of occupations have been opened to women and the higher physical demands of combat roles present new challenges. Inherent biological differences between sexes require women to work harder when undertaking the same tasks as men. This is reflected, in part, by the greater risk of musculoskeletal injuries of women observed notably during integrated military training. Gender "neutral" occupational standards, based on the physical requirements of the role, will ensure that women are suitably selected to cope with the demands of military tasks with a minimal risk of injury and to operational effectiveness. Initiatives such as reduced running mileage and single-sex training have contributed to a reduction in lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries, but the risk of injury remains higher in women. Nevertheless, women experience substantial gains in aerobic power and strength with appropriate and targeted training, narrowing the gap in physical performance between the sexes. Evidence-based occupational standards and optimal training programs provide short-term solutions for integrating women in support combat, and indeed direct combat roles.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Decision Support Strategies in Acute Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Kern, Melissa S; Smith, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    A recent clinical trial suggests that printed (PDS) and computer decision support (CDS) interventions are safe and effective in reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis relative to usual care (UC). Our aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of decision support interventions in reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis. We conducted a clinical trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing UC, PDS and CDS for management of acute bronchitis. We assumed a societal perspective, 5-year program duration and 30-day time horizon. The U.S. population aged 13-64 years presenting with acute bronchitis in the ambulatory setting. Printed and computer decision support interventions relative to usual care. Cost per antibiotic prescription safely avoided. In the base case, PDS dominated UC and CDS, with lesser total costs (PDS: $2,574, UC: $2,768, CDS: $2,805) and fewer antibiotic prescriptions (PDS: 3.79, UC: 4.60, CDS: 3.95) per patient over 5 years. In one-way sensitivity analyses, PDS dominated UC across all parameter values, except when antibiotics reduced work loss by ≥ 1.9 days or the probability of hospitalization within 30 days was ≥ 0.9 % in PDS (base case: 0.2 %) or ≤ 0.4 % in UC (base case: 1.0 %). The dominance of PDS over CDS was sensitive both to probability of hospitalization and plausible variation in the adjusted odds of antibiotic use in both strategies. A PDS strategy to reduce antibiotic use in acute bronchitis is less costly and more effective than both UC and CDS strategies, although results were sensitive to variation in probability of hospitalization and the adjusted odds of antibiotic use. This simple, low-cost, safe, and effective intervention would be an economically reasonable component of a multi-component approach to address antibiotic overuse in acute bronchitis.

  9. Impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies on the aerosol direct radiative forcing over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péré, J. C.; Colette, A.; Dubuisson, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Mallet, M.; Pont, V.

    2012-12-01

    Projections of aerosol emissions for 2030 have been recently generated and implemented in a comprehensive chemistry-transport model to analyse the future evolution of the aerosol radiative forcing over Europe. In this study, numerical developments based on an off-line coupling between the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE (extended by an aerosol optical module) and the radiative transfer code GAME have been implemented in order to simulate the interaction of physico-chemically resolved aerosols with radiation at regional scale. This novel approach is used to examine the shortwave aerosol direct radiative forcing response to two air pollution reduction scenarios for 2030 over Europe. Our study suggests that measures introduced to improve future air quality could have large implication on the aerosol climate forcing over Europe. Results of simulations indicate that abatement of aerosols in the near future could lead to a decrease of the aerosol cooling effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere over the main anthropogenic emission regions. Especially over the Moscow region, different strategies of reduction for scattering sulphate and absorbing black carbon aerosols between the two scenarios could result, however, in either a reduction or an enhancement in atmospheric radiative forcing.

  10. Improved Control Strategy for Subsynchronous Resonance Mitigation with Fractional-order PI Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, D. Koteswara; Umre, Bhimrao S.; Junghare, A. S.; Chitti Babu, B.

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores a robust Fractional-order PI (FOPI) controller to diminish Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) using Static Synchronous series compensator (SSSC). The diminution of SSR is accomplished by increasing the network damping with the injection of voltage of subsynchronous component into the line at those frequencies which are proximate to the torsional mode frequency of the turbine-generator shaft. The voltage of subsynchronous frequency component is extracted from the transmission line and further the similar quantity of series voltage is injected by SSSC into the line to make the current of subsynchronous frequency component to zero which is the major source of oscillations in the turbine-generator shaft. The insertion and fine tuning of Fractional-order PI controller in the control scheme of SSSC the subsynchronous oscillations are reduced to 4 % as compared to conventional PI controller. The studied system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB-Simulink and the results are analysed to show the precision and robustness of the proposed control strategy.

  11. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  12. Occurrence, toxicity, bioaccessibility and mitigation strategies of beauvericin, a minor Fusarium mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Luz, C; Saladino, F; Luciano, F B; Mañes, J; Meca, G

    2017-09-01

    Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins include the toxic secondary metabolites fusaproliferin, enniatins, beauvericin (BEA), and moniliform. BEA is produced by some entomo- and phytopathogenic Fusarium species and occurs naturally on corn and corn-based foods and feeds infected by Fusarium spp. BEA has shown various biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal) and possesses toxic activity, including the induction of apoptosis, increase cytoplasmic calcium concentration and lead to DNA fragmentation in mammalian cell lines. Cereals food processing has an important effect on mycotoxin stability, leading to less-contaminated food compared to the raw materials. Different industrial processes have shown to be effective practices to reduce BEA contents due to thermal food processing applied, such as cooking, boiling, baking, frying, roasting and pasteurization. Some studies demonstrated the capacity of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the presence of the BEA in model solution and in food chain through fermentation processes, modifying this mycotoxin in a less toxic derivate. Prebiotic and probiotic ingredient can modulate the bioaccessibility of BEA reducing the risk of intake of this minor Fusarium mycotoxin. This review summarizes the existing data on occurrence, toxicity and especially on BEA reduction strategies in food and feed such as chemical reduction, biocontrol and food processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  14. Health system strategies supporting transition to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Hepburn, Charlotte Moore; Cohen, Eyal; Bhawra, Jasmin; Weiser, Natalie; Hayeems, Robin Z; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition from paediatric to adult care is associated with poor clinical outcomes, increased costs and low patient and family satisfaction. However, little is known about health system strategies to streamline and safeguard care for youth transitioning to adult services. Moreover, the needs of children and youth are often excluded from broader health system reform discussions, leaving this population especially vulnerable to system ‘disintegration’. Objectives (1) To explore the international policy profile of paediatric-to-adult care transitions, and (2) to document policy objectives, initiatives and outcomes for jurisdictions publicly committed to addressing transition issues. Methods An international policy scoping review of all publicly available government documents detailing transition-related strategies was completed using a web-based search. Our analysis included a comparable cohort of nine wealthy Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) jurisdictions with Beveridge-style healthcare systems (deemed those most likely to benefit from system-level transition strategies). Results Few jurisdictions address transition of care issues in either health or broader social policy documents. While many jurisdictions refer to standardised practice guidelines, a few report the intention to use powerful policy levers (including physician remuneration and non-physician investments) to facilitate the uptake of best practice. Most jurisdictions do not address the policy infrastructure required to support successful transitions, and rigorous evaluations of transition strategies are rare. Conclusions Despite the well-documented risks and costs associated with a poor transition from paediatric to adult care, little policy attention has been paid to this issue. We recommend that healthcare providers engage health system planners in the design and evaluation of system-level, policy-sensitive transition strategies. PMID:25688098

  15. Strategies for organizational change from group homes to individualized supports.

    PubMed

    Walker, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to transform. Although the approach taken by each organization was unique, there were also some common strategies, which included generating commitment to common values and mission, a turn or return to authentic person-centered planning, shifting power and control, using community supports and relationships, moving away from facility-based settings, and nurturing staff engagement. Ultimately, organizational change is an ongoing process that requires organizational perseverance and commitment.

  16. Writing for publication: pressures, barriers and support strategies.

    PubMed

    Keen, Adam

    2007-07-01

    This paper details the increasing pressure that exists on academic and clinical staff to publish in the context of personal and professional development. Numerous barriers to writing for publication are considered along with suggested strategies for encouraging staff to work towards publication. Although the paper identifies a wealth of literature describing how to go about writing for publication, it is argued that this is of limited use in the support of individual authors, and that most authors learn academic writing skills through a process of trial and error. The paper is intended to encourage those wanting to write for publication, whilst trying to persuade those with influence on developing academic writing to think more broadly in regards to the support provided and need for research.

  17. Mediation of adoption and use: a key strategy for mitigating unintended consequences of health IT implementation.

    PubMed

    Novak, Laurie L; Anders, Shilo; Gadd, Cynthia S; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Without careful attention to the work of users, implementation of health IT can produce new risks and inefficiencies in care. This paper uses the technology use mediation framework to examine the work of a group of nurses who serve as mediators of the adoption and use of a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system in an inpatient setting. The study uses ethnographic methods to explore the mediators' work. Data included field notes from observations, documents, and email communications. This variety of sources enabled triangulation of findings between activities observed, discussed in meetings, and reported in emails. Mediation work integrated the BCMA tool with nursing practice, anticipating and solving implementation problems. Three themes of mediation work include: resolving challenges related to coordination, integrating the physical aspects of BCMA into everyday practice, and advocacy work. Previous work suggests the following factors impact mediation effectiveness: proximity to the context of use, understanding of users' practices and norms, credibility with users, and knowledge of the technology and users' technical abilities. We describe three additional factors observed in this case: 'influence on system developers,' 'influence on institutional authorities,' and 'understanding the network of organizational relationships that shape the users' work.' Institutionally supported clinicians who facilitate adoption and use of health IT systems can improve the safety and effectiveness of implementation through the management of unintended consequences. Additional research on technology use mediation can advance the science of implementation by providing decision-makers with theoretically durable, empirically grounded evidence for designing implementations.

  18. Mentoring K scholars: strategies to support research mentors.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Ellen L; Schiro, Stephanie; Fleming, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present strategies utilized to support K scholar research mentors. K scholars are generally assistant professors who are close to developing independent research programs. Of all the various types of mentees, K scholars offer the greatest challenges, as well as the greatest rewards, for research mentors. To see one's mentee achieve independent PI status and become an established investigator is one of the great joys of being a research mentor. Research mentors for K scholars, however, may not directly benefit from their mentoring relationship, neither in terms of obtaining data to support their research program or laboratory, nor in assistance with grants or scientific papers. There is a pressing need for the research community to address the workload, institutional expectations, and reward system for research mentors. The dearth of research mentors and role models in clinical translational science parallels the decreasing number of physicians choosing careers in clinical research. While there is limited empirical information on the effectiveness of mentor support mechanisms, this white paper concludes that providing mentor support is critical to expanding the available pool of mentors, as well as providing training opportunities for K scholars. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mechanically-biologically treated municipal solid waste as a support medium for microbial methane oxidation to mitigate landfill greenhouse emissions.

    PubMed

    Einola, Juha-Kalle M; Karhu, A Elina; Rintala, Jukka A

    2008-01-01

    The residual fraction of mechanically-biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT residual) was studied in the laboratory to evaluate its suitability and environmental compatibility as a support medium in methane (CH(4)) oxidative biocovers for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Two MBT residuals with 5 and 12 months total (aerobic) biological stabilisation times were used in the study. MBT residual appeared to be a favourable medium for CH(4) oxidation as indicated by its area-based CH(4) oxidation rates (12.2-82.3 g CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) at 2-25 degrees C; determined in CH(4)-sparged columns). The CH(4) oxidation potential (determined in batch assays) of the MBT residuals increased during the 124 d column experiment, from <1.6 to a maximum of 104 microg CH(4) g(dw)(-1) h(-1) (dw=dry weight) at 5 degrees C and 578 microg CH(4) g(dw)(-1) h(-1) at 23 degrees C. Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production in MBT residual (<15 microg N(2)O kg(dw)(-1) d(-1) in the CH(4) oxidative columns) was at the lower end of the range of N(2)O emissions reported for landfills and non-landfill soils, and insignificant as a greenhouse gas source. Also, anaerobic gas production (25.6 l kg(dw)(-1) during 217 d) in batch assays was low, indicating biological stability of the MBT residual. The electrical conductivities (140-250 mS m(-1)), as well as the concentrations of zinc (3.0 mg l(-1)), copper (0.5 mg l(-1)), arsenic (0.3 mg l(-1)), nickel (0.1 mg l(-1)) and lead (0.1 mg l(-1)) in MBT residual eluates from a leaching test (EN-12457-4) with a liquid/solid (L/S) ratio of 10:1, suggest a potential for leachate pollutant emissions which should be considered in plans to utilise MBT residual. In conclusion, the laboratory experiments suggest that MBT residual can be utilised as a support medium for CH(4) oxidation, even at low temperatures, to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from landfills.

  20. Mediation of adoption and use: a key strategy for mitigating unintended consequences of health IT implementation

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Shilo; Gadd, Cynthia S; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Objective Without careful attention to the work of users, implementation of health IT can produce new risks and inefficiencies in care. This paper uses the technology use mediation framework to examine the work of a group of nurses who serve as mediators of the adoption and use of a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system in an inpatient setting. Materials and methods The study uses ethnographic methods to explore the mediators' work. Data included field notes from observations, documents, and email communications. This variety of sources enabled triangulation of findings between activities observed, discussed in meetings, and reported in emails. Results Mediation work integrated the BCMA tool with nursing practice, anticipating and solving implementation problems. Three themes of mediation work include: resolving challenges related to coordination, integrating the physical aspects of BCMA into everyday practice, and advocacy work. Discussion Previous work suggests the following factors impact mediation effectiveness: proximity to the context of use, understanding of users' practices and norms, credibility with users, and knowledge of the technology and users' technical abilities. We describe three additional factors observed in this case: ‘influence on system developers,’ ‘influence on institutional authorities,’ and ‘understanding the network of organizational relationships that shape the users' work.’ Conclusion Institutionally supported clinicians who facilitate adoption and use of health IT systems can improve the safety and effectiveness of implementation through the management of unintended consequences. Additional research on technology use mediation can advance the science of implementation by providing decision-makers with theoretically durable, empirically grounded evidence for designing implementations. PMID:22634157

  1. Effectiveness of coral relocation as a mitigation strategy in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ku'ulei S; Lorance, Koi; Richards Donà, Angela; Stender, Yuko; Lager, Claire; Jokiel, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef restoration and management techniques are in ever-increasing demand due to the global decline of coral reefs in the last several decades. Coral relocation has been established as an appropriate restoration technique in select cases, particularly where corals are scheduled for destruction. However, continued long-term monitoring of recovery of transplanted corals is seldom sustained. Removal of coral from a navigation channel and relocation to a similar nearby dredged site occurred in 2005. Coral recovery at the donor site and changes in fish populations at the receiving site were tracked periodically over the following decade. Coral regrowth at the donor site was rapid until a recent bleaching event reduced coral cover by more than half. The transplant of mature colonies increased spatial complexity at the receiving site, immediately increasing fish biomass, abundance, and species that was maintained throughout subsequent surveys. Our research indicates that unlike the majority of historical accounts of coral relocation in the Pacific, corals transplanted into wave-protected areas with similar conditions as the original site can have high survival rates. Data on long-term monitoring of coral transplants in diverse environments is central in developing management and mitigation strategies.

  2. Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination with sodium dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele S; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C

    2010-07-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6-888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines.

  3. Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Mitigation Strategies of Cognitive Deficits in Aging with HIV: Implications for Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has given the chance to those living with HIV to keep on living, allowing them the opportunity to age and perhaps age successfully. Yet, there are severe challenges to successful aging with HIV, one of which is cognitive deficits. Nearly half of those with HIV experience cognitive deficits that can interfere with everyday functioning, medical decision making, and quality of life. Given that cognitive deficits develop with more frequency and intensity with increasing age, concerns mount that as people age with HIV, they may experience more severe cognitive deficits. These concerns become especially germane given that by 2015, 50% of those with HIV will be 50 and older, and this older cohort of adults is expected to grow. As such, this paper focuses on the etiologies of such cognitive deficits within the context of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. From this, evidence-based and hypothetical prevention (i.e., cognitive prescriptions), rehabilitation (i.e., speed of processing training), and mitigation (i.e., spaced retrieval method) strategies are reviewed. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:23431469

  4. Disinfection By-Product Formation and Mitigation Strategies in Point-of-Use Chlorination with Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lantagne, Daniele S.; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C.

    2010-01-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6–888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines. PMID:20595492

  5. Are risk evaluation and mitigation strategies associated with less off-label use of medications? The case of immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Sarpatwari, A; Franklin, J M; Avorn, J; Seeger, J D; Landon, J E; Kesselheim, A S

    2015-02-01

    Using data from a large commercial health insurer, we studied prescribing of romiplostim (Nplate) and eltrombopag (Promacta), two drugs for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) for which risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) with elements to assure safe use were initially imposed and then removed. We identified 103 and 117 new users of romiplostim and eltrombopag, respectively. Use was almost exclusively for FDA-approved indications ("on-label") while the REMS with elements to assure safe use were in place. After these elements were lifted, off-label use of eltrombopag among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a subsequently approved indication, increased. The ratio of incidence rate ratios of off-label/HCV to on-label initiation of eltrombopag between the two time periods was significant (13.41; P < 0.001). Our finding of an association with reduced off-label prescribing suggests that REMS with elements to assure safe use can help promote patient safety but may also prevent promising off-label drug uses. © 2014 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of the cost-effectiveness and suitability of mitigation strategies to prevent phosphorus loss from dairy farms in New Zealand and Australia.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Richard W; Nash, David

    2012-01-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) from land to water is detrimental to surface water quality in many parts of New Zealand and Australia. Farming, especially pasture-based dairying, can be a source of P loss, but preventing it requires a range of fully costed strategies because little or no subsidies are available and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies varies with different farm management systems, topography, stream density, and climate. This paper reviews the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies for New Zealand and Australian dairy farms, grouping strategies into (i) management (e.g., decreasing soil test P, fencing streams off from stock, or applying low-water-soluble P fertilizers), (ii) amendments (e.g., alum or red mud [Bauxite residue]), and (iii) edge-of-field mitigations (e.g., natural or constructed wetlands). In general, on-farm management strategies were the most cost-effective way of mitigating P exports (cost range, $0 to $200 per kg P conserved). Amendments, added to tile drains or directly to surface soil, were often constrained by supply or were labor intensive. Of the amendments examined, red mud was cost effective where cost was offset by improved soil physical properties. Edge-of-field strategies, which remove P from runoff (i.e., wetlands) or prevent runoff (i.e., irrigation runoff recycling systems), were generally the least cost effective, but their benefits in terms of improved overall resource efficiency, especially in times of drought, or their effect on other contaminants like N need to be considered. By presenting a wide range of fully costed strategies, and understanding their mechanisms, a farmer or farm advisor is able to choose those that suit their farm and maintain profitability. Further work should examine the potential for targeting strategies to areas that lose the most P in time and space to maximize the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies, quantify the benefits of multiple strategies, and identify changes to

  8. Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, Sergio; Comina, Cesare; Mandrone, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    We propose a new strategy based on an interdisciplinary unitary and integrated approach aimed to monitor and detect small signals of impending failures and mitigate natural hazards, by: 1) quantification of critical damage thresholds triggering dynamic failure, throughout the 'In situ' identification of characteristic slow deformation signals and accelerating patterns before impending 'large scale' failure events; 2) setting up of early warning models for forecasting the time of rupture with application to natural hazards; 3) transferring of knowledge between multiscale signs of slow deformation before dynamic failure from the laboratory to field. In detail, we propose to develop innovative strategies for forecasting dynamic ruptures by monitoring an unstable patch of the Gollone landslide on the Italian Western Alps, prone to the development of rock falls and repeated failure episodes, preceded by neat and long lasting episodes of slow deformation. In order to do so, we aim to identify the characteristic signs of impending failure, by installing a "site specific" microseismic monitoring (1-200kHz) system for acoustic emission/microseismic (AE/MS), integrated with a conventional monitoring for seismic detection (1-10Hz) and ground deformation monitoring (strainmeters, geophones and accelerometers). The installation of the monitoring network will be accompanied by a detailed geophysical characterization of the test site in order to establish the best nodes position and internal characteristics of the monitored landslide. Rock physical and mechanical characterization along with rock deformation laboratory experiments during which the evolution of related physical parameters under simulated conditions of stress and fluid content will be studied and theoretical modelling will allow to come up with a full hazard assessment and test new methodologies for a much wider scale of applications within EU.

  9. The changing landscape of opioid prescribing: long-acting and extended-release opioid class-wide Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Gudin, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptions for opioid analgesics to manage moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer pain have increased markedly over the last decade, as have postmarketing reports of adverse events associated with opioids. As an unintentional consequence of greater prescription opioid utilization, there has been the parallel increase in misuse, abuse, and overdose, which are serious risks associated with all opioid analgesics. In response to these concerns, the Food and Drug Administration announced the requirement for a class-wide Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for long-acting and extended-release (ER) opioid analgesics in April 2011. An understanding of the details of this REMS will be of particular importance to primary care providers. The class-wide REMS is focused on educating health care providers and patients on appropriate prescribing and safe use of ER opioids. Support from primary care will be necessary for the success of this REMS, as these clinicians are the predominant providers of care and the main prescribers of opioid analgesics for patients with chronic pain. Although currently voluntary, future policy will likely dictate that providers undergo mandatory training to continue prescribing medications within this class. This article outlines the elements of the class-wide REMS for ER opioids and clarifies the impact on primary care providers with regard to training, patient education, and clinical practice. PMID:22570553

  10. Performance of Built Environment in the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake and its Implications on Seismic Risk Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    effective risk mitigation strategies, it is unfortunate that societies are not adequately prepared due to lack of implementation and, therefore, the seismic risk in the region capable of large to great earthquakes has risen to unacceptable levels which may lead to a large-scale disaster, if not mitigated.

  11. FY-09 Report: Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Gen-IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have identified that an air ingress event following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization is a very important incident. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. If this accident occurs, the oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will eventually cause the release of fission products. The potential collapse of the core bottom structures causing the release of CO and fission products is one of the concerns. Therefore, experimental validation with the analytical model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model developed in this study is very important. Estimating the proper safety margin will require experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods Research and Development project. The second year of this three-year project (FY-08 to FY-10) was focused on (a) the analytical, CFD, and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow; (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments and modeling; (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) implementation of advanced

  12. Understanding of Out-of-Band DUV light in EUV lithography: controlling impact on imaging and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, N.; Kottumakulal, R.; Hageman, J.; McNamara, J.; Hoefnagels, R.; Vaenkatesan, V.; van Dijk, A.; Ricken, K.; de Winter, L.; de Kruif, R.; Jonckheere, R.; Hollink, T.; Schiffelers, G.; van Setten, E.; Colsters, P.; Liebregts, W.; Pellens, R.; van Dijk, J.

    2015-09-01

    material (Al or BB). Finally, several OOB mitigation strategies are discussed, in particular, suppression of DUV light in the scanner (~3x improvement), recent successes of DUV suppression for 16 nm imaging resist (~1.8x improvement) and DUV reflectance mitigation in the reticle black border (~3.8x). An overview of OOB test results for multiple NXE systems will be shown including systems with new NXE:3350 optics with improved OOB suppression.

  13. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  14. Clinical Decision Support Knowledge Management: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Alswailem, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems have been shown to increase quality of care, patient safety, improve adherence to guidelines for prevention and treatment, and avoid medication errors. Such systems depend mainly on two types of content; the clinical information related to patients and the medical knowledge related to the specialty that informs the system rules and alerts. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, the Health Information Technology Affairs worked on identifying best strategies and recommendations for successful CDSS knowledge management. A review of literature was conducted to identify main areas of challenges and factors of success. A qualitative survey was used over six months' duration to collect opinions, experiences and suggestions from both IT and healthcare professionals. Recommendations were categorized into ten main topics that should be addressed during the development and implementation of CDSS knowledge management tools in the hospital.

  15. Evaluating the suitability of management strategies of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest area of southwest Germany for adaptation to or mitigation of climate change.

    PubMed

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Hanewinkel, Marc; Le Moguédec, Gilles

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the problem of evaluating management strategies for pure stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) to balance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, taking into account multiple objectives of a forest owner. A simulation and optimization approach was used to evaluate the management of a 1000 ha model Age-Class forest, representing the age-class distribution of an area of 66,000 ha of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest region of Southwest Germany. Eight silvicultural scenarios comprising five forest conversion schemes which were interpreted as "adaptation" strategies which aims at increasing the proportion of Beech, that is expected to better cope with climate change than the existing Norway spruce, and three conventional strategies including a "Do-nothing" alternative classified as "mitigation", trying to keep rather higher levels of growing stock of spruce, were simulated using the empirical growth simulator BWINPro-S. A linear programming approach was adapted to simultaneously maximize the net present values of carbon sequestration and timber production subject to the two constraints of wood even flow and partial protection of the oldest (nature protection). The optimized plan, with the global utility of 11,687 /ha in forty years, allocated a combination of silvicultural scenarios to the entire forest area. Overall, strategies classified as "mitigation" were favored, while strategies falling into the "adaptation"-category were limited to the youngest age-classes in the optimal solution. Carbon sequestration of the "Do-nothing" alternative was between 1.72 and 1.85 million tons higher than the other alternatives for the entire forest area while the differences between the adaptation and mitigation approaches were approximately 133,000 tons. Sensitivity analysis showed that a carbon price of 21 /t is the threshold at which carbon sequestration is promoted, while an interest rate of above 2% would decrease the

  16. Tools to support maintenance strategies under soft soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. W. M.; van Meerten, J. J.; Woning, M. P.; Eijbersen, M. J.; Huber, M.

    2015-11-01

    Costs for maintenance of infrastructure in municipalities with soft soil underground conditions, are estimated to be almost 40 % higher than in others. As a result, these municipalities meet financial problems that cause overdue maintenance. In some cases municipalities are even afraid to be unable to offer a minimum service level in future. In common, traditional practice, roads and sewerage systems have been constructed in trenches that consist of sandy material that replaces the upper meters of the soft soil. Under influence of its weight, this causes accelerated settlements of the construction. A number of alternative constructions have been developed, e.g. using light-weight materials to limit settlement velocity. In order to limit future maintenance costs, improvement of maintenance strategies is desired. Tools have been and will be developed to support municipalities in improving their maintenance strategies and save money by doing that. A model (BALANS) that weighs the attractiveness of alternative solutions under different soil, environmental and economic circumstances, will be presented.

  17. Drug-exposed infants at home: strategies and supports.

    PubMed

    Saylor, C; Lippa, B; Lee, G

    1991-03-01

    This longitudinal, descriptive study gathered information on drug-exposed infants at home and identified effective public health nurse interventions for them and their caregivers. These infants exhibit symptoms that may well interfere with their ability to give clear cues as part of the infant-caregiver interactive system. This may amplify or perpetuate the effects of the drugs and low birth weight. Fifteen infants with a positive toxicology screen were compared to controls at birth and followed for up to 12 months of age through home visits by a public health nurse practitioner. The drug-exposed infants were significantly smaller at birth, and their most common initial problems were the need for nonnutritive sucking, excessive extensor tone, infections, and irritability. The mean weight, length, and head circumference went from the 10th to the 25th percentile at birth to the 25th to 50th percentile at 12 months. The support system and organization of the home predicted the family's ability to sustain caregiving for these infants. Effective strategies to care for these infants included recognizing states and cues, swaddling, use of pacifier, waking to eat, and smaller feedings. The role of the public health nurse was crucial for conducting early assessment, implementing strategies, and facilitating a therapeutic relationship.

  18. Supporting Educational Uses of Telecommunication in the Secondary School: Part II Strategies for Improved Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1992-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series on telecommunications in secondary schools examines strategies for better support of telecommunications implementation. Highlights include management strategies for CMC (computer-mediated communication) use; instructional strategies for online database inquiries; teacher support strategies; simulation…

  19. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    respective CTL treatments. Overall, reductions in CH4 emissions from adding nitrate or increasing the oil content of the mixed diet were similar to those expected from previous reports. However, the lack of an effect of these mitigation strategies when used with high concentrate diets has not been previously reported. This study shows that the effect of CH4 mitigation strategies is basal diet-dependent.

  20. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% (n = 62) women and 69.9% (n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  1. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E.; Tricco, Andrea C.; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. Methods: We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. Results: The institute included 30.1% (n = 62) women and 69.9% (n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. Interpretation: A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance. PMID:28401131

  2. Effectiveness of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) for Lenalidomide and Thalidomide: Patient Comprehension and Knowledge Retention.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Nancy A; Bwire, Robert; Freeman, John; Houn, Florence; Sheehan, Paul; Zeldis, Jerome B

    2017-04-01

    The effectiveness of patient education activities conducted within the lenalidomide and thalidomide risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) programs was evaluated by measuring understanding of serious risk and safe-use messages. Results from mandatory knowledge, attitude, and behavior surveys and voluntary patient surveys completed between June 2012 and June 2013 were analyzed, and responses to questions relating to compliance with birth control measures and understanding of safe-use messages are presented by patient risk category. In total, 73,645 patients were enrolled into the REMS programs for lenalidomide and thalidomide and completed mandatory surveys prior to medication dispense. Of these, 2790 (3.8%) completed an additional voluntary survey. Among voluntary survey participants, for all patient pregnancy risk categories, reported compliance with birth control requirements was above 90% when starting therapy and at follow-up. At the beginning of therapy, complete compliance was 96.3%; 3 months later it was 96.4%. Patient understanding of safe-use messages was very high in all pregnancy risk groups, notably for messages repeated at each physician visit. Overall, 98.2% of patients knew that lenalidomide and thalidomide could cause birth defects, which is part of the repeated educational messaging. In contrast, 87.1% recalled that unused product should be returned to their healthcare professional, which is not included in repeated messaging. The lenalidomide and thalidomide REMS programs enhance patient understanding of safe-use messages, resulting in high levels of compliance with the birth control precautions essential to prevent fetal exposure to these known and potential human teratogens. Overall compliance was maintained after 3 months of follow-up and throughout therapy.

  3. Pollen mixing in pollen generalist solitary bees: a possible strategy to complement or mitigate unfavourable pollen properties?

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Michael; Haider, Mare; Dorn, Silvia; Müller, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Generalist herbivorous insects, which feed on plant tissue that is nutritionally heterogeneous or varies in its content of secondary metabolites, often benefit from dietary mixing through more balanced nutrient intake or reduced exposure to harmful secondary metabolites. Pollen is similarly heterogeneous as other plant tissue in its content of primary and secondary metabolites, suggesting that providing their offspring with mixed pollen diets might be a promising strategy for pollen generalist bees to complement nutrient imbalances or to mitigate harmful secondary metabolites of unfavourable pollen. In the present study, we compared larval performance of the pollen generalist solitary bee species Osmia cornuta (Megachilidae) on five experimental pollen diets that consisted of different proportions of unfavourable pollen diet of Ranunculus acris (Ranunculaceae) and favourable pollen diet of Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae). In addition, we microscopically analysed the pollen contained in the scopal brushes of field-collected females of O. cornuta and three closely related species to elucidate to what degree these pollen generalist bees mix pollen of different hosts in their brood cells. In striking contrast to a pure Ranunculus pollen diet, which had a lethal effect on most developing larvae of O. cornuta, larval survival, larval development time and adult body mass of both males and females remained nearly unaffected by the admixture of up to 50% of Ranunculus pollen diet to the larval food. Between 42% and 66% of all female scopal pollen loads analysed contained mixtures of pollen from two to six plant families, indicating that pollen mixing is a common behaviour in O. cornuta and the three related bee species. The present study provides the first evidence that the larvae of pollen generalist bees can benefit from the nutrient content of unfavourable pollen without being negatively affected by its unfavourable chemical properties if such pollen is mixed with

  4. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, Andy; Ledgard, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO2-equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO2-equivalent emissions, particularly for CH4. While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH4 and N2O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric.

  5. System dynamics modeling as a potentially useful tool in analyzing mitigation strategies to reduce overdose deaths associated with pharmaceutical opioid treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Wakeland, Wayne; Schmidt, Teresa; Gilson, Aaron M; Haddox, J David; Webster, Lynn R

    2011-06-01

    To illustrate a system-level, simulation-based approach for evaluating mitigation strategies to address the dramatic rise in abuse, addiction, and overdose deaths associated with the use of pharmaceutical opioid analgesics to treat chronic pain. SIMULATED INTERVENTIONS: Making available drug formulations with increased tamper-resistance, prescriber education programs, and programs that reduce rates of medical user-related abuse and addiction. SIMULATED OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of overdose deaths of medical users of pharmaceutical opioid analgesics, including those who abuse or have become addicted. A demonstration system dynamics model is developed, tested, and used to evaluate the impact of candidate mitigation strategies on the outcome measures. Tamper-resistant drug products will likely reduce overdose death rates but may not reduce overall deaths if there is increased prescribing. Prescriber education would likely reduce deaths through a reduction in patient access to pharmaceutical opioid analgesics. The system dynamics approach may have potential for opioid-related policy evaluation. However, metrics must be carefully selected, and trade-offs may be involved. For example, it may be difficult to limit negative outcomes associated with pharmaceutical opioids without adversely affecting chronic pain patients' access to pharmaceutical treatment. Ultimately, a combination of metrics and value judgments will be needed to properly evaluate mitigation strategies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Effect of a Course Management System (CMS)-Supported Strategy Instruction on EFL Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Talley, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of a Moodle-supported strategy instruction on both reading comprehension and strategy use among EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. Specific reading strategy training was first integrated into a Moodle system, which included reading exercises on problem identification, monitoring comprehension,…

  7. The Effect of a Course Management System (CMS)-Supported Strategy Instruction on EFL Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Talley, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of a Moodle-supported strategy instruction on both reading comprehension and strategy use among EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. Specific reading strategy training was first integrated into a Moodle system, which included reading exercises on problem identification, monitoring comprehension,…

  8. Final Report. SFAA No. DEFC02-98CH10961. Technical assistance for joint implementation and other supporting mechanisms and measures for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Denise

    2001-10-15

    IIEC, a division of CERF, has developed an extensive base of experience implementing activities that support climate action by developing USIJI projects in transitional countries within Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and southern Africa. IIEC has been able to provide a range of technical and policy assistance to governments and industry in support of sustainable energy use. IIEC continues to work in key countries with local partners to develop and implement energy efficiency policies and standards, develop site-specific projects, and assist governing bodies to establish national priorities and evaluation criteria for approving GHG-mitigation projects. As part of this project, IIEC focused on promoting a series of activities in Thailand and South Africa in order to identify GHG mitigation projects and work within the national approval process of those countries. The sections of this report outline the activities conducted in each country in order to achieve that goal.

  9. Impacts of mitigation strategies in France, via afforestation, on climate in a 1.5°C warmer world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, S.; De Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Stéfanon, M.

    2016-12-01

    Through land-atmosphere interactions, human-driven land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs) have unbalanced the Earth System's energy, water and emission fluxes, with consequences on weather, air quality and climate at different scales, from local to global. By altering atmospheric conditions, regional LULCCs may play an important role in the context of climate change. In a warmer and wetter climate, LULCCs may either enhance or dampen climate impacts at the regional scale via the feedbacks LULCCs will initiate, finally affecting the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and, thereby, mitigation and adaptation strategies. In the aftermath of COP21, scenarios depicting a rise of 1.5°C in the global average temperature, relative to the pre-industrial period, have drawn the attention of stakeholders. As a consequence, the scientific community has been urged to explore impacts of +1.5°C scenarios on the Earth's system. In this framework, we aim to investigate at a regional scale the effects of LULCCs on climate and the resilience of a modified landscape under a +1.5°C climatic scenario. To this purpose, we apply a coupled land-atmosphere regional climate model (WRF-ORCHIDEE) over France to perform sensitivity studies under a pre-industrial and +1.5°C climatic and afforested land-cover scenario. To feed the coupled land-atmosphere model, initial and boundary atmospheric conditions are taken from the global climate model LMDZ output for both pre-industrial (1881‒1910) and +1.5°C period (2009‒2038). To depict pre-industrial and future land-cover in France, we use land-cover data from the last IPCC AR5 report for year 1895 (historical database) and year 2100 from the RCP4.5 scenario, which maximizes the extent of afforestation in France among all RCPs compared to the pre-industrial period. Results are discussed in terms of the impacts of land-atmosphere interactions on mean and extreme atmospheric conditions (e.g., surface temperature, precipitation). This study

  10. Soil physical conditions as livestock treading effect in tropical Agroecosystem of dryland and strategies to mitigate desertification risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florentino, A.; Torres, D.; Ospina, A.; Contreras, J.; Palma, Z.; Silvera, J.

    2012-04-01

    higher quality level than bare soils. Some predictive regression equation had a high R2 value and was a useful tool for to evaluate the risk of extreme climatic changes and to mitigate their detrimental effects. We conclude that the global climatic change (CCG) will have a negative effect on these agroecosystems functions, mainly in soil and water conservation, carbon sequestration, and productivity. Natural recovery of soil physical properties from treading damage of pastoral soils will be possible in the future with the implementation of soil management strategies, mainly through re-vegetation and recuperation of the BSC. Key word: Soil structure; aggregate stability; soil sealing index; hydraulic conductivity of surface sealing.

  11. Strategies for temporary mechanical support: contemporary experience with pulsatile and non-pulsatile support systems.

    PubMed

    Moazami, Nader; Moon, Marc R; Pasque, Michael K; Lawton, Jennifer S; Bailey, Marci S; Damiano, Ralph J

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in mechanical circulatory support, cardiogenic shock continues to have a high mortality. We reviewed our experience with pulsatile versus non-pulsatile temporary mechanical support at our institution to determine optimal strategy for survival. From January 2001 to December 2003, mechanical support for cardiogenic shock was instituted in 38 patients. Non-pulsatile devices (NP group) were used in 22 patients and pulsatile devices (P group) in 16 patients. Indications for the NP group were post-cardiotomy shock (PCS) in 17, myocardial infarction in 2, and isolated post-cardiotomy right ventricular failure in 3 patients. In the P group, 9 had the device placed for PCS, 3 for viral myocarditis, 1 after myocardial infarction, and 3 for right ventricular (RV) failure. Overall, bleeding, limb ischemia, and multi-system organ failure were higher in NP group with 5 weaned and 3 surviving to discharge (14%). In the P group, survivors included 7 weaned and 3 transplanted patients (63%). With the exception of isolated RV failure, we obtained a dismal survival result with ECMO/centrifugal circuits for treatment of cardiogenic shock. For refractory pump failure, improved survival was achieved by using intermediate-term pulsatile devices with early transition to a chronic device and/or heart transplantation.

  12. Data Strategies to Support Automated Multi-Sensor Data Fusion in a Service Oriented Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    is unlimited DATA STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT AUTOMATED MULTI- SENSOR DATA FUSION IN A SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE by Kurt J. Rothenhaus...SUBTITLE: Data Strategies to Support Automated Multi- Sensor Data Fusion in a Service Oriented Architecture 6. AUTHOR: CDR Kurt Rothenhaus 5...end-to-end solutions promised by SOA technologies. Software architectural patterns in conjunction with broad data strategies are required to harness

  13. Optimized nonclinical safety assessment strategies supporting clinical development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Frank R; Cauvin, Annick; Tibbitts, Jay; Wolfreys, Alison

    2014-05-01

    An increasing number of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and IgG Fc fusion proteins are either approved or in early-to-late stage clinical trials for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. The exquisite specificity of mAbs, in combination with their multi-functional properties, high potency, long half-life (permitting intermittent dosing and prolonged pharamcological effects), and general lack of off-target toxicity makes them ideal therapeutics. Dosing with mAbs for these severe and debilitating but often non life-threatening diseases is usually prolonged, for several months or years, and not only affects adults, including sensitive populations such as woman of child-bearing potential (WoCBP) and the elderly, but also children. Immunosuppression is usually a therapeutic goal of these mAbs and when administered to patients whose treatment program often involves other immunosuppressive therapies, there is an inherent risk for frank immunosuppression and reduced host defence which when prolonged increases the risk of infection and cancer. In addition when mAbs interact with the immune system they can induce other adverse immune-mediated drug reactions such as infusion reactions, cytokine release syndrome, anaphylaxis, immune-complex-mediated pathology and autoimmunity. An overview of the nonclinical safety assessment and risk mitigation strategies utilized to characterize these immunomodulatory mAbs and Fc fusion proteins to support first-in human (FIH) studies and futher clinical development in inflammatory disease indications is provided. Specific emphasis is placed on the design of studies to qualify animal species for toxicology studies, early studies to investigate safety and define PK/PD relationships, FIH-enabling and chronic toxicology studies, immunotoxicity, developmental, reproductive and juvenile toxicity studies and studies to determine the potential for immunosuppression and

  14. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  15. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation.

  16. A review of back-calculation techniques and their potential to inform mitigation strategies with application to non-transmissible acute infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Hall, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Back-calculation is a process whereby generally unobservable features of an event leading to a disease outbreak can be inferred either in real-time or shortly after the end of the outbreak. These features might include the time when persons were exposed and the source of the outbreak. Such inferences are important as they can help to guide the targeting of mitigation strategies and to evaluate the potential effectiveness of such strategies. This article reviews the process of back-calculation with a particular emphasis on more recent applications concerning deliberate and naturally occurring aerosolized releases. The techniques can be broadly split into two themes: the simpler temporal models and the more sophisticated spatio-temporal models. The former require input data in the form of cases' symptom onset times, whereas the latter require additional spatial information such as the cases' home and work locations. A key aspect in the back-calculation process is the incubation period distribution, which forms the initial topic for consideration. Links between atmospheric dispersion modelling, within-host dynamics and back-calculation are outlined in detail. An example of how back-calculation can inform mitigation strategies completes the review by providing improved estimates of the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis that would be required in the response to an inhalational anthrax outbreak. PMID:25977955

  17. A review of back-calculation techniques and their potential to inform mitigation strategies with application to non-transmissible acute infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joseph R; Hall, Ian M

    2015-05-06

    Back-calculation is a process whereby generally unobservable features of an event leading to a disease outbreak can be inferred either in real-time or shortly after the end of the outbreak. These features might include the time when persons were exposed and the source of the outbreak. Such inferences are important as they can help to guide the targeting of mitigation strategies and to evaluate the potential effectiveness of such strategies. This article reviews the process of back-calculation with a particular emphasis on more recent applications concerning deliberate and naturally occurring aerosolized releases. The techniques can be broadly split into two themes: the simpler temporal models and the more sophisticated spatio-temporal models. The former require input data in the form of cases' symptom onset times, whereas the latter require additional spatial information such as the cases' home and work locations. A key aspect in the back-calculation process is the incubation period distribution, which forms the initial topic for consideration. Links between atmospheric dispersion modelling, within-host dynamics and back-calculation are outlined in detail. An example of how back-calculation can inform mitigation strategies completes the review by providing improved estimates of the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis that would be required in the response to an inhalational anthrax outbreak.

  18. Simulation of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in Atlanta, GA Using High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data Set to Enhance Meteorological Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Dembek, Scott; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Lapenta, William; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) and associated land surface parameters in meteorological models at all scales has a major influence on modeled surface energy fluxes and boundary layer states. In urban areas, accurate representation of the land surface may be even more important than in undeveloped regions due to the large heterogeneity within the urban area. Deficiencies in the characterization of the land surface related to the spatial or temporal resolution of the data, the number of LULC classes defined, the accuracy with which they are defined, or the degree of heterogeneity of the land surface properties within each class may degrade the performance of the models. In this study, an experiment was conducted to test a new high-resolution LULC data set for meteorological simulations for the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a mesoscale meteorological model and to evaluate the effects of urban heat island (UHI) mitigation strategies on modeled meteorology for 2030. Simulation results showed that use of the new LULC data set reduced a major deficiency of the land use data used previously, specifically the poor representation of urban and suburban land use. Performance of the meteorological model improved substantially, with the overall daytime cold bias reduced by over 30%. UHI mitigation strategies were projected to offset much of a predicted urban warming between 2000 and 2030. In fact, for the urban core, the cooling due to UHI mitigation strategies was slightly greater than the warming associated with urbanization over this period. For the larger metropolitan area, cooling only partially offset the projected warming trend.

  19. Simulation of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in Atlanta, GA Using High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data Set to Enhance Meteorological Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Dembek, Scott; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Lapenta, William; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) and associated land surface parameters in meteorological models at all scales has a major influence on modeled surface energy fluxes and boundary layer states. In urban areas, accurate representation of the land surface may be even more important than in undeveloped regions due to the large heterogeneity within the urban area. Deficiencies in the characterization of the land surface related to the spatial or temporal resolution of the data, the number of LULC classes defined, the accuracy with which they are defined, or the degree of heterogeneity of the land surface properties within each class may degrade the performance of the models. In this study, an experiment was conducted to test a new high-resolution LULC data set for meteorological simulations for the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a mesoscale meteorological model and to evaluate the effects of urban heat island (UHI) mitigation strategies on modeled meteorology for 2030. Simulation results showed that use of the new LULC data set reduced a major deficiency of the land use data used previously, specifically the poor representation of urban and suburban land use. Performance of the meteorological model improved substantially, with the overall daytime cold bias reduced by over 30%. UHI mitigation strategies were projected to offset much of a predicted urban warming between 2000 and 2030. In fact, for the urban core, the cooling due to UHI mitigation strategies was slightly greater than the warming associated with urbanization over this period. For the larger metropolitan area, cooling only partially offset the projected warming trend.

  20. Evaluating the Suitability of Management Strategies of Pure Norway Spruce Forests in the Black Forest Area of Southwest Germany for Adaptation to or Mitigation of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Hanewinkel, Marc; Le Moguédec, Gilles

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the problem of evaluating management strategies for pure stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies Karst) to balance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, taking into account multiple objectives of a forest owner. A simulation and optimization approach was used to evaluate the management of a 1000 ha model Age-Class forest, representing the age-class distribution of an area of 66,000 ha of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest region of Southwest Germany. Eight silvicultural scenarios comprising five forest conversion schemes which were interpreted as “adaptation” strategies which aims at increasing the proportion of Beech, that is expected to better cope with climate change than the existing Norway spruce, and three conventional strategies including a “Do-nothing” alternative classified as “mitigation”, trying to keep rather higher levels of growing stock of spruce, were simulated using the empirical growth simulator BWINPro-S. A linear programming approach was adapted to simultaneously maximize the net present values of carbon sequestration and timber production subject to the two constraints of wood even flow and partial protection of the oldest (nature protection). The optimized plan, with the global utility of 11,687 €/ha in forty years, allocated a combination of silvicultural scenarios to the entire forest area. Overall, strategies classified as “mitigation” were favored, while strategies falling into the “adaptation”-category were limited to the youngest age-classes in the optimal solution. Carbon sequestration of the “Do-nothing” alternative was between 1.72 and 1.85 million tons higher than the other alternatives for the entire forest area while the differences between the adaptation and mitigation approaches were approximately 133,000 tons. Sensitivity analysis showed that a carbon price of 21 €/ t is the threshold at which carbon sequestration is promoted, while an interest rate of above 2

  1. Organizational Strategies for End-User Computing Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmun, Robert R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Effective support for end users of computers has been an important issue in higher education from the first applications of general purpose mainframe computers through minicomputers, microcomputers, and supercomputers. The development of end user support is reviewed and organizational models are examined. (Author/MLW)

  2. Supporting Families: A Nurturing Teacher Education Strategy in Nauru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terence; Serow, Penelope; Taylor, Neil; Angell, Emily; Tarrant, Jodana; Burnett, Greg; Smardon, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    There has been little recent documentation concerning Pacific family support for family members locally involved in university study in their Pacific home country and how such responses affect both parties. Some studies dealing with family support for student family members, including Pacific families residing in the USA, have been published. A…

  3. Research and Support Strategies For Women's Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babbitt, Samuel F.; And Others

    Inadequate support is presently offered for the study of certain important questions which have serious implications for educational policies affecting women. Priority should be given to the support of those areas of research and program development and evaluation that have the most critical implications for both the higher education of women and…

  4. Supporting Families: A Nurturing Teacher Education Strategy in Nauru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terence; Serow, Penelope; Taylor, Neil; Angell, Emily; Tarrant, Jodana; Burnett, Greg; Smardon, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    There has been little recent documentation concerning Pacific family support for family members locally involved in university study in their Pacific home country and how such responses affect both parties. Some studies dealing with family support for student family members, including Pacific families residing in the USA, have been published. A…

  5. Strategies for Providing Spiritual Care & Support to Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A; Foito, Kim; Watson, Sherylyn

    2016-01-01

    Nurse educators need to equip nursing students with suitable resources and education so they can develop their own spiritual care, as well as recognize spiritual care needs in patients. There is a paucity of literature on teaching strategies for spiritual care and prayer in undergraduate nursing programs. This article describes how one faith-based school implemented strategies to facilitate spiritual development in students, which are integrated throughout the curriculum and utilized in the U.S. and a study-abroad program in Ireland.

  6. Dependability breakeven point mathematical model for production - quality strategy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcu, Adrian; Verzea, Ion; Chaib, Rachid

    2016-08-01

    This paper connects the field of dependability system with the production-quality strategies through a new mathematical model based on breakeven points. The novelties consist in the identification of the parameters of dependability system which, in safety control, represents the degree to which an item is capable of performing its required function at any randomly chosen time during its specified operating period disregarding non-operation related influences, as well as the analysis of the production-quality strategies, defining a mathematical model based on a new concept - dependability breakeven points, model validation on datasets and shows the practical applicability of this new approach.

  7. A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy to support a national assessment of carbon stocks and fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Hawbaker, Todd; Wein, Anne; Liu, Shu-Guang; Kanengieter, Ronald; Acevedo, William

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use, land cover, disturbance regimes, and land management have considerable influence on carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes within ecosystems. Through targeted land-use and land-management activities, ecosystems can be managed to enhance carbon sequestration and mitigate fluxes of other GHGs. National-scale, comprehensive analyses of carbon sequestration potential by ecosystem are needed, with a consistent, nationally applicable land-use and land-cover (LULC) modeling framework a key component of such analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a project to analyze current and projected future GHG fluxes by ecosystem and quantify potential mitigation strategies. We have developed a unique LULC modeling framework to support this work. Downscaled scenarios consistent with IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) were constructed for U.S. ecoregions, and the FORE-SCE model was used to spatially map the scenarios. Results for a prototype demonstrate our ability to model LULC change and inform a biogeochemical modeling framework for analysis of subsequent GHG fluxes. The methodology was then successfully used to model LULC change for four IPCC SRES scenarios for an ecoregion in the Great Plains. The scenario-based LULC projections are now being used to analyze potential GHG impacts of LULC change across the U.S.

  8. A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy to support a national assessment of carbon stocks and fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Hawbaker, Todd; Wein, Anne; Liu, Shu-Guang; Kanengleter, Ronald; Acevedo, William

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use, land cover, disturbance regimes, and land management have considerable influence on carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes within ecosystems. Through targeted land-use and landmanagement activities, ecosystems can be managed to enhance carbon sequestration and mitigate fluxes of other GHGs. National-scale, comprehensive analyses of carbon sequestration potential by ecosystem are needed, with a consistent, nationally applicable land-use and land-cover (LULC) modeling framework a key component of such analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a project to analyze current and projected future GHG fluxes by ecosystem and quantify potential mitigation strategies. We have developed a unique LULC modeling framework to support this work. Downscaled scenarios consistent with IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) were constructed for U.S. ecoregions, and the FORE-SCE model was used to spatially map the scenarios. Results for a prototype demonstrate our ability to model LULC change and inform a biogeochemical modeling framework for analysis of subsequent GHG fluxes. The methodology was then successfully used to model LULC change for four IPCC SRES scenarios for an ecoregion in the Great Plains. The scenario-based LULC projections are now being used to analyze potential GHG impacts of LULC change across the U.S.

  9. A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy to support a national assessment of carbon stocks and fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, T.L.; Sleeter, B.M.; Zhu, Z.; Sayler, K.L.; Bennett, S.; Bouchard, M.; Reker, R.; Hawbaker, T.; Wein, A.; Liu, S.; Kanengieter, R.; Acevedo, W.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use, land cover, disturbance regimes, and land management have considerable influence on carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes within ecosystems. Through targeted land-use and landmanagement activities, ecosystems can be managed to enhance carbon sequestration and mitigate fluxes of other GHGs. National-scale, comprehensive analyses of carbon sequestration potential by ecosystem are needed, with a consistent, nationally applicable land-use and land-cover (LULC) modeling framework a key component of such analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a project to analyze current and projected future GHG fluxes by ecosystem and quantify potential mitigation strategies. We have developed a unique LULC modeling framework to support this work. Downscaled scenarios consistent with IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) were constructed for U.S. ecoregions, and the FORE-SCE model was used to spatially map the scenarios. Results for a prototype demonstrate our ability to model LULC change and inform a biogeochemical modeling framework for analysis of subsequent GHG fluxes. The methodology was then successfully used to model LULC change for four IPCC SRES scenarios for an ecoregion in the Great Plains. The scenario-based LULC projections are now being used to analyze potential GHG impacts of LULC change across the U.S. ?? 2011.

  10. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  11. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  12. An Analytic Framework to Support E.Learning Strategy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss and demonstrate the relevance of a new conceptual framework for leading and managing the development of learning and teaching to e.learning strategy development. Design/methodology/approach: After reviewing and discussing the research literature on e.learning in higher education institutions from…

  13. Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth

    2010-01-01

    This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

  14. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  15. Key Reading Recovery Strategies to Support Classroom Guided Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipp, Jamie R.; Helfrich, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective teachers are continuously striving to improve their instruction. Reading Recovery teachers have detailed and specific literacy training and expertise that can be of great value to classroom teachers, especially in the area of guided reading instruction. This article explores the ways in which key Reading Recovery strategies can be…

  16. Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth

    2010-01-01

    This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

  17. Authentic Leadership Strategies in Support of Mentoring Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Levy-Gazenfrantz, Tania

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether teacher-mentees perceive their mentors as authentic leaders and if so, how these perceptions affected their leadership strategies. The sample included 60 Israeli teacher-mentees from different school levels and different sectors, who volunteered to participate in the study. Semi-structured interviews…

  18. An Analytic Framework to Support E.Learning Strategy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss and demonstrate the relevance of a new conceptual framework for leading and managing the development of learning and teaching to e.learning strategy development. Design/methodology/approach: After reviewing and discussing the research literature on e.learning in higher education institutions from…

  19. Key Reading Recovery Strategies to Support Classroom Guided Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipp, Jamie R.; Helfrich, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective teachers are continuously striving to improve their instruction. Reading Recovery teachers have detailed and specific literacy training and expertise that can be of great value to classroom teachers, especially in the area of guided reading instruction. This article explores the ways in which key Reading Recovery strategies can be…

  20. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  1. Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2013-01-01

    Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N), and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively), manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years) of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of processes and

  2. Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Groot, Jeroen