Science.gov

Sample records for mitochondrial apoptotic pathways

  1. Lysosomal photodamage induces cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xian-wang; Li, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Lysosomal photosensitizers have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Combination of such photosensitizers and light causes lysosomal photodamage, inducing cell death. The lysosomal disruption can lead to apoptosis but its signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. In this study, we selected N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6), an effective photosensitizer which preferentially accumulates in lysosomes, to study the mechanism of apoptosis caused by lysosomal photodamage. Apoptosis in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells treated by NPe6-PDT was studied using real-time single-cell analysis. In this study, the fluorescence probes Cyto c-GFP and DsRed-Mit were used to detect the spatial and temporal changes of cytochrome c in real-time in sub-cell level; the Rhodamine 123 dyes were used to monitor the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential. The results showed that, after PDT treatment,the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, and cytochrome c released from mitochondria; The caspase-3 was activated obviously. These results suggested that lysosomal photodamage activates mitochondrial apoptotic pathway to induce cell death.

  2. Genes of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. PMID:23626691

  3. MicroRNAs regulate mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion-injury.

    PubMed

    Makhdoumi, Pouran; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional gene regulators. They are involved in the pathogenesis of different disorders including heart diseases. MiRNAs contribute to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) by altering numerous key signaling elements. Together with alterations in the various potential signaling pathways, modification in miRNA expression has been suggested as a part of the response network following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In addition, cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis is closely associated with cardiac function and impairment of mitochondrial activity occurred after ischemia/reperfusion injury. MiRNAs play a key role in the regulation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and signaling proteins. In this review, we summarize the knowledge currently available regarding the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-regulated mitochondrial functions during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This regulation occurs in different stages of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  4. The Opa1-Dependent Mitochondrial Cristae Remodeling Pathway Controls Atrophic, Apoptotic, and Ischemic Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Varanita, Tatiana; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Romanello, Vanina; Zaglia, Tania; Quintana-Cabrera, Rubén; Semenzato, Martina; Menabò, Roberta; Costa, Veronica; Civiletto, Gabriele; Pesce, Paola; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Di Lisa, Fabio; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial morphological and ultrastructural changes occur during apoptosis and autophagy, but whether they are relevant in vivo for tissue response to damage is unclear. Here we investigate the role of the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)-dependent cristae remodeling pathway in vivo and provide evidence that it regulates the response of multiple tissues to apoptotic, necrotic, and atrophic stimuli. Genetic inhibition of the cristae remodeling pathway in vivo does not affect development, but protects mice from denervation-induced muscular atrophy, ischemic heart and brain damage, as well as hepatocellular apoptosis. Mechanistically, OPA1-dependent mitochondrial cristae stabilization increases mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and blunts mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, and reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the OPA1-dependent cristae remodeling pathway is a fundamental, targetable determinant of tissue damage in vivo. PMID:26039448

  5. Chlorpromazine inhibits mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via increasing expression of tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Li, Aimei; Li, Yujun; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Qingmeng; Song, Wuqi; Wang, Yao; Ogutu, James O; Wang, Jindong; Li, Jianbo; Tang, Renkuan; Zhang, Fengmin

    2016-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a widely used antipsychotic drug with antagonistic effect on dopamine receptors. Accumulating evidence has shown that CPZ plays a neuroprotective role in various models of toxicity and apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism contributing to this protective effect remains unclear. Here, we evaluate the effect of CPZ on mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in the neuron system. Higher levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and tissue factor (TF) but lower apoptotic rate were found in hippocampus of CPZ-treated schizophrenic patients compared with non-antipsychotic treated controls. Additionally, both short-term and long-term treatment of CPZ in rats could up-regulate the levels of Bcl-2 and TF with no cytotoxic effects. In the in vitro experiment, expression of Bcl-2 was up-regulated in the C6 glioma cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-TF recombinant plasmid. Furthermore, in another independent rat model of apoptosis, compared with the group administrated with alcohol only, the brains of the CPZ-pretreated rats showed lower expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and Bax, but higher expression of Bcl-2 and TF. Our data demonstrate that CPZ exerts its neuronal protective effects through inhibiting the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by up-regulating TF expression, thus providing new insight into CPZ function and application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 induce mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, O. A.; Isaeva, A. V.; Prokhorenko, T. S.; Zima, A. P.; Novitsky, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Cellular malignant transformation is often accompanied by increased gene expression of low-molecular proteins of lectins family-galectins. But it is unknown how galectins promote tumor growth and malignization. Galectins-1 and galectin-3 are thought to be possible immunoregulators exerting their effects by regulating the balance of CD4+ lymphocytes. In addition it is known that tumor cells overexpressing galectins are capable of escaping immunological control, causing apoptosis of lymphocytes. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in the implementation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells. Methods: Jurkat cells were used as a model for the study of T-lymphocytes. Jurkat cells were activated with antibodies to CD3 and CD28 and cultured with recombinant galectin-1 and -3. Apoptosis of Jurkat cells and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. It was found that galectin-1 and galectin-3 have a dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effect on Jurkat cells in vitro and enlarge the number of cells with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential compared with intact cells.

  7. Genistein suppresses the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons in rats with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Cai, Biao; Shao, Jing; Wang, Ting-ting; Cai, Run-ze; Ma, Chang-ju; Han, Tao; Du, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is effective against amyloid-β toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that genistein may protect neurons by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and thereby play a role in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. A rat model of Alzheimer’s disease was established by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and intracerebral injection of amyloid-β peptide (25–35). In the genistein treatment groups, a 7-day pretreatment with genistein (10, 30, 90 mg/kg) was given prior to establishing Alzheimer’s disease model, for 49 consecutive days. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay demonstrated a reduction in apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats treated with genistein. Western blot analysis showed that expression levels of capase-3, Bax and cytochrome c were decreased compared with the model group. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in cytochrome c and Bax immunoreactivity in these rats. Morris water maze revealed a substantial shortening of escape latency by genistein in Alzheimer’s disease rats. These findings suggest that genistein decreases neuronal loss in the hippocampus, and improves learning and memory ability. The neuroprotective effects of genistein are associated with the inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as shown by its ability to reduce levels of caspase-3, Bax and cytochrome c. PMID:27630702

  8. Iron overload induced death of osteoblasts in vitro: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhipeng; Yang, Jingjing; Zheng, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron overload is recognized as a new pathogenfor osteoporosis. Various studies demonstrated that iron overload could induce apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteoporosis in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the iron overload-mediated induction of apoptosis in osteoblasts has not been explored. Purpose In this study, we attempted to determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is involved in iron-induced osteoblastic cell death and to investigate the beneficial effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in iron-induced cytotoxicity. Methods The MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line was treated with various concentrations of ferric ion in the absence or presence of NAC, and intracellular iron, cell viability, reactive oxygen species, functionand morphology changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial apoptosis related key indicators were detected by commercial kits. In addition, to further explain potential mechanisms underlying iron overload-related osteoporosis, we also assessed cell viability, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation potential in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells(MSCs) by commercial kits. Results Ferric ion demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts. After incubation with iron, an elevation of intracelluar labile iron levels and a concomitant over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry in osteoblasts. Nox4 (NADPH oxidase 4), an important ROS producer, was also evaluated by western blot. Apoptosis, which was evaluated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and the activation of caspase-3, was detected after exposure to iron. Iron contributed to the permeabilizatio of mitochondria, leading to the release of cytochrome C (cyto C), which, in turn, induced mitochondrial apoptosis in osteoblasts via activation of Caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC could reverse iron-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and

  9. Iron overload induced death of osteoblasts in vitro: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing; Wu, Shilei; Dai, Zhipeng; Yang, Jingjing; Zheng, Jin; Zheng, Qixin; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload is recognized as a new pathogenfor osteoporosis. Various studies demonstrated that iron overload could induce apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteoporosis in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the iron overload-mediated induction of apoptosis in osteoblasts has not been explored. In this study, we attempted to determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is involved in iron-induced osteoblastic cell death and to investigate the beneficial effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in iron-induced cytotoxicity. The MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line was treated with various concentrations of ferric ion in the absence or presence of NAC, and intracellular iron, cell viability, reactive oxygen species, functionand morphology changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial apoptosis related key indicators were detected by commercial kits. In addition, to further explain potential mechanisms underlying iron overload-related osteoporosis, we also assessed cell viability, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation potential in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells(MSCs) by commercial kits. Ferric ion demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts. After incubation with iron, an elevation of intracelluar labile iron levels and a concomitant over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry in osteoblasts. Nox4 (NADPH oxidase 4), an important ROS producer, was also evaluated by western blot. Apoptosis, which was evaluated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and the activation of caspase-3, was detected after exposure to iron. Iron contributed to the permeabilizatio of mitochondria, leading to the release of cytochrome C (cyto C), which, in turn, induced mitochondrial apoptosis in osteoblasts via activation of Caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC could reverse iron-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and blocked the apoptotic events

  10. Mitochondrial ROS and the Effectors of the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Aging Cells: The Discerning Killers!

    PubMed Central

    Hekimi, Siegfried; Wang, Ying; Noë, Alycia

    2016-01-01

    It has become clear that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are not simply villains and mitochondria the hapless targets of their attacks. Rather, it appears that mitochondrial dysfunction itself and the signaling function of mtROS can have positive effects on lifespan, helping to extend longevity. If events in the mitochondria can lead to better cellular homeostasis and better survival of the organism in ways beyond providing ATP and biosynthetic products, we can conjecture that they act on other cellular components through appropriate signaling pathways. We describe recent advances in a variety of species which promoted our understanding of how changes of mtROS generation are part of a system of signaling pathways that emanate from the mitochondria to impact organism lifespan through global changes, including in transcriptional patterns. In unraveling this, many old players in cellular homeostasis were encountered. Among these, maybe most strikingly, is the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which is the conduit by which at least one class of mtROS exercise their actions in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This is a pathway that normally contributes to organismal homeostasis by killing defective or otherwise unwanted cells, and whose various compounds have also been implicated in other cellular processes. However, it was a surprise that that appropriate activation of a cell killing pathway can in fact prolong the lifespan of the organism. In the soma of adult C. elegans, all cells are post-mitotic, like many of our neurons and possibly some of our immune cells. These cells cannot simply be killed and replaced when showing signs of dysfunction. Thus, we speculate that it is the ability of the apoptotic pathway to pull together information about the functional and structural integrity of different cellular compartments that is the key property for why this pathway is used to decide when to boost defensive and repair processes in irreplaceable

  11. Perturbations in the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial network dynamics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Scaini, G; Fries, G R; Valvassori, S S; Zeni, C P; Zunta-Soares, G; Berk, M; Soares, J C; Quevedo, J

    2017-05-02

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by phasic changes of mood and can be associated with progressive structural brain change and cognitive decline. The numbers and sizes of glia and neurons are reduced in several brain areas, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of BD. Because the changes in mitochondrial dynamics are closely related with the early process of apoptosis and the specific processes of apoptosis and mitochondrial dynamics in BD have not been fully elucidated, we measured the apoptotic pathway and the expression of mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins from BD patients and healthy controls. We recruited 16 patients with BD type I and sixteen well-matched healthy controls and investigated protein levels of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as the expression of mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Our results showed that the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, survivin and Bcl-xL/Bak dimer were significantly decreased, while active caspase-3 protein levels were significantly increased in PBMCs from BD patients. Moreover, we observed the downregulation of the mitochondrial fusion-related proteins Mfn2 and Opa1 and the upregulation of the fission protein Fis1 in PBMCs from BD patients, both in terms of gene expression and protein levels. We also showed a significantly decrease in the citrate synthase activity. Finally, we found a positive correlation between Mfn2 and Opa1 with mitochondrial content markers, as well as a negative correlation between mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins and apoptotic markers. Overall, data reported here are consistent with the working hypothesis that apoptosis may contribute to cellular dysfunction, brain volume loss and progressive cognitive in BD. Moreover, we show an important relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and the cell death pathway activation in BD patients, supporting

  12. Perturbations in the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial network dynamics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from bipolar disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Scaini, G; Fries, G R; Valvassori, S S; Zeni, C P; Zunta-Soares, G; Berk, M; Soares, J C; Quevedo, J

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by phasic changes of mood and can be associated with progressive structural brain change and cognitive decline. The numbers and sizes of glia and neurons are reduced in several brain areas, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of BD. Because the changes in mitochondrial dynamics are closely related with the early process of apoptosis and the specific processes of apoptosis and mitochondrial dynamics in BD have not been fully elucidated, we measured the apoptotic pathway and the expression of mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins from BD patients and healthy controls. We recruited 16 patients with BD type I and sixteen well-matched healthy controls and investigated protein levels of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as the expression of mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Our results showed that the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, survivin and Bcl-xL/Bak dimer were significantly decreased, while active caspase-3 protein levels were significantly increased in PBMCs from BD patients. Moreover, we observed the downregulation of the mitochondrial fusion-related proteins Mfn2 and Opa1 and the upregulation of the fission protein Fis1 in PBMCs from BD patients, both in terms of gene expression and protein levels. We also showed a significantly decrease in the citrate synthase activity. Finally, we found a positive correlation between Mfn2 and Opa1 with mitochondrial content markers, as well as a negative correlation between mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins and apoptotic markers. Overall, data reported here are consistent with the working hypothesis that apoptosis may contribute to cellular dysfunction, brain volume loss and progressive cognitive in BD. Moreover, we show an important relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and the cell death pathway activation in BD patients, supporting

  13. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects against Early Brain Injury after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Affecting Mitochondrial-Dependent Caspase-3 Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    This study was to test the hypothesis that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) protected against early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by affecting the mitochondrial-dependent caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. TMP was administrated after the rats' prechiasmatic SAH mode. Animal neurobehavioral functions were assessed and the mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic calcium, and mitochondrial membrane potential changes (Δψm) of the brain tissues were measured. The expressions of cytoplasmic cytochrome c (cyt c), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), and cleaved caspase-3 B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) in cells were determined and cellular apoptosis was detected. The treatment of TMP resulted in less apoptotic cells and milder mitochondrial injury and potentially performed better in the neurobehavioral outcome compared to those with saline. Also, TMP ameliorated calcium overload in mitochondria and cytoplasm and alleviated the decrease of Δψm. In addition, TMP inhibited the expression of cytoplasmic cyt c, Smac, and cleaved caspase-3, yet it upregulated the expression of bcl-2. These findings suggest that TMP exerts an antiapoptosis property in the SAH rat model and this is probably mediated by the caspase-3 apoptotic pathway triggered by mitochondrial calcium overload. The finding offers a new therapeutic candidate for early brain injury after SAH. PMID:28337226

  14. The involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in eugenol-induced cell death in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-01-05

    Eugenol, a natural phenolic constituent of clove oil, has a wide range of applications in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. However, the effect of eugenol on human glioblastoma is unclear. This study examined whether eugenol elevated intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) and induced apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells. Eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises which were reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). Eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises were not altered by store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers but were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonist capsazepine. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 significantly inhibited eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Eugenol killed cells which were not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Eugenol induced apoptosis through increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, releasing cytochrome c and activating caspase-9/caspase-3. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells, eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum and caused Ca(2+) influx possibly through TRPM8 or PKC-sensitive channels. Furthermore, eugenol induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  15. The apoptotic effect of apigenin on human gastric carcinoma cells through mitochondrial signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiayu; Chen, Jiaqi; Li, Zhaoyun; Liu, Chibo; Yin, Lihui

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to explore the apoptotic function of apigenin on the gastric cancer cells and the related mechanism. The gastric cancer cell lines HGC-27 and SGC-7901, and normal gastric epithelial cell line GES1 were treated with different concentrations of apigenin. Cell proliferation was tested. Morphological changes of the apoptotic cells were observed after Hoechst33342 staining. The apoptosis rate of the gastric cancer cells were measured with flow cytometry. Changes of the cell cycle were explored. The mitochondrial membrane potential changes were analyzed after JC-1 staining. Bcl-2 family proteins and caspases-3 expression with apigenin treatment was analyzed by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation of HGC-27 and SGC-7901 was inhibited by apigenin, and the inhibition was dose-time-dependent. Gastric carcinoma cells treated by apigenin had no obvious cell cycle arrest, but were observed with the higher apoptosis rate and the typical apoptotic morphological changes of the cell nucleus. JC-1 staining showed that apigenin could reduce mitochondrial membrane potential of gastric carcinoma cells. Real-time PCR results showed that apigenin significantly increased caspase-3 and Bax expression level, and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner in gastric carcinoma cells. However, the GES1 was almost not affected by apigenin treatment. Apigenin can inhibit cell lines HGC-27 and SGC-7901 proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner, reduce anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 levels, enhance apoptosis-promoting protein Bax level, result in mitochondrial membrane potential decreasing and caspase-3 enzyme activating, then lead to cell apoptosis.

  16. The canonical intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway has a non-apoptotic role in signaling lens cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Gregory F; Menko, A Sue

    2005-06-10

    The mitochondrial cell death pathway is known for its role in signaling apoptosis. Here, we describe a novel function for the mitochondrial cell death pathway in signaling initiation of differentiation in the developing lens. Most remarkably, we induced lens cell differentiation by short-term exposure of lens epithelial cells to the apoptogen staurosporine. Activation of apoptosis-related pathways induced lens epithelial cells to express differentiation-specific markers and to undergo morphogenetic changes that led to formation of the lens-like structures known as lentoids. The fact that multiple stages of differentiation are expressed at a single stage of development in the embryonic lens made it possible to precisely determine the timing of expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway. We discovered that there was high expression in the lens equatorial epithelium (the region of the lens in which differentiation is initiated) of pro-apoptotic molecules such as Bax and Bcl-x(S) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, we found significant caspase-3-like activity in the equatorial epithelium, yet this activity was far lower than that associated with lens cell apoptosis. These apoptotic pathways are likely regulated by the concurrent expression of prosurvival molecules, including Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L); phosphorylation of Bad; and high expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins chicken IAP1, IAP3, and survivin. This finding suggests that prosurvival pathways allow pro-apoptotic molecules to function as molecular switches in the differentiation process without tipping the balance toward apoptosis. We call this process apoptosis-related Bcl-2- and caspase-dependent (ABC) differentiation.

  17. Induction of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by raloxifene and estrogen in human endometrial stromal ThESC cell line

    PubMed Central

    Andjelkovic, Marija; Zaric, Milan; Zelen, Ivanka; Canovic, Petar; Milosavljevic, Zoran; Mitrovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition that occurs as a result of hormonal imbalance between estrogen and progesterone. Morphological disturbance of endometrial cells occurs consequently leading towards endometrial cancer. In therapy of endometrial hyperplasia SERMs are used to supress effects of locally high estrogen level in uterus. There is strong evidence suggesting that estrogen could be involved in cell death – apoptosis. There are no experimental data demstrating the direct apoptotic effect of both raloxifene and estrogen on the ThESC cell line. The aim of our study wa sto investigate both cytotoxic and apototic mechanism of raloxifene and estrogen – induced death in the ThESC cell line. Material and methods In order to determine their cytotoxic and apoptotic effects, various doses of raloxifene and estrogen were applied to the ThESC cell line for 24 h. After the treatment MTT assay, FACS analysis and immunofluoroscence method were conducted. Results The results of this study for the first time demonstrated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of raloxifene and estrogen on human endometrial stromal cell line suggesting the involvement of the inner, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Conclusions Our results demonstrated apoptotic effects of investigated drugs in the ThESC cell line through increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase 3. PMID:28261281

  18. Sequence and expression variations in 23 genes involved in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and risk of oral leukoplakia and cancer.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sayantan; Ray, Anindita; Singh, Richa; Mondal, Pinaki; Basu, Analabha; De Sarkar, Navonil; Majumder, Mousumi; Maiti, Guruparasad; Baral, Aradhita; Jha, Ganga Nath; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Panda, Chinmay; Chowdhury, Shantanu; Ghosh, Saurabh; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Roy, Bidyut

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is usually preceded by pre-cancerous lesion and related to tobacco abuse. Tobacco carcinogens damage DNA and cells harboring such damaged DNA normally undergo apoptotic death, but cancer cells are exceptionally resistant to apoptosis. Here we studied association between sequence and expression variations in apoptotic pathway genes and risk of oral cancer and precancer. Ninety nine tag SNPs in 23 genes, involved in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, were genotyped in 525 cancer and 253 leukoplakia patients and 538 healthy controls using Illumina Golden Gate assay. Six SNPs (rs1473418 at BCL2; rs1950252 at BCL2L2; rs8190315 at BID; rs511044 at CASP1; rs2227310 at CASP7 and rs13010627 at CASP10) significantly modified risk of oral cancer but SNPs only at BCL2, CASP1and CASP10 modulated risk of leukoplakia. Combination of SNPs showed a steep increase in risk of cancer with increase in "effective" number of risk alleles. In silico analysis of published data set and our unpublished RNAseq data suggest that change in expression of BID and CASP7 may have affected risk of cancer. In conclusion, three SNPs, rs1473418 in BCL2, rs1950252 in BCL2L2 and rs511044 in CASP1, are being implicated for the first time in oral cancer. Since SNPs at BCL2, CASP1 and CASP10 modulated risk of both leukoplakia and cancer, so, they should be studied in more details for possible biomarkers in transition of leukoplakia to cancer. This study also implies importance of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway gene (such as BCL2) in progression of leukoplakia to oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Syn Antrodia camphorata) extract and amphotericin B exert adjuvant effects via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Yi; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Liao, Chuh-Kai; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Kao, Woei-Yao; Su, Ching-Hua

    2013-03-01

    The use of multiple drugs in cancer therapy increases the efficacy of the potential therapeutic effects. In this study, the authors investigated the adjuvant effects of an ethanol extract of solid-state cultivated Taiwanofungus camphoratus (TCEE) and amphotericin B (AmB) in the human cancer cell lines RPMI7951 and MG63. Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a well-known Chinese medicine in Taiwan, and AmB is a widely used antifungal agent. The authors demonstrated that TCEE pretreatment followed by AmB treatment effectively inhibited cell growth. The combination of sublethal doses of TCEE and AmB revealed a significant growth inhibitory effect in both cell lines. The combination of TCEE and AmB but not AmB alone induced phosphatidylserine externalization and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell cycle analyses revealed that combination of TCEE and AmB triggered G2/M arrest and significant apoptosis after 48 hours. These effects were greater than those achieved using TCEE or AmB alone. Furthermore, the authors demonstrated that the drugs increased the levels of p21(Cip1/Waf1) and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and reduced the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Taken together, the results showed that the combination treatment of TCEE and AmB displays strong adjuvant effects, which are indicated by the inhibition of cell proliferation in 2 human cancer cell lines, RPMI7951 and MG63. These findings suggest possible therapeutic applications and alternative medicines using this drug combination.

  20. The role of lysosomes in BDE 47-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Chengquan; Zhu, Chunyan; Qian, Bo; Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Chang; Shao, Jing; Yan, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of widely used flame retardants. The rising presence of PBDEs in human tissues has received considerable concerns with regard to potential health risks. While the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway has been suggested in PBDEs-induced apoptosis, the role of lysosomes is yet to be understood. In the present study, HepG2 cells were exposed to BDE 47 at various concentrations and durations to establish the causal and temporal relationships among various cellular events, such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, and expression of cytochrome C and caspase 3. The involvement of lysosomes was simultaneously studied by evaluating lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and changes in the expression of cathepsin B, a lysosome hydrolase. In addition, a cathepsin B inhibitor (10 μM CA-074) was used to determine the involvement of lysosomes and potential interactions between lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results showed that ROS production was an initial response of HepG2 to BDE 47 exposure, followed by a decreased MMP; a loss of MMP caused additional ROS generation which acted to induce LMP; an increased LMP resulted in a release of cathepsin B which aggravated the loss of MMP leading to release of cytochrome C and caspase 3 and subsequent apoptosis. Pretreatment with CA-074 did not abolish the initial ROS generation, however, all downstream events were dramatically alleviated. Taken together, our data indicate that lysosomes might be involved in BDE 47-mediated mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells, possibly through feedback interactions between mitochondria and lysosomes.

  1. Cryptotanshinone induces melanoma cancer cells apoptosis via ROS-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and impairs cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tinghong; Zhu, Shirui; Zhu, Yongxia; Feng, Qiang; He, Bing; Xiong, Yiong; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yiwen; Yu, Luoting; Yang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer because it is highly frequency of drug resistance and can spread earlier and more quickly than other skin cancers. The objective of this research was to investigate the anticancer effects of cryptotanshinone on human melanoma cells in vitro, and explored its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that cryptotanshinone could inhibit cell proliferation in human melanoma cell lines A2058, A375, and A875 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, flow cytometry assay showed that cryptotanshinone inhibited the proliferation of human melanoma cell line A375 by blocking cell cycle progression in G2/M phase and inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, western blot analysis indicated that the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with upregulation of cleaved caspases-3 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax while downregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Meanwhile, cryptotanshinone could decrease the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, cryptotanshinone also blocked A375 cell migration and invasion in vitro which was associated with the downregulation with MMP-9. Taken together, these results suggested that cryptotanshinone might be a potential drug in human melanoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis via ROS-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and blocking cell migration and invasion.

  2. Colistin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Li, Jichang; Zhou, Tiezhong; Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Hongjun

    2014-05-01

    Colistin, a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic that is used to treat infections, may cause neurotoxicity. However, whether colistin can induce apoptosis and the precise mechanism of apoptosis involved in PC12 cells remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and DNA damage, as well as apoptotic factors such as p53, cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2, Fas, Fas-L and caspase family via western blotting in PC12 cells treated with colistin sulfate. The results showed that colistin sulfate increased ROS levels significantly. An increase of ROS levels induces the release of cytochrome c and DNA damage. DNA damage can activate p53, which leads to the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 promotes additional release of cytochrome c. The release of cytochrome c contributes to the activation of caspase-9 and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. An increase of Fas and Fas-L induced the activation of caspase-8 leading to the activation of caspases-3, the latter induces apoptosis. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the apoptotic pathway of colistin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells is involved in both the mitochondrial and death receptor pathway.

  3. The Key Role of Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in the Cytotoxic Effect of Mushroom Extracts on Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Ling, Ming-Tat; Chen, Jiezhong

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have been extensively studied for their medicinal effects. They can stimulate immune responses and thus have been explored in cancer treatment. Recently, it has also been shown that some mushroom extracts can produce direct cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the cytotoxic effect of mushroom extracts in cancer treatment revealed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. We also summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms associated with such an effect with an emphasis on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The recent finding that mushroom extracts have direct cytotoxic effects supplements their known immune stimulating effects. Thus, novel anticancer agents based on new findings from mushroom extracts may soon be added to the present pool of anticancer drugs. Specifically, we propose that nanodelivery of the bioactive compounds of mushroom extracts to mitochondria will further increase their potential treatment efficacy.

  4. Hydroxylation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their cytotoxicity by limiting the activation of mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenbao; Liu, Yanfei; Peng, Dongming

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxylation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can enhance their dispersibility in water, and allows the capability to conjugate with other molecules for the expected applications. However, the cytotoxicity of hydroxylated CNTs has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the cytotoxicity of hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) on a human cell line with that of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs). We showed that while both MWCNTs-OH and p-MWCNTs induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner, MWCNTs-OH triggered a significantly milder cytotoxic response than that of p-MWCNTs. We further showed that such attenuated response could be attributed to a reduced disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), leading to the attenuation of both cytochrome c (cyt-c) release and activation of caspases. These findings suggest that MWCNTs-OH, could be more biocompatible for in vivo applications than that of p-MWCNTs by limiting the activation of the mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathway.

  5. Hyperoside protects primary rat cortical neurons from neurotoxicity induced by amyloid β-protein via the PI3K/Akt/Bad/Bcl(XL)-regulated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Wang, Xue-Mei; Ko, Hyeonseok; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Cha, Jin Wook; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2011-12-15

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which is deposited in neurons as neurofibrillary tangles, is known to exert cytotoxic effects by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt-mediated interaction between Bad and Bcl(XL) plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. However, the application of therapeutic drugs, especially natural products in Alzheimer's disease therapy via PI3K/Akt/Bad/Bcl(XL)-regulated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway has not aroused extensive attention. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of hyperoside, a bioactive flavonoid compound from Hypericum perforatum, on Aβ(25-35)-induced primary cultured cortical neurons, and also examined the potential cellular signaling mechanism for Aβ detoxication. Our results showed that treatment with hyperoside significantly inhibited Aβ(25-35)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis by reversing Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, including mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. Further study indicated that hyperoside can activate the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, resulting in inhibition of the interaction between Bad and Bcl(XL), without effects on the interaction between Bad and Bcl-2. Furthermore, hyperoside inhibited mitochondria-dependent downstream caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, such as that involving caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). These results demonstrate that hyperoside can protect Aβ-induced primary cultured cortical neurons via PI3K/Akt/Bad/Bcl(XL)-regulated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and they raise the possibility that hyperoside could be developed into a clinically valuable treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other neuronal degenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro by inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Soo A; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intra-articular injection of local anesthetics (LAs) is a common procedure for therapeutic purposes. However, LAs have been found toxic to articular cartilage, and hyaluronan may attenuate this toxicity. In this study we investigated whether hyaluronan attenuated lidocaine-induced chondrotoxicity, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and newly isolated murine chondrocytes were incubated in culture medium containing hyaluronan and/or lidocaine for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with DAPI staining, caspase 3/7 activity assay and flow cytometry. Cell cycle distributions, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of p53 and p53-regulated gene products was measured with Western blotting. Results: Lidocaine (0.005%−0.03%) dose-dependently decreased the viability of SW1353 cells. This local anesthetic (0.015%, 0.025%) induced apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and loss of ΔΨm, and markedly increased ROS production in SW1353 cells. Hyaluronan (50−800 μg/mL) alone did not affect the cell viability, but co-treatment with hyaluronan (200 μg/mL) significantly attenuated lidocaine-induced apoptosis and other abnormalities in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with lidocaine and hyaluronan significantly decreased the levels of p53 and its transcription targets Bax and p21 in SW1353 cells, although treatment with lidocaine alone did not significantly change these proteins. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured murine chondrocytes. Conclusion: Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro through inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27041463

  7. Carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotube enhanced its biocompatibility with L02 cells through decreased activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenbao; Dong, Xia; Song, Liping; Zhang, Hailing; Liu, Lanxia; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian; Leng, Xigang

    2014-03-01

    Modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with carboxyl group is one of the widely used strategies to increase their water dispersibility. Various molecules can be further coupled to the surface of carboxylated CNTs for the desired applications. However, the effect of carboxylation of CNTs on their cytotoxicity is far from being completely understood. In this study, the impact of carboxylated multiwalled CNT (MWCNT-COOH) on human normal liver cell line L02 was studied and compared with pristine multiwalled CNT (p-MWCNT). The data accumulated in this study revealed that modification with carboxyl group reduced the toxicity of MWCNT on L02 cells, probably due to the decreased activation of mitochondria mediated apoptotic pathway. Both p-MWCNT and MWCNT-COOH, when reaching to certain concentration, induced significant decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytoplasm as well as activation of caspase-9, and -3. However, the changes induced by MWCNT-COOH were significantly milder than that by p-MWCNT. Our observation suggests that carboxylated MWCNTs might be safer for in vivo application as compared with p-MWCNT.

  8. Progesterone attenuates Aβ(25-35)-induced neuronal toxicity via JNK inactivation and progesterone receptor membrane component 1-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yabin; Chen, Zesha; Han, Xiaolei; Wu, Honghai; Yu, Yang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Sha; Hou, Yanning

    2015-11-01

    Progesterone, which acts as a neurosteroid in nervous system, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in different experiments in vitro and in vivo. Our previous study demonstrates that progesterone exerts neuroprotections in Alzheimer's disease-like rats. Present study attempted to evaluate the protective effects of progesterone on Aβ-treated neurons and potential mechanisms involved in neuroprotection. Results showed that treatment with progesterone protected primary cultured rat cortical neurons against Aβ(25-35)-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we observed that progesterone alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction by rescuing mitochondrial membrane potential under Aβ challenge. Moreover, progesterone could also attenuate Bax/Bcl-2 proteins ratio upregulation and inhibit the activation of caspase-3 in Aβ-treated neurons. These indicate that progesterone attenuates Aβ(25-35)-induced neuronal toxicity by inhibiting mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. Both classic progesterone receptors (classic PR) and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a special progesterone membrane receptor, are broadly expressed throughout the brain. The protective effect of progesterone was partially abolished by PGRMC1 inhibitor AG205 rather than classic PR antagonist RU486 in this study. Additionally, progesterone protected neurons by inhibiting Aβ-induced activation of JNK, which was an upstream signaling component in Aβ-induced mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. But this process was independent of PGRMC1. Taken together, these results suggest that progesterone exerts a protective effect against Aβ(25-35)-induced insults at least in part by two complementary pathways: (1) progesterone receptor membrane component 1-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and (2) blocking Aβ-induced JNK activation. The present study provides new insights into the mechanism by which progesterone brings neuroprotection. This article is part of a

  9. Pioglitazone alleviates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and mito-oxidative damage in the d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Chronic injection of d-galactose can cause gradual deterioration in learning and memory capacity, and activates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in the brain of mice. Thus, it serves as an animal model of ageing. Recent evidence has shown that mild cognitive impairment in humans might be alleviated by treatment with piogliatzone (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists). To continue exploring the effects of piogliatzone in this model, we focused on behavioural alteration, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in d-galactose-induced mice. The ageing model was established by administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (15 mg/kg) were given daily to d-galactose-induced senescent mice. The cognitive behaviour of mice was monitored using the Morris water maze. The anti-oxidant status and apoptotic activity in the ageing mice was measured by determining mito-oxidative parameters and caspase-3 activity in brain tissue. Systemic administration of d-galactose significantly increased behavioural alterations, biochemical parameters, mitochondrial enzymes, and activations of caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control group. Piogliatzone treatment significantly improved behavioural abnormalities, biochemical, cellular alterations, and attenuated the caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) with pioglitazone reversed the protective effect of pioglitazone in d-galactose-induced mice. The present study highlights the protective effects of pioglitzone against d-galactose-induced memory dysfunction, mito-oxidative damage and apoptosis through activation of PPARγ receptors. These findings suggest that pioglitazone might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of ageing.

  10. Resveratrol and the mitochondria: From triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, a mechanistic view.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Manayi, Azadeh; Daglia, Maria; Hajheydari, Zohreh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, are known as a cross-road of different cellular signaling pathways. These cytoplasmic double-membraned organelles play a pivotal role in energy metabolism and regulate calcium flux in the cells. It is well known that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with different diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. A growing body of literature has shown that polyphenolic compounds exert direct effects on mitochondrial ultra-structure and function. Resveratrol is known as one of the most common bioactive constituents of red wine, which improves mitochondrial functions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. This paper aims to review the molecular pathways underlying the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial structure and functions. In addition, we discuss the chemistry and main sources of resveratrol. Resveratrol represents the promising effects on mitochondria in different experimental models. However, there are several reports on the detrimental effects elicited by resveratrol on mitochondria. An understanding of the chemistry and source of resveratrol, its bioavailability and the promising effects on mitochondria brings a new hope to therapy of mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation in the atria of heart failure patients due to mitral and tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen-Ping; Chen, Mien-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Pan, Kuo-Li; Ho, Wan-Chun; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Huang-Chung

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis occurs in atrial cardiomyocytes in mitral and tricuspid valve disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the respective roles of the mitochondrial and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor associated death domain (TRADD)-mediated death receptor pathways for apoptosis in the atrial cardiomyocytes of heart failure patients due to severe mitral and moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation. This study comprised eighteen patients (7 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and 11 in sinus rhythm). Atrial appendage tissues were obtained during surgery. Three purchased normal human left atrial tissues served as normal controls. Moderately-to-severely myolytic cardiomyocytes comprised 59.7±22.1% of the cardiomyocytes in the right atria and 52.4±12.9% of the cardiomyocytes in the left atria of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with atrial fibrillation group and comprised 58.4±24.8% of the cardiomyocytes in the right atria of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with sinus rhythm. In contrast, no myolysis was observed in the normal human adult left atrial tissue samples. Immunohistochemical analysis showed expression of cleaved caspase-9, an effector of the mitochondrial pathways, in the majority of right atrial cardiomyocytes (87.3±10.0%) of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with sinus rhythm, and right atrial cardiomyocytes (90.6±31.4%) and left atrial cardiomyocytes (70.7±22.0%) of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients with atrial fibrillation. In contrast, only 5.7% of cardiomyocytes of the normal left atrial tissues showed strongly positive expression of cleaved caspase-9. Of note, none of the atrial cardiomyocytes in right atrial tissue in sinus rhythm and in the fibrillating right and left atria of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation patients, and in the normal human adult left atrial tissue samples showed cleaved caspase-8 expression, which is a downstream effector of TRADD of the death receptor pathway

  12. IRF-1 transcriptionally upregulates PUMA, which mediates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in IRF-1-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Senthil, M; Ren, B; Yan, J; Xing, Q; Yu, J; Zhang, L; Yim, J H

    2010-04-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that acts as a tumor suppressor and causes apoptosis in cancer cells. We evaluated IRF-1-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cell lines. We established stable clones in AGS cells that have a tetracycline-inducible IRF-1 expression system. We used these clones and recombinant adenovirus expressing IRF-1 to explore the mechanism of IRF-1-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer. Expression of IRF-1 causes apoptosis in gastric cancer cell lines as shown by phosphatidylserine exposure and cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-3, and Bid with the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. However, inhibition of caspase-8 and Bid did not inhibit apoptosis and did not decrease cleaved caspase-9 or mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. We then show that IRF-1 upregulates PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which is known to activate apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway; this can be p53-independent. IRF-1 binds to distinct sites in the promoter of PUMA and activates PUMA transcription. Moreover, molecular markers of mitochondrial apoptosis are eliminated in PUMA knockout and knockdown cells and phosphatidylserine exposure is decreased dramatically. Finally, we show that IFN-gamma induces IRF-1-mediated upregulation of PUMA in cancer cells. We conclude that IRF-1 can induce apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway independent of the extrinsic pathway by upregulation of PUMA.

  13. Induction of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in triple negative breast carcinoma cells by methylglyoxal via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Ahir, Manisha; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Parida, Pravat Kumar; Adhikary, Arghya; Jana, Kuladip; Ray, Manju

    2017-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tends to form aggressive tumors associated with high mortality and morbidity which urge the need for development of new therapeutic strategies. Recently, the normal metabolite Methylglyoxal (MG) has been documented for its anti-proliferative activity against human breast cancer. However, the mode of action of MG against TNBC remains open to question. In our study, we investigated the anticancer activity of MG in MDA MB 231 and 4T1 TNBC cell lines and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. MG dose-dependently caused cell death, induced apoptosis, and generated ROS in both the TNBC cell lines. Furthermore, such effects were attenuated in presence of ROS scavenger N-Acetyl cysteine. MG triggered mitochondrial cytochrome c release in the cytosol and up-regulated Bax while down-regulated anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Additionally, MG treatment down-regulated phospho-akt and inhibited the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. MG exhibited a tumor suppressive effect in BALB/c mouse 4T1 breast tumor model as well. The cytotoxic effect was studied using MTT assay. Apoptosis, ROS generation, and mitochondrial dysfunction was evaluated by flow cytometry as well as fluorescence microscopy. Western blot assay was performed to analyze proteins responsible for apoptosis. This study demonstrated MG as a potent anticancer agent against TNBC both in vitro and in vivo. The findings will furnish fresh insights into the treatment of this subgroup of breast cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tetrahydrocurcumin reduces oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by modulating autophagy in rats after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongyue; Zhuang, Zong; Gao, Shanting; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zihuan; Ye, Zhennan; Li, Liwen; Tang, Chao; Zhou, Mengliang; Han, Xiao; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) has been identified as a multi-functional neuroprotective agent in numerous neurological disorders. Oxidative stress as a result of injury may induce neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment with THC may improve neurological function following TBI by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis and by enhancing autophagy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of neuroprotection by THC against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis after TBI. We hypothesized that neuroprotection by THC may involve modulation of autophagy and the mitochondria apoptotic pathway. We used western blot analysis to evaluate the effect of THC on proteins involved in mitochondrial autophagy and apoptosis after TBI. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunofluorescence staining were used to confirm the role of THC in apoptosis and autophagy, respectively. THC-induced neuroprotection was assessed by neurological severity scoring (NSS) and by measuring the brain water content. We demonstrated that treatment with THC increased expression of autophagy-associated proteins LC3-II and Beclin-1 at 24 h post-TBI. Treatment with THC also reduced expression of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Further, treatment with THC attenuated apoptosis by modulating mitochondrial apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress. Treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) mitigated autophagy activation and reversed the inhibitory effect of THC on the translocation of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. Moreover, treatment with THC improved neurological function and reduced the brain water content in rats after TBI. We concluded that the neuroprotective effects of THC are mediated by enhancing autophagy activation and by attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis after TBI, probably by modulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. We suggest that THC may be an

  15. Phenolic extract from oleaster (Olea europaea var. Sylvestris) leaves reduces colon cancer growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeriouh, Wafa; Nani, Abdelhafid; Belarbi, Meriem; Dumont, Adélie; de Rosny, Charlotte; Aboura, Ikram; Ghanemi, Fatima Zahra; Murtaza, Babar; Patoli, Danish; Thomas, Charles; Apetoh, Lionel; Rébé, Cédric; Delmas, Dominique; Akhtar Khan, Naim; Ghiringhelli, François; Rialland, Mickael; Hichami, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, derived from natural products, have received a great interest for their chemopreventive properties against cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of phenolic extract of the oleaster leaves (PEOL) on tumor growth in mouse model and on cell death in colon cancer cell lines. We assessed the effect of oleaster leaf infusion on HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. We observed that oleaster leaf polyphenol-rich infusion limited HCT116 tumor growth in vivo. Investigations of PEOL on two human CRC cell lines showed that PEOL induced apoptosis in HCT116 and HCT8 cells. We demonstrated an activation of caspase-3, -7 and -9 by PEOL and that pre-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), prevented PEOL-induced cell death. We observed an involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in PEOL-induced apoptosis evidenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. Increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by PEOL represents the early event involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis induced by PEOL, as ruthenium red, an inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibited apoptotic effect of PEOL, BAPTA/AM inhibited PEOL-induced ROS generation and finally, N-acetyl-L-cysteine reversed ER stress and apoptotic effect of PEOL. These results demonstrate that polyphenols from oleaster leaves might have a strong potential as chemopreventive agent in colorectal cancer.

  16. Phenolic extract from oleaster (Olea europaea var. Sylvestris) leaves reduces colon cancer growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Belarbi, Meriem; Dumont, Adélie; de Rosny, Charlotte; Aboura, Ikram; Ghanemi, Fatima Zahra; Murtaza, Babar; Patoli, Danish; Thomas, Charles; Apetoh, Lionel; Rébé, Cédric; Delmas, Dominique; Akhtar Khan, Naim; Ghiringhelli, François; Rialland, Mickael; Hichami, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, derived from natural products, have received a great interest for their chemopreventive properties against cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of phenolic extract of the oleaster leaves (PEOL) on tumor growth in mouse model and on cell death in colon cancer cell lines. We assessed the effect of oleaster leaf infusion on HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. We observed that oleaster leaf polyphenol-rich infusion limited HCT116 tumor growth in vivo. Investigations of PEOL on two human CRC cell lines showed that PEOL induced apoptosis in HCT116 and HCT8 cells. We demonstrated an activation of caspase-3, -7 and -9 by PEOL and that pre-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), prevented PEOL-induced cell death. We observed an involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in PEOL-induced apoptosis evidenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. Increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by PEOL represents the early event involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis induced by PEOL, as ruthenium red, an inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibited apoptotic effect of PEOL, BAPTA/AM inhibited PEOL-induced ROS generation and finally, N-acetyl-L-cysteine reversed ER stress and apoptotic effect of PEOL. These results demonstrate that polyphenols from oleaster leaves might have a strong potential as chemopreventive agent in colorectal cancer. PMID:28212423

  17. The apoptotic effect of brucine from the seed of Strychnos nux-vomica on human hepatoma cells is mediated via Bcl-2 and Ca2+ involved mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xukun; Yin, Fangzhou; Lu, Xiaoyu; Cai, Baochang; Yin, Wu

    2006-05-01

    In an attempt to dissect the mechanism of Strychnos nux-vomica, a commonly used Chinese folk medicine in the therapy of liver cancer, the cytotoxic effects of four alkaloids in Strychnos nux-vomica, brucine, brucine N-oxide, strychnine, and isostrychnine, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were screened by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrasolium bromide (MTT) assay. Brucine, among the four alkaloids, exhibited the strongest toxic effect, the mechanism of which was found to cause HepG2 cell apoptosis, since brucine caused HepG2 cell shrinkage, the formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, as well as phosphatidylserine externalization, all of which are typical characteristics of apoptotic programmed cell death. Brucine-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis was caspase dependent, with caspase-3 activated by caspase-9. Brucine also caused the proteolytic processing of caspase-9. In addition, brucine caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane of HepG2 cells, the inhibition of which by cyclosporine A completely abrogated the activation of casapses and release of cytochrome c in brucine-treated HepG2 cells. These findings suggested a pivotal role of mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HepG2 cell apoptosis elicited by brucine. Furthermore, brucine induced a rapid and sustained elevation of intracellular [Ca2+], which compromised the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the process of HepG2 cell apoptosis. Finally, Bcl-2 was found to predominately control the whole event of cell apoptosis induced by brucine. The elevation of [Ca2+]i caused by brucine was also suppressed by overexpression of Bcl-2 protein in HepG2 cells. From the facts given above, Ca2+ and Bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway were found to be involved in brucine-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis.

  18. Triggering Apoptotic Death of Human Malignant Melanoma A375.S2 Cells by Bufalin: Involvement of Caspase Cascade-Dependent and Independent Mitochondrial Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Yu, Chun-Shu; Yu, Chien-Chih; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Ying; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Jen-Hung; Huang, An-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Bufalin was obtained from the skin and parotid venom glands of toad and has been shown to induce cytotoxic effects in various types of cancer cell lines, but there is no report to show that whether bufalin affects human skin cancer cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of bufalin on human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in induction of apoptosis. A375.S2 cells were treated with different concentrations of bufalin for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptotic analyses. Our results indicated that cells after exposure to bufalin significantly decreased cell viability, and induced cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric assays indicated that bufalin promoted ROS productions, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), intracellular Ca2+ release, and nitric oxide (NO) formations in A375.S2 cells. Additionally, the apoptotic induction of bufalin on A375.S2 cells resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction-related responses (disruption of the ΔΨm and releases of cytochrome c, AIF, and Endo G), and activations of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 expressions. Based on those observations, we suggest that bufalin-triggered apoptosis in A375.S2 cells is correlated with extrinsic- and mitochondria-mediated multiple signal pathways. PMID:22719785

  19. The p53-inducible gene 3 involved in flavonoid-induced cytotoxicity through the reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Guangdong; Qiu, Hongbin; Zhu, Liling; Ren, Zhongjuan; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit prooxidant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we investigated the potential mechanism that p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), a NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase, mediated the prooxidant cytotoxicity of flavonoids on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results showed that flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, and quercetin) inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dosage- and time-dependent manner, and induced the morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. We also found that expression of PIG3 was increased markedly in HepG2 cells treated with flavonoids at both mRNA and protein levels, which was accompanied by increased intracellular ROS production and a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). All these effects were largely reversed through knockdown of the PIG3 gene in HepG2 cells. Western blotting indicated that flavonoids increased cytochrome c release, upregulated the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and activated the caspases-9 and -3. Moreover, knockdown of PIG3 could reverse the changes of these apoptotic-related proteins. These results suggest that PIG3 plays an important role in regulating the prooxidant activity and apoptosis-inducing action of flavonoids on HepG2 cells though the ROS-triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  20. Bisdemethoxycurcumin exerts pro-apoptotic effects in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through mitochondrial dysfunction and a GRP78-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haopeng; Fan, Shengjun; An, Yu; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yan; Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Tie, Lu; Ye, Min; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy, which is intrinsically resistant to current chemotherapies. Herein, we investigate whether bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), a derivative of curcumin, potentiates gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cells. The result suggests that BDMC sensitizes gemcitabine by inducing mitochondrial dysfunctions and apoptosis in PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Utilizing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identify 13 essential proteins with significantly altered expressions in response to gemcitabine alone or combined with BDMC. Protein-protein interaction network analysis pinpoints glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as the key hub activated by BDMC. We then reveal that BDMC upregulates GRP78 and facilitates apoptosis through eIF2α/CHOP pathway. Moreover, DJ-1 and prohibitin, two identified markers of chemoresistance, are increased by gemcitabine in PANC-1 cells. This could be meaningfully reversed by BDMC, suggesting that BDMC partially offsets the chemoresistance induced by gemcitabine. In summary, these findings show that BDMC promotes apoptosis through a GRP78-dependent pathway and mitochondrial dysfunctions, and potentiates the antitumor effect of gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:27845899

  1. Wnt1 neuroprotection translates into improved neurological function during oxidant stress and cerebral ischemia through AKT1 and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling; Maiese, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although essential for the development of the nervous system, Wnt1 also has been associated with neurodegenerative disease and cognitive loss during periods of oxidative stress. Here we show that endogenous expression of Wnt1 is suppressed during oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Loss of endogenous Wnt1 signaling directly correlates with neuronal demise and increased functional deficit, illustrating that endogenous neuronal Wnt1 offers a vital level of intrinsic cellular protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Wnt1 or application of exogenous Wnt1 recombinant protein is necessary to preserve neurological function and rescue neurons from apoptotic membrane phosphatidylserine externalization and genomic DNA degradation, since blockade of Wnt1 signaling with a Wnt1 antibody or dickkopf related protein 1 abrogates neuronal protection by Wnt1. Wnt1 ultimately relies upon the activation of Akt1, the modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability, and the release of cytochrome c to control the apoptotic cascade, since inhibition of Wnt1 signaling, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, or Akt1 activity abrogates the ability of Wnt1 to block these apoptotic components. Our work identifies Wnt1 and its downstream signaling as cellular targets with high clinical potential for novel treatment strategies for multiple disorders precipitated by oxidative stress.

  2. Involvement of Bcl-xL degradation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway in pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Lili; Chen Ying; Liu Tianyu; Wang Zhengtao

    2008-09-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural hepatotoxins with worldwide distribution in more than 6000 high plants including medicinal herbs or teas. The aim of this study is to investigate the signal pathway involved in PAs-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that clivorine, isolated from Ligularia hodgsonii Hook, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in L-02 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Western-blot results showed that clivorine induced caspase-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in a time (8-48 h)- and concentration (1-100 {mu}M)-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly inhibited clivorine-induced apoptosis and rescued clivorine-decreased cell viability. Polyubiquitination of Bcl-xL was detected after incubation with 100 {mu}M clivorine for 40 h in the presence of proteasome specific inhibitor MG132, indicating possible degradation of Bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, pretreatment with MG132 or calpain inhibitor I for 2 h significantly enhanced clivorine-decreased Bcl-xL level and cell viability. All the other tested PAs such as senecionine, isoline and monocrotaline decreased mouse hepatocytes viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine (10 {mu}M) induced caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL was also confirmed in mouse hepatocytes. Meanwhile, another PA senecionine isolated from Senecio vulgaris L also induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAs may share the same hepatotoxic signal pathway, which involves degradation of Bcl-xL protein and thus leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.

  3. Topological Transitions in Mitochondrial Membranes controlled by Apoptotic Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Sanders, Lori K.; Mishra, Abhijit; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Ivashyna, Olena; Schlesinger, Paul H.

    2010-03-01

    The Bcl-2 family comprises pro-apoptotic proteins, capable of permeabilizing the mitochondrial membrane, and anti-apoptotic members interacting in an antagonistic fashion to regulate programmed cell death (apoptosis). They offer potential therapeutic targets to re-engage cellular suicide in tumor cells but the extensive network of implicated protein-protein interactions has impeded full understanding of the decision pathway. We show, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, that pro-apoptotic proteins interact with mitochondrial-like model membranes to generate saddle-splay (negative Gaussian) curvature topologically required for pore formation, while anti-apoptotic proteins can deactivate curvature generation by molecules drastically different from Bcl-2 family members and offer evidence for membrane-curvature mediated interactions general enough to affect very disparate systems.

  4. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  5. CD147 interacts with NDUFS6 in regulating mitochondrial complex I activity and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Z; Zeng, W; Tang, W; Long, T; Zhang, J; Xie, X; Kuang, Y; Chen, M; Su, J; Chen, X

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the most lethal tumors and is characterized by high invasiveness, frequent metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. The risk of metastatic MM is accompanied by disordered energy metabolism involving the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) process, which is largely carried out in mitochondrial complexes. Complex I is the first and largest mitochondrial enzyme complex associated with this process. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein mainly expressed on the cell surface, and also appears in the cytoplasm in some tumors. We found that CD147 is often translocated to the cytoplasm in metastatic MM specimens as compared to primary MM. We also demonstrated high expression of CD147 in isolated mitochondrial fractions of A375 cells. The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay identified NDUFS6 (which encodes a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I) as a candidate that interacts with CD147 and depletion of CD147 in A375 cells significantly decreased complex I enzyme activity. We also showed that CD147 increased the viability of A375 cells exposed to berberine-induced mitochondrial damage, and protected them from apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. This finding was confirmed by adding exogenous Bcl-2 to A375 cell cultures. In summary, our results identify the existence of CD147 in human melanoma cell mitochondria. They indicate that CD147 appears to regulate complex I activity and apoptosis in MM by interacting with mitochondrial NDUFS6. Our findings provide new insight into the function of CD147 and identify it as a promising therapeutic target in melanoma through disruption of the energy metabolism.

  6. Investigation of the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in mononuclear cells of patients with systemic Lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Jih; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Su, Chih-Min; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Lin, Yu-Jun; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-11-06

    This study aimed to explore the role of apoptosis initiators, caspase-9, caspase-10, mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein (MAVS), and interferon regulatory factor 7 (pIRF7), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Leukocyte apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, including annexin V, APO2.7, and 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) on each subtype of leukocyte in 35 patients with SLE, 15 disease controls, and 17 volunteer normal controls. Levels of caspase-9, caspase-10, MAVS, and pIRF7 in mononuclear cells and the disease activity index (SLEDAI) in the SLE patients were determined. Correlation among intracellular adaptor proteins and caspase levels were calculated. The SLE patients had higher APO2.7 in total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocytes, and higher late apoptosis markers in total leukocytes and neutrophils than normal controls (all p < 0.05). Disease activity was positively associated with the APO2.7 of CD19+ cells in SLE, but negatively associated with MAVS and caspase-9 levels (all p < 0.05). Markers of viral infection and anti-virus transcription factors like MDA5, MAVS, and pIRF7 were significantly higher in SLE patients than in disease controls (p < 0.05). Caspase-9 and caspase-10 levels positively correlated with MAVS and pIRF7 in SLE patients (p < 0.05). The disease activity of SLE is positively associated with APO2.7 level of CD19+ cells but negatively associated with MAVS and caspase-9 levels, which all point to a mitochondrial pathway.

  7. The apoptotic effect of nanosilver is mediated by a ROS- and JNK-dependent mechanism involving the mitochondrial pathway in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Yi-Hong; Chen, Chun-Feng; Huang, Shing; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lai, Ping-Shan; Chueh, Pin Ju

    2008-07-10

    Nanomaterials and nanoparticles have received considerable attention recently because of their unique properties and diverse biotechnology and life sciences applications. Nanosilver products, which have well-known antimicrobial properties, have been used extensively in a range of medical settings. Despite the widespread use of nanosilver products, relatively few studies have been undertaken to determine the biological effects of nanosilver exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of nanosilver and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of nanosilver. Here, we show that nanosilver is cytotoxic, inducing apoptosis in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Treatment with nanosilver induced the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and translocation of Bax to mitochondria, indicating that nanosilver-mediated apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. Nanosilver-induced apoptosis was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and JNK activation, and inhibition of either ROS or JNK attenuated nanosilver-induced apoptosis. In nanosilver-resistant HCT116 cells, up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 appeared to be associated with a diminished apoptotic response. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for a molecular mechanism of nanosilver cytotoxicity, showing that nanosilver acts through ROS and JNK to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.

  8. The roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway in quercetin-mediated cell death of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-Ching; Yen, Chun-Yi; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lo, Chyi; Chen, Hung-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-04-01

    Prostate cancer has its highest incidence and is becoming a major concern. Many studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine exhibited antitumor responses. Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been shown to induce apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. Although numerous evidences show multiple possible signaling pathways of quercetin in apoptosis, there is no report to address the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in quercetin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on the induction of the apoptotic pathway in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Cells were treated with quercetin for 24 and 48 h and at various doses (50-200 μM), and cell morphology and viability decreased significantly in dose-dependent manners. Flow cytometric assay indicated that quercetin at 150 μM caused G0/G1 phase arrest (31.4-49.7%) and sub-G1 phase cells (19.77%) for 36 h treatment and this effect is a time-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis indicated that quercetin induces the G0/G1 phase arrest via decreasing the levels of CDK2, cyclins E, and D proteins. Quercetin also stimulated the protein expression of ATF, GRP78, and GADD153 which is a hall marker of ER stress. Furthermore, PC-3 cells after incubation with quercetin for 48 h showed an apoptotic cell death and DNA damage which are confirmed by DAPI and Comet assays, leading to decrease the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and level of ΔΨm , and increase the proapoptotic Bax protein and the activations of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Moreover, quercetin promoted the trafficking of AIF protein released from mitochondria to nuclei. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade through mitochondrial pathway and ER stress in PC-3 cells. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A cyclopalladated complex interacts with mitochondrial membrane thiol-groups and induces the apoptotic intrinsic pathway in murine and cisplatin-resistant human tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systemic therapy for cancer metastatic lesions is difficult and generally renders a poor clinical response. Structural analogs of cisplatin, the most widely used synthetic metal complexes, show toxic side-effects and tumor cell resistance. Recently, palladium complexes with increased stability are being investigated to circumvent these limitations, and a biphosphinic cyclopalladated complex {Pd2 [S(-)C2, N-dmpa]2 (μ-dppe)Cl2} named C7a efficiently controls the subcutaneous development of B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma in syngeneic mice. Presently, we investigated the melanoma cell killing mechanism induced by C7a, and extended preclinical studies. Methods B16F10-Nex2 cells were treated in vitro with C7a in the presence/absence of DTT, and several parameters related to apoptosis induction were evaluated. Preclinical studies were performed, and mice were endovenously inoculated with B16F10-Nex2 cells, intraperitoneally treated with C7a, and lung metastatic nodules were counted. The cytotoxic effects and the respiratory metabolism were also determined in human tumor cell lines treated in vitro with C7a. Results Cyclopalladated complex interacts with thiol groups on the mitochondrial membrane proteins, causes dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induces Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, colocalizing with a mitochondrial tracker. C7a also induced an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, mainly from intracellular compartments, and a significant decrease in the ATP levels. Activation of effector caspases, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation, suggested that C7a activates the apoptotic intrinsic pathway in murine melanoma cells. In the preclinical studies, the C7a complex protected against murine metastatic melanoma and induced death in several human tumor cell lineages in vitro, including cisplatin-resistant ones. The mitochondria-dependent cell death was also induced by C7a in human tumor cells. Conclusions The

  10. IGF-1 protects oligodendrocyte progenitors against TNFalpha-induced damage by activation of PI3K/Akt and interruption of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yi; Zheng, Baoying; Fan, Lir-Wan; Rhodes, Philip G; Cai, Zhengwei

    2007-08-15

    Proinflammatory cytokine-mediated injury to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) has been proposed as a cause of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the most common brain injury found in preterm infants. Preventing death of OPCs is a potential strategy to prevent or treat PVL. In the current study, we utilized an in vitro cell culture system to investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced OPC injury and the possible mechanisms involved. OPCs were isolated from neonatal rat optic nerves and cultured in chemically defined medium (CDM) supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Exposure to TNFalpha resulted in death of OPCs. IGF-1 protected OPCs from TNFalpha cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner as measured by the XTT and TUNEL assays. IGF-1 activates both the PI3K/Akt and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. However, IGF-1-enhanced cell survival signals were mediated by the PI3K/Akt, but not by the ERK pathway, as evidenced by the observation that IGF-1-enhanced cell survival was partially abrogated by Akti, the Akt inhibitor, or wortmannin, the PI3K inhibitor, but not by PD98,059, the MAPK kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor. The downstream events of IGF-1-triggered survival signals included phosphorylation of BAD, blockade of TNFalpha-induced translocation of Bax from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane, and suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. These observations indicate that the protection of OPCs by IGF-1 is mediated, at least partially, by interruption of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via activation of PI3K/Akt.

  11. CQ synergistically sensitizes human colorectal cancer cells to SN-38/CPT-11 through lysosomal and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via p53-ROS cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pinjia; Luo, Xiaoyong; Nie, Peipei; Wu, Baoyan; Xu, Wei; Shi, Xinpeng; Chang, Haocai; Li, Bing; Yu, Xiurong; Zou, Zhengzhi

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in supporting cell survival against chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In this study, we found the chemotherapy agent SN-38 induced autophagy in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. However, inhibition of autophagy using a small molecular inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and ATG5 siRNA did not increase SN-38-induced cytotoxicity in CRC cells. Notably, another autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor activity of SN-38 in CRC cells with wild type (WT) p53. Subsequently, we identified a potential mechanism of this cooperative interaction by showing that CQ and SN-38 acted together to trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, upregulate p53 expression, elicit the loss of lysosomal membrane potential (LMP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm). In addition, ROS induced by CQ plus SN-38 upregulated p53 levels by activating p38, conversely, p53 stimulated ROS. These results suggested that ROS and p53 reciprocally promoted each other's production and cooperated to induce CRC cell death. Moreover, we showed induction of ROS and p53 by the two agents provoked the loss of LMP and ∆ψm. Altogether, all results suggested that CQ synergistically sensitized human CRC cells with WT p53 to SN-38 through lysosomal and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via p53-ROS cross-talk. Lastly, we showed that CQ could enhance CRC cells response to CPT-11 (a prodrug of SN-38) in xenograft models. Thus the combined treatment might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CRC.

  12. HIF-1α inhibition by 2-methoxyestradiol induces cell death via activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhe, Nana; Chen, Shuya; Zhou, Zhen; Liu, Ping; Lin, Xiaojing; Yu, Meisheng; Cheng, Bingqing; Zhang, Yaming; Wang, Jishi

    2016-06-02

    The bone marrow microenvironment plays an important role in the development and progression of AML. Leukemia stem cells are in a hypoxic condition, which induces the expression of HIF-1α. Aberrant activation of HIF-1α is implicated in the poor prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, we investigated the expression of HIF-1α in AML and tested 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) as a candidate HIF-1α inhibitor for the treatment of AML. We found that HIF-1α was overexpressed in AML. HIF-1α suppression by 2ME2 significantly induced apoptosis of AML cells, and it outperformed traditional chemotherapy drugs such as cytarabine. At the same time, 2ME2 downregulated the transcriptional levels of VEGF, GLUT1 and HO-1 in cellular assays. Additionally, 2ME2 displayed antileukemia activity in bone marrow blasts from AML patients, but showed little effect on normal cells. 2ME2-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which decreased the slight effect of drug on normal cells. Our data show that supression of HIF-1α expression significantly reduced the survival of AML cell lines, suggesting that 2ME2 may represent a powerful therapeutic approach for patients with AML.

  13. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is induced by Cu(II) antineoplastic compounds (Casiopeínas(®)) in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells after short exposure times.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez, Anllely Grizett; Vázquez-Aguirre, Adriana; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; Alonso-Sáenz, Ana Luisa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Mejía, Carmen; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena

    2017-02-01

    The family of Copper(II) coordination compounds Casiopeínas(®) (Cas) has shown antiproliferative activity in several tumour lines by oxidative cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction that lead to cell death through apoptotic pathways. The goal of this work is looking for the functional mechanism of CasIIgly, CasIIIia and CasIIIEa in neuroblastoma metastatic cell line SK-N-SH, a paediatric extra-cranial tumour which is refractory to several anti-carcinogenic agents. All Cas have shown higher antiproliferative activity than cisplatin (IC50 = 123 μM) with IC50 values of 18, 22 and 63 µM for CasIIgly, CasIIIEa and CasIIIia, respectively. At low concentrations and early times (4 h), these compounds cause a disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm). Concomitantly, an important depletion of intracellular glutathione and an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide and radical superoxide were observed. On the other side, the lower cytotoxic effect of Casiopeínas on cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (IC50CasIIgly  = 1720 µM, IC50 CasIIIEa  = 3860 µM and IC50 CasIIIia  = 4700 µM) show the selectivity of these compounds over the tumour cells compared with the non-transformed cells. Chemically, glutathione (GSH) interacts with Casiopeínas(®) through the coordination of sulphur atom to the metal centre, process which facilitates the electron transfer to get Cu(I), GSSG and the posterior production of ROS. Additionally, the molecular structure of CasIIIia as nitrate is reported. These results have shown that the anticarcinogenic activity of Casiopeínas(®) on neuroblastoma SK-N-SH is through mitochondrial apoptosis due to the enhanced pro-oxidant environment promoted by the presence of the coordination copper compounds.

  14. PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic disruption by hypoxic postconditioning.

    PubMed

    Li, YuZhen; Guo, Qi; Liu, XiuHua; Wang, Chen; Song, DanDan

    2015-08-01

    Postconditioning can reduce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting mitochondria. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is involved in lethal I/R injury. Here, we hypothesized that postconditioning might inhibit mitochondrial pathway-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis by controlling PUMA expression. The cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes underwent 3 h of hypoxia and 3 h of reoxygenation. Postconditioning consisted of three cycles of 5 min reoxygenation and 5 min hypoxia after prolonged hypoxia. Hypoxic postconditioning reduced the levels of PUMA mRNA and protein. Concomitantly, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation were decreased significantly by postconditioning. Overexpression of PUMA increased greatly not only the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, but also the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation under postconditioning condition. The data suggest that reduction of PUMA expression mediates the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms of postconditioning by disrupting mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  15. Isoegomaketone induces apoptosis in SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cells through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Jae; Lee, Ju-Hye; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Jeong, Il-Yun; Yee, Sung-Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Kwon-Il

    2014-11-01

    Isoegomaketone (IK) is a major biologically active component of Perilla frutescens. In this study, we investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to IK-induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells. We found that IK inhibited the proliferation of SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. IK also induced sub-G1 DNA accumulation, formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, and a DNA ladder in SK-MEL-2 cells. IK also induced activation of caspase-3 and -9, whereas caspase‑8 was unaffected. Further, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, ROS scavenger) treatment to SK-MEL-2 cells significantly reduced IK-induced cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to SK-MEL-2 cells followed by 100 µM IK reduced the protein levels of Bax and cytochrome c as well as PARP cleavage, whereas the protein level of Bcl-2 increased. Moreover, IK inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT/mTOR protein and cell proliferation induced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In conclusion, IK-induced ROS generation regulates cell growth inhibition and it induces apoptosis through caspase‑dependent and -independent pathways via modulation of PI3K/AKT signaling in SK-MEL-2 cells.

  16. Effect of mitochondrial apoptotic activation through the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore on yak meat tenderness during postmortem aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Han, Ling; Ma, Xiu-Li; Yu, Qun-Li; Zhao, Suo-Nan

    2017-11-01

    The effect of membrane permeability transition pore dependent mitochondrial apoptotic activation on yak meat tenderness was investigated. Results indicate that MPTP opening increased significantly and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased markedly in the early aging process (P<0.05). Cytochrome c was released from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm via the MPTP in the early period. Meanwhile, the activation of procaspase-9 occurred earlier than that of procaspase-3. Cyclosporin A suppressed the MPTP opening, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3, apoptosis rate, myofibril fragmentation index, reactive oxygen species generation, and Ca(2+) levels. These results demonstrated that MPTP mediated the release of cytochrome c in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, yak meat tenderness was improved by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway during aging. MPTP opening may be influenced by the ROS generation and Ca(2+) overloading in yak meat during postmortem aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles activate IL-1b, NFKB1, CCL21 and NOS2 signaling to induce mitochondrial dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway in WISH cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Shams T.; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-12-01

    localization of NPs. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs induce DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in WISH cells. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs activate inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in WISH cells. • Elevation of p53, CASP 3, bax and bcl 2 genes affirms intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  18. Human chorionic gonadotropin suppresses human breast cancer cell growth directly via p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and indirectly via ovarian steroid secretion.

    PubMed

    Yuri, Takashi; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-03-01

    The tumor-suppressive effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) against human breast cancer cells were examined. In cell viability assays, hCG inhibited the growth of three human breast cancer cell lines (estrogen receptor (ER)-positive KPL-1 and MCF-7, and ER-negative MKL-F cells), and the growth inhibition activity of hCG was most pronounced against KPL-1 cells (luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR)-positive and luminal-A subtype). In hCG-treated KPL-1 cells, immunoblotting analysis revealed the expression of tumor suppressor protein p53 peaking at 12 h following treatment, followed by cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. KPL-1-transplanted athymic mice were divided into 3 groups: a sham-treated group that received an inoculation of KPL-1 cells at 6 weeks of age followed by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline; an in vitro hCG-treated KPL-1 group that received an inoculation of KPL-1 cells pre-treated with 100 IU/ml hCG in vitro for 48 h at 6 weeks of age, followed by daily i.p. injection of saline; and an in vivo hCG-treated group that received an KPL-1 cell inoculation at 6 weeks of age, followed by daily i.p. injection of 100 IU hCG. The daily injections of saline or hCG continued until the end of the experiment when mice reached 11 weeks of age. KPL-1 tumor growth was retarded in in vitro and in vivo hCG-treated mice compared to sham-treated controls, and the final tumor volume and tumor weight tended to be suppressed in the in vitro hCG-treated group and were significantly suppressed in the in vivo hCG-treated group. In vivo 100-IU hCG injections for 5 weeks elevated serum estradiol levels (35.7 vs. 23.5 pg/ml); thus, the mechanisms of hCG action may be directly coordinated via the p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and indirectly through ovarian steroid secretion that elevates estrogen levels. It is thus concluded that hCG may be an attractive agent for treating human breast

  19. Mangiferin Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress Mediated Signaling Cascade, TNFα Related and Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptotic Pathways in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in hyperglycemic conditions. It has already been reported that mangiferin, a natural C-glucosyl xanthone and polyhydroxy polyphenol compound protects kidneys from diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the mechanism of its beneficial action in this pathophysiology. The present study, therefore, examines the detailed mechanism of the beneficial action of mangiferin on STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in Wister rats as the working model. A significant increase in plasma glucose level, kidney to body weight ratio, glomerular hypertrophy and hydropic changes as well as enhanced nephrotoxicity related markers (BUN, plasma creatinine, uric acid and urinary albumin) were observed in the experimental animals. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress related parameters, increased ROS production and decreased the intracellular antioxidant defenses were detected in the kidney. Studies on the oxidative stress mediated signaling cascades in diabetic nephropathy demonstrated that PKC isoforms (PKCα, PKCβ and PKCε), MAPKs (p38, JNK and ERK1/2), transcription factor (NF-κB) and TGF-β1 pathways were involved in this pathophysiology. Besides, TNFα was released in this hyperglycemic condition, which in turn activated caspase 8, cleaved Bid to tBid and finally the mitochorndia-dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, oxidative stress also disturbed the proapoptotic-antiapoptotic (Bax and Bcl-2) balance and activated mitochorndia-dependent apoptosis via caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Mangiferin treatment, post to hyperglycemia, successfully inhibited all of these changes and protected the cells from apoptotic death. PMID:25233093

  20. Apoptotic effect of novel Schiff Based CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex is mediated via activation of the mitochondrial pathway in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Salga, Muhammad Saleh; Karimian, Hamed; Shams, Keivan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    The development of metal-based agents has had a tremendous role in the present progress in cancer chemotherapy. One well-known example of metal-based agents is Schiff based metal complexes, which hold great promise for cancer therapy. Based on the potential of Schiff based complexes for the induction of apoptosis, this study aimed to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of a CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex on HT-29 cells. The complex exerted a potent suppressive effect on HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 2.57 ± 0.39 after 72 h of treatment. The collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the elevated release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol indicate the involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the induction of apoptosis. The role of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway was further proved by the significant activation of the initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3 and -7. In addition, the activation of caspase-8, which is associated with the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, also revealed the involvement of the extrinsic pathway in the induced apoptosis. The results suggest that the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex is able to induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells and is a potential candidate for future cancer studies. PMID:25764970

  1. Esculetin, a natural coumarin compound, evokes Ca(2+) movement and activation of Ca(2+)-associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved cell cycle arrest in ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Tai; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Lin, You-Sheng; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-04-01

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a derivative of coumarin compound, is found in traditional medicinal herbs. It has been shown that esculetin triggers diverse cellular signal transduction pathways leading to regulation of physiology in different models. However, whether esculetin affects Ca(2+) homeostasis in breast cancer cells has not been explored. This study examined the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by esculetin and established the relationship between Ca(2+) signaling and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. The results showed that esculetin induced concentration-dependent rises in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in ZR-75-1 (but not in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. In ZR-75-1 cells, this Ca(2+) signal response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by the store-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). In Ca(2+)-free medium, pre-treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished esculetin-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, incubation with esculetin abolished TG-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Esculetin induced cytotoxicity that involved apoptosis, as supported by the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c and the proteolytic activation of caspase-9/caspase-3, which were partially reversed by pre-chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Moreover, esculetin increased the percentage of cells in G2/M phase and regulated the expressions of p53, p21, CDK1, and cyclin B1. Together, in ZR-75-1 cells, esculetin induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER and causing Ca(2+) influx through 2-APB-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) entry. Furthermore, esculetin activated Ca(2+)-associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved G2/M cell cycle arrest. Graphical abstract The summary of esculetin

  2. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents ultraviolet-B-induced photodamage: a role for mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor kappa B and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Afnan, Quadri; Kaiser, Peerzada J; Rafiq, Rather A; Nazir, Lone A; Bhushan, Shashi; Bhardwaj, Subhash C; Sandhir, Rajat; Tasduq, Sheikh A

    2016-06-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene, has received attention as an agent that has protective effects against chronic diseases including ultraviolet UV-B-induced skin photodamage. However, the mechanism of its protective effect remains elusive. Here, we used an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and a small animal model (BALB/c mice), to investigate the protective effects of GA against UV-B-induced oxidative damage, and additionally, delineated the molecular mechanisms involved in the UV-B-mediated inflammatory and apoptotic response. In the HaCaT cells, GA inhibited the UV-B-mediated increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulated the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β and -6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). GA inhibited UV-B-mediated activation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases, COX-2 expression and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, GA inhibited UV-B-mediated apoptosis by attenuating translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria, thus preserving mitochondrial integrity. GA-treated HaCaT cells also exhibited elevated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, concomitant with reduced caspase-3 cleavage and decreased PARP-1 protein. In BALB/c mice, topical application of GA on dorsal skin exposed to UV-B irradiation protected against epidermal hyperplasia, lymphocyte infiltration and expression of several inflammatory proteins, p38, JNK, COX-2, NF-κB and ICAM-1. Based on the above findings, we conclude that GA protects against UV-B-mediated photodamage by inhibiting the signalling cascades triggered by oxidative stress, including MAPK/NF-κB activation, as well as apoptosis. Thus, GA has strong potential to be used as a therapeutic/cosmeceutical agent against photodamage. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Computational modeling of apoptotic signaling pathways induced by cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is an essential property of all higher organisms that involves extremely complex signaling pathways. Mathematical modeling provides a rigorous integrative approach for analyzing and understanding such intricate biological systems. Results Here, we constructed a large-scale, literature-based model of apoptosis pathways responding to an external stimulus, cisplatin. Our model includes the key elements of three apoptotic pathways induced by cisplatin: death receptor-mediated, mitochondrial, and endoplasmic reticulum-stress pathways. We showed that cisplatin-induced apoptosis had dose- and time-dependent characteristics, and the level of apoptosis was saturated at higher concentrations of cisplatin. Simulated results demonstrated that the effect of the mitochondrial pathway on apoptosis was the strongest of the three pathways. The cross-talk effect among pathways accounted for approximately 25% of the total apoptosis level. Conclusions Using this model, we revealed a novel mechanism by which cisplatin induces dose-dependent cell death. Our finding that the level of apoptosis was affected by not only cisplatin concentration, but also by cross talk among pathways provides in silico evidence for a functional impact of system-level characteristics of signaling pathways on apoptosis. PMID:22967854

  4. Cancer therapeutics: Targeting the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khurum H; Blanco-Codesido, Montserrat; Molife, L Rhoda

    2014-06-01

    Apoptosis, a physiological process of programmed cell death, is disrupted in various malignancies. It has been exploited as an anti-cancer strategy traditionally by inducing DNA damage with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. With an increased understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in recent years, novel approaches of targeting the apoptotic pathways have been tested in pre-clinical and clinical models. There are several early phase clinical trials investigating the therapeutic role of pro-apoptotic agents, both as single agents and in combination. In this review, we examine such treatment strategies, detailing the various compounds currently under clinical investigation, their potential roles in cancer therapeutics, and discussing approaches to their optimal use in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The mitochondrial death pathway: a promising therapeutic target in diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Kass, George EN; Szegezdi, Eva; Joseph, Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis is a major pathway of physiological cell death in vertebrates. The mitochondrial cell death pathway commences when apoptogenic molecules present between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes are released into the cytosol by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). BCL-2 family members are the sentinels of MOMP in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway; the pro-apoptotic B cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 proteins, BCL-2 associated x protein and BCL-2 antagonist killer 1 induce MOMP whereas the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins, BCL-2, BCL-xl and myeloid cell leukaemia 1 prevent MOMP from occurring. The release of pro-apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c from mitochondria leads to formation of a multimeric complex known as the apoptosome and initiates caspase activation cascades. These pathways are important for normal cellular homeostasis and play key roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the mitochondrial death pathway and focus on a selection of diseases whose pathogenesis involves the mitochondrial death pathway and we will examine the various pharmacological approaches that target this pathway. PMID:19220575

  6. Walsuronoid B induces mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction leading to apoptotic rather than autophagic cell death via ROS/p53 signaling pathways in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ya-di; Zhang, Chao; Lei, Jian-Li; Yu, Pei; Xia, Yuan-Zheng; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Lei; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2017-10-15

    Walsuronoid B is a limonoid compound extracted from Walsura robusta. Previous studies have shown that limonoid compounds possess anti-cancer potential, although the molecular mechanism of this activity remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that walsuronoid B inhibited cell proliferation in several human cancer lines. Liver cancer cells (HepG2 and Bel-7402) were chosen for their high sensitivity to walsuronoid B. Walsuronoid B induced cell death through G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis and induced the accumulation of autophagosomes through the suppression of mTOR signaling, which serves as a cell survival mechanism and prevents cell death. We further examined the molecular mechanisms and found that walsuronoid B-induced dysfunction of the mitochondria and lysosomes rather than the endoplasmic reticulum contributed to its cell death effect. Walsuronoid B enhanced the generation of hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide anion radical, resulting in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, ROS induced by walsuronoid B upregulated p53 levels; conversely, p53 stimulated ROS. These results suggested that ROS and p53 reciprocally promoted each other's production and cooperated to induce liver cancer cell death. We found that the induction of ROS and p53 significantly triggered G2/M phase arrest and mitochondrial and lysosomal apoptosis. Finally, walsuronoid B suppressed tumor growth in vivo with few side effects. In summary, our findings demonstrated that walsuronoid B caused G2/M phase arrest and induced mitochondrial and lysosomal apoptosis through the ROS/p53 signaling pathway in human liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Costunolide induces G1/S phase arrest and activates mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways in SK-MES 1 human lung squamous carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HUA, PEIYAN; ZHANG, GUANGXIN; ZHANG, YIFAN; SUN, MEI; CUI, RANJI; LI, XIN; LI, BINGJIN; ZHANG, XINGYI

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, a safer and more effective modality strategy is required for the treatment of lung cancer. Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone which isolated from the Saussurea lappa, has potent anticancer properties. In the present study, the effects of costunolide on cell viability, the cell cycle and apoptosis in SK-MES-1 human lung squamous carcinoma cells were investigated. Costunolide induced morphological changes and inhibited growth of SK-MES-1 cells growth. Flow cytometric analysis data demonstrated that costunolide significantly induced apoptosis of SK-MES-1 cells and induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase in a dose-dependent manner. Through upregulation in the expression of p53 and Bax, and downregulation in the expression of Bcl-2 and activation of caspase-3, costunolide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by western blot analysis. In addition, the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated that costunolide may induce apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in SK-MES-1 cells. These results highlight the potential effects of costunolide as an anti-cancer agent in a human lung squamous carcinoma cell line. PMID:27073552

  9. Costunolide induces G1/S phase arrest and activates mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways in SK-MES 1 human lung squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, Peiyan; Zhang, Guangxin; Zhang, Yifan; Sun, Mei; Cui, Ranji; Li, Xin; Li, Bingjin; Zhang, Xingyi

    2016-04-01

    Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, a safer and more effective modality strategy is required for the treatment of lung cancer. Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone which isolated from the Saussurea lappa, has potent anticancer properties. In the present study, the effects of costunolide on cell viability, the cell cycle and apoptosis in SK-MES-1 human lung squamous carcinoma cells were investigated. Costunolide induced morphological changes and inhibited growth of SK-MES-1 cells growth. Flow cytometric analysis data demonstrated that costunolide significantly induced apoptosis of SK-MES-1 cells and induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase in a dose-dependent manner. Through upregulation in the expression of p53 and Bax, and downregulation in the expression of Bcl-2 and activation of caspase-3, costunolide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by western blot analysis. In addition, the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated that costunolide may induce apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in SK-MES-1 cells. These results highlight the potential effects of costunolide as an anti-cancer agent in a human lung squamous carcinoma cell line.

  10. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles activate IL-1b, NFKB1, CCL21 and NOS2 signaling to induce mitochondrial dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway in WISH cells.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Shams T; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-12-01

    The present study has demonstrated the translocation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZnFe2O4-NPs) into the cytoplasm of human amnion epithelial (WISH) cells, and the ensuing cytotoxicity and genetic damage. The results suggested that in situ NPs induced oxidative stress, alterations in cellular membrane and DNA strand breaks. The [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assays indicated 64.48 ± 1.6% and 50.73 ± 2.1% reduction in cell viability with 100 μg/ml of ZnFe2O4-NPs exposure. The treated WISH cells exhibited 1.2-fold higher ROS level with 0.9-fold decline in membrane potential (ΔΨm) and 7.4-fold higher DNA damage after 48h of ZnFe2O4-NPs treatment. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of p53, CASP 3 (caspase-3), and bax genes revealed 5.3, 1.6, and 14.9-fold upregulation, and 0.18-fold down regulation of bcl 2 gene vis-à-vis untreated control. RT(2) Profiler™ PCR array data elucidated differential up-regulation of mRNA transcripts of IL-1b, NFKB1, NOS2 and CCL21 genes in the range of 1.5 to 3.7-folds. The flow cytometry based cell cycle analysis suggested the transfer of 15.2 ± 2.1% (p<0.01) population of ZnFe2O4-NPs (100 μg/ml) treated cells into apoptotic phase through intrinsic pathway. Over all, the data revealed the potential of ZnFe2O4-NPs to induce cellular and genetic toxicity in cells of placental origin. Thus, the significant ROS production, reduction in ΔΨm, DNA damage, and activation of genes linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation, DNA damage and repair could serve as the predictive toxicity and stress markers for ecotoxicological assessment of ZnFe2O4-NPs induced cellular and genetic damage.

  11. The Modulation of Apoptotic Pathways by Gammaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Uppal, Timsy; Strahan, Roxanne; Dabral, Prerna; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a tightly regulated process fundamental for cellular development and elimination of damaged or infected cells during the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is also an important cellular defense mechanism against viral invasion. In many instances, abnormal regulation of apoptosis has been associated with a number of diseases, including cancer development. Following infection of host cells, persistent and oncogenic viruses such as the members of the Gammaherpesvirus family employ a number of different mechanisms to avoid the host cell’s “burglar” alarm and to alter the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways by either deregulating the expressions of cellular signaling genes or by encoding the viral homologs of cellular genes. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on how gammaherpesviruses inhibit cellular apoptosis via virus-encoded proteins by mediating modification of numerous signal transduction pathways. We also list the key viral anti-apoptotic proteins that could be exploited as effective targets for novel antiviral therapies in order to stimulate apoptosis in different types of cancer cells. PMID:27199919

  12. Cytosolic pro-apoptotic SPIKE induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ivana; Kastratovic, Tatjana; Zelen, Ivanka; Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Mitrovic, Marina

    2010-04-30

    Proteins of the BCL-2 family are important regulators of apoptosis. The BCL-2 family includes three main subgroups: the anti-apoptotic group, such as BCL-2, BCL-XL, BCL-W, and MCL-1; multi-domain pro-apoptotic BAX, BAK; and pro-apoptotic "BH3-only" BIK, PUMA, NOXA, BID, BAD, and SPIKE. SPIKE, a rare pro-apoptotic protein, is highly conserved throughout the evolution, including Caenorhabditis elegans, whose expression is downregulated in certain tumors, including kidney, lung, and breast. In the literature, SPIKE was proposed to interact with BAP31 and prevent BCL-XL from binding to BAP31. Here, we utilized the Position Weight Matrix method to identify SPIKE to be a BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein mainly localized in the cytosol of all cancer cell lines tested. Overexpression of SPIKE weakly induced apoptosis in comparison to the known BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BIK. SPIKE promoted mitochondrial cytochrome c release, the activation of caspase 3, and the caspase cleavage of caspase's downstream substrates BAP31 and p130CAS. Although the informatics analysis of SPIKE implicates this protein as a member of the BH3-only BCL-2 subfamily, its role in apoptosis remains to be elucidated.

  13. Unravelling mitochondrial pathways to Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Celardo, I; Martins, L M; Gandhi, S

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for cellular function due to their role in ATP production, calcium homeostasis and apoptotic signalling. Neurons are heavily reliant on mitochondrial integrity for their complex signalling, plasticity and excitability properties, and to ensure cell survival over decades. The maintenance of a pool of healthy mitochondria that can meet the bioenergetic demands of a neuron, is therefore of critical importance; this is achieved by maintaining a careful balance between mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial trafficking, mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are gradually being elucidated. It is widely recognized that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of reduced bioenergetic capacity, increased oxidative stress and reduced resistance to stress, is observed in several Parkinson's disease models. However, identification of the recessive genes implicated in Parkinson's disease has revealed a common pathway involving mitochondrial dynamics, transport, turnover and mitophagy. This body of work has led to the hypothesis that the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure a healthy mitochondrial pool are key to neuronal function and integrity. In this paradigm, impaired mitochondrial dynamics and clearance result in the accumulation of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria, which may directly induce neuronal dysfunction and death. In this review, we consider the mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction may lead to neurodegeneration. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms that underlie mitochondrial homeostasis, and discuss their importance in neuronal integrity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph

  14. Proinflammatory Cytokines Activate the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grunnet, Lars G.; Aikin, Reid; Tonnesen, Morten F.; Paraskevas, Steven; Blaabjerg, Lykke; Størling, Joachim; Rosenberg, Lawrence; Billestrup, Nils; Maysinger, Dusica; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proinflammatory cytokines are cytotoxic to β-cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and islet graft failure. The importance of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cytokine-induced β-cell death is unclear. Here, cytokine activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the role of the two proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, Bad and Bax, were examined in β-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Human and rat islets and INS-1 cells were exposed to a combination of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, and/or tumor necrosis factor-α). Activation of Bad was determined by Ser136 dephosphorylation, mitochondrial stress by changes in mitochondrial metabolic activity and cytochrome c release, downstream apoptotic signaling by activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The inhibitors FK506 and V5 were used to investigate the role of Bad and Bax activation, respectively. RESULTS We found that proinflammatory cytokines induced calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of Bad Ser136, mitochondrial stress, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. Inhibition of Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation or Bax was found to inhibit cytokine-induced intrinsic proapoptotic signaling. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway contributes significantly to cytokine-induced β-cell death and suggest a functional role of calcineurin-mediated Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation and Bax activity in cytokine-induced apoptosis. PMID:19470609

  15. Evaluating the Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Diallyl Disulfide on Interlukin-1β-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Cultured Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Jafari, Davood; Kamarul, Tunku; Bagheri, Abolfazll; Sharifi, Ali M

    2017-02-07

    The protective effects and mechanisms of DADS on IL-1β-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis were investigated in C28I2 human chondrocytes. The effect of various concentrations of DADS (1, 5 10, 25, 50, and 100 μM) on C28I2 cell viability was evaluated in different times (2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h) to obtain the non-cytotoxic concentrations of drug by MTT-assay. The protective effect of non-toxic concentrations of DADS on experimentally induced oxidative stress and apoptosis by IL-1β in C28I2 was evaluated. The effects of DADS on IL-1β-induced intracellular ROS production and lipid peroxidation were detected and the proteins expression of Nrf2, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, total and phosphorylated JNK, and P38 MAPKs were analyzed by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of detoxifying phase II/antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase, glutathione S-transferase-P1, catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1, -3, -4 were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. DADS in 1, 5, 10, and 25 μM concentrations had no cytotoxic effect after 24 h. Pretreatment with DADS remarkably increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation as well as the genes expression of detoxifying phase II/antioxidant enzymes and reduced IL-1β-induced elevation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activation, and JNK and P38 phosphorylation. DADS could considerably reduce IL-1β-induced oxidative stress and consequent mitochondrial apoptosis, as the major mechanisms of chondrocyte cell death in an experimental model of osteoarthritis. It may be considered as natural product in protecting OA-induced cartilage damage in clinical setting. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-10, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Manganese induces mitochondrial dynamics impairment and apoptotic cell death: a study in human Gli36 cells.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Miglietta, Esteban A; Villarreal, Alejandro; Ramos, Alberto J; Kotler, Mónica L

    2013-10-25

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element due to its participation in many physiological processes. However, overexposure to this metal leads to a neurological disorder known as Manganism whose clinical manifestations and molecular mechanisms resemble Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence implicate astrocytes as an early target of Mn neurotoxicity being the mitochondria the most affected organelles. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mitochondrial dynamics alterations in Mn-exposed human astrocytes. Therefore, we employed Gli36 cells which express the astrocytic markers GFAP and S100B. We demonstrated that Mn triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway revealed by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and by caspase-9 activation. This apoptotic program may be in turn responsible of caspase-3/7 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation. In addition, we determined that Mn induces deregulation in mitochondria-shaping proteins (Opa-1, Mfn-2 and Drp-1) expression levels in parallel with the disruption of the mitochondrial network toward to an exacerbated fragmentation. Since mitochondrial dynamics is altered in several neurodegenerative diseases, these proteins could become future targets to be considered in Manganism treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of pro-apoptotic protein HGTD-P with heat shock protein 90 is required for induction of mitochondrial apoptotic cascades.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Kim, Su-Mi; Ko, Jeong-Hun; Yim, Ji-Hye; Park, Jin-Hae; Park, Jae-Hoon

    2006-05-29

    HGTD-P is a hypoxia-responsive pro-apoptotic protein that transmits hypoxic signals directly to mitochondria. When overexpressed, HGTD-P induces cell death via typical mitochondrial apoptotic cascades. However, much is unknown about post-transcriptional modification and signaling networks of HGTD-P in association with cell death-regulating proteins. We performed yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the molecules involved in HGTD-P-mediated cell death pathways. In this study, we show that heat shock protein 90 physically interacts with HGTD-P and that suppression of Hsp90 activity by low concentrations of geldanamycin reduced HGTD-P-induced mitochondrial catastrophe through inhibition of mitochondrial translocation of HGTD-P.

  18. Apoptotic pathways of macrophages within osteolytic interface membrane in periprosthestic osteolysis after total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyin; Guo, Ting; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Naicheng; Chen, Jiangning; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhao, Jianning

    2017-06-01

    Macrophage apoptosis in interface membrane, which occurs through either death receptor, mitochondrion, or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, has been suggested to play an important role in promoting osteolysis. However, how and why macrophage apoptosis originates and the correlation among these apoptotic pathways is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to identify the apoptotic mechanism of macrophages, and to explore the relationship between the apoptotic pathways and progression of osteolysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to analyze the tissue ultrastructure of wear particles, and in situ apoptotic macrophage identification was performed by TUNEL staining. We analyzed the expression of the key biomarkers of apoptotic pathways via immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that the majority of wear particles within osteolytic interface membrane was in the 30-60 nm range, and that macrophage apoptotic ratio increased along with osteolysis progression. Normal hip dysplasia and mechanical loosening of tissues showed low expression levels of biomarkers for ER stress (Ca(2+) , JNK, cleaved Caspase-4, IRE1-α, Grp78/Bip, and CHOP), mitochondrion (Bcl-2, Bax, and Cytochrome c), and death receptor (Fas and cleaved Caspase-8) pathways, while osteolytic interface membrane tissues expressed high levels of these biomarkers. In addition, we found that the ER stress intensity was in complete conformity with mitochondrial dysfunction and was consistent with the results of death receptor activation. Thus, our findings suggested that wear particles generated at implant interface can accelerate macrophage apoptosis through changes in apoptotic pathways and ultimately aggravate the symptom of osteolysis. These data represent a preferential apoptotic signaling pathway of macrophages as specific target points for the prevention and therapeutic modulation of periprosthetic osteolysis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John

  19. Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Platform during Rubella Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Claus, Claudia; Manssen, Lena; Hübner, Denise; Roßmark, Sarah; Bothe, Viktoria; Petzold, Alice; Große, Claudia; Reins, Mareen; Mankertz, Annette; Frey, Teryl K; Liebert, Uwe G

    2015-11-26

    Mitochondria- as well as p53-based signaling pathways are central for the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Their contribution to rubella virus (RV)-induced apoptosis was addressed through time-specific evaluation of characteristic parameters such as permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequent release of the pro-apoptotic proteins apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c from mitochondria. Additionally, expression and localization pattern of p53 and selected members of the multifunctional and stress-inducible cyclophilin family were examined. The application of pifithrin μ as an inhibitor of p53 shuttling to mitochondria reduced RV-induced cell death to an extent similar to that of the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk (benzyloxycarbonyl-V-A-D-(OMe)-fmk). However, RV progeny generation was not altered. This indicates that, despite an increased survival rate of its cellular host, induction of apoptosis neither supports nor restricts RV replication. Moreover, some of the examined apoptotic markers were affected in a strain-specific manner and differed between the cell culture-adapted strains: Therien and the HPV77 vaccine on the one hand, and a clinical isolate on the other. In summary, the results presented indicate that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program contributes to RV-induced apoptosis.

  20. Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Platform during Rubella Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Claudia; Manssen, Lena; Hübner, Denise; Roßmark, Sarah; Bothe, Viktoria; Petzold, Alice; Große, Claudia; Reins, Mareen; Mankertz, Annette; Frey, Teryl K.; Liebert, Uwe G.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria- as well as p53-based signaling pathways are central for the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Their contribution to rubella virus (RV)-induced apoptosis was addressed through time-specific evaluation of characteristic parameters such as permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequent release of the pro-apoptotic proteins apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c from mitochondria. Additionally, expression and localization pattern of p53 and selected members of the multifunctional and stress-inducible cyclophilin family were examined. The application of pifithrin μ as an inhibitor of p53 shuttling to mitochondria reduced RV-induced cell death to an extent similar to that of the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk (benzyloxycarbonyl-V-A-D-(OMe)-fmk). However, RV progeny generation was not altered. This indicates that, despite an increased survival rate of its cellular host, induction of apoptosis neither supports nor restricts RV replication. Moreover, some of the examined apoptotic markers were affected in a strain-specific manner and differed between the cell culture-adapted strains: Therien and the HPV77 vaccine on the one hand, and a clinical isolate on the other. In summary, the results presented indicate that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program contributes to RV-induced apoptosis. PMID:26703711

  1. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Abraha, Aman M; Ketema, Ezra B

    2016-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment.

  2. Carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles elicit distinct apoptotic pathways in bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing environmental and occupational exposures to nanoparticles (NPs) warrant deeper insight into the toxicological mechanisms induced by these materials. The present study was designed to characterize the cell death induced by carbon black (CB) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o- cell line and primary cells) and to investigate the implicated molecular pathways. Results Detailed time course studies revealed that both CB (13 nm) and TiO2(15 nm) NP exposed cells exhibit typical morphological (decreased cell size, membrane blebbing, peripheral chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation) and biochemical (caspase activation and DNA fragmentation) features of apoptotic cell death. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of Bax and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were only observed in case of CB NPs whereas lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane destabilization and cathepsin B release were observed during the apoptotic process induced by TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, ROS production was observed after exposure to CB and TiO2 but hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was only involved in apoptosis induction by CB NPs. Conclusions Both CB and TiO2 NPs induce apoptotic cell death in bronchial epithelial cells. CB NPs induce apoptosis by a ROS dependent mitochondrial pathway whereas TiO2 NPs induce cell death through lysosomal membrane destabilization and lipid peroxidation. Although the final outcome is similar (apoptosis), the molecular pathways activated by NPs differ depending upon the chemical nature of the NPs. PMID:20398356

  3. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    PubMed

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A; Skulachev, Maxim V; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane-liposomes of pure bovine heart CL-we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature.

  4. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorates Apoptotic Cascade in the Rotenone Model of Parkinson's Disease: Modulation of Mitochondrial Perturbations.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Noha F; Safar, Marwa M; Salem, Hesham A

    2016-03-01

    The recent emergence of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a contender in modifying neurotoxicity in human dopaminergic cells as well as its recognized anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potentials in various hepatic pathologies raised impetus in investigating its anti-parkinsonian effect in rat rotenone model. UDCA prominently improved motor performance in the open field test and halted the decline in the striatal dopamine content. Meanwhile, it improved mitochondrial function as verified by elevation of ATP associated with preservation of mitochondrial integrity as portrayed in the electron microscope examination. In addition, through its anti-inflammatory potential, UDCA reduced the rotenone-induced nuclear factor-κB expression and tumor necrosis factor alpha level. Furthermore, UDCA amended alterations in Bax and Bcl-2 and reduced the activities of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, indicating that it suppressed rotenone-induced apoptosis via modulating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In conclusion, UDCA can be introduced as a novel approach for the management of Parkinson's disease via anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. These effects are probably linked to dopamine synthesis and mitochondrial regulation.

  5. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    PubMed Central

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  6. USP30 deubiquitylates mitochondrial Parkin substrates and restricts apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin-Rui; Martinez, Aitor; Lane, Jon D; Mayor, Ugo; Clague, Michael J; Urbé, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the orchestration of cell death pathways. Here, we show that the control of ubiquitin dynamics at mitochondria contributes to the regulation of apoptotic cell death. The unique mitochondrial deubiquitylase, USP30, opposes Parkin-dependent ubiquitylation of TOM20, and its depletion enhances depolarization-induced cell death in Parkin-overexpressing cells. Importantly, USP30 also regulates BAX/BAK-dependent apoptosis, and its depletion sensitizes cancer cells to BH3-mimetics. These results provide the first evidence for a fundamental role of USP30 in determining the threshold for mitochondrial cell death and suggest USP30 as a potential target for combinatorial anti-cancer therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Parkin Promotes Degradation of the Mitochondrial Pro-Apoptotic ARTS Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Stav; Dery, Dikla; Loboda, Yelena; Rovner, Marshall; Lev, Tali; Zuri, Dotan; Finberg, John P. M.; Larisch, Sarit

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with excessive cell death causing selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. Dysfunction of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is associated with the pathophysiology of PD. Mutations in Parkin which impair its E3-ligase activity play a major role in the pathogenesis of inherited PD. ARTS (Sept4_i2) is a mitochondrial protein, which initiates caspase activation upstream of cytochrome c release in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here we show that Parkin serves as an E3-ubiquitin ligase to restrict the levels of ARTS through UPS-mediated degradation. Though Parkin binds equally to ARTS and Sept4_i1 (H5/PNUTL2), the non-apoptotic splice variant of Sept4, Parkin ubiquitinates and degrades only ARTS. Thus, the effect of Parkin on ARTS is specific and probably related to its pro-apoptotic function. High levels of ARTS are sufficient to promote apoptosis in cultured neuronal cells, and rat brains treated with 6-OHDA reveal high levels of ARTS. However, over-expression of Parkin can protect cells from ARTS-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Parkin loss-of-function experiments reveal that reduction of Parkin causes increased levels of ARTS and apoptosis. We propose that in brain cells in which the E3-ligase activity of Parkin is compromised, ARTS levels increase and facilitate apoptosis. Thus, ARTS is a novel substrate of Parkin. These observations link Parkin directly to a pro-apoptotic protein and reveal a novel connection between Parkin, apoptosis, and PD. PMID:22792159

  8. Activation of dual apoptotic pathways in human melanocytes and protection by survivin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Biddle, Diana; Hanks, Adrianne N; Brouha, Brook; Yan, Hui; Lee, Ray M; Leachman, Sancy A; Grossman, Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Apoptosis resistance in melanoma is a primary cause of treatment failure. Apoptotic pathways in melanocytes, from which melanoma arises, are poorly characterized. Human melanocytes were susceptible to apoptosis following exposure to UV radiation (UVB, 24-48 hours), 4-tert-butylphenol (4-TBP, 1-4 hours), and cisplatin (24-48 hours). These responses were associated with Bid cleavage, caspase activation (caspases 3, 8, and 9), mitochondrial depolarization and release of cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), but not endonuclease G. The apoptotic responses and AIF release were caspase-independent, as they were not blocked by zVal-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk). While RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AIF protected melanocytes against apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal, apoptotic responses to UVB, cisplatin, and 4-TBP were not compromised by AIF knockdown, even in the presence of zVAD-fmk. Finally, adenoviral-mediated expression of Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis expressed in melanoma but not melanocytes, protected melanocytes against UVB-induced apoptosis. Survivin expression in melanocytes partially blocked caspase activation and release of mitochondrial release of AIF, cytochrome c, and Smac induced by UVB. These data indicate that multiple stimuli can activate both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways in melanocytes, and that endogenous expression of Survivin in melanoma may contribute to apoptosis resistance by multiple mechanisms.

  9. Signals of apoptotic pathways in several types of meningioma.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Comi, Cristoforo; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Piffanelli, Valentina; Car, Pier Giorgio; Dianzani, Umberto; Monaco, Francesco; Cannas, Mario

    2011-03-01

    Meningiomas are intracranial tumour derived from meningothelial cells, which aggressive behaviour has been frequently associated to cell apoptosis. In this paper activation of several factors involved in apoptosis has been investigated on biopsies of primary, non recurrent meningiomas. Benign (meningotheliomatous, transitional, fibrous, angiomatous), atypical and anaplastic meningiomas were analysed by immunohistochemistry and western blot, to visualize the occurring of different apoptotic pathways and their association with clinical grading. Apoptotic cell have been detected by a double colorimetric staining for TUNEL and caspase-3 active form. Apoptotic signal positive cells have been detected in all type of meningiomas analysed, with exception of meningotheliomatous meningiomas. Differences have been found in the activation of apoptotic pathways between several types of grade I meningiomas and among benign, anaplastic and atypical meningiomas. An intense expression of several apoptotic inhibitor occurred in grade I meningiomas. The correlation among expression of apoptotic and inhibitory factors and cell proliferation index may suggest that in grade I meningiomas apoptosis may be related to mechanisms involved into tumor cells surviving. Instead in grade II and III meningiomas the same correlation seems indicate an high turnover of tumor cells that might be useful as index of cell proliferation and tumor mass growth.

  10. Signaling pathway for phagocyte priming upon encounter with apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Saori; Ando, Yuki; Kanetani, Takuto; Hoshi, Chiharu; Nakai, Yuji; Nainu, Firzan; Nagaosa, Kaz; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-12

    The phagocytic elimination of cells undergoing apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells. Previous studies showed an increase in the level of engulfment receptors in phagocytes after the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which leads to the enhancement of their phagocytic activity. However, precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon require further clarification. We found that the pre-incubation of a Drosophila phagocyte cell line with the fragments of apoptotic cells enhanced the subsequent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, accompanied by an augmented expression of the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin αPS3. The DNA-binding activity of the transcription repressor Tailless was transiently raised in those phagocytes, depending on two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for the induction of phagocytosis as well as the occurrence of engulfment. The RNAi knockdown of tailless in phagocytes abrogated the enhancement of both phagocytosis and engulfment receptor expression. Furthermore, the hemocyte-specific RNAi of tailless reduced apoptotic cell clearance in Drosophila embryos. Taken together, we propose the following mechanism for the activation of Drosophila phagocytes after an encounter with apoptotic cells: two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for phagocytosis are initiated; transcription repressor Tailless is activated; expression of engulfment receptors is stimulated; and phagocytic activity is enhanced. This phenomenon most likely ensures the phagocytic elimination of apoptotic cells by stimulated phagocytes and is thus considered as a mechanism to prime phagocytes in innate immunity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake pathways.

    PubMed

    Elustondo, Pia A; Nichols, Matthew; Robertson, George S; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2017-02-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays diverse roles in all living organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. It is a structural element for bones, an essential mediator of excitation-contraction coupling, and a universal second messenger in the regulation of ion channel, enzyme and gene expression activities. In mitochondria, Ca(2+) is crucial for the control of energy production and cellular responses to metabolic stress. Ca(2+) uptake by the mitochondria occurs by the uniporter mechanism. The Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU) protein has recently been identified as a core component responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. MCU knockout (MCU KO) studies have identified a number of important roles played by this high capacity uptake pathway. Interestingly, this work has also shown that MCU-mediated Ca(2+) uptake is not essential for vital cell functions such as muscle contraction, energy metabolism and neurotransmission. Although mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was markedly reduced, MCU KO mitochondria still contained low but detectable levels of Ca(2+). In view of the fundamental importance of Ca(2+) for basic cell signalling, this finding suggests the existence of other currently unrecognized pathways for Ca(2+) entry. We review the experimental evidence for the existence of alternative Ca(2+) influx mechanisms and propose how these mechanisms may play an integral role in mitochondrial Ca(2+) signalling.

  12. The apoptotic pathways effect of fine particulate from cooking oil fumes in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Zhen; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yanyan; Cao, Jiyu; Liang, Chunmei; Wang, Lei; Ding, Rui

    2014-02-01

    Apoptosis occurs along three major pathways: (i) an extrinsic pathway, mediated by death receptors; (ii) an intrinsic pathway centered on mitochondria; and (iii) an ER-stress pathway. We investigated the apoptotic pathway effects of cooking oil fumes (COF) in fetal lung type II-like epithelium cells (AEC II). Exposure to COF caused up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. COF induced the mitochondrial permeability transition, an early event in apoptosis; cytochrome c was translocated from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated, as a consequence of the mitochondrial permeability transition. The death receptor apoptotic pathway was triggered by COF, as indicated by a change in Fas expression, resulting in increased caspase-8 content. COF exposure arrested the cell cycle the at G0-G1 phase. In summary, COF can lead to apoptosis via mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in AEC II cells.

  13. The inflammatory role of phagocyte apoptotic pathways in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cuda, Carla M.; Pope, Richard M.; Perlman, Harris

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis affects nearly 1% of the world's population and is a debilitating autoimmune condition that can result in joint destruction. During the past decade, inflammatory functions have been described for signalling molecules classically involved in apoptotic and non-apoptotic death pathways, including but not limited to toll-like receptor signalling, inflammasome activation, cytokine production, macrophage polarization and antigen citrullination. In light of these remarkable advances in the understanding of inflammatory mechanisms of the death machinery, this review provides a snapshot of the available evidence implicating death pathways, especially within the phagocyte populations of the innate immune system, in the perpetuation of rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated levels of signalling mediators of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic as well as the autophagy death pathways are observed in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, in rheumatoid arthritis patients, risk polymorphisms are present in signalling molecules of the extrinsic apoptotic and autophagy death pathways. Although research into the mechanisms underlying these death pathways has made considerable progress, this review highlights areas where further investigation is particularly needed. This exploration is critical, as new discoveries in this field could lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. PMID:27549026

  14. Different Apoptotic Pathways Activated by Oxaliplatin in Primary Astrocytes vs. Colo-Rectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zanardelli, Matteo; Micheli, Laura; Nicolai, Raffaella; Failli, Paola; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy improves the outcomes of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Its most significant and dose-limiting side effect is the development of a neuropathic syndrome. The mechanism of the neurotoxicity is unclear. The limited knowledge about differences existing between neurotoxic and antitumor effects hinders the discovery of effective and safe adjuvant therapies. In vitro, we suggested cell-specific activation apoptotic pathways in normal nervous cells (astrocytes) vs. colon-cancer cells (HT-29). In the present research we compared the apoptotic signals evoked by oxaliplatin in astrocytes and HT-29 analyzing the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In astrocytes, oxaliplatin induced a mitochondrial derangement measured as cytosolic release of cytochrome C, increase in superoxide anion levels and decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Caspase-8, a main initiator of the extrinsic process remained unaltered. On the contrary, in HT-29 oxaliplatin increased caspase-8 activity and Bid expression, thus activating the extrinsic apoptosis, while the Bcl-2 increased expression blocked the mitochondrial damage. Data suggest the preferred activation of the intrinsic apoptosis as oxaliplatin damage signaling in normal nervous cells. The extrinsic pathway prevails in tumor cells indicating a possible strategy for planning new molecules to treat oxaliplatin-dependent neurotoxicity without negatively influence chemotherapy. PMID:25761243

  15. Regulation of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathways in Osteosarcoma Cells Following Oleandrin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunlong; Zhu, Bin; Yong, Lei; Song, Chunyu; Liu, Xiao; Yu, Huilei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Zhongjun; Liu, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study has reported the anti-tumor effect of oleandrin on osteosarcoma (OS) cells. In the current study, we mainly explored its potential regulation on intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway in OS cells. Cells apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected using fluorescence staining and flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was detected using a commercial kit. The levels of cytoplasmic cytochrome c, mitochondrial cytochrome c, bcl-2, bax, caspase-9, Fas, FasL, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were detected by Western blotting. z-VAD-fmk was applied to block both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, and cells apoptosis was also tested. Furthermore, we used z-LEHD-fmk and Fas blocking antibody to inhibit intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, separately, and the selectivity of oleandrin on these pathways was explored. Results showed that oleandrin induced the apoptosis of OS cells, which was accompanied by an increase in ROS and a decrease in MMP. Furthermore, cytochrome c level was reduced in mitochondria but elevated in the cytoplasm. Caspase-3 activity was enhanced by oleandrin in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Oleandrin also down-regulated the expression of bcl-2, but up-regulated bax, caspase-9, Fas, FasL, caspase-8 and caspase-3. In addition, the suppression of both apoptotic pathways by z-VAD-fmk greatly reverted the oleandrin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the suppression of one pathway by a corresponding inhibitor did not affect the regulation of oleandrin on another pathway. Taken together, we concluded that oleandrin induced apoptosis of OS cells via activating both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:27886059

  16. Intrinsic apoptotic pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Song; Park, Yoonsuk; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Tribble, Gena D; James, Chlöe E; Handfield, Martin; Stavropoulos, M Franci; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Lamont, Richard J

    2007-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis can inhibit chemically induced apoptosis in primary cultures of gingival epithelial cells through blocking activation of the effector caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of P. gingivalis is conserved across strains and does not depend on the presence of fimbriae, as fimbriae-deficient mutants and a naturally occurring non-fimbriated strain were able to impede apoptosis. To dissect the survival pathways modulated by P. gingivalis, protein and gene expression of a number of components of apoptotic death pathways were investigated. P. gingivalis infection of epithelial cells resulted in the phosphorylation of JAK1 and Stat3. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of Survivin and Stat3 itself, targets of activated Stat3, were elevated in P. gingivalis-infected cells. siRNA knockdown of JAK1, in combination with knockdown of Akt, abrogated the ability of P. gingivalis to block apoptosis. In contrast, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 were not differentially regulated at either the protein or mRNA levels by P. gingivalis. One mechanism by which P. gingivalis can block apoptotic pathways in gingival epithelial cells therefore is through manipulation of the JAK/Stat pathway that controls the intrinsic mitochondrial cell death pathways. Induction of a pro-survival phenotype may prevent programmed host cell death and aid survival of P. gingivalis within gingival epithelial cells.

  17. Intrinsic apoptotic pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Song; Park, Yoonsuk; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Tribble, Gena D.; James, Chlöe E.; Handfield, Martin; Stavropoulos, M. Franci; Yilmaz, özlem; Lamont, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis can inhibit chemically induced apoptosis in primary cultures of gingival epithelial cells through blocking activation of the effector caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of P. gingivalis is conserved across strains and does not depend on the presence of fimbriae, as fimbriae-deficient mutants and a naturally occurring non-fimbriated strain were able to impede apoptosis. To dissect the survival pathways modulated by P. gingivalis, protein and gene expression of a number of components of apoptotic death pathways were investigated. P. gingivalis infection of epithelial cells resulted in the phosphorylation of JAK1 and Stat3. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of Survivin and Stat3 itself, targets of activated Stat3, were elevated in P. gingivalis-infected cells. siRNA knockdown of JAK1, in combination with knockdown of Akt, abrogated the ability of P. gingivalis to block apoptosis. In contrast, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 were not differentially regulated at either the protein or mRNA levels by P. gingivalis. One mechanism by which P. gingivalis can block apoptotic pathways in gingival epithelial cells therefore is through manipulation of the JAK/Stat pathway that controls the intrinsic mitochondrial cell death pathways. Induction of a pro-survival phenotype may prevent programmed host cell death and aid survival of P. gingivalis within gingival epithelial cells. PMID:17419719

  18. Apoptotic pathways in degenerative disk lesions in the wrist.

    PubMed

    Unglaub, Frank; Thomas, Susanne B; Kroeber, Markus W; Dragu, Adrian; Fellenberg, Jörg; Wolf, Maya B; Horch, Raymund E

    2009-12-01

    Degenerative articular disk perforations of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) of the wrist could result from chronic loading of the ulnocarpal joint. Apoptosis played a crucial role in fibrocartilage cell loss, and the purpose of this study was to clarify which apoptotic pathway was involved in the development of degenerative disk lesions. We also investigated whether ulna length played an etiologic role in the occurrence of fibrocartilage cell loss. Included in the study were 17 patients with degenerative articular disk tears of the TFC (Palmer type 2C). After arthroscopic debridement of the TFC, histologic sections were examined to assess the presence of apoptosis. Apoptosis was determined by use of caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9 immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, Fas ligand and BID (BH3 interacting domain death) agonist were applied for immunohistochemical analysis. Cells positive for caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, Fas ligand, and BID were found in all specimens. The number of cells positive for caspase 3 and BID was significantly increased in specimens from patients with an ulna-positive variance. In contrast, for cells positive for caspase 8, caspase 9, and Fas ligand, no significant difference was found between specimens from patients with an ulna-positive variance and those from patients with an ulna-neutral/ulna-negative variance. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in the development of degenerative disk lesions. Fibrocartilage cell loss occurs mainly through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The accumulation of apoptotic cells is not significantly different between the 3 zones of the TFC. It could be verified that ulna length is correlated with fibrocartilage cell loss. Ulnar shortening is a valuable treatment option for degenerative TFC lesions. Knowledge of the specific apoptotic pathway that is causing degenerative disk lesions is critical in selecting the appropriate and most beneficial therapeutic treatment to halt

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers Hax1-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic events in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Li, Haijie; Wu, Jianxin; Irioda, Ana Carolina; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Luo, Xuelai

    2016-11-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major process in pathogenesis of a number of heart diseases, including ischemic heart diseases and cardiac failure. Ensuring survival of cardiac cells by blocking apoptotic events is an important strategy to improve cardiac function. Although the role of ER disruption in inducing apoptosis has been demonstrated, we do not yet fully understand how it influences the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery in cardiac cell models. Recent investigations have provided evidences that the prosurvival protein HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (Hax1) protein is intimately associated with the pathogenesis of heart disease, mitochondrial biology, and protection from apoptotic cell death. To study the role of Hax1 upon ER stress induction, Hax1 was overexpressed in cardiac cells subjected to ER stress, and cell death parameters as well as mitochondrial alterations were examined. Our results demonstrated that the Hax1 is significantly downregulated in cardiac cells upon ER stress induction. Moreover, overexpression of Hax1 protected from apoptotic events triggered by Tunicamycin-induced ER stress. Upon treatment with Tunicamycin, Hax1 protected from mitochondrial fission, downregulation of mitofusins 1 and 2 (MFN1 and MFN2), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Hax1 inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis at both the pre- and post-mitochondrial levels. These findings may offer an opportunity to develop new agents that inhibit cell death in the diseased heart.

  20. The inflammatory role of phagocyte apoptotic pathways in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cuda, Carla M; Pope, Richard M; Perlman, Harris

    2016-08-23

    Rheumatoid arthritis affects nearly 1% of the world's population and is a debilitating autoimmune condition that can result in joint destruction. During the past decade, inflammatory functions have been described for signalling molecules classically involved in apoptotic and non-apoptotic death pathways, including, but not limited to, Toll-like receptor signalling, inflammasome activation, cytokine production, macrophage polarization and antigen citrullination. In light of these remarkable advances in the understanding of inflammatory mechanisms of the death machinery, this Review provides a snapshot of the available evidence implicating death pathways, especially within the phagocyte populations of the innate immune system, in the perpetuation of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Elevated levels of signalling mediators of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis, as well as the autophagy, are observed in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, risk polymorphisms are present in signalling molecules of the extrinsic apoptotic and autophagy death pathways. Although research into the mechanisms underlying these pathways has made considerable progress, this Review highlights areas where further investigation is particularly needed. This exploration is critical, as new discoveries in this field could lead to the development of novel therapies for rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia: pathways, mechanisms and implications.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Ashwini; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Berk, Michael; Debnath, Monojit

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a critical role in regulating cellular functions including bioenergetics, calcium homeostasis, redox signalling, and apoptotic cell death. Mitochondria are also essential to many aspects of neurodevelopment and neuronal functions. However, mitochondrial impairment may affect bioenergetics in the developing brain and alter critical neuronal processes leading to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe neuropsychiatric disorder of neurodevelopmental origin. Immuno-inflammatory pathway is one of the widely appreciated mechanisms that has consistently been implicated in the neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. However, the source of inflammation and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms leading to schizophrenia are yet to be fully ascertained. Recent understanding reveals that perturbation of mitochondrial network dynamics might lead to various nervous system disorders with inflammatory pathologies. Mitochondrial deficit, altered redox balance and chronic low-grade inflammation are evident in schizophrenia. It is hypothesized that oxidative/nitrosative stress responses due to mitochondrial dysfunctions might activate immuno-inflammatory pathways and subsequently lead to neuroprogressive changes in schizophrenia. Herein, we summarise the current understanding of molecular links between mitochondrial dysfunctions and pathogenesis of schizophrenia based on evidence from genomics, proteomics and imaging studies, which together support a role for mitochondrial impairment in the pathogenetic pathways of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function after glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2014-11-07

    NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for cellular energy metabolism and is also involved as a substrate for many cellular enzymatic reactions. It has been shown that NAD+ has a beneficial effect on neuronal survival and brain injury in in vitro and in vivo ischemic models. However, the effect of NAD+ on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ischemia has not been well investigated. In the present study, we used an in vitro glutamate excitotoxicity model of primary cultured cortical neurons to study the effect of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our results show that supplementation of NAD+ could effectively reduce apoptotic neuronal death, and apoptotic inducing factor translocation after neurons were challenged with excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Using different approaches including confocal imaging, mitochondrial DNA measurement and Western blot analysis of PGC-1 and NRF-1, we also found that NAD+ could significantly attenuate glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, NAD+ treatment effectively inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and NADH redistribution after excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NAD+ is capable of inhibiting apoptotic neuronal death after glutamate excitotoxicity via preserving mitochondrial biogenesis and integrity. Our findings provide insights into potential neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke.

  3. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor protects against apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial damage in ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis pathway, plays a brain and neuronal protective role in ischemic stroke. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect after ischemia in the primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Using apoptotic cell death assay, fluorescent imaging, molecular biology, mitochondrial biogenesis measurements and Western blotting analysis, our results show that the overexpression of PBEF in neurons can significantly promote neuronal survival, reduce the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei and inhibit the activation of capase-3 after glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We further found that the overexpression of PBEF can suppress glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, the loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and the reduction of PGC-1 and NRF-1 expressions. Furthermore, these beneficial effects by PBEF are dependent on its enzymatic activity of NAD+ synthesis. In summary, our study demonstrated that PBEF ameliorates ischemia-induced neuronal death through inhibiting caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic signaling pathways and suppressing mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of PBEF, and helps to identify potential targets for ischemic stroke therapy. PMID:27576732

  4. Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaou, Katerina A.; Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas; Constantinou, Constantina; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L.; Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A.; Constantinou, Andreas I.

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

  5. Sesamol induced apoptotic effect in lung adenocarcinoma cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

    PubMed

    Siriwarin, Boondaree; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-07-25

    Sesamol is a phenolic lignan found in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and sesame oil. The anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms underlying its apoptosis-inducing effect were investigated in human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells. Sesamol inhibited SK-LU-1 cell growth with an IC50 value of 2.7 mM and exhibited less toxicity toward normal Vero cells after 48 h of treatment (Selective index = 3). Apoptotic bodies-the hallmark of apoptosis-were observed in sesamol-treated SK-LU-1 cells, stained with DAPI. Sesamol increased the activity of caspase 8, 9, and 3/7, indicating that apoptotic cell death occurred through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Sesamol caused the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential signifying intrinsic apoptosis induction. Decreasing Bid expression revealed crosstalk between the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways; demonstrating clearly that sesamol induces apoptosis through both pathways in human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature-dependent activation of differential apoptotic pathways during cryoablation in a human prostate cancer model.

    PubMed

    Robilotto, A T; Baust, J M; Van Buskirk, R G; Gage, A A; Baust, J G

    2013-03-01

    Critical to the continual improvement of cryoablation efficacy is deciphering the biochemical responses of cells to low-temperature exposure. The identification of delayed-onset cell death has allowed for the manipulation of cellular responses through the regulation of apoptosis. We hypothesized that in addition to delayed apoptotic events associated with mild subfreezing temperatures (10 to -25 °C), cells exposed to ultra-low temperatures (<-30 °C) may undergo rapid, early-onset apoptosis. Human prostate cancer model and cells (PC-3) were exposed to temperatures of -60, -30 and -15 °C to simulate a cryoablative procedure. Using a combination of flow-cytometry, fluorescent microscopy and western blot analyses, samples were assessed at various times post thaw to identify the presence, levels and the pathways involved in cell death. Exposure to temperatures <-30 °C yielded a significant apoptotic population within 30 min of thawing, peaking at 90 min (~40%), and by 6 h, only necrosis was observed. In samples only reaching temperatures >-30 °C, apoptosis was not noted until 6-24 h post thaw, with the levels of apoptosis reaching ~10% (-15 °C) and ~25% (-30 °C) at 6 h post thaw. Further, it was found that early-onset apoptosis progressed through a membrane-mediated mechanism, whereas delayed apoptosis progressed through a mitochondrial path. These data demonstrate the impact of apoptotic continuum, whereby the more severe cryogenic stress activated the extrinsic, membrane-regulated pathway, whereas less severe freezing activated the intrinsic, mitochondrial-mediated path. The rapid induction and progression of apoptosis at ultra-low temperatures provides an explanation as to why such results have not previously been identified following freezing. Ultimately, an understanding of the events and signaling pathways involved in triggering apoptosis following freezing may provide a path for selective induction of the rapid-onset and delayed programmed cell death

  7. Hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Racz, Boglarka; Reglodi, Dora; Fodor, Barnabas; Gasz, Balazs; Lubics, Andrea; Gallyas, Ferenc; Roth, Erzsebet; Borsiczky, Balazs

    2007-06-01

    Articular chondrocytes have a well-developed osmoregulatory system that enables cells to survive in a constantly changing osmotic environment. However, osmotic loading exceeding that occurring under physiological conditions severely compromises chondrocyte function and leads to degenerative changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the form of cell death and changes in apoptotic signaling pathways under hyperosmotic stress using a primary chondrocyte culture. Cell viability and apoptosis assays performed with annexin V and propidium iodide staining showed that a highly hyperosmotic medium (600 mOsm) severely reduced chondrocyte viability and led mainly to apoptotic cell death, while elevating osmotic pressure within the physiological range caused no changes compared to isosmotic conditions. Western blot analysis revealed that a 600 mOsm hyperosmotic environment induced the activation of proapoptotic members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, and led to an increased level of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Hyperosmotic stress also induced the activation of caspase-3. In summary, our results show that hyperosmotic stress leads to mainly apoptotic cell death via the involvement of proapoptotic signaling pathways in a primary chondrocyte culture.

  8. The mitochondrial pathway of anesthetic isoflurane-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiying; Dong, Yuanlin; Wu, Xu; Lu, Yan; Xu, Zhipeng; Knapp, Andrew; Yue, Yun; Xu, Tiejun; Xie, Zhongcong

    2010-02-05

    The common inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce apoptosis, which then leads to accumulation of beta-amyloid protein, the hallmark feature of Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. The underlying molecular mechanism of the isoflurane-induced apoptosis is largely unknown. We, therefore, set out to assess whether isoflurane can induce apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins, enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. We performed these studies in cultured cells, primary neurons, and mice. Here we show for the first time that treatment with 2% isoflurane for 6 h can increase pro-apoptotic factor Bax levels, decrease anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 levels, increase ROS accumulation, facilitate cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, induce activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and finally cause apoptosis as compared with the control condition. We have further found that isoflurane can increase the mRNA levels of Bax and reduce the mRNA levels of Bcl-2. The isoflurane-induced ROS accumulation can be attenuated by the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. Finally, the anesthetic desflurane does not induce activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. These results suggest that isoflurane may induce apoptosis through Bcl-2 family proteins- and ROS-associated mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. These findings, which have identified at least partially the molecular mechanism by which isoflurane induces apoptosis, will promote more studies aimed at studying the potential neurotoxic effects of anesthetics.

  9. FOXO3a governs early and late apoptotic endothelial programs during elevated glucose through mitochondrial and caspase signaling.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinling; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Maiese, Kenneth

    2010-06-10

    Mechanisms that preserve endothelial cell (EC) integrity remain elusive, but are critical for new strategies directed against endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Here we demonstrate in primary cerebral ECs with a clinically relevant model of elevated d-glucose that Akt1 and the post-translational modification and subcellular trafficking of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO3a are critical for early apoptotic membrane signaling and subsequent degradation of nuclear DNA. FoxO3a also directly governs apoptotic mitochondrial signal transduction pathways, since gene knockdown of FoxO3a prevents mitochondrial membrane depolarization as well as the release of cytochrome c. Control of this apoptotic cascade extends to the rapid and progressive activation of caspases. The presence of FoxO3a is necessary for cleaved (active) caspase 1 and 3 expression, since loss of FoxO3a abrogates the induction of caspase activity. Our work identifies Akt1, FoxO3a and closely aligned pathways as key therapeutic targets during impaired glucose tolerance and DM.

  10. Early apoptotic vascular signaling is determined by Sirt1 through nuclear shuttling, forkhead trafficking, bad, and mitochondrial caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinling; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Maiese, Kenneth

    2010-05-01

    Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) weigh heavily upon the endothelium that ultimately affect multiple organ systems. These concerns call for innovative treatment strategies that employ molecular pathways responsible for cell survival and longevity. Here we show in a clinically relevant model of DM with elevated D-glucose that endothelial cell (EC) SIRT1 is vital for the prevention of early membrane apoptotic phosphatidylserine externalization and subsequent DNA degradation supported by studies with modulation of SIRT1 activity and gene knockdown of SIRT1. Furthermore, during elevated D-glucose exposure, we show that SIRT1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of ECs, but specific activation of SIRT1 shuttles the protein to the nucleus to allow for cytoprotection. The ability of SIRT1 to avert apoptosis employs the activation of protein kinase B (Akt1), the post-translational phosphorylation of the forkhead member FoxO3a, the blocked trafficking of FoxO3a to the nucleus, and the inhibition of FoxO3a to initiate a "pro-apoptotic" program as shown by complimentary gene knockdown studies of FoxO3a. Vascular apoptotic oversight by SIRT1 extends to the direct modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability, cytochrome c release, Bad activation, and caspase 1 and 3 activation, since inhibition of SIRT1 activity and gene knockdown of SIRT1 significantly accentuate cascade progression while SIRT1 activation abrogates these apoptotic elements. Our work identifies vascular SIRT1 and its control over early apoptotic membrane signaling, Akt1 activation, post-translational modification and trafficking of FoxO3a, mitochondrial permeability, Bad activation, and rapid caspase induction as new avenues for the treatment of vascular complications during DM.

  11. Poncirin Induces Apoptosis in AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells through Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by up-Regulation of Fas Ligand.

    PubMed

    Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-09-18

    Poncirin, a natural bitter flavanone glycoside abundantly present in many species of citrus fruits, has various biological benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The anti-cancer mechanism of Poncirin remains elusive to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of Poncirin in AGS human gastric cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinoma). The results revealed that Poncirin could inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed Poncirin induced accumulation of sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic cell population, apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in AGS cells. The expression of Fas Ligand (FasL) protein was up-regulated dose dependently in Poncirin-treated AGS cells Moreover, Poncirin in AGS cells induced activation of Caspase-8 and -3, and subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibitor studies' results confirm that the induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in Poncirin-treated AGS cells was led by the Fas death receptor. Interestingly, Poncirin did not show any effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) in AGS-treated cells followed by no activation in the mitochondrial apoptotic protein caspase-9. This result suggests that the mitochondrial-mediated pathway is not involved in Poncirin-induced cell death in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that Poncirin has a potential anti-cancer effect via extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis, possibly making it a strong therapeutic agent for human gastric cancer.

  12. Colon cancer cell chemosensitisation by fish oil emulsion involves apoptotic mitochondria pathway.

    PubMed

    Granci, Virginie; Cai, Fang; Lecumberri, Elena; Clerc, Aurélie; Dupertuis, Yves M; Pichard, Claude

    2013-04-14

    Adjuvant use of safe compounds with anti-tumour properties has been proposed to improve cancer chemotherapy outcome. We aimed to investigate the effects of fish oil emulsion (FOE) rich in n-3 PUFA with the standard chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin (OX) or irinotecan (IRI) on two human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with different genetic backgrounds. The HT-29 (Bax+/+) and LS174T (Bax-/-) cells were co-treated for 24-72 h with 1 μm-5-FU, 1 μm-OX or 10 μm-IRI and/or FOE dilution corresponding to 24 μm-EPA and 20·5 μm-DHA. Soyabean oil emulsion (SOE) was used as isoenergetic and isolipid control. Cell viability, apoptosis and nuclear morphological changes were evaluated by cytotoxic colorimetric assay, flow cytometry analysis with annexin V and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, respectively. A cationic fluorescent probe was used to evaluate mitochondrial dysfunction, and protein expression involved in mitochondrial apoptosis was determined by Western blot. In contrast to SOE, co-treatment with FOE enhanced significantly the pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of 5-FU, OX or IRI in HT-29 but not in LS174T cells (two-way ANOVA, P <0.01). These results were confirmed by the formation of apoptotic bodies in HT-29 cells. A significant increase in mitochondrial membrane depolarisation was observed after the combination of 5-FU or IRI with FOE in HT-29 but not in LS174T cells (P <0.05). Co-administration of FOE with the standard agents, 5-FU, OX and IRI, could be a good alternative to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic protocols through a Bax-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  13. How to analyze mitochondrial morphology in healthy cells and apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Stéphane G

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria constantly undergo fusion and fission events. A proper balance of fusion and fission is essential in healthy cells, as disrupting this balance is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial fission has also been shown to play an important role during apoptosis. Hence, the machineries that control mitochondrial morphology have both nonapoptotic and apoptotic functions. Seminal work in yeast has identified some of the key components of these machineries. However, the list is certainly not complete and new factors that are specific to metazoans are being identified every year. In this review, we describe methodologies to test whether a particular candidate gene plays a role in the control of mitochondrial morphology in healthy cells and apoptotic cells using Caenorhabditis elegans. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Apoptotic Vascular Signaling is Determined by Sirt1 Through Nuclear Shuttling, Forkhead Trafficking, Bad, and Mitochondrial Caspase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinling; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Maiese, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) weigh heavily upon the endothelium that ultimately affect multiple organ systems. These concerns call for innovative treatment strategies that employ molecular pathways responsible for cell survival and longevity. Here we show in a clinically relevant model of DM with elevated D-glucose that endothelial cell (EC) SIRT1 is vital for the prevention of early membrane apoptotic phosphatidylserine externalization and subsequent DNA degradation supported by studies with modulation of SIRT1 activity and gene knockdown of SIRT1. Furthermore, during elevated D-glucose exposure, we show that SIRT1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of ECs, but specific activation of SIRT1 shuttles the protein to the nucleus to allow for cytoprotection. The ability of SIRT1 to avert apoptosis employs the activation of protein kinase B (Akt1), the post-translational phosphorylation of the forkhead member FoxO3a, the blocked trafficking of FoxO3a to the nucleus, and the inhibition of FoxO3a to initiate a “pro-apoptotic” program as shown by complimentary gene knockdown studies of FoxO3a. Vascular apoptotic oversight by SIRT1 extends to the direct modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability, cytochrome c release, Bad activation, and caspase 1 and 3 activation, since inhibition of SIRT1 activity and gene knockdown of SIRT1 significantly accentuate cascade progression while SIRT1 activation abrogates these apoptotic elements. Our work identifies vascular SIRT1 and its control over early apoptotic membrane signaling, Akt1 activation, post-translational modification and trafficking of FoxO3a, mitochondrial permeability, Bad activation, and rapid caspase induction as new avenues for the treatment of vascular complications during DM. PMID:20370652

  15. Effect of chronic contractile activity on SS and IMF mitochondrial apoptotic susceptibility in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Adhihetty, Peter J; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Hood, David A

    2007-03-01

    Chronic contractile activity of skeletal muscle induces an increase in mitochondria located in proximity to the sarcolemma [subsarcolemmal (SS)] and in mitochondria interspersed between the myofibrils [intermyofibrillar (IMF)]. These are energetically favorable metabolic adaptations, but because mitochondria are also involved in apoptosis, we investigated the effect of chronic contractile activity on mitochondrially mediated apoptotic signaling in muscle. We hypothesized that chronic contractile activity would provide protection against mitochondrially mediated apoptosis despite an elevation in the expression of proapoptotic proteins. To induce mitochondrial biogenesis, we chronically stimulated (10 Hz; 3 h/day) rat muscle for 7 days. Chronic contractile activity did not alter the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, an index of apoptotic susceptibility, and did not affect manganese superoxide dismutase levels. However, contractile activity increased antiapoptotic 70-kDa heat shock protein and apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain by 1.3- and 1.4-fold (P<0.05), respectively. Contractile activity elevated SS mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production 1.4- and 1.9-fold (P<0.05) during states IV and III respiration, respectively, whereas IMF mitochondrial state IV ROS production was suppressed by 28% (P<0.05) and was unaffected during state III respiration. Following stimulation, exogenous ROS treatment produced less cytochrome c release (25-40%) from SS and IMF mitochondria, and also reduced apoptosis-inducing factor release (approximately 30%) from IMF mitochondria, despite higher inherent cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor expression. Chronic contractile activity did not alter mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) components in either subfraction. However, SS mitochondria exhibited a significant increase in the time to Vmax of mtPTP opening. Thus, chronic contractile activity induces predominantly antiapoptotic adaptations in both

  16. Mitochondrial Fission Promotes the Continued Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Subramanian, Manikandan; Yurdagul, Arif; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C; Cai, Bishuang; de Juan-Sanz, Jaime; Ryan, Timothy A; Nomura, Masatoshi; Maxfield, Frederick R; Tabas, Ira

    2017-10-05

    Clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs) by phagocytes (efferocytosis) prevents post-apoptotic necrosis and dampens inflammation. Defective efferocytosis drives important diseases, including atherosclerosis. For efficient efferocytosis, phagocytes must be able to internalize multiple ACs. We show here that uptake of multiple ACs by macrophages requires dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission, which is triggered by AC uptake. When mitochondrial fission is disabled, AC-induced increase in cytosolic calcium is blunted owing to mitochondrial calcium sequestration, and calcium-dependent phagosome formation around secondarily encountered ACs is impaired. These defects can be corrected by silencing the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mice lacking myeloid Drp1 showed defective efferocytosis and its pathologic consequences in the thymus after dexamethasone treatment and in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in fat-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice. Thus, mitochondrial fission in response to AC uptake is a critical process that enables macrophages to clear multiple ACs and to avoid the pathologic consequences of defective efferocytosis in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV-1 promonocytic and lymphoid cell lines: an in vitro model of in vivo mitochondrial and apoptotic lesion.

    PubMed

    Morén, Constanza; González-Casacuberta, Ingrid; Álvarez-Fernández, Carmen; Bañó, Maria; Catalán-Garcia, Marc; Guitart-Mampel, Mariona; Juárez-Flores, Diana Luz; Tobías, Ester; Milisenda, José; Cardellach, Francesc; Gatell, Josep Maria; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Garrabou, Glòria

    2017-02-01

    To characterize mitochondrial/apoptotic parameters in chronically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected promonocytic and lymphoid cells which could be further used as therapeutic targets to test pro-mitochondrial or anti-apoptotic strategies as in vitro cell platforms to deal with HIV-infection. Mitochondrial/apoptotic parameters of U1 promonocytic and ACH2 lymphoid cell lines were compared to those of their uninfected U937 and CEM counterparts. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was quantified by rt-PCR while mitochondrial complex IV (CIV) function was measured by spectrophotometry. Mitochondrial-nuclear encoded subunits II-IV of cytochrome-c-oxidase (COXII-COXIV), respectively, as well as mitochondrial apoptotic events [voltage-dependent-anion-channel-1(VDAC-1)-content and caspase-9 levels] were quantified by western blot, with mitochondrial mass being assessed by spectrophotometry (citrate synthase) and flow cytometry (mitotracker green assay). Mitochondrial membrane potential (JC1-assay) and advanced apoptotic/necrotic events (AnexinV/propidium iodide) were measured by flow cytometry. Significant mtDNA depletion spanning 57.67% (P < 0.01) was found in the U1 promonocytic cells further reflected by a significant 77.43% decrease of mitochondrial CIV activity (P < 0.01). These changes were not significant for the ACH2 lymphoid cell line. COXII and COXIV subunits as well as VDAC-1 and caspase-9 content were sharply decreased in both chronic HIV-1-infected promonocytic and lymphoid cell lines (<0.005 in most cases). In addition, U1 and ACH2 cells showed a trend (moderate in case of ACH2), albeit not significant, to lower levels of depolarized mitochondrial membranes. The present in vitro lymphoid and especially promonocytic HIV model show marked mitochondrial lesion but apoptotic resistance phenotype that has been only partially demonstrated in patients. This model may provide a platform for the characterization of HIV-chronicity, to test novel therapeutic options or

  18. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress precedes mitochondrially mediated apoptotic death of cultured fetal cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vinitha; Watts, Lora Talley; Maffi, Shivani Kaushal; Chen, Juanjuan; Schenker, Steven; Henderson, George

    2003-11-15

    In utero ethanol exposure elicits apoptotic cell death in the fetal brain, and this may be mediated by oxidative stress. Our studies utilize cultured fetal rat cortical neurons and illustrate that ethanol elicits a rapid onset of oxidative stress, which culminates in mitochondrially mediated apoptotic cell death. Cells exposed to ethanol (2.5 mg/ml) remained attached to their polylysine matrix during a 24-hr exposure, but they exhibited distinct signs of oxidative stress, decreased viability, and apoptosis. Confocal microscopy of live cortical neurons pretreated with dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate demonstrated an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 5 min of ethanol exposure. The levels of ROS further increased by 58% within 1 hr (P <.05) and by 82% within 2 hr (P <.05), accompanied by increases of mitochondrial 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). These early events were followed by decreased trypan blue exclusion of 10% to 32% (P <.05) at the 6- to 24-hr time points, respectively. This culminates in apoptotic death, with increases of Annexin V binding of 43%, 89%, 123%, and 238%, at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr of ethanol treatment, respectively, as well as DNA fragmentation increases of 50% and 65% by 12 and 24 hr, respectively. Release of cytochrome c by mitochondria increased by 53% at 6 hr of exposure (P <.05), concomitant with activation of caspase 3 (52% at 12 hr, P <.05). Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine increased cellular glutathione and prevented apoptosis. These studies provide a time line illustrating that oxidative stress and formation of a proapoptotic lipid peroxidation product, HNE, precede a cascade of mitochondrially mediated events in cultured fetal cortical neurons, culminating in apoptotic death. The prevention of apoptosis by augmentation of glutathione stores also strongly supports a role for oxidative stress in ethanol-mediated apoptotic death of fetal cortical neurons.

  19. Mitochondrial Staining Allows Robust Elimination of Apoptotic and Damaged Cells during Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarev, Eugeny D.; Tsytsykova, Alla; Armant, Myriam; Vorobjev, Ivan A.

    2014-01-01

    High-speed fluorescence-activated cell sorting is relevant for a plethora of applications, such as PCR-based techniques, microarrays, cloning, and propagation of selected cell populations. We suggest a simple cell-sorting technique to eliminate early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells, with good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-purity yield. The mitochondrial potential dye, TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate), was used to separate viable and non-apoptotic cells from the cell sorting samples. TMRE staining is reversible and does not affect cell proliferation and viability. Sorted TMRE+ cells contained a negligible percentage of apoptotic and damaged cells and had a higher proliferative potential as compared with their counterpart cells, sorted on the basis of staining with DNA viability dye. This novel sorting technique using TMRE does not interfere with subsequent functional assays and is a method of choice for the enrichment of functionally active, unbiased cell populations. PMID:24394470

  20. Mitochondrial staining allows robust elimination of apoptotic and damaged cells during cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Barteneva, Natasha S; Ponomarev, Eugeny D; Tsytsykova, Alla; Armant, Myriam; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2014-04-01

    High-speed fluorescence-activated cell sorting is relevant for a plethora of applications, such as PCR-based techniques, microarrays, cloning, and propagation of selected cell populations. We suggest a simple cell-sorting technique to eliminate early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells, with good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-purity yield. The mitochondrial potential dye, TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate), was used to separate viable and non-apoptotic cells from the cell sorting samples. TMRE staining is reversible and does not affect cell proliferation and viability. Sorted TMRE(+) cells contained a negligible percentage of apoptotic and damaged cells and had a higher proliferative potential as compared with their counterpart cells, sorted on the basis of staining with DNA viability dye. This novel sorting technique using TMRE does not interfere with subsequent functional assays and is a method of choice for the enrichment of functionally active, unbiased cell populations.

  1. Apoptotic pathways of U937 leukemic monocytes investigated by infrared microspectroscopy and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Birarda, Giovanni; Bedolla, Diana E; Mitri, Elisa; Pacor, Sabrina; Grenci, Gianluca; Vaccari, Lisa

    2014-06-21

    Apoptosis is a strictly regulated cell death mechanism that plays a pivotal role in the normal evolution of multicellular organisms. Its misregulation has been associated with many diseases, making its early and reliable detection a key point for modern cellular biology. In this paper, we propose the use of infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) as a label-free methodology for the detection of apoptotic-related biochemical processes induced on U937 leukemic monocytes by serum starvation and CCCP-exposure. The spectroscopic results are in agreement with parallel Flow Cytometry (FC) experiments, where plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were assessed. Spectroscopic outcomes complement FC data and allow drawing a more complete picture of the apoptotic pathways. In particular, we established that the two apoptosis-inducing treatments, cell starvation and CCCP exposure, affect the cell cycle in a different way. With the former, cell death is preceded by a cell cycle arrest, whereas the latter causes an increased cell cycle progression. Spectral data demonstrate that for both conditions apoptosis proceeds through the accumulation of lipid droplets within cells. Moreover, we were able to establish a spectral marker for DNA condensation/fragmentation: the enhancement of the PhI band component centred at ~1206 cm(-1), which is more sensitive than the relative intensity of the PhII band to which phospholipids and carbohydrates also contribute significantly. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the intrinsic multi-parametric nature of IRMS and its application on cells under physiological conditions can be well exploited for the investigation of apoptotic pathways.

  2. Expression of FADD and cFLIPL balances mitochondrial integrity and redox signaling to substantiate apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Kishu; Pathak, Chandramani

    2016-11-01

    FADD and cFLIP both are pivotal components of death receptor signaling. The cellular signaling of apoptosis accomplished with death receptors and mitochondria follows independent pathways for cell death. FADD and cFLIP both have an important role in the regulation of apoptotic and non-apoptotic functions. Dysregulated expression of FADD and cFLIP is associated with resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells. Mitochondria are known to play critical role in maintaining cellular respiration and homeostasis in the cells as well as transduces various signals to determine the fate of cell death. However, involvement of FADD and cFLIP in regulation of mitochondrial integrity and programmed cell death signaling to define the fate of cells remains elusive. In the present study, we explored that, induced expression of FADD challenges the mitochondrial integrity and pulverizes the membrane potential by altering the expression of Bcl-2 and cytochrome c. In contrast, mutant of FADD was unable to affect the mitochondrial integrity. Interestingly, expression of FADD and cFLIP helps to balance redox potential by regulating the anti-oxidant levels. Further, we noticed that, knockdown of cFLIPL and induced expression of FADD rapidly accumulate intracellular ROS accompanied by JNK1 activation to substantiate apoptosis. Notably, the ectopic expression of cFLIPL resists the sensitivity of cancer cells against apoptosis inducers Etoposide and HA14-1. Altogether, our findings suggest that FADD and cFLIPL are important modulators of mitochondrial-associated apoptosis apart from the death receptor signaling.

  3. Effects of glycerol on apoptotic signaling pathways during boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changjun; Tang, Keyi; He, Lian; Peng, Wenpei; Ding, Li; Fang, Donghui; Zhang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) with post-thawed boar spermatozoa results in low farrowing rates and reduced litter sizes mainly due to cryoinjury or damages to spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Low viability and motility of post-thawed boar spermatozoa are highly associated with apoptosis during cryopreservation. Although glycerol is widely used a cryoprotectant (CPA) for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation, the mechanism and relationship between glycerol and apoptosis-related gene expression needs to be clarified. In this study, we treated boar spermatozoa with different concentrations of glycerol in lactose egg yolk (LEY) extender to evaluate the apoptosis-related gene expression and protease activities of caspases. These results show that: (1) low concentrations of glycerol (2% and 3%) were more suitable for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation; (2) apoptosis-related genes involved in intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor apoptotic signaling pathways were widely expressed in different concentrations of glycerol treated boar spermatozoa; (3) there was a significant positive correlation (r=0.840, P=0.037) between the percentage of Annexin V(+)/PI(+) staining spermatozoa and caspase-6/9 protease activity. In conclusion, 2% and 3% glycerol have the best anti-apoptotic effects, and the expression of Fas/FasL and Bcl-2/Bax have a strong correlation with spermatozoa parameters.

  4. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ebola Virus Does Not Block Apoptotic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Olejnik, Judith; Alonso, Jesus; Schmidt, Kristina M.; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Yang, Jinghua; Patterson, Jean L.; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Since viruses rely on functional cellular machinery for efficient propagation, apoptosis is an important mechanism to fight viral infections. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of cell death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV) infection by assaying for multiple stages of apoptosis and hallmarks of necrosis. Our data indicate that EBOV does not induce apoptosis in infected cells but rather leads to a nonapoptotic form of cell death. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed necrotic cell death of EBOV-infected cells. To investigate if EBOV blocks the induction of apoptosis, infected cells were treated with different apoptosis-inducing agents. Surprisingly, EBOV-infected cells remained sensitive to apoptosis induced by external stimuli. Neither receptor- nor mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis signaling was inhibited in EBOV infection. Although double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced activation of protein kinase R (PKR) was blocked in EBOV-infected cells, induction of apoptosis mediated by dsRNA was not suppressed. When EBOV-infected cells were treated with dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiter (dsCARE), an antiviral protein that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing dsRNA, virus titers were strongly reduced. These data show that the inability of EBOV to block apoptotic pathways may open up new strategies toward the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23468487

  6. Pin1 mediates neural-specific activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Becker, Esther B E; Bonni, Azad

    2006-03-02

    Apoptosis of neurons plays fundamental roles in brain development and disease. Although neurons share with other cell types components of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery, how this machinery is specifically activated in neurons remains poorly understood. Remarkably, phosphorylation of the BH3-only protein BIMEL at Ser65 triggers apoptosis in neurons but suppresses cell death in non-neural cells. Here, we report that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 interacts with Ser65-phosphorylated BIMEL in neurons. Pin1 is enriched at the mitochondrial membrane in neurons, where it forms a physical complex with the neuron-specific JNK scaffold protein JIP3. Activation of JNK signaling induces the dissociation of Pin1 from JIP3 and concomitantly promotes Pin1 binding to phosphorylated BIMEL. The interaction of Pin1 with phosphorylated BIMEL stabilizes BIMEL and thereby activates neuronal apoptosis. These findings define a neural-specific mechanism of cell death whereby Pin1 couples phosphorylation of BH3-only proteins to activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery.

  7. Stimulation by pro-apoptotic valinomycin of cytosolic NADH/cytochrome c electron transport pathway-Effect of SH reagents.

    PubMed

    Lofrumento, Dario Domenico; La Piana, Gianluigi; Palmitessa, Valeria; Abbrescia, Daniela Isabel; Lofrumento, Nicola Elio

    2016-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis are both characterised by the presence of cytochrome c (cyto-c) in the cytosol. We present data on the extra-mitochondrial NADH oxidation catalysed by exogenous (cytosolic) cyto-c, as a possible answer to the paradox of apoptosis being an energy-dependent program but characterized by the impairment of the respiratory chain. The reduction of molecular oxygen induced by the cytosolic NADH/cyto-c pathway is coupled to the generation of an electrochemical proton gradient available for ATP synthesis. Original findings show that SH reagents inhibit the NADH/cyto-c system with a conformational change mechanism. The mitochondrial integrity-test of sulfite oxidase unequivocally demonstrates that this enzyme (120kDa) can be released outside but exogenous cyto-c (12.5kDa) does not permeate into mitochondria. Valinomycin at 2nM stimulates both the energy-dependent reversible mitochondrial swelling and the NADH/cyto-c oxidation pathway. The pro-apoptotic activity of valinomycin, as well as to the dissipation of membrane potential, can be also ascribed to the increased activity of the NADH/cyto-c oxidation pathway useful as an additional source of energy for apoptosis. It can be speculated that the activation of the NADH/cyto-c system coupled to valinomycin-induced mitochondrial osmotic swelling may represent a strategy to activate apoptosis in confined solid tumours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mcl-1 involvement in mitochondrial dynamics is associated with apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Morciano, Giampaolo; Giorgi, Carlotta; Balestra, Dario; Marchi, Saverio; Perrone, Daniela; Pinotti, Mirko; Pinton, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins are critical regulators of apoptosis and consist of both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors. Within this family, the myeloid cell leukemia factor 1 (Mcl-1) protein exists in two forms as the result of alternative splicing. The long variant (Mcl-1L) acts as an antiapoptotic factor, whereas the short isoform (Mcl-1S) displays proapoptotic activity. In this study, using splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), we increased the synthesis of Mcl-1S, which induced a concurrent reduction of Mcl-1L, resulting in increased sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptotic stimuli. The Mcl-1 ASOs also induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and a consequent increase in mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation. The high Mcl-1S/L ratio correlated with significant hyperfusion of the entire mitochondrial network, which occurred in a dynamin-related protein (Drp1)-dependent manner. Our data indicate that the balance between the long and short variants of the Mcl-1 gene represents a key aspect of the regulation of mitochondrial physiology. We propose that the Mcl-1L/S balance is a novel regulatory factor controlling the mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery.

  9. Mcl-1 involvement in mitochondrial dynamics is associated with apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Morciano, Giampaolo; Giorgi, Carlotta; Balestra, Dario; Marchi, Saverio; Perrone, Daniela; Pinotti, Mirko; Pinton, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins are critical regulators of apoptosis and consist of both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors. Within this family, the myeloid cell leukemia factor 1 (Mcl-1) protein exists in two forms as the result of alternative splicing. The long variant (Mcl-1L) acts as an antiapoptotic factor, whereas the short isoform (Mcl-1S) displays proapoptotic activity. In this study, using splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), we increased the synthesis of Mcl-1S, which induced a concurrent reduction of Mcl-1L, resulting in increased sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptotic stimuli. The Mcl-1 ASOs also induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and a consequent increase in mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) accumulation. The high Mcl-1S/L ratio correlated with significant hyperfusion of the entire mitochondrial network, which occurred in a dynamin-related protein (Drp1)–dependent manner. Our data indicate that the balance between the long and short variants of the Mcl-1 gene represents a key aspect of the regulation of mitochondrial physiology. We propose that the Mcl-1L/S balance is a novel regulatory factor controlling the mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery. PMID:26538029

  10. AICAR induces mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masayuki; Kawamoto, Teruya; Hara, Hitomi; Onishi, Yasuo; Ueha, Takeshi; Minoda, Masaya; Katayama, Etsuko; Takemori, Toshiyuki; Fukase, Naomasa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) modulates cellular energy metabolism, and promotes mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that AICAR has anticancer effects in various cancers, however the roles of AMPK and/or the effects of AICAR on osteosarcoma have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of AICAR on tumor growth and mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, two human osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and KHOS, were treated with AICAR, and the effects of AICAR on cell growth and mitochondrial apoptosis were assessed by WST assays, TUNEL staining, and immunoblot analyses. In vivo, human osteosarcoma-bearing mice were treated with AICAR, and the mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumors were assessed. In vitro experiments revealed that AICAR activated AMPK, inhibited cell growth, and induced mitochondrial apoptosis in both osteosarcoma cell lines. In vivo, AICAR significantly reduced osteosarcoma growth without apparent body weight loss and AICAR increased both mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumor tissues. AICAR showed anticancer effects in osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)/mitochondrial pathway. The findings in this study strongly suggest that AICAR could be considered as a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of human osteosarcoma. PMID:27878239

  11. AICAR induces mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Masayuki; Kawamoto, Teruya; Hara, Hitomi; Onishi, Yasuo; Ueha, Takeshi; Minoda, Masaya; Katayama, Etsuko; Takemori, Toshiyuki; Fukase, Naomasa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) modulates cellular energy metabolism, and promotes mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that AICAR has anticancer effects in various cancers, however the roles of AMPK and/or the effects of AICAR on osteosarcoma have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of AICAR on tumor growth and mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, two human osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and KHOS, were treated with AICAR, and the effects of AICAR on cell growth and mitochondrial apoptosis were assessed by WST assays, TUNEL staining, and immunoblot analyses. In vivo, human osteosarcoma-bearing mice were treated with AICAR, and the mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumors were assessed. In vitro experiments revealed that AICAR activated AMPK, inhibited cell growth, and induced mitochondrial apoptosis in both osteosarcoma cell lines. In vivo, AICAR significantly reduced osteosarcoma growth without apparent body weight loss and AICAR increased both mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumor tissues. AICAR showed anticancer effects in osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)/mitochondrial pathway. The findings in this study strongly suggest that AICAR could be considered as a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of human osteosarcoma.

  12. Upregulation of p21 activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in β-cells.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Angelina M; Colvin, E Scott; Chen, Yi-Chun; Geiss, Steven L; Eller, Lindsay E; Fueger, Patrick T

    2013-06-15

    Diabetes manifests from a loss in functional β-cell mass, which is regulated by a dynamic balance of various cellular processes, including β-cell growth, proliferation, and death as well as secretory function. The cell cycle machinery comprised of cyclins, kinases, and inhibitors regulates proliferation. However, their involvement during β-cell stress during the development of diabetes is not well understood. Interestingly, in a screen of multiple cell cycle inhibitors, p21 was dramatically upregulated in INS-1-derived 832/13 cells and rodent islets by two pharmacological inducers of β-cell stress, dexamethasone and thapsigargin. We hypothesized that β-cell stress upregulates p21 to activate the apoptotic pathway and suppress cell survival signaling. To this end, p21 was adenovirally overexpressed in pancreatic rat islets and 832/13 cells. As expected, p21 overexpression resulted in decreased [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Flow cytometry analysis in p21-transduced 832/13 cells verified lower replication, as indicated by a decreased cell population in the S phase and a block in G2/M transition. The sub-G0 cell population was higher with p21 overexpression and was attributable to apoptosis, as demonstrated by increased annexin-positive stained cells and cleaved caspase-3 protein. p21-mediated caspase-3 cleavage was inhibited by either overexpression of the antiapoptotic mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 or siRNA-mediated suppression of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. Therefore, an intact intrinsic apoptotic pathway is central for p21-mediated cell death. In summary, our findings indicate that β-cell apoptosis can be triggered by p21 during stress and is thus a potential target to inhibit for protection of functional β-cell mass.

  13. Evidence that glucocorticoid- and cyclic AMP-induced apoptotic pathways in lymphocytes share distal events.

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, D R; Miesfeld, R L

    1992-01-01

    WEHI7.2 murine lymphocytes undergo apoptotic death when exposed to glucocorticoids or elevated levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), and these pathways are initiated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and protein kinase A, respectively. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel WEHI7.2 variant cell line, WR256, which was selected in a single step for growth in the presence of dexamethasone and arose at a frequency of approximately 10(-10). The defect was not GR-related, as WR256 expressed functional GR and underwent GR-dependent events associated with apoptosis, such as hormone-dependent gene transcription and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, the glucocorticoid-resistant phenotype was stable in culture and did not revert after treatment with 5-azacytidine or upon stable expression of GR cDNA. In addition, WR256 did not exhibit the diminished mitochondrial activity commonly associated with apoptosis. Interestingly, WR256 was also found to be resistant to 8-bromo-cAMP and forskolin despite having normal levels of protein kinase A activity and the ability to induce cAMP-dependent transcription. We examined the steady-state transcript levels of bcl-2, a gene whose protein product acts dominantly to inhibit thymocyte apoptosis, to determine whether elevated bcl-2 expression could account for the resistant phenotype. Our data showed that bcl-2 RNA levels were similar in the two cell lines and not altered by either dexamethasone or 8-bromo-cAMP treatment. These results suggest that WR256 exhibits a "deathless" phenotype and has a unique defect in a step of the apoptotic cascade that may be common to the glucocorticoid- and cAMP-mediated cell death pathways. Images PMID:1378529

  14. Exogenous H2S regulates endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria cross-talk to inhibit apoptotic pathways in STZ-induced type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Yu, Xiangjing; Li, Ting; Wu, Jianjun; Zhao, Yajun; Liu, Jiaqi; Sun, Aili; Dong, Shiyun; Wu, Jichao; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Changqing; Lu, Fanghao; Zhang, Weihua

    2017-03-01

    The upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a primary cause of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetes cardiomyopathy (DCM). Mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2) is a key protein that bridges the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-mediated cardioprotection is related to antioxidant effects. The present study demonstrated that H2S inhibited the interaction between the ER and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This study investigated cardiac function, ultrastructural changes in the ER and mitochondria, apoptotic rate using TUNEL, and the expression of ER stress-associated proteins and mitochondrial apoptotic proteins in cardiac tissues in STZ-induced type I diabetic rats treated with or without NaHS (donor of H2S). Mitochondria of cardiac tissues were isolated, and MPTP opening and cytochrome c (cyt C) and Mfn-2 expression were also detected. Our data showed that hyperglycemia decreased the cardiac function by ultrasound cardiogram, and the administration of exogenous H2S ameliorated these changes. We demonstrated that the expression of ER stress sensors and apoptotic rates were elevated in cardiac tissue of DCM and cultured H9C2 cells, but the expression of these proteins was reduced following exogenous H2S treatment. The expression of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins, cyt C, and mPTP opening was decreased following treatment with exogenous H2S. In our experiment, the expression and immunofluorescence of Mfn-2 were both decreased after transfection with Mfn-2-siRNA. Hyperglycemia stimulated ER interactions and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, which were inhibited by exogenous H2S treatment through the regulation of Mfn-2 expression. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin mimics the symptoms of PD by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I that stimulates excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally leads to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Lutein, a carotenoid of xanthophyll family, is found abundantly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale and in egg yolk, animal fat and human eye retinal macula. Increasing evidence indicates that lutein has offers benefits against neuronal damages during diabetic retinopathy, ischemia and AD by virtue of its mitochondrial protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Male C57BL/6 mice (23-26 g) were randomized and grouped in to Control, MPTP, and Lutein treated groups. Lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions. Our current results revealed that lutein possessed protection on dopaminergic neurons by enhancing antioxidant defense and diminishing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of lutein for PD treatment.

  16. Apoptotic cells trigger a membrane-initiated pathway to increase ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Fond, Aaron M.; Lee, Chang Sup; Schulman, Ira G.; Kiss, Robert S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages clear millions of apoptotic cells daily and, during this process, take up large quantities of cholesterol. The membrane transporter ABCA1 is a key player in cholesterol efflux from macrophages and has been shown via human genetic studies to provide protection against cardiovascular disease. How the apoptotic cell clearance process is linked to macrophage ABCA1 expression is not known. Here, we identified a plasma membrane–initiated signaling pathway that drives a rapid upregulation of ABCA1 mRNA and protein. This pathway involves the phagocytic receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), which recognizes phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells, and the intracellular signaling intermediates engulfment cell motility 1 (ELMO1) and Rac1, as ABCA1 induction was attenuated in primary macrophages from mice lacking these molecules. Moreover, this apoptotic cell–initiated pathway functioned independently of the liver X receptor (LXR) sterol–sensing machinery that is known to regulate ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. When placed on a high-fat diet, mice lacking BAI1 had increased numbers of apoptotic cells in their aortic roots, which correlated with altered lipid profiles. In contrast, macrophages from engineered mice with transgenic BAI1 overexpression showed greater ABCA1 induction in response to apoptotic cells compared with those from control animals. Collectively, these data identify a membrane-initiated pathway that is triggered by apoptotic cells to enhance ABCA1 within engulfing phagocytes and with functional consequences in vivo. PMID:26075824

  17. Organization of the mitochondrial apoptotic BAK pore: oligomerization of the BAK homodimers.

    PubMed

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Mandal, Tirtha; Hustedt, Eric; Fajer, Peter; Choe, Jun Yong; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2014-01-31

    The multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins BAK and BAX are believed to form large oligomeric pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. Formation of these pores results in the release of apoptotic factors including cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm, where they initiate the cascade of events that lead to cell death. Using the site-directed spin labeling method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we have determined the conformational changes that occur in BAK when the protein targets to the membrane and forms pores. The data showed that helices α1 and α6 disengage from the rest of the domain, leaving helices α2-α5 as a folded unit. Helices α2-α5 were shown to form a dimeric structure, which is structurally homologous to the recently reported BAX "BH3-in-groove homodimer." Furthermore, the EPR data and a chemical cross-linking study demonstrated the existence of a hitherto unknown interface between BAK BH3-in-groove homodimers in the oligomeric BAK. This novel interface involves the C termini of α3 and α5 helices. The results provide further insights into the organization of the BAK oligomeric pores by the BAK homodimers during mitochondrial apoptosis, enabling the proposal of a BAK-induced lipidic pore with the topography of a "worm hole."

  18. 3-Nitropropionic acid induces autophagy by forming mitochondrial permeability transition pores rather than activatiing the mitochondrial fission pathway

    PubMed Central

    Solesio, Maria E; Saez-Atienzar, Sara; Jordan, Joaquin; Galindo, Maria F

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative process associated with mitochondrial alterations. Inhibitors of the electron–transport channel complex II, such as 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), are used to study the molecular and cellular pathways involved in this disease. We studied the effect of 3NP on mitochondrial morphology and its involvement in macrophagy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pharmacological and biochemical methods were used to characterize the effects of 3NP on autophagy and mitochondrial morphology. SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with GFP-LC3, GFP-Drp1 or GFP-Bax to ascertain their role and intracellular localization after 3NP treatment using confocal microscopy. KEY RESULTS Untreated SH-SY5Y cells presented a long, tubular and filamentous net of mitochondria. After 3NP (5 mM) treatment, mitochondria became shorter and rounder. 3NP induced formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, both in cell cultures and in isolated liver mitochondria, and this process was inhibited by cyclosporin A. Participation of the mitochondrial fission pathway was excluded because 3NP did not induce translocation of the dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondria. The Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 did not affect the observed changes in mitochondrial morphology. Finally, scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to prevent mitochondrial alterations, while cyclosporin A, but not Mdivi-1, prevented the generation of ROS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS There was a direct correlation between formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores and autophagy induced by 3NP treatment. Activation of autophagy preceded the apoptotic process and was mediated, at least partly, by formation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial permeability transition pores. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by González-Polo et al., pp. 60–62 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02203.x PMID

  19. 3-Nitropropionic acid induces autophagy by forming mitochondrial permeability transition pores rather than activating the mitochondrial fission pathway.

    PubMed

    Solesio, Maria E; Saez-Atienzar, Sara; Jordan, Joaquin; Galindo, Maria F

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative process associated with mitochondrial alterations. Inhibitors of the electron-transport channel complex II, such as 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), are used to study the molecular and cellular pathways involved in this disease. We studied the effect of 3NP on mitochondrial morphology and its involvement in macrophagy. Pharmacological and biochemical methods were used to characterize the effects of 3NP on autophagy and mitochondrial morphology. SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with GFP-LC3, GFP-Drp1 or GFP-Bax to ascertain their role and intracellular localization after 3NP treatment using confocal microscopy. Untreated SH-SY5Y cells presented a long, tubular and filamentous net of mitochondria. After 3NP (5 mM) treatment, mitochondria became shorter and rounder. 3NP induced formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, both in cell cultures and in isolated liver mitochondria, and this process was inhibited by cyclosporin A. Participation of the mitochondrial fission pathway was excluded because 3NP did not induce translocation of the dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondria. The Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 did not affect the observed changes in mitochondrial morphology. Finally, scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to prevent mitochondrial alterations, while cyclosporin A, but not Mdivi-1, prevented the generation of ROS. There was a direct correlation between formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores and autophagy induced by 3NP treatment. Activation of autophagy preceded the apoptotic process and was mediated, at least partly, by formation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial permeability transition pores. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Mitochondrial Targeting of Vitamin E Succinate Enhances Its Pro-apoptotic and Anti-cancer Activity via Mitochondrial Complex II*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lan-Feng; Jameson, Victoria J. A.; Tilly, David; Cerny, Jiri; Mahdavian, Elahe; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Stursa, Jan; Witting, Paul K.; Stantic, Bela; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Kluckova, Katarina; Dyason, Jeffrey C.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Salvatore, Brian A.; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Coster, Mark J.; Ralph, Stephen J.; Smith, Robin A. J.; Neuzil, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex II (CII) has been recently identified as a novel target for anti-cancer drugs. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES) is modified so that it is preferentially localized to mitochondria, greatly enhancing its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activity. Using genetically manipulated cells, MitoVES caused apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CII-proficient malignant cells but not their CII-dysfunctional counterparts. MitoVES inhibited the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of CII with IC50 of 80 μm, whereas the electron transfer from CII to CIII was inhibited with IC50 of 1.5 μm. The agent had no effect either on the enzymatic activity of CI or on electron transfer from CI to CIII. Over 24 h, MitoVES caused stabilization of the oxygen-dependent destruction domain of HIF1α fused to GFP, indicating promotion of the state of pseudohypoxia. Molecular modeling predicted the succinyl group anchored into the proximal CII ubiquinone (UbQ)-binding site and successively reduced interaction energies for serially shorter phytyl chain homologs of MitoVES correlated with their lower effects on apoptosis induction, ROS generation, and SDH activity. Mutation of the UbQ-binding Ser68 within the proximal site of the CII SDHC subunit (S68A or S68L) suppressed both ROS generation and apoptosis induction by MitoVES. In vivo studies indicated that MitoVES also acts by causing pseudohypoxia in the context of tumor suppression. We propose that mitochondrial targeting of VES with an 11-carbon chain localizes the agent into an ideal position across the interface of the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix, optimizing its biological effects as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:21059645

  1. Mitochondrial targeting of vitamin E succinate enhances its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activity via mitochondrial complex II.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lan-Feng; Jameson, Victoria J A; Tilly, David; Cerny, Jiri; Mahdavian, Elahe; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Stursa, Jan; Witting, Paul K; Stantic, Bela; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Kluckova, Katarina; Dyason, Jeffrey C; Ledvina, Miroslav; Salvatore, Brian A; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Coster, Mark J; Ralph, Stephen J; Smith, Robin A J; Neuzil, Jiri

    2011-02-04

    Mitochondrial complex II (CII) has been recently identified as a novel target for anti-cancer drugs. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES) is modified so that it is preferentially localized to mitochondria, greatly enhancing its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activity. Using genetically manipulated cells, MitoVES caused apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CII-proficient malignant cells but not their CII-dysfunctional counterparts. MitoVES inhibited the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of CII with IC(50) of 80 μM, whereas the electron transfer from CII to CIII was inhibited with IC(50) of 1.5 μM. The agent had no effect either on the enzymatic activity of CI or on electron transfer from CI to CIII. Over 24 h, MitoVES caused stabilization of the oxygen-dependent destruction domain of HIF1α fused to GFP, indicating promotion of the state of pseudohypoxia. Molecular modeling predicted the succinyl group anchored into the proximal CII ubiquinone (UbQ)-binding site and successively reduced interaction energies for serially shorter phytyl chain homologs of MitoVES correlated with their lower effects on apoptosis induction, ROS generation, and SDH activity. Mutation of the UbQ-binding Ser(68) within the proximal site of the CII SDHC subunit (S68A or S68L) suppressed both ROS generation and apoptosis induction by MitoVES. In vivo studies indicated that MitoVES also acts by causing pseudohypoxia in the context of tumor suppression. We propose that mitochondrial targeting of VES with an 11-carbon chain localizes the agent into an ideal position across the interface of the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix, optimizing its biological effects as an anti-cancer drug.

  2. Physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics and alters apoptotic, dynamic and auto(mito)phagy markers.

    PubMed

    Marques-Aleixo, I; Santos-Alves, E; Balça, M M; Rizo-Roca, D; Moreira, P I; Oliveira, P J; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A

    2015-08-20

    We here investigate the effects of two exercise modalities (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) on the brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics, permeability transition pore (mPTP), oxidative stress, as well as on proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and quality control. Eighteen male rats were assigned to sedentary-SED, TM and FW groups. Behavioral alterations and ex vivo brain mitochondrial function endpoints were assessed. Proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, including the adenine nucleotide translocator), oxidative stress markers and regulatory proteins (SIRT3, p66shc, UCP2, carbonyls, MDA, -SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD), as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, TFAM) were evaluated. Apoptotic signaling was measured through quantifying caspase 3, 8 and 9-like activities, Bax, Bcl2, CypD, and cofilin expression. Mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1/2, OPA1 and DRP1) and auto(mito)phagy (LC3II, Beclin1, Pink1, Parkin, p62)-related proteins were also measured by Western blotting. Only the TM exercise group showed increased spontaneous alternation and exploratory activity. Both exercise regimens improved mitochondrial respiratory activity, increased OXPHOS complexes I, III and V subunits in both brain subareas and decreased oxidative stress markers. Increased resistance to mPTP and decreased apoptotic signaling were observed in the brain cortex from TM and in the cerebellum from TM and FW groups. Also, exercise increased the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and fusion, simultaneous with decreased expression of mitochondrial fission-related protein DRP1. In conclusion, physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial function, decreasing oxidative stress and apoptotic related markers. It is also possible that favorable alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy signaling induced by exercise

  3. Assembly of Bak homodimers into higher order homooligomers in the mitochondrial apoptotic pore

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Tirtha; Shin, Seungjin; Aluvila, Sreevidya; Chen, Hui-Chen; Grieve, Carter; Choe, Jun-Yong; Cheng, Emily H.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondrial apoptosis, Bak is activated by death signals to form pores of unknown structure on the mitochondrial outer membrane via homooligomerization. Cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors are released from the intermembrane space through these pores, initiating downstream apoptosis events. Using chemical crosslinking and double electron electron resonance (DEER)-derived distance measurements between specific structural elements in Bak, here we clarify how the Bak pore is assembled. We propose that previously described BH3-in-groove homodimers (BGH) are juxtaposed via the ‘α3/α5’ interface, in which the C-termini of helices α3 and α5 are in close proximity between two neighboring Bak homodimers. This interface is observed concomitantly with the well-known ‘α6:α6’ interface. We also mapped the contacts between Bak homodimers and the lipid bilayer based on EPR spectroscopy topology studies. Our results suggest a model for the lipidic Bak pore, whereby the mitochondrial targeting C-terminal helix does not change topology to accommodate the lining of the pore lumen by BGH. PMID:27488021

  4. Structural insights into the transcription-independent apoptotic pathway of p53.

    PubMed

    Chi, Seung-Wook

    2014-03-01

    Reactivating the p53 pathway in tumors is an important strategy for anticancer therapy. In response to diverse cellular stresses, the tumor suppressor p53 mediates apoptosis in a transcription-independent and transcription-dependent manner. Although extensive studies have focused on the transcription-dependent apoptotic pathway of p53, the transcription-independent apoptotic pathway of p53 has only recently been discovered. Molecular interactions between p53 and Bcl-2 family proteins in the mitochondria play an essential role in the transcription-independent apoptosis of p53. This review describes the structural basis for the transcription-independent apoptotic pathway of p53 and discusses its potential application to anticancer therapy.

  5. Enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing after Foscan photodynamic therapy combined with fenretinide via de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; DeLor, Jeremy S; Van Buren, Eric; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2016-06-01

    We and others have shown that stresses, including photodynamic therapy (PDT), can disrupt the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway, leading to changes in the levels of sphingolipids, and subsequently, modulation of cell death. The de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway includes a ceramide synthase-dependent reaction, giving rise to dihydroceramide, which is then converted in a desaturase-dependent reaction to ceramide. In this study we tested the hypothesis that combining Foscan-mediated PDT with desaturase inhibitor fenretinide (HPR) enhances cancer cell killing. We discovered that by subjecting SCC19 cells, a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line, to PDT+HPR resulted in enhanced accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, not ceramide. Concomitantly, mitochondrial depolarization was enhanced by the combined treatment. Enhanced activation of caspase-3 after PDT+HPR was inhibited by FB. Enhanced clonogenic cell death after the combination was sensitive to FB, as well as Bcl2- and caspase inhibitors. Treatment of mouse SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma tumors with PDT+HPR resulted in improved long-term tumor cures. Overall, our data showed that combining PDT with HPR enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing and antitumor efficacy of PDT. The data suggest the involvement of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway in enhanced apoptotic cell killing after PDT+HPR, and identify the combination as a novel more effective anticancer treatment than either treatment alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate-induced delayed neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chaoshuang; Kou, Ruirui; Gao, Yuan; Xie, Keqin; Song, Fuyong

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that abnormal neurons death has been implicated in organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). However, the precise mechanism of neuronal death in OPIDN remains largely unknown. In this study, adult hens were treated with a dosage of 750 mg/kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) by gavage, and then sacrificed on the time-points of 1, 5, 10, and 21 days after dosing TOCP, respectively. The apoptotic change of spinal cord neurons induced by TOCP was examined, and the role of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of neurons during OPIDN was investigated. TUNEL assays showed that apoptotic neurons in hen spinal cords began to appear on day 5 following TOCP exposure. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed a translocation of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm after dosing TOCP. Moreover, the level of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Pro-caspase3 and Pro-caspase9 in hen spinal cord was significantly decreased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved-PARP was significantly elevated. Taken together, these findings indicate that the administration of TOCP can induce neuron apoptosis in hen spinal cords, which might be mediated by the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  7. Visual pathway neurodegeneration winged by mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Axel; Nijland, Philip G; Balk, Lisanne J; Amorini, Angela Maria; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Wattjes, Mike P; Gasperini, Claudio; van der Valk, Paul; Tavazzi, Barbara; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; van Horssen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test for structural and functional contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). A visual pathway model void of MS lesions was chosen in order to exclude neurodegeneration secondary to lesion related axonotmesis. Methods A single-centre cohort study (230 MS patients, 63 controls). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the retina, 3T magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, spectrophotometric assessment of serum lactate levels. Postmortem immunohistochemistry. Results The visual pathway was void of MS lesions in 31 patients and 31 age-matched controls. Serum lactate was higher in MS compared to controls (P = 0.029). High serum lactate was structurally related to atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer at the optic disc (P = 0.041), macula (P = 0.025), and the macular ganglion cell complex (P = 0.041). High serum lactate was functionally related to poor color vision (P < 0.01), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (R = 0.37, P = 0.041), Guy's Neurological disability score (R = 0.38, P = 0.037), MS walking scale (R = 0.50, P = 0.009), upper limb motor function (R = 0.53, P = 0.002). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased astrocytic expression of a key lactate generating enzyme in MS lesions as well as profound vascular expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1, which is involved in lactate transport. Interpretation This study provides structural, functional, and translational evidence for visual pathway neurodegeneration in MS related to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25750919

  8. Involvement of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways in cisplatin-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Xianwang

    2009-02-01

    Cisplatin, an efficient anticancer agent, can trigger multiple apoptotic pathways in cancer cells. However, the signal transduction pathways in response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy are complicated, and the mechanism is not fully understood. In current study, we showed that, during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells, both the caspase-dependent and -independent pathways were activated. Herein, we reported that after cisplatin treatment, the activities of caspase-9/-3 were sharply increased; pre-treatment with Z-LEHD-fmk (inhibitor of caspase-9), Z-DEVD-fmk (inhibitor of caspase-3), and Z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor) increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway was activated following cisplatin treatment. Confocal imaging of the cells transfected with AIF-GFP demonstrated that AIF release occurred about 9 h after cisplatin treatment. The event proceeded progressively over time, coinciding with a nuclear translocation and lasting for more than 2 hours. Down-regulation of AIF by siRNA also significantly increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis, these results suggested that AIF-mediated caspase-independent apoptotic pathway was involved in cispatin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways were involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  9. Mitochondrial apoptosis is dispensable for NLRP3 inflammasome activation but non-apoptotic caspase-8 is required for inflammasome priming

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Lawlor, Kate E; Yu, Eric Chi-Wang; Mildenhall, Alison L; Moujalled, Donia M; Lewis, Rowena S; Ke, Francine; Mason, Kylie D; White, Michael J; Stacey, Katryn J; Strasser, Andreas; O’Reilly, Lorraine A; Alexander, Warren; Kile, Benjamin T; Vaux, David L; Vince, James E

    2014-01-01

    A current paradigm proposes that mitochondrial damage is a critical determinant of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here, we genetically assess whether mitochondrial signalling represents a unified mechanism to explain how NLRP3 is activated by divergent stimuli. Neither co-deletion of the essential executioners of mitochondrial apoptosis BAK and BAX, nor removal of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D, nor loss of the mitophagy regulator Parkin, nor deficiency in MAVS affects NLRP3 inflammasome function. In contrast, caspase-8, a caspase essential for death-receptor-mediated apoptosis, is required for efficient Toll-like-receptor-induced inflammasome priming and cytokine production. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mitochondrial apoptosis is not required for NLRP3 activation, and highlight an important non-apoptotic role for caspase-8 in regulating inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:24990442

  10. Mitochondrial apoptosis is dispensable for NLRP3 inflammasome activation but non-apoptotic caspase-8 is required for inflammasome priming.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Lawlor, Kate E; Yu, Eric Chi-Wang; Mildenhall, Alison L; Moujalled, Donia M; Lewis, Rowena S; Ke, Francine; Mason, Kylie D; White, Michael J; Stacey, Katryn J; Strasser, Andreas; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Alexander, Warren; Kile, Benjamin T; Vaux, David L; Vince, James E

    2014-09-01

    A current paradigm proposes that mitochondrial damage is a critical determinant of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here, we genetically assess whether mitochondrial signalling represents a unified mechanism to explain how NLRP3 is activated by divergent stimuli. Neither co-deletion of the essential executioners of mitochondrial apoptosis BAK and BAX, nor removal of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D, nor loss of the mitophagy regulator Parkin, nor deficiency in MAVS affects NLRP3 inflammasome function. In contrast, caspase-8, a caspase essential for death-receptor-mediated apoptosis, is required for efficient Toll-like-receptor-induced inflammasome priming and cytokine production. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mitochondrial apoptosis is not required for NLRP3 activation, and highlight an important non-apoptotic role for caspase-8 in regulating inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels.

  11. Investigation of the mechanism and apoptotic pathway induced by 4β cinnamido linked podophyllotoxins against human lung cancer cells A549.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Nayak, V Lakshma; Bagul, Chandrakant; Vishnuvardhan, M V P S; Mallareddy, Adla

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis is essential for normal development and the maintenance of homeostasis. It plays a necessary role to protect against carcinogenesis by eliminating damaged cells. Many studies have demonstrated that the dysregulation of apoptosis results in cancer and this provides an approach to develop therapeutic agents via inducing apoptosis. In our previous studies 4β-cinnamido linked podophyllotoxin conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in a panel of five human cancer cell lines and the new molecules like 17a and 17f were considered as potential leads. The cytotoxic activity was comparable to etoposide. These observations prompted us to investigate the mechanism underplaying the cytotoxic activity and apoptotic pathway induced by these compounds in human lung cancer cells A459. The results of the present study revealed that these compounds exhibited DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibition and induced mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. It was further confirmed by Mitochondrial membrane potential, Cytochrome c release, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, regulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro apoptotic protein Bax studied by Western blot analysis. Annexin V-FITC assay also suggested that these compounds induced cell death by apoptosis. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevented the generation of ROS. Further, pretreatment with NAC significantly inhibited 17a and 17f induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS are the key mediators for 17a and 17f induced apoptosis. These data indicate that these compounds might induce apoptosis in A549 cells through a ROS mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. Moreover, these compounds did not significantly inhibit the noncancerous human embryonic kidney cells, HEK-293. Docking studies also elucidate the potential of these molecules to bind to the DNA topoisomerase II. Podophyllotoxin analogs were investigated for their mechanism and

  12. Isorhamnetin inhibits H₂O₂-induced activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes through scavenging reactive oxygen species and ERK inactivation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Sun, Gui-Bo; Xiao, Jing; Chen, Rong-Chang; Wang, Xin; Wu, Ying; Cao, Li; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-02-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, the sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) has a long history in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and circulatory disorders. However, the active compounds responsible for and the underlying mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. In this article, isorhamnetin pretreatment counteracted H(2)O(2)-induced apoptotic damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Isorhamnetin did not inhibit the death receptor-dependent or extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as characterized by its absence in both caspase-8 inactivation and tBid downregulation along with unchanged Fas and TNFR1 mRNA levels. Instead, isorhamnetin specifically suppressed the mitochondria-dependent or intrinsic apoptotic pathways, as characterized by inactivation of caspase-9 and -3, maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and regulation of a series of Bcl-2 family genes upstream of ΔΨm. The anti-apoptotic effects of isorhamnetin were linked to decreased ROS generation. H(2)O(2) activated ERK and p53, whereas isorhamnetin inhibited their activation. ERK overexpression overrode the isorhamnetin-induced inhibition of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, which indicated that an ERK-dependent pathway was involved. Furthermore, N-acetyl cysteine (a potent ROS scavenger) could attenuate the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. However, PD98059 (an ERK-specific inhibitor) could not effectively antagonize ROS generation, which indicates that ROS may be an upstream inducer of ERK. In conclusion, isorhamnetin inhibits the H(2)O(2)-induced activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via ROS scavenging and ERK inactivation. Therefore, isorhamnetin is a promising reagent for the treatment of ROS-induced cardiomyopathy.

  13. Valproic acid-induced hepatotoxicity in Alpers syndrome is associated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening-dependent apoptotic sensitivity in an induced pluripotent stem cell model.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengbiao; Guo, Jingyi; Ying, Zhongfu; Chen, Shen; Yang, Liang; Chen, Keshi; Long, Qi; Qin, Dajiang; Pei, Duanqing; Liu, Xingguo

    2015-05-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used to treat epilepsy, migraine, chronic headache, bipolar disorder, and as adjuvant chemotherapy, but potentially causes idiosyncratic liver injury. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), a neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG), is associated with an increased risk of developing fatal VPA hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanistic link of this clinical mystery remains unknown. Here, fibroblasts from 2 AHS patients were reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and then differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells (AHS iPSCs-Hep). Both AHS iPSCs-Hep are more sensitive to VPA-induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis than controls, showing more activated caspase-9 and cytochrome c release. Strikingly, levels of both soluble and oligomeric optic atrophy 1, which together keep cristae junctions tight, are reduced in AHS iPSCs-Hep. Furthermore, POLG mutation cells show reduced POLG expression, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amount, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production, as well as abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure after differentiation to hepatocyte-like cells. Superoxide flashes, spontaneous bursts of superoxide generation, caused by opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), occur more frequently in AHS iPSCs-Hep. Moreover, the mPTP inhibitor, cyclosporine A, rescues VPA-induced apoptotic sensitivity in AHS iPSCs-Hep. This result suggests that targeting mPTP opening could be an effective method to prevent hepatotoxicity by VPA in AHS patients. In addition, carnitine or N-acetylcysteine, which has been used in the treatment of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity, is able to rescue VPA-induced apoptotic sensitivity in AHS iPSCs-Hep. AHS iPSCs-Hep are more sensitive to the VPA-induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway, and this effect is mediated by mPTP opening. Toxicity models in genetic diseases using iPSCs enable the evaluation of drugs for therapeutic

  14. Apoptotic pathway induced by noscapine in human myelogenous leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Nastaran; Goliaei, Bahram; Moghaddam, Parvaneh Rahimi; Rahbar-Roshandel, Nahid; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2007-11-01

    It has been shown that noscapine, an opium-derived phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid that is currently being used as an oral antitussive drug, induces apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. The molecular mechanism responsible for the anticancer effects of noscapine is poorly understood. In the current study, the apoptotic effects of noscapine on two myeloid cell lines, apoptosis-proficient HL60 cells and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, were analyzed. An increase in the activity of caspase-2, -3, -6, -8 and -9, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage, detection of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the cell membrane, nucleation of chromatin, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Noscapine increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with a significant decrease of Bcl-2 expression accompanied with Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Using an inhibitory approach, the activation of the caspase cascade involved in the noscapine-induced apoptosis was analyzed. We observed no inhibitory effect of the caspase-8 inhibitor on caspase-9 activity. In view of these results and taking into consideration that K562 cells are Fas-null, we suggested that caspase-8 is activated in a Fas-independent manner downstream of caspase-9. In conclusion, noscapine can induce apoptosis in both apoptosis-proficient and apoptosis-resistant leukemic cells, and it can be a novel candidate in the treatment of hematological malignancies.

  15. Expression of Fas, FasL, caspase-8 and other factors of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway during the onset of interdigital tissue elimination.

    PubMed

    Svandova, E Budisova; Vesela, B; Lesot, H; Poliard, A; Matalova, E

    2017-04-01

    Elimination of the interdigital web is considered to be the classical model for assessing apoptosis. So far, most of the molecules described in the process have been connected to the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway. The extrinsic (receptor mediated) apoptotic pathway has been rather neglected, although it is important in development, immunomodulation and cancer therapy. This work aimed to investigate factors of the extrinsic apoptotic machinery during interdigital regression with a focus on three crucial initiators: Fas, Fas ligand and caspase-8. Immunofluorescent analysis of mouse forelimb histological sections revealed abundant expression of these molecules prior to digit separation. Subsequent PCR Array analyses indicated the expression of several markers engaged in the extrinsic pathway. Between embryonic days 11 and 13, statistically significant increases in the expression of Fas and caspase-8 were observed, along with other molecules involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway such as Dapk1, Traf3, Tnsf12, Tnfrsf1A and Ripk1. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of extrinsic apoptotic components in mouse limb development and indicate novel candidates in the molecular network accompanying the regression of interdigital tissue during digitalisation.

  16. Inhibition of Rac GTPase triggers a c-Jun- and Bim-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic cascade in cerebellar granule neurons

    PubMed Central

    Le, Shoshona S.; Loucks, F. Alexandra; Udo, Hiroshi; Richardson-Burns, Sarah; Phelps, Reid A.; Bouchard, Ron J.; Barth, Holger; Aktories, Klaus; Tyler, Kenneth L.; Kandel, Eric R.; Heidenreich, Kim A.; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Rho GTPases are key transducers of integrin/extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling. Although integrin-mediated adhesion and trophic support suppress neuronal apoptosis, the role of Rho GTPases in neuronal survival is unclear. Here, we have identified Rac as a critical pro-survival GTPase in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and elucidated a death pathway triggered by its inactivation. GTP-loading of Rac1 was maintained in CGNs by integrin-mediated (RGDdependent) cell attachment and trophic support. Clostridium difficile toxin B (ToxB), a specific Rho family inhibitor, induced a selective caspase-mediated degradation of Rac1 without affecting RhoA or Cdc42 protein levels. Both ToxB and dominant-negative N17Rac1 elicited CGN apoptosis, characterized by cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9 and -3, whereas dominant-negative N19RhoA or N17Cdc42 did not cause significant cell death. ToxB stimulated mitochondrial translocation and conformational activation of Bax, c-Jun activation, and induction of the BH3-only protein Bim. Similarly, c-Jun activation and Bim induction were observed with N17Rac1. A c-jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)/p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and a JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, significantly decreased ToxB-induced Bim expression and blunted each subsequent step of the apoptotic cascade. These results indicate that Rac acts downstream of integrins and growth factors to promote neuronal survival by repressing c-Jun/Bim-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. PMID:16092944

  17. Plasma-activated medium induces A549 cell injury via a spiral apoptotic cascade involving the mitochondrial-nuclear network.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nonomura, Saho; Hara, Hirokazu; Kondo, Shin-ichi; Hori, Masaru

    2015-02-01

    Plasma medicine is a rapidly expanding new field of interdisciplinary research that combines physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma can be applied to living cells and tissues and has emerged as a novel technology for cancer therapy. Plasma has recently been shown to affect cells not only directly, but also by indirect treatment with previously prepared plasma-activated medium (PAM). The objective of this study was to demonstrate the inhibitory effects of PAM on A549 cell survival and elucidate the signaling mechanisms responsible for cell death. PAM maintained its ability to suppress cell viability for at least 1 week when stored at -80°C. The severity of PAM-triggered cell injury depended on the kind of culture medium used to prepare the PAM, especially that with or without pyruvate. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or its derived or cooperating reactive oxygen species reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2, activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and released apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria with endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the activation of caspase 3/7 and attenuation of cell viability by the addition of caspase inhibitor were not observed. The accumulation of adenine 5'-diphosphoribose as a product of the above reactions activated transient receptor potential melastatin 2, which elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels and subsequently led to cell death. These results demonstrated that H2O2 and/or other reactive species in PAM disturbed the mitochondrial-nuclear network in cancer cells through a caspase-independent apoptotic pathway. Moreover, damage to the plasma membrane by H2O2-cooperating charged species not only induced apoptosis, but also increased its permeability to extracellular reactive species. These phenomena were also detected in PAM-treated HepG2 and MCF-7 cells.

  18. P38 MAP kinase mediates apoptosis after genipin treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer H1299 cells via a mitochondrial apoptotic cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Yao, Jie; Luo, Yue; Han, Yongguang; Wang, Zuobai; Du, Linfang

    2013-01-01

    Genipin, an active constituent of Gardenia fruit, has been reported to show an anti-tumor effect in several cancer cell systems. Here, we demonstrate how genipin exhibits a strong apoptotic cell death effect in human non-small-cell lung cancer H1299 cells. Genipin-mediated decrease in cell viability was observed through apoptosis as demonstrated by induction of a sub-G1 peak through flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation measured by TUNEL assay, and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose-polymerase. During genipin-induced apoptosis, the mitochondrial execution pathway was activated by caspase-9 and -3 activation as examined by a kinetic study, cytochrome c release, and a dose-dependent increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. A search for the downstream pathway reveals that genipin-induced apoptosis was mediated by an increase in phosphorylated p38MAPK expression, which further activated downstream signaling by phosphorylating ATF-2. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, markedly blocked the formation of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in genipin-treated cells. Besides, the interference of p38MAPK inhibited Bax expression and cytochrome c release. Altogether, our observations imply that genipin causes increased levels of Bax in response to p38MAPK signaling, which results in the initiation of mitochondrial death cascade, and therefore it holds promise as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of H1299 cells.

  19. MDM4 (MDMX) localizes at the mitochondria and facilitates the p53-mediated intrinsic-apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Francesca; Di Conza, Giusy; Pellegrino, Marsha; Rinaldo, Cinzia; Prodosmo, Andrea; Giglio, Simona; D'Agnano, Igea; Florenzano, Fulvio; Felicioni, Lara; Buttitta, Fiamma; Marchetti, Antonio; Sacchi, Ada; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Soddu, Silvia; Moretti, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    MDM4 is a key regulator of p53, whose biological activities depend on both transcriptional activity and transcription-independent mitochondrial functions. MDM4 binds to p53 and blocks its transcriptional activity; however, the main cytoplasmic localization of MDM4 might also imply a regulation of p53-mitochondrial function. Here, we show that MDM4 stably localizes at the mitochondria, in which it (i) binds BCL2, (ii) facilitates mitochondrial localization of p53 phosphorylated at Ser46 (p53Ser46P) and (iii) promotes binding between p53Ser46P and BCL2, release of cytochrome C and apoptosis. In agreement with these observations, MDM4 reduction by RNA interference increases resistance to DNA-damage-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner and independently of transcription. Consistent with these findings, a significant downregulation of MDM4 expression associates with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancers, and MDM4 modulation affects cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells. These data define a new localization and function of MDM4 that, by acting as a docking site for p53Ser46P to BCL2, facilitates the p53-mediated intrinsic-apoptotic pathway. Overall, our results point to MDM4 as a double-faced regulator of p53. PMID:19521340

  20. Conservation and divergence of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingxiang; Zhang, Linlin; Qu, Tao; Tang, Xueying; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis is considered a crucial part of the host defense system in oysters according to previous reports; however, the exact process by which this occurs remains unclear. Besides, mitochondrial apoptosis is the primary method of apoptosis in vertebrate cells, but has been poorly studied in invertebrates and is quite controversial. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial apoptosis in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Notably, we show that most key elements involved in the vertebrate mitochondrial apoptosis pathway – including mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation – are also present in C. gigas. In contrast, the lack of Bcl-2 homology 3-only subfamily members and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1) protein revealed evolutionary diversity from other phyla. Our results support that mitochondrial apoptosis in animals predates the emergence of vertebrates, but suggest that an unexpectedly diverse mitochondrial apoptosis pathway may exist in invertebrates. In addition, our work provided new clues for an improved understanding of how bivalve acclimate themselves to an inconstant environment. PMID:28682310

  1. Apoptotic Cells Activate the “Phoenix Rising” Pathway to Promote Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Huang, Qian; Chen, Jiang; Peng, Yuanlin; Roop, Dennis; Bedford, Joel S; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regenerate damaged tissues is a common characteristic of multicellular organisms. We report a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. Key players in this process were caspases 3 and 7, proteases activated during the execution phase of apoptosis that contribute to cell death. Mice lacking either of these caspases were deficient in skin wound healing and in liver regeneration. Prostaglandin E2, a promoter of stem or progenitor cell proliferation and tissue regeneration, acted downstream of the caspases. We propose to call the pathway by which executioner caspases in apoptotic cells promote wound healing and tissue regeneration in multicellular organisms the “Phoenix Rising” pathway. PMID:20179271

  2. Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in human lung cancer cells by the new synthetic flavonoid, LZ-205

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Miao, Hanchi; Huang, Shaoliang; Zhou, Yuxin; Sun, Yang; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Li

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that flavonoids have anti-tumor activity. In this study, LZ-205, a newly synthesized flavonoid, was found to be effective in inducing apoptosis in human lung cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, LZ-205 triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response, which could be reversed by silencing CHOP, a mediator of the ER stress-associated apoptosis. In addition, LZ-205-induced apoptosis is accompanied by the activation of both the mitochondrial apoptotic and extrinsic pathways, followed by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the alteration of the expression of mitochondria-related pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. LZ-205 exhibits a potential antitumor effect in BALB/c nude mice bearing H460 tumor with low systemic toxicity. In summary, both the ROS-mediated ER stress pathway and the exogenous apoptotic pathway are involved in LZ-205-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Our data show a therapeutic potential of LZ-205 for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27895312

  3. Apoptosis and apoptotic pathway in actinic prurigo by immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-González, Juan-Carlos; García-Vázquez, Francisco-Javier; Rodríguez-Lobato, Erika; Farfán-Morales, José-Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Actinic prurigo (AP) is an idiopathic photodermatosis, this entity requires exposure to UV-B and -A to develop lesions. Apoptosis is a physiological death program that can be initiated by a permanently active mechanism (extrinsic pathway) or irreparable damage (intrinsic pathway). Material and Methods Descriptive study, the sample size comprised 64 paraffin blocks of tissue with a diagnosis of AP. In H&E-stained slides, the diagnosis of AP was corroborated, and 1-µm-thick sections were processed for immunohistochemistry (IHC). A database was constructed with SPSS version 20, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, and descriptive statistics were analyzed by X2 test and comparison of means. Results A total of 64 cases were processed, of which 40 (62.5%) were cheilitis AP and 24 (37.5%) were AP in the skin. Of the 40 cheilitis samples, 27 were positive for Bcl-2 and caspase 3 (67.5%), p53 was expressed in 30 (75%). Of the skin lesions,p53 and caspase 3 were expressed in 18 of 24 cases (75%), and 13 were positive for Bcl-2 (54%). Conclusions We propose that apoptosis is the last step in the type IV subtype a-b hypersensitivity response-activation of the intrinsic pathway indicates that external factors, such as UV-A and -B are the trigger. Key words:Apoptosis, actinic prurigo, cheilitis actinic prurigo. PMID:26615506

  4. Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Chapla; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2002-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE), rich in the bioflavonoids commonly known as procyanidins, is one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in the United States because of its several health benefits. Epidemiological studies show that many prostate cancer (PCA) patients use herbal extracts as dietary supplements in addition to their prescription drugs. Accordingly, in recent years, we have focused our attention on assessing the efficacy of GSE against PCA. Our studies showed that GSE inhibits growth and induces apoptotic death of human PCA cells in culture and in nude mice. Here, we performed detailed studies to define the molecular mechanism of GSE-induced apoptosis in advanced human PCA DU145 cells. GSE treatment of cells at various doses (50-200 micro g/ml) for 12-72 h resulted in a moderate to strong apoptotic death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the studies assessing the apoptotic-signaling pathway induced by GSE, we observed an increase in cleaved fragments of caspases 3, 7 and 9 as well as PARP in GSE-treated cells after 48 and 72 h of treatment. Pre-treatment of cells with general caspases inhibitor, z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-FMK or caspase 3-like proteases inhibitor [z-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-FMK], almost completely (approximately 90%) inhibited the GSE-induced apoptotic cell death. In a later case, GSE-induced caspase-3 activity was completely inhibited. Selective caspase 9 inhibitor [z-Leu-Glu(OMe)-His-Asp(OMe)-FMK] showed only partial inhibition of GSE-induced apoptosis whereas GSE-induced protease activity of caspase 9 was completely inhibited. Upstream of caspase cascade, GSE showed disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in cytochrome c release in cytosol. Together, these results suggest that GSE possibly causes mitochondrial damage leading to cytochrome c release in cytosol and activation of caspases resulting in PARP cleavage and execution of apoptotic death of human PCA DU145 cells. Furthermore, GSE

  5. Stevioside induced ROS-mediated apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Paul, S; Sengupta, S; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Bhattacharyya, A

    2012-01-01

    Stevioside is a diterpene glycoside found in the leaf of Stevia rebaudiana, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which has been shown to have various biological and ethno-medicinal activities including antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of stevioside on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and the putative pathways of its action in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). For the analysis of apoptotic pathway, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and assessment of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were achieved. We showed that stevioside was a potent inducer of apoptosis and it conveyed the apoptotic signal via intracellular ROS generation; thereby inducing change in MTP and induction of mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathway. Taken together, our data indicated that stevioside induces the ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition and results in the increased expression of apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-9. Effect of stevioside on stress-related transcription factors like NF-E2-related factor-2 opens up a new vista for further studies. This is the first report on the mechanism of the antibreast cancer (in vitro) activity of stevioside.

  6. Reduction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway by the administration of acetyl-L-carnitine to mouse fibroblasts in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Pillich, Rudolf Tito; Scarsella, Gianfranco; Risuleo, Gianfranco . E-mail: gianfranco.risuleo@uniroma1.it

    2005-05-15

    It is shown in literature that stress, such as deprivation of trophic factors and hypoxia, induces apoptosis in cultured cells and in tissues. In light of these results, we explored the possibility of protecting cells from programmed death by improving the metabolism of the mitochondrion. To this end, acetyl-L-carnitine was administered at various concentrations under conditions of serum deprivation. The choice of this drug was based on the accepted notion that acetyl-L-carnitine is able to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and to increase the supply of energy to the organelle. The results presented here indicate that the drug protects cells from apoptotic death: this is demonstrated by a lower positivity to the TUNEL reaction and by a strong reduction of the apoptotic DNA ladder in serum-deprived cells. The involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was assessed by cytochrome C release and immunoreactivity to caspase 3. Moreover, acetyl-L-carnitine stimulates cell proliferation.

  7. Unraveling Biochemical Pathways Affected by Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Using Metabolomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Demine, Stéphane; Reddy, Nagabushana; Renard, Patricia; Raes, Martine; Arnould, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction(s) (MDs) can be defined as alterations in the mitochondria, including mitochondrial uncoupling, mitochondrial depolarization, inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondrial network fragmentation, mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations and the mitochondrial accumulation of protein aggregates. All these MDs are known to alter the capacity of ATP production and are observed in several pathological states/diseases, including cancer, obesity, muscle and neurological disorders. The induction of MDs can also alter the secretion of several metabolites, reactive oxygen species production and modify several cell-signalling pathways to resolve the mitochondrial dysfunction or ultimately trigger cell death. Many metabolites, such as fatty acids and derived compounds, could be secreted into the blood stream by cells suffering from mitochondrial alterations. In this review, we summarize how a mitochondrial uncoupling can modify metabolites, the signalling pathways and transcription factors involved in this process. We describe how to identify the causes or consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction using metabolomics (liquid and gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry analysis, NMR spectroscopy) in the obesity and insulin resistance thematic. PMID:25257998

  8. Detoxification of Mitochondrial Oxidants and Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated by Thioredoxin-2 and Peroxiredoxin-3 during Hyperoxic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forred, Benjamin J.; Daugaard, Darwin R.; Titus, Brianna K.; Wood, Ryan R.; Floen, Miranda J.; Booze, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during hyperoxic exposure. Flow analysis of the redox-sensitive, mitochondrial-specific fluorophore, MitoSOX, indicated increased levels of mitochondrial oxidant formation in human adenocarcinoma cells cultured in 95% oxygen. Increased expression of Trx2 and TrxR2 in response to hyperoxia were not attributable to changes in mitochondrial mass, suggesting that hyperoxic upregulation of mitochondrial thioredoxins prevents accumulation of oxidized Prx3. Mitochondrial oxidoreductase activities were modulated through pharmacological inhibition of TrxR2 with auranofin and genetically through shRNA knockdown of Trx2 and Prx3. Diminished Trx2 and Prx3 expression was associated with accumulation of mitochondrial superoxide; however, only shRNA knockdown of Trx2 increased susceptibility to hyperoxic cell death and increased phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1). In conclusion, the mitochondrial thioredoxin system regulates hyperoxic-mediated death of pulmonary epithelial cells through detoxification of oxidants and regulation of redox-dependent apoptotic signaling. PMID:28045936

  9. Critical roles of Rho-associated kinase in membrane blebbing and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis caused by 1-butanol.

    PubMed

    Noritake, Kanako; Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Nara, Akina; Kato, Chizuru; Uemura, Koichi

    2012-09-01

    Alcohols are widely used as industrial solvents and chemical intermediates but can cause serious damage to human health. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity of industrial alcohols, with the notable exception of ethanol. The goal of our current study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by primary alcohols containing longer carbon chains than ethanol. We find that 1-butanol induces morphological changes in H9c2 cardiomyoblastoma including nuclear condensation and membrane blebbing, both of which are features of apoptotic response. Moreover, a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, the cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase 9 and 3 was observed, thus revealing the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by 1-butanol. The addition of Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suppressed the membrane blebbing and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In comparison z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not inhibit membrane blebbing but did prevent cell death following exposure to 1-butanol. These results indicate that mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and membrane blebbing are parallel phenomena that occur downstream of ROCK. This kinase thus plays an essential role in 1-butanol cytotoxicity and subsequent cell death in H9c2 cells.

  10. Antitumor effects of traditional Chinese medicine targeting the cellular apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanli; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaohui; Xu, Pingxiang; Zhang, Keming; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented. PMID:26056434

  11. Modulation of the apoptotic pathway in skeletal muscle models: the role of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Dimauro, Ivan; Magi, Fiorenza; La Sala, Gina; Pittaluga, Monica; Parisi, Paolo; Caporossi, Daniela

    2011-02-01

    Despite numerous studies on the role of growth hormone (GH), its function in skeletal muscle apoptosis secondary to various stimuli is poorly understood. In this study, we used rodent muscle cell lines to analyse cell growth and survival as well as the morphological and molecular markers of cell death in C2C12 and L6C5 myoblasts. These cells were treated either in the presence or absence of GH under serum starvation conditions or in the pro-apoptotic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Although the cells were responsive to the presence of GH, we did not observe GH modulation of cell growth and survival. The presence of GH did not affect the cell death programme or the expression of apoptotic markers in basal conditions or under oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study indicated that GH "by itself" is not effective in modulating the intracellular pathways leading to cell survival or cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli.

  12. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, p<0.001), breast (n=185, p<0.0008; n=61, p=0.04), colon (n=22, p<0.001) and endometrial (n=33, p<0.001) cancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, p<0.001). Higher pBAD protein levels were observed in the cancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, p<0.001). The increased pBAD protein levels after the depletion of PP2C conferred a growth advantage to the immortalized normal and cancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway

  13. Induction of Nur77-dependent apoptotic pathway by a coumarin derivative through activation of JNK and p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuqi; Zhao, Wei; Xie, Guobin; Huang, Mingfeng; Hu, Mengjie; Jiang, Xin; Zeng, Dequan; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Hu; Chen, Haifeng; Wang, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Kun

    2014-12-01

    Coumarins are plant-derived natural products with a broad range of known pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this class of promising compounds exerts their anticancer effects remain largely unknown. We report here that a furanocoumarin named apaensin could effectively induce apoptosis of cancer cells through its activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Apoptosis induction by apaensin in cancer cells was suppressed by chemical inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach also abrogated the death effect of apaensin. Molecular analysis demonstrated that JNK activation was required for the nuclear export of Nur77, a known apoptotic event in cancer cells. Although p38 MAPK activation was not involved in Nur77 nuclear export, it was essential for Nur77 mitochondrial targeting through induction of Nur77 interaction with Bcl-2, which is also known to convert Bcl-2 from an antiapoptotic to a proapoptotic molecule. Together, our results identify a new natural product that targets orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 through its unique activation of JNK and p38 MAPK and provide insight into the complex regulation of the Nur77-Bcl-2 apoptotic pathway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Induction of Nur77-dependent apoptotic pathway by a coumarin derivative through activation of JNK and p38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuqi; Zhao, Wei; Xie, Guobin; Huang, Mingfeng; Hu, Mengjie; Jiang, Xin; Zeng, Dequan; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Hu; Chen, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiao-Kun

    2014-01-01

    Coumarins are plant-derived natural products with a broad range of known pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this class of promising compounds exerts their anticancer effects remain largely unknown. We report here that a furanocoumarin named apaensin could effectively induce apoptosis of cancer cells through its activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Apoptosis induction by apaensin in cancer cells was suppressed by chemical inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach also abrogated the death effect of apaensin. Molecular analysis demonstrated that JNK activation was required for the nuclear export of Nur77, a known apoptotic event in cancer cells. Although p38 MAPK activation was not involved in Nur77 nuclear export, it was essential for Nur77 mitochondrial targeting through induction of Nur77 interaction with Bcl-2, which is also known to convert Bcl-2 from an antiapoptotic to a proapoptotic molecule. Together, our results identify a new natural product that targets orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 through its unique activation of JNK and p38 MAPK and provide insight into the complex regulation of the Nur77-Bcl-2 apoptotic pathway. PMID:25187486

  15. Bim is a direct target of a neuronal E2F-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subhas C; Liu, David X; Greene, Lloyd A

    2005-09-14

    The inappropriate expression/activation of cell-cycle-related molecules is associated with neuron death in many experimental paradigms and human neuropathologic conditions. However, the means whereby this links to the core apoptotic machinery in neurons have been unclear. Here, we show that the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 domain-only molecule Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) is a target of a cell-cycle-related apoptotic pathway in neuronal cells. Induction of Bim in NGF-deprived cells requires expression and activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) and consequent de-repression of E2 promoter binding factor (E2F)-regulated genes including members of the myb transcription factor family. The Bim promoter contains two myb binding sites, mutation of which abolishes induction of a Bim promoter-driven reporter by NGF deprivation or E2F-dependent gene de-repression. NGF deprivation significantly increases endogenous levels of C-myb and its occupancy of the endogenous Bim promoter. These findings support a model in which apoptotic stimuli lead to cdk4 activation, consequent de-repression of E2F-regulated mybs, and induction of pro-apoptotic Bim.

  16. Apoptotic cells can induce non-autonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Garijo, Ainhoa; Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cells can produce signals to instruct cells in their local environment, including ones that stimulate engulfment and proliferation. We identified a novel mode of communication by which apoptotic cells induce additional apoptosis in the same tissue. Strong induction of apoptosis in one compartment of the Drosophila wing disc causes apoptosis of cells in the other compartment, indicating that dying cells can release long-range death factors. We identified Eiger, the Drosophila tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homolog, as the signal responsible for apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AiA). Eiger is produced in apoptotic cells and, through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, is able to propagate the initial apoptotic stimulus. We also show that during coordinated cell death of hair follicle cells in mice, TNF-α is expressed in apoptotic cells and is required for normal cell death. AiA provides a mechanism to explain cohort behavior of dying cells that is seen both in normal development and under pathological conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01004.001 PMID:24066226

  17. Corn silk maysin induces apoptotic cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells via mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Kim, Sun-Lim; Choi, Ji Won; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Choi, Doo Jin; Park, Yong Il

    2014-12-05

    Despite recent advances in prostate cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, the overall survival rate still remains low. This study was aimed to assess potential anti-cancer activity of maysin, a major flavonoid of corn silk (CS, Zea mays L.), in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3). Maysin was isolated from CS of Kwangpyeongok, a Korean hybrid corn, via methanol extraction and preparative C18 reverse phase column chromatography. Maysin cytotoxicity was determined by either monitoring cell viability in various cancer cell lines by MTT assay or morphological changes. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), expression levels of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase-3 and by terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Underlying mechanism in maysin-induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells was explored by evaluating its effects on Akt and ERK pathway. Maysin dose-dependently reduced the PC-3 cell viability, with an 87% reduction at 200 μg/ml. Maysin treatment significantly induced apoptotic cell death, DNA fragmentation, depolarization of MMP, and reduction in Bcl-2 and pro-caspase-3 expression levels. Maysin also significantly attenuated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. A combined treatment with maysin and other known anti-cancer agents, including 5-FU, etoposide, cisplatin, or camptothecin, synergistically enhanced PC-3 cell death. These results suggested for the first time that maysin inhibits the PC-3 cancer cell growth via stimulation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic cell death and may have a strong therapeutic potential for the treatment of either chemo-resistant or androgen-independent human prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Arnab; Kar, Sudeshna; Tabassum, Heena

    2017-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (Oxa) treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel), could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose) polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin’s protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic pathways of

  19. Interconnections between apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic pathways: implications for cancer therapy development.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mayur V; Paczulla, Anna M; Klonisch, Thomas; Dimgba, Florence N; Rao, Sahana B; Roberg, Karin; Schweizer, Frank; Lengerke, Claudia; Davoodpour, Padideh; Palicharla, Vivek R; Maddika, Subbareddy; Łos, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The rapid accumulation of knowledge on apoptosis regulation in the 1990s was followed by the development of several experimental anticancer- and anti-ischaemia (stroke or myocardial infarction) drugs. Activation of apoptotic pathways or the removal of cellular apoptotic inhibitors has been suggested to aid cancer therapy and the inhibition of apoptosis was thought to limit ischaemia-induced damage. However, initial clinical studies on apoptosis-modulating drugs led to unexpected results in different clinical conditions and this may have been due to co-effects on non-apoptotic interconnected cell death mechanisms and the 'yin-yang' role of autophagy in survival versus cell death. In this review, we extend the analysis of cell death beyond apoptosis. Upon introduction of molecular pathways governing autophagy and necrosis (also called necroptosis or programmed necrosis), we focus on the interconnected character of cell death signals and on the shared cell death processes involving mitochondria (e.g. mitophagy and mitoptosis) and molecular signals playing prominent roles in multiple pathways (e.g. Bcl2-family members and p53). We also briefly highlight stress-induced cell senescence that plays a role not only in organismal ageing but also offers the development of novel anticancer strategies. Finally, we briefly illustrate the interconnected character of cell death forms in clinical settings while discussing irradiation-induced mitotic catastrophe. The signalling pathways are discussed in their relation to cancer biology and treatment approaches.

  20. Defects in mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 are linked to apoptotic resistance and autophagy in a lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kelly Jean; Jacobson, Marty R

    2012-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is implicated in almost all aspects of cancer progression, as well as treatment resistance. In this study, resistance to apoptosis was identified in tumorigenic lung epithelial (A549) cells as a consequence of defects in mitochondrial and autophagic function. Mitochondrial function is determined in part by mitochondrial morphology, a process regulated by mitochondrial dynamics whereby the joining of two mitochondria, fusion, inhibits apoptosis while fission, the division of a mitochondrion, initiates apoptosis. Mitochondrial morphology of A549 cells displayed an elongated phenotype-mimicking cells deficient in mitochondrial fission protein, Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). A549 cells had impaired Drp1 mitochondrial recruitment and decreased Drp1-dependent fission. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage were impaired both basally and with apoptotic stimuli in A549 cells. Increased mitochondrial mass was observed in A549 cells, suggesting defects in mitophagy (mitochondrial selective autophagy). A549 cells had decreased LC3-II lipidation and lysosomal inhibition suggesting defects in autophagy occur upstream of lysosomal degradation. Immunostaining indicated mitochondrial localized LC3 punctae in A549 cells increased after mitochondrial uncoupling or with a combination of mitochondrial depolarization and ectopic Drp1 expression. Increased inhibition of apoptosis in A549 cells is correlated with impeded mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. We suggest mitochondrial fission defects contribute to apoptotic resistance in A549 cells.

  1. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-03-09

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc(-) system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc(-) inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death.

  2. The effects of bioactive compounds from plant foods on mitochondrial function: a focus on apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Mazzoni, Luca; Quiles, José L; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles for cellular integrity and functionality maintenance and their imparement is implicated in the development of a wide range of diseases, including metabolic, cardiovascular, degenerative and hyperproliferative pathologies. The identification of different compounds able to interact with mitochondria for therapeutic purposes is currently becoming of primary importance. Indeed, it is well known that foods, particularly those of vegetable origin, present several constituents with beneficial effects on health. This review summarizes and updates the most recent findings concerning the mechanisms through which different dietary compounds from plant foods affect mitochondria functionality in healthy and pathological in vitro and in vivo models, paying particular attention to the pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Rebecca L; Okamoto, Koji; Shaw, Janet M

    2008-02-01

    Yeast mitochondria form a branched tubular network. Mitochondrial inheritance is tightly coupled with bud emergence, ensuring that daughter cells receive mitochondria from mother cells during division. Proteins reported to influence mitochondrial inheritance include the mitochondrial rho (Miro) GTPase Gem1p, Mmr1p, and Ypt11p. A synthetic genetic array (SGA) screen revealed interactions between gem1Delta and deletions of genes that affect mitochondrial function or inheritance, including mmr1Delta. Synthetic sickness of gem1Delta mmr1Delta double mutants correlated with defective mitochondrial inheritance by large buds. Additional studies demonstrated that GEM1, MMR1, and YPT11 each contribute to mitochondrial inheritance. Mitochondrial accumulation in buds caused by overexpression of either Mmr1p or Ypt11p did not depend on Gem1p, indicating these three proteins function independently. Physical linkage of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has led to speculation that distribution of these two organelles is coordinated. We show that yeast mitochondrial inheritance is not required for inheritance or spreading of cortical ER in the bud. Moreover, Ypt11p overexpression, but not Mmr1p overexpression, caused ER accumulation in the bud, revealing a potential role for Ypt11p in ER distribution. This study demonstrates that multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in yeast and that Miro GTPases have conserved roles in mitochondrial distribution.

  4. Exopolysaccharide from Trichoderma pseudokoningii induces the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through an intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Bo; Li, Ping; Qin, Guozheng; Xu, Yanghui; Chen, Ke; Liu, Huixia; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we reported the anticancer efficacy of exopolysaccharide (EPS) derived from Trichoderma pseudokoningii, on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Our results showed that EPS inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and induced lactic dehydrogenase release by inducing apoptosis and cell arrest at S phase. Further study revealed that EPS-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was associated with alteration of nuclear morphology, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Sequentially, EPS increased the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner; however, caspase-8 remained intact. Western blot analysis revealed that EPS increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and promoted the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Taken together, these findings provided evidence that EPS induced the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through an intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and that EPS may therefore be considered as an effective adjuvant agent against human breast cancer.

  5. Iron(III)-salen damages DNA and induces apoptosis in human cell via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Woldemariam, Getachew A; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2008-04-01

    We synthesized a water soluble Fe(III)-salen complex and investigated its biochemical effects on DNA in vitro and on cultured human cells. We showed that Fe(III)-salen produces free radicals in the presence of reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and induces DNA damage in vitro. Interestingly, upon treatment with Fe(III)-salen at concentration as low as 10microM, HEK293 human cells showed morphological changes, nuclear fragmentation, and nuclear condensation that are typical features of apoptotic cell death. The cytotoxicity measurement showed that IC(50) of Fe(III)-salen is 2.0microM for HEK293 cells. Furthermore, treatment with Fe(III)-salen resulted in translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol affecting mitochondrial membrane permeability. Our results demonstrated that Fe(III)-salen not only damages DNA in vitro, but also induces apoptosis in human cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  6. An inhibitory mono-ubiquitylation of the Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc functions in both apoptotic and non-apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ditzel, Mark; Meier, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis is an evolutionary conserved cell death mechanism, which requires activation of initiator and effector caspases. The Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc, the ortholog of mammalian Caspase-2 and Caspase-9, has an N-terminal CARD domain that recruits Dronc into the apoptosome for activation. In addition to its role in apoptosis, Dronc also has non-apoptotic functions such as compensatory proliferation. One mechanism to control the activation of Dronc is ubiquitylation. However, the mechanistic details of ubiquitylation of Dronc are less clear. For example, monomeric inactive Dronc is subject to non-degradative ubiquitylation in living cells, while ubiquitylation of active apoptosome-bound Dronc triggers its proteolytic degradation in apoptotic cells. Here, we examined the role of non-degradative ubiquitylation of Dronc in living cells in vivo, i.e. in the context of a multi-cellular organism. Our in vivo data suggest that in living cells Dronc is mono-ubiquitylated on Lys78 (K78) in its CARD domain. This ubiquitylation prevents activation of Dronc in the apoptosome and protects cells from apoptosis. Furthermore, K78 ubiquitylation plays an inhibitory role for non-apoptotic functions of Dronc. We provide evidence that not all of the non-apoptotic functions of Dronc require its catalytic activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate a mechanism whereby Dronc’s apoptotic and non-apoptotic activities can be kept silenced in a non-degradative manner through a single ubiquitylation event in living cells. PMID:28207763

  7. Attenuation of Magnesium Sulfate on CoCl₂-Induced Cell Death by Activating ERK1/2/MAPK and Inhibiting HIF-1α via Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Suppression in a Neuronal Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsieh, You-Liang; Ju, Da-Tong; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Liou, Yi-Fan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Jing-Ying

    2015-08-31

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis in a rat model. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms governing the anti-apoptotic effect of MgSO₄ on cobalt chloride (CoCl₂)-exposed NB41A3 mouse neuroblastoma cells. MgSO₄ increased the viability of NB41A3 cells treated with CoCl₂ in a dose-dependent manner. MgSO₄ treatment was shown to lead to an increase in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, with a concomitant decrease in the pro-apoptotic proteins. MgSO₄ also attenuated the CoCl₂-induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) and reduced the release of cytochrome c form the mitochondria to the cytosol. Furthermore, exposure to CoCl₂ caused activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). On the other hand, MgSO₄ markedly reduced CoCl₂-induced HIF-1α activation and suppressed HIF-1α downstream protein BNIP3. MgSO₄ treatment induced ERK1/2 activation and attenuated CoCl₂-induced activation of p38 and JNK. Addition of the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly reduced the ability of MgSO₄ to protect neurons from CoCl₂-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events. However, incubation of cultures with the p38 and JNK inhibitors did not significantly affect MgSO₄-mediated neuroprotection. MgSO₄ appears to suppress CoCl₂-induced NB41A3 cell death by activating ERK1/2/ MAPK pathways, which further modulates the role of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondria in NB41A3 cells. Our data suggest that MgSO₄ may act as a survival factor that preserves mitochondrial integrity and inhibits apoptotic pathways.

  8. Natural terpenes prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and release of apoptotic proteins during nimesulide-hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Tripathi, Madhulika; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Pandey, Pramod K; Kakkar, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Nimesulide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, is reported to cause severe hepatotoxicity. In this study, molecular mechanisms involved in deranged oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction during nimesulide-induced hepatotoxicity and its attenuation by plant derived terpenes, camphene and geraniol has been explored in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatotoxicity due to nimesulide (80 mg/kg BW) was evident from elevated SGPT, SGOT, bilirubin and histo-pathological changes. Antioxidants and key redox enzymes (iNOS, mtNOS, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPx and GR) were altered significantly as assessed by their mRNA expression, Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activities. Redox imbalance along with oxidative stress was evident from decreased NAD(P)H and GSH (56% and 74% respectively; P<0.001), increased superoxide and secondary ROS/RNS generation along with oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules. Nimesulide reduced mitochondrial activity, depolarized mitochondria and caused membrane permeability transition (MPT) followed by release of apoptotic proteins (AIF; apoptosis inducing factor, EndoG; endonuclease G, and Cyto c; cytochrome c). It also significantly activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 and increased oxidative DNA damage (level of 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase; P<0.05). A combination of camphene and geraniol (CG; 1:1), when pre-administered in rats (10 mg/kg BW), accorded protection against nimesulide hepatotoxicity in vivo, as evident from normalized serum biomarkers and histopathology. mRNA expression and activity of key antioxidant and redox enzymes along with oxidative stress were also normalized due to CG pre-treatment. Downstream effects like decreased mitochondrial swelling, inhibition in release of apoptotic proteins, prevention of mitochondrial depolarization along with reduction in oxidized NAD(P)H and increased mitochondrial electron flow further supported protective action of selected terpenes against nimesulide toxicity. Therefore CG, a

  9. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    PubMed

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji

    2016-04-01

    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer.

  10. The cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of phenylephrine on corneal stromal cells via a mitochondrion-dependent pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Qiu, Yue; Tian, Cheng-Lei; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Phenylephrine (PHE), a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, is often used as a decongestant for mydriasis prior to cataract surgery, and its abuse might be cytotoxic to the cornea and result in blurred vision. However, the cytotoxicity of PHE to the cornea and its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To provide references for secure medication and prospective therapeutic interventions of PHE, we investigated the cytotoxicity of PHE to corneal stroma and its possible mechanisms using an in vitro model of human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and an in vivo model of cat keratocytes. We found that PHE, above the concentration of 0.0781125% (1/128 of its clinical therapeutic dosage), had a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing morphological abnormality and viability decline, as well as S phase arrest. Moreover, PHE induced apoptosis of HCS cells by inducing plasma membrane permeability elevation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. Furthermore, PHE could induce activations of caspase-3 and -9, disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, along with upregulation of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. The cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of PHE were also proven by the induced apoptotic-like ultrastructural alterations of keratocytes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that PHE has a significant cytotoxicity to corneal stroma cells both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis, and the pro-apoptotic effect of PHE is achieved via a Bcl-2 family proteins-mediated mitochondrion-dependent pathway.

  11. Regional imbalanced activation of the calcineurin/BAD apoptotic pathway and the PI3K/Akt survival pathway after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Tieluo; Kilic, Ahmet; Wei, Xufeng; Wu, Changfu; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Yankey, G Kwame; DeFilippi, Christopher; Bond, Meredith; Wu, Zhongjun J; Griffith, Bartley P

    2013-06-05

    The underlying molecular mechanisms of the remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of a survival pathway (PI3K/Akt) and an apoptosis pathway (calcineurin/BAD) in the remodeling after MI in a large animal model. Ten Dorset hybrid sheep underwent 25% MI in the left ventricle (LV, n=10). Five sheep were used as sham control. The regional strain was calculated from sonomicrometry. Apoptosis and the activation of the PI3K/Akt and calcineurin/BAD pathways were evaluated in the non-ischemic adjacent zone and the remote zone relative to infarct by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence staining. Dilation and dysfunction of LV were present at 12 weeks after MI. The regional strain in the adjacent zone was significantly higher than in the remote zone at 12 weeks (36.6 ± 4.0% vs 9.5 ± 3.6%, p<0.05). Apoptosis was more severe in the adjacent zone than in the remote zone. The PI3K/Akt and calcineurin/BAD pathways were activated in the adjacent zone. Dephosphorylation and translocation of BAD were evident in the adjacent zone. Regional correlation between the strain and the expression of calcineurin/BAD indicated that the activation was strain-related (R(2)=0.46, 0.48, 0.39 for calcineurin, BAD, mitochondrial BAD, respectively, p<0.05). The PI3K/Akt survival and calcineurin/BAD apoptotic pathways were concomitantly activated in the non-ischemic adjacent zone after MI. The calcineurin/BAD pathway is strain related and its imbalanced activation may be one of the causes of progressive remodeling after MI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial acetyl-CoA utilization pathway for terpenoid productions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jifeng; Ching, Chi-Bun

    2016-11-01

    Acetyl-CoA is a central molecule in the metabolism of the cell, which is also a precursor molecule to a variety of value-added products such as terpenoids and fatty acid derived molecules. Considering subcellular compartmentalization of metabolic pathways allows higher concentrations of enzymes, substrates and intermediates, and bypasses competing pathways, mitochondrion-compartmentalized acetyl-CoA utilization pathways might offer better pathway activities with improved product yields. As a proof-of-concept, we sought to explore a mitochondrial farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) biosynthetic pathway for the biosynthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene in budding yeast. In the present study, the eight-gene FPP biosynthetic pathway was successfully expressed inside yeast mitochondria to enable high-level amorpha-4,11-diene production. In addition, we also found the mitochondrial compartment serves as a partial barrier for the translocation of FPP from mitochondria into the cytosol, which would potentially allow minimized loss of FPP to cytosolic competing pathways. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to harness yeast mitochondria for terpenoid productions from the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool. We envision subcellular metabolic engineering might also be employed for an efficient production of other bio-products from the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA in other eukaryotic organisms. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dieldrin promotes proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and apoptosis in dopaminergic cells: protective effect of mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2004-06-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin induces mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in dopaminergic PC12 cells. We also demonstrated that protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), a member of a novel PKC family of proteins, is proteolytically activated by caspase-3 to mediate apoptotic cell death processes. In the present study, we have further characterized the protective effect of the major mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 against dieldrin-induced apoptotic events in dopaminergic cells. Exposure to dieldrin (30-100 microM) produced significant cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activation within 3h in vector-transfected PC12 cells, whereas human Bcl-2-transfected PC12 cells were almost completely resistant to dieldrin-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activation. Also, dieldrin (30-300 microM) treatment induced proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which was blocked by pretreatment with caspase-3 inhibitors Z-DEVD-FMK and Z-VAD-FMK. Additionally, dieldrin-induced chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation were completely blocked in Bcl-2-overexpressed PC12 cells as compared to vector control cells. Together, these results clearly indicate that overexpression of mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein protects against dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death and further suggest that dieldrin primarily alters mitochondrial function to initiate apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic cells.

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) inhibit the growth of cervical cancer by inducing apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), a biologically active component of grape seeds, have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological and biochemical properties. Recently, the inhibitory effects of GSPs on various cancers have been reported, but their effects on cervical cancer remain unclear. Here, we explored the effect of GSPs on cervical cancer using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, the treatment of HeLa and SiHa cells with GSPs resulted in a significant inhibition of cell viability. Further investigation indicated that GSPs led to the dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The underlying mechanism was associated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak-1, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of caspase-3, suggesting that GSPs induced cervical cancer cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the administration of GSPs (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, w/v) as a supplement in drinking water significantly inhibited the tumor growth of HeLa and SiHa cells in athymic nude mice, and the number of apoptotic cells in those tumors was also increased significantly. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that GSPs could inhibit the growth of cervical cancer by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, which provides evidence indicating that GSPs may be a potential chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent for cervical cancer.

  15. Tat-NOL3 protects against hippocampal neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress through the regulation of apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Yong, Ji In; Ryu, Eun Ji; Park, Jung Hwan; Cho, Su Bin; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Im, Seung Kwon; Kweon, Hae Young; Kim, Duk-Soo; Yu, Yeon Hee; Cho, Sung-Woo; Park, Meeyoung; Park, Jinseu; Cho, Yong-Jun; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is associated with neuronal cell death and ischemia. The NOL3 [nucleolar protein 3 (apoptosis repressor with CARD domain)] protein protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, the protective mechanism responsible for this effect as well as the effects of NOL3 against oxidative stress in ischemia remain unclear. Thus, we examined the protective effects of NOL3 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and the mechanism responsible for these effects in hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells and in an animal model of forebrain ischemia using Tat-fused NOL3 protein (Tat-NOL3). Purified Tat-NOL3 protein transduced into the H2O2-exposed HT22 cells and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). In addition, Tat-NOL3 prevented neuronal cell death through the regulation of apoptotic signaling pathways including Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-2, -3 and -8, PARP and p53. In addition, Tat-NOL3 protein transduced into the animal brains and significantly protected against neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus by regulating the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Tat-NOL3 protein protects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death by regulating oxidative stress and by acting as an anti-apoptotic protein. Thus, we suggest that Tat-NOL3 represents a potential therapeutic agent for protection against ischemic brain injury.

  16. High fructose causes cardiac hypertrophy via mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Bo; Meng, Yan-Hai; Chang, Shuo; Zhang, Rong-Yuan; Shi, Chen

    2016-01-01

    High fructose diet can cause cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress is a key mediator for myocardial hypertrophy. Disruption of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to oxidative stress. This study aims to reveal mitochondrial oxidative stress-related signaling pathway in high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were fed high fructose to develop cardiac hypertrophy. Fructose and H2O2 were used to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 was applied to investigate the possible role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CFTR silence was performed to detect the role of CFTR in high fructose-induced myocardial hypertrophy. ROS, glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial function and hypertrophic markers were measured. We confirmed that long-term high fructose diet caused cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and elevated mitochondrial ROS. However, SkQ1 administration prevented heart hypertrophy and mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cadiomyocytes incubated with fructose or H2O2 exhibited significantly increased cell areas but SkQ1 treatment ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high fructose or H2O2 in vitro. Those results revealed that the underlying mechanism for high fructose-induced heart hypertrophy was attributed to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Moreover, CFTR expression was decreased by high fructose intervention and CFTR silence resulted in an increase in mitochondrial ROS, which suggested high fructose diet affected mitochondrial oxidative stress by regulating CFTR expression. Electron transport chain impairment might be related to mitochondrial oxidative damage. In conclusion, our findings indicated that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a central role in pathogenesis of high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. High fructose decreases CFTR expression to regulate mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:27904687

  17. Neuroprotection of inositol hexaphosphate and changes of mitochondrion mediated apoptotic pathway and α-synuclein aggregation in 6-OHDA induced parkinson's disease cell model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Hou, Lin; Li, Xianghong; Ju, Chuanxia; Zhang, Jinyu; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiuli; Liu, Cun; Lv, Yuqiang; Wang, Yuehua

    2016-02-15

    Animal and cell experiments showed that inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) was protective on neurons in parkinson's disease (PD) model, but the underlying mechanism of this action was not extensively elucidated. To address this question, we established 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y as PD cell model and testified the neuroprotection of IP6. Through hoechst nuclear stain method and flow cytometric analysis, apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA was blocked by IP6 pretreatment. Significant protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in 6-OHDA induced cells pretreated with IP6. To further investigate the mechanism of anti-apoptotic effect of IP6, expression of mediators in mitochondrion dependent apoptotic pathway was detected. Results indicated that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c releasing, upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), downregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and caspases activation were reversed by IP6. In addition, using flow cytometric method and western blot approach, our data showed that IP6 attenuated the rise of calcium and α-synuclein aggregation in cytosol. Collectively, IP6 exerted its neuroprotection on dopaminergic cells in PD cell model and the mechanism may be associated with changes of mitochondrion mediated apoptotic pathway and α-synuclein aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequent truncating mutation of TFAM induces mitochondrial DNA depletion and apoptotic resistance in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhui; Zheng, Li; Liu, Wenyong; Wang, Xianshu; Wang, Zemin; Wang, Zehua; French, Amy J; Kang, Dongchon; Chen, Lin; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Liu, Wanguo

    2011-04-15

    The mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is required for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription. Disruption of TFAM results in heart failure and premature aging in mice. But very little is known about the role of TFAM in cancer development. Here, we report the identification of frequent frameshift mutations in the coding mononucleotide repeat of TFAM in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and in primary tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI), but not in microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC cell lines and tumors. The presence of the TFAM truncating mutation, in CRC cells with MSI, reduced the TFAM protein level in vivo and in vitro and correlated with mtDNA depletion. Furthermore, forced overexpression of wild-type TFAM in RKO cells carrying a TFAM truncating mutation suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited RKO cell-induced xenograft tumor growth. Moreover, these cells showed more susceptibility to cisplatin-induced apoptosis due to an increase of cytochrome b (Cyt b) expression and its release from mitochondria. An interaction assay between TFAM and the heavy-strand promoter (HSP) of mitochondria revealed that mutant TFAM exhibited reduced binding to HSP, leading to reduction in Cyt b transcription. Collectively, these data provide evidence that a high incidence of TFAM truncating mutations leads to mitochondrial copy number reduction and mitochondrial instability, distinguishing most CRC with MSI from MSS CRC. These mutations may play an important role in tumorigenesis and cisplatin-induced apoptotic resistance of most microsatellite-unstable CRCs.

  19. Flagellin/TLR5 responses in epithelia reveal intertwined activation of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wu, Huixia; Sloane, Valerie; Jones, Rheinallt; Yu, Yimin; Lin, Patricia; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Neish, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Flagellin, the primary structural component of bacterial flagella, is recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) present on the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelial cells. Utilizing biochemical assays of proinflammatory signaling pathways and mRNA expression profiling, we found that purified flagellin could recapitulate the human epithelial cell proinflammatory responses activated by flagellated pathogenic bacteria. Flagellin-induced proinflammatory activation showed similar kinetics and gene specificity as that induced by the classical endogenous proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, although both responses were more rapid than that elicited by viable flagellated bacteria. Flagellin, like TNF-α, activated a number of antiapoptotic mediators, and pretreatment of epithelial cells with this bacterial protein could protect cells from subsequent bacterially mediated apoptotic challenge. However, when NF-κB-mediated or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt proinflammatory signaling was blocked, flagellin could induce programmed cell death. Consistently, we demonstrate that flagellin and viable flagellate Salmonella induces both the extrinsic and intrinsic caspase activation pathways, with the extrinsic pathway (caspase 8) activated by purified flagellin in a TLR5-dependant fashion. We conclude that interaction of flagellin with epithelial cells induces caspase activation in parallel with proinflammatory responses. Such intertwining of proinflammatory and apoptotic signaling mediated by bacterial products suggests roles for host programmed cell death in the pathogenesis of enteric infections. PMID:16179598

  20. Saikosaponin D acts against corticosterone-induced apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial GR translocation and a GR-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Yang; Jiang, Yu-Mao; Liu, Ya-Min; Guo, Zhi; Shen, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le

    2014-08-04

    Saikosaponin D is an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and our preliminary study showed that it possesses neuroprotective effects in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. However, further proof is required, and the molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotection remain unclear. This study sought to further examine the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of action of Saikosaponin D in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. The cells were treated with 250 μM corticosterone in the absence or presence of Saikosaponin D for 24 h; cell viability was then determined, and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) and annexin/PI double staining, and TUNEL staining were performed. Next, mPTP, MMP, [Ca(2+)]i, translocation of the GR to the nucleus and Western blot analyses for caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome C, GR, GILZ, SGK-1, NF-Κb (P65), IκB-α, Bad, Akt, Hsp90 and HDAC-6 were investigated. The neuroprotective effects of Saikosaponin D were further confirmed by Hoechst 33342/PI, annexin/PI and TUNEL staining assays. These additional data suggested that Saikosaponin D partially reversed the physiological changes induced by corticosterone by inhibiting the translocation of the GR to the mitochondria, restoring mitochondrial function, down-regulating the expression of pro-apoptotic-related signalling events and up-regulating anti-apoptotic-related signalling events. These findings suggest that SSD exhibited its anti-apoptotic effects via differential regulation of mitochondrial and nuclear GR translocation, partial reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and selective activation of the GR-dependent survival pathway.

  1. YCl3 Promotes Neuronal Cell Death by Inducing Apoptotic Pathways in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yechun; Tian, Yuantong; Zeng, Zhaoyi; Shuai, Ping; Lan, Haiying; Zhu, Xianshen; Zhong, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The pollutants rare earth elements (REEs) have posed great threats to human health. To investigate the cytotoxicity of yttrium (Y), a model that rats have free access to water containing YCl3 for 6 months is utilized. The results showed that YCl3 treatment promoted neuronal cell apoptosis by upregulating the proapoptotic factors Bax, caspase-3, Cyto c, and DAPK and by downregulating the antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and XIAP at both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusively, YCl3 exhibited cytotoxicity and promoted neuronal cell death by the induction of apoptotic pathways. PMID:28326317

  2. Both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced cell death in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Sun, Ruili; Luo, Hongbo; Liu, Xueting; Jiang, Manli; Yuan, Chuang; Yang, Li; Hu, Jinyue

    2017-02-01

    Our previous study showed that TLR3 induces apoptosis via both death receptors and mitochondial in human endothelial cells. We report here that the activation of TLR4 induced dose- and time-dependent cell death in moncytic THP-1 cells. LPS treatment of THP-1 cells induced the activation of both caspase 8 and 9, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. TNFα was induced by TLR4 activation at both mRNA and protein levels, but its neutralization did not down-regulated TLR4-induced cell death. TLR4 activation also induced the up-regulation of TRAIL and its receptors DR4 and DR5, and the neutralization of TRAIL ameliorated TLR4 induced apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of TRAIL and its receptors DR4 and DR5 in LPS-induced cell death. Meanwhile, LPS treatment down-regulated the expression of FLICE inhibitory protein (FLIP), a suppressor of death receptor-induced cell death. In addition, TLR4 activation down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2, and up-regulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Noxa and Puma, suggesting that mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was also involved in LPS-induced cell death. Furthermore, we found that TAP63α might confer to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The treatment of THP-1 cells with LPS induced the translocation of TAP63α from cytoplasm to nucleus. Taken together, our study suggested that both death receptors and mitochondial were involved in TLR4-induced cell death, and TAP63α may be a target for the prevention of LPS-induced cell death.

  3. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Mariela; Ramos, Yanilda; Rodríguez-Valentín, Madeline; López-Acevedo, Sheila; Cubano, Luis A.; Zou, Jin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa), is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses. PMID:28628644

  4. Disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain function potentiates the pro-apoptotic effects of MAPK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Andrew P; Gelles, Jesse D; Serasinghe, Madhavika N; Loi, Patrick; Arbiser, Jack L; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2017-07-14

    The mitochondrial network is a major site of ATP production through the coupled integration of the electron transport chain (ETC) with oxidative phosphorylation. In melanoma arising from the V600E mutation in the kinase v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF(V600E)), oncogenic signaling enhances glucose-dependent metabolism while reducing mitochondrial ATP production. Likewise, when BRAF(V600E) is pharmacologically inhibited by targeted therapies (e.g. PLX-4032/vemurafenib), glucose metabolism is reduced, and cells increase mitochondrial ATP production to sustain survival. Therefore, collateral inhibition of oncogenic signaling and mitochondrial respiration may help enhance the therapeutic benefit of targeted therapies. Honokiol (HKL) is a well tolerated small molecule that disrupts mitochondrial function; however, its underlying mechanisms and potential utility with targeted anticancer therapies remain unknown. Using wild-type BRAF and BRAF(V600E) melanoma model systems, we demonstrate here that HKL administration rapidly reduces mitochondrial respiration by broadly inhibiting ETC complexes I, II, and V, resulting in decreased ATP levels. The subsequent energetic crisis induced two cellular responses involving cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). First, loss of CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of the mitochondrial division GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 promoted mitochondrial fusion, thus coupling mitochondrial energetic status and morphology. Second, HKL decreased CDK2 activity, leading to G1 cell cycle arrest. Importantly, although pharmacological inhibition of oncogenic MAPK signaling increased ETC activity, co-treatment with HKL ablated this response and vastly enhanced the rate of apoptosis. Collectively, these findings integrate HKL action with mitochondrial respiration and shape and substantiate a pro-survival role of mitochondrial function in melanoma cells after oncogenic MAPK inhibition.

  5. The apoptotic pathway triggered by the Fhit protein in lung cancer cell lines is not affected by Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L) overexpression.

    PubMed

    Roz, Luca; Andriani, Francesca; Ferreira, Carlos G; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Sozzi, Gabriella

    2004-12-02

    The expression of the tumour suppressor protein fragile histidine triad (Fhit) is often impaired in many human cancers and its restoration in Fhit-negative cancer cell lines suppresses tumorigenicity and induces apoptosis. Although the proapoptotic function of Fhit is well documented, little is known about its precise mechanism of action and further studies are needed in order to elucidate the putative therapeutic properties of this protein. To this end, we have engineered the lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 in order to express different molecules involved in the control of apoptotic pathways. Infection of these cells with an adenoviral vector transducing the Fhit gene (Ad-Fhit) revealed that complete protection from apoptosis was conferred by the inhibitor of caspases Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) and by a dominant-negative form of the adapter protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and partial protection by a dominant-negative form of caspase-8, while cells over expressing mitochondrial mediators of the apoptotic response such as Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L) that are resistant to treatment with cisplatin, remained highly susceptible to cell death triggered by Fhit gene transfer. In line to what was observed in H460 cells, Ad-Fhit efficacy was not affected by Bcl-2 overexpression also in two other lung cancer cell lines (A549 and Calu-1). Analysis of cytochrome c release also confirmed that in Bcl-2- or Bcl-x(L)-expressing cells apoptosis could be detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay before any evidence of mitochondrial membrane perturbation. In conclusion, our analysis indicates that the Fhit protein exerts its oncosuppressor activity through induction of an apoptotic mechanism that seems to be FADD dependent, caspase-8 mediated and independent from mitochondrial amplification.

  6. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway mediates the pro-longevity response to mitochondrial ROS in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Yee, Callista; Yang, Wen; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2014-05-08

    The increased longevity of the C. elegans electron transport chain mutants isp-1 and nuo-6 is mediated by mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) signaling. Here we show that the mtROS signal is relayed by the conserved, mitochondria-associated, intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway (CED-9/Bcl2, CED-4/Apaf1, and CED-3/Casp9) triggered by CED-13, an alternative BH3-only protein. Activation of the pathway by an elevation of mtROS does not affect apoptosis but protects from the consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction by triggering a unique pattern of gene expression that modulates stress sensitivity and promotes survival. In vertebrates, mtROS induce apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway to protect from severely damaged cells. Our observations in nematodes demonstrate that sensing of mtROS by the apoptotic pathway can, independently of apoptosis, elicit protective mechanisms that keep the organism alive under stressful conditions. This results in extended longevity when mtROS generation is inappropriately elevated. These findings clarify the relationships between mitochondria, ROS, apoptosis, and aging.

  7. Over-expression of mitochondrial ferritin affects the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in K562 cells and causes mitochondrial iron accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Santambrogio, Paolo; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Campanella, Alessandro; Cozzi, Anna; Causarano, Vincenza; Cremonesi, Laura; Gallì, Anna; Della Porta, Matteo Giovanni; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Levi, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial ferritin is a nuclear encoded iron-storage protein localized in mitochondria. It has anti-oxidant properties related to its ferroxidase activity, and it is able to sequester iron avidly into the organelle. The protein has a tissue-specific pattern of expression and is also highly expressed in sideroblasts of patients affected by hereditary sideroblastic anemia and by refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts. The present study examined whether mitochondrial ferritin has a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Design and Methods We analyzed the effect of mitochondrial ferritin over-expression on the JAK2/STAT5 pathway, on iron metabolism and on heme synthesis in erythroleukemic cell lines. Furthermore its effect on apoptosis was evaluated on human erythroid progenitors. Results Data revealed that a high level of mitochondrial ferritin reduced reactive oxygen species and Stat5 phosphorylation while promoting mitochondrial iron loading and cytosolic iron starvation. The decline of Stat5 phosphorylation induced a decrease of the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL transcript compared to that in control cells; however, transferrin receptor 1 transcript increased due to the activation of the iron responsive element/iron regulatory protein machinery. Also, high expression of mitochondrial ferritin increased apoptosis, limited heme synthesis and promoted the formation of Perls-positive granules, identified by electron microscopy as iron granules in mitochondria. Conclusions Our results provide evidence suggesting that Stat5-dependent transcriptional regulation is displaced by strong cytosolic iron starvation status induced by mitochondrial ferritin. The protein interferes with JAK2/STAT5 pathways and with the mechanism of mitochondrial iron accumulation. PMID:21712541

  8. Evolution of mitochondrial cell death pathway: Proapoptotic role of HtrA2/Omi in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Igaki, Tatsushi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Tokushige, Naoko; Aonuma, Hiroka; Takahashi, Ryosuke . E-mail: ryosuket@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miura, Masayuki . E-mail: miura@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-05-18

    Despite the essential role of mitochondria in a variety of mammalian cell death processes, the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in Drosophila cell death has remained unclear. To address this, we cloned and characterized DmHtrA2, a Drosophila homolog of a mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi. We show that DmHtrA2 normally resides in mitochondria and is up-regulated by UV-irradiation. Upon receipt of apoptotic stimuli, DmHtrA2 is translocated to extramitochondrial compartment; however, unlike its mammalian counterpart, the extramitochondrial DmHtrA2 does not diffuse throughout the cytosol but stays near the mitochondria. RNAi-mediated knock-down of DmHtrA2 in larvae or adult flies results in a resistance to stress stimuli. DmHtrA2 specifically cleaves Drosophila inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), a cellular caspase inhibitor, and induces cell death both in vitro and in vivo as potent as other fly cell death proteins. Our observations suggest that DmHtrA2 promotes cell death through a cleavage of DIAP1 in the vicinity of mitochondria, which may represent a prototype of mitochondrial cell death pathway in evolution.

  9. Huaier aqueous extract induces apoptosis of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Meng, Hongmei; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qingpeng

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, aqueous extract of Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used in China for complementary cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of Huaier extract to inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis and suppress mobility in the fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in vitro. The cells were treated with gradient doses of Huaier extract at concentrations of 0, 4, 8 or 16 mg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 h. The cell viability and motility were measured in vitro using MTT, invasive, migration and scratch assays. The distribution of the cell cycle and the extent of cellular apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic pathways were detected using a mitochondrial membrane potential transition assay and western blotting. The results revealed that the cellular viability decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of Huaier extract. In addition, cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. It was demonstrated that Huaier extract induced G2 cell-cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 and pro-caspase-3, and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 suggested that Huaier extract induced the apoptosis of HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The results of the present study indicate that Huaier extract is a potential complementary agent for the treatment of fibrosarcoma.

  10. Combined low doses of PPARgamma and RXR ligands trigger an intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Cione, Erika; Qi, Hongyan; Pingitore, Attilio; Perri, Mariarita; Catalano, Stefania; Vizza, Donatella; Panno, Maria Luisa; Genchi, Giuseppe; Fuqua, Suzanne A W; Andò, Sebastiano

    2009-09-01

    Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and retinoid X receptor (RXR) induces antitumor effects in cancer. We evaluated the ability of combined treatment with nanomolar levels of the PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone (BRL) and the RXR ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9RA) to promote antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. BRL and 9RA in combination strongly inhibit of cell viability in MCF-7, MCF-7TR1, SKBR-3, and T-47D breast cancer cells, whereas MCF-10 normal breast epithelial cells are unaffected. In MCF-7 cells, combined treatment with BRL and 9RA up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of both the tumor suppressor p53 and its effector p21(WAF1/Cip1). Functional experiments indicate that the nuclear factor-kappaB site in the p53 promoter is required for the transcriptional response to BRL plus 9RA. We observed that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in MCF-7 cells displays an ordinated sequence of events, including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, strong caspase 9 activation, and, finally, DNA fragmentation. An expression vector for p53 antisense abrogated the biological effect of both ligands, which implicates involvement of p53 in PPARgamma/RXR-dependent activity in all of the human breast malignant cell lines tested. Taken together, our results suggest that multidrug regimens including a combination of PPARgamma and RXR ligands may provide a therapeutic advantage in breast cancer treatment.

  11. Potential of apoptotic pathway-targeted cancer therapeutic research: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Baig, S; Seevasant, I; Mohamad, J; Mukheem, A; Huri, H Z; Kamarul, T

    2016-01-14

    Underneath the intricacy of every cancer lies mysterious events that impel the tumour cell and its posterity into abnormal growth and tissue invasion. Oncogenic mutations disturb the regulatory circuits responsible for the governance of versatile cellular functions, permitting tumour cells to endure deregulated proliferation, resist to proapoptotic insults, invade and erode normal tissues and above all escape apoptosis. This disruption of apoptosis has been highly implicated in various malignancies and has been exploited as an anticancer strategy. Owing to the fact that apoptosis causes minimal inflammation and damage to the tissue, apoptotic cell death-based therapy has been the centre of attraction for the development of anticancer drugs. Increased understanding of the molecular pathways underlying apoptosis has enabled scientists to establish unique approaches targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer therapeutics. In this review, we reconnoitre the two major pathways (intrinsic and extrinsic) targeted cancer therapeutics, steering toward chief modulators of these pathways, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 protein family members (pro- and antiapoptotic), inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, and the foremost thespian of extrinsic pathway regulator, tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing agent. Together, we also will have a look from clinical perspective to address the agents (drugs) and therapeutic strategies adopted to target these specific proteins/pathways that have entered clinical trials.

  12. Arsenic induces apoptosis by the lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Jiang, Liping; Zhong, Laifu; Geng, Chengyan; Jia, Li; Liu, Shuang; Guan, Huai; Yang, Guang; Yao, Xiaofeng; Piao, Fengyuan; Sun, Xiance

    2016-02-01

    Recently, long term arsenic exposure was considered to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. While a relation of cause-and-effect between apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and arsenic exposure, the precise mechanisms of these events remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore arsenic-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and the mechanisms of through the possible link between lysosomal and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. After exposure to 10 μM of arsenic, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased at 12 h, while the mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced at 24 h and the lysosomal membrane integrity was disrupted at 48 h. A significant increase in protein expression for cytochrome c was also observed using Western blot analysis after exposure to arsenic for 48 h. To further demonstrate that arsenic reduced the lysosomal membrane integrity, cells pretreated with NH4 Cl and exposed to arsenic harbored a lower fluorescence increase than cells that were only exposed to arsenic. In addition, apoptosis was mesured using Hoechst 33342/PI dual staining by microscopy and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dual staining by flow cytometry. The results show an increased uptake of the arsenic dose and the cells changed from dark blue to light blue, karyopyknosis, nuclear chromatin condensation, side set or fracture, and a correlation was found between the number of apoptotic cells and arsenic dose. The result of present study suggest that arsenic may induce pancreatic β-cell apoptosis through activation of the lysosome-mitochondrial pathway.

  13. Mitochondrial signaling pathway involved in cell apoptosis induced by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

    2011-03-01

    High fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) is a new stimulus to trigger cell apoptosis. Recently, great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanism involved in it. Our results show that HF-LPLI induces cell apoptosis through a large amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially a higher generation in mitochondria. These triggered ROS causes mitochondrial injury manifested by mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release. Caspase-3 activation is a downstream event which executed cell apoptosis finally. In addition, we exclude caspase-8/Bid signaling pathway in HF-LPLI-induced cell apoptosis. However, another important Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic member Bax participates in the apoptotic process. Our result show that Bax is activated after the diffusion of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cytochrome c release, suggesting that Bax does not affect outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (OMMP). We postulate that the activation of Bax is mediated by oxidative stress caused by laser irradiation through ROS/GSK-3β/Bax pathway. Further studies need to be performed to clarify the exactly mechanism involved in HF-LPLI induced cell apoptosis.

  14. Chronic treatment with lisinopril decreases proliferative and apoptotic pathways in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guangfu; Kwon, Michelle; Liang, Huan Ling; Mortensen, Jordan; Nilakantan, Vani; Sweeney, William E; Park, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition is a common therapeutic modality in the treatment of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). This study was designed to investigate whether chronic inhibition of ACE would have a therapeutic effect in attenuating the progression of renal cystogenesis in an orthologous rat model of ARPKD, the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat. Lisinopril (3 mg/kg per day) was administered orally for a period of 12 weeks, beginning at post-natal week 4. Lisinopril treatment resulted in an approximately 30% improvement in the collecting duct cystic indices (CT CI) of PCK animals. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and 2 (ERK2), proliferative signaling markers, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an end-point marker for proliferation, was reduced following chronic treatment with lisinopril compared to that in vehicle-treated PCK rats. To assess whether apoptotic pathways were altered due to chronic ACE inhibition, we examined p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), which are markers of apoptotic signaling cascades. p38 MAPK was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) following chronic treatment with lisinopril, but no change in the activation of SAPK/JNK could be detected by immunoblot analysis. Lisinopril treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in cleaved caspase-7 levels, but not caspase-3 activity, in PCK rat kidneys compared to the vehicle-treated PCK rat kidneys. Proteinuria was completely ameliorated in the presence of chronic ACE inhibition in the lisinopril-treated rats compared with the vehicle-treated PCK rats. In all, these findings demonstrated that chronic ACE inhibition can beneficially alter proliferative and apoptotic pathways to promote therapeutic reductions in renal cyst development in ARPKD.

  15. Antcin B and its ester derivative from Antrodia camphorata induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves enhancing oxidative stress coincident with activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Shyue, Song-Kun; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2011-10-26

    The triterpenoids methylantcinate B (MAB) and antcin B (AB), isolated from the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata , have been identified as strong cytotoxic agents against various type of cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of MAB- and AB-induced cytotoxicity have not been adequately explored. This study investigated the roles of caspase cascades, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, mitochondrial disruption, and Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in MAB- and AB-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. Here, we showed that MAB and AB induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as characterized by increased DNA fragmentation, cleavage of PARP, sub-G1 population, chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of cytochrome c. Increasing the levels of caspase-2, -3, -8, and -9 activities was involved in MAB- and AB-induced apoptosis, and they could be attenuated by inhibitors of specific caspases, indicating that MAB and AB triggered the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the enhanced apoptotic effect correlates with high expression of Fas, Fas ligand, as well as Bax and decreased protein levels of Bcl-(XL) and Bcl-2, suggesting that both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were involved in the apoptotic processes. Incubation of HepG2 cells with antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis induced by MAB and AB, which indicate that ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. NADPH oxidase activation was observed in MAB- and AB-stimulated HepG2 cells; however, inhibition of such activation by diphenylamine significantly blocked MAB- and AB-induced ROS production and increased cell viability. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that triterpenoids MAB and AB induced a NADPH oxidase-provoked oxidative stress and extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis as a critical mechanism of cause cell

  16. Application of proteasomal inhibitors to mouse sympathetic neurons activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lang-Rollin, Isabelle; Vekrellis, Konstantinos; Wang, Qiaohong; Rideout, Hardy J; Stefanis, Leonidas

    2004-09-01

    Proteasomal dysfunction may play a role in a number of neurodegenerative conditions, and in particular Parkinson's disease (PD) and related Lewy body (LB) diseases. Application of proteasomal inhibitors to neuronal cell culture systems is associated with survival-promoting effects or with cell death depending on the model system. We have applied pharmacological proteasomal inhibitors to cultured neonatal mouse sympathetic neurons in order to investigate whether these catecholaminergic neurons, which are affected in PD, are sensitive to proteasomal inhibition and, if so, which cell death pathway is activated. We report here that proteasomal inhibition leads to apoptotic death of mouse sympathetic neurons. This death is accompanied by caspase 3 activation and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and is abrogated by caspase inhibition. Bax deletion prevented both cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation, and also provided complete protection against proteasomal inhibition-induced death. Bcl-2 overexpression achieved a similar survival-promoting effect. There was no change in Bax levels following proteasomal inhibition, suggesting that Bax itself is not regulated by the proteasome in this cell culture system, and that a primary increase in Bax is unlikely to account for death. In contrast, levels of the BH3-only protein, Bim, increased with proteasomal inhibition. We conclude that proteasomal inhibition of mouse sympathetic neurons activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway involving bcl-2 family members and the mitochondria.

  17. Discovery of Sulfonamidebenzamides as Selective Apoptotic CHOP Pathway Activators of the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cellular proteins that fail to fold properly result in inactive or disfunctional proteins that can have toxic functions. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a two-tiered cellular mechanism initiated by eukaryotic cells that have accumulated misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An adaptive pathway facilitates the clearance of the undesired proteins; however, if overwhelmed, cells trigger apoptosis by upregulating transcription factors such as C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). A high throughput screen was performed directed at identifying compounds that selectively upregulate the apoptotic CHOP pathway while avoiding adaptive signaling cascades, resulting in a sulfonamidebenzamide chemotype that was optimized. These efforts produced a potent and selective CHOP inducer (AC50 = 0.8 μM; XBP1 > 80 μM), which was efficacious in both mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and a human oral squamous cell cancer cell line, and demonstrated antiproliferative effects for multiple cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel. PMID:25530830

  18. Mitochondria-specific accumulation of amyloid β induces mitochondrial dysfunction leading to apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Cha, Moon-Yong; Han, Sun-Ho; Son, Sung Min; Hong, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Young-Ju; Byun, Jayoung; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are best known as the essential intracellular organelles that host the homeostasis required for cellular survival, but they also have relevance in diverse disease-related conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is the key molecule in AD pathogenesis, and has been highlighted in the implication of mitochondrial abnormality during the disease progress. Neuronal exposure to Aβ impairs mitochondrial dynamics and function. Furthermore, mitochondrial Aβ accumulation has been detected in the AD brain. However, the underlying mechanism of how Aβ affects mitochondrial function remains uncertain, and it is questionable whether mitochondrial Aβ accumulation followed by mitochondrial dysfunction leads directly to neuronal toxicity. This study demonstrated that an exogenous Aβ(1-42) treatment, when applied to the hippocampal cell line of mice (specifically HT22 cells), caused a deleterious alteration in mitochondria in both morphology and function. A clathrin-mediated endocytosis blocker rescued the exogenous Aβ(1-42)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the mitochondria-targeted accumulation of Aβ(1-42) in HT22 cells using Aβ(1-42) with a mitochondria-targeting sequence induced the identical morphological alteration of mitochondria as that observed in the APP/PS AD mouse model and exogenous Aβ(1-42)-treated HT22 cells. In addition, subsequent mitochondrial dysfunctions were demonstrated in the mitochondria-specific Aβ(1-42) accumulation model, which proved indistinguishable from the mitochondrial impairment induced by exogenous Aβ(1-42)-treated HT22 cells. Finally, cellular toxicity was directly induced by mitochondria-targeted Aβ(1-42) accumulation, which mimics the apoptosis process in exogenous Aβ(1-42)-treated HT22 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that mitochondria-targeted Aβ(1-42) accumulation is the necessary and sufficient condition for Aβ-mediated mitochondria impairments, and leads

  19. Differential regulation of hepatic apoptotic pathways by dietary olive and sunflower oils in the aging rat.

    PubMed

    Bello, Rosario I; Gómez-Díaz, Consuelo; Burón, María I; Navas, Plácido; Villalba, José M

    2006-11-01

    In this work we have studied how dietary fat affects aging-related changes in a number of factors that regulate rat hepatic apoptosis. Animals were fed lifelong with two experimental diets containing either virgin olive oil or sunflower oil as dietary fat. Caspases of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Bax polypeptide levels, and plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase activity were determined at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Caspase-8/10 activity (a marker of the extrinsic pathway) was not affected by either aging or dietary fat, but activities of both caspase-9 (a marker of the intrinsic pathway) and caspase-3 (an executioner caspase) were significantly depressed in liver from animals fed on a sunflower oil-based diet. These decreases were not observed in animals fed with a diet based on virgin olive oil, which also resulted in significantly lower Bcl-2/Bax ratios. On the other hand, in comparison with sunflower, dietary olive oil decreased oxidative stress in liver from aged rats, resulting in lower levels of membrane hydroperoxides and higher coenzyme Q levels in plasma membrane. Plasma membrane Mg(2+)-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase was strongly activated in aged rats fed on the sunflower oil diet, but no aging-related increase was observed in animals fed on the olive oil diet. Our results support that dietary oil can alter significantly the susceptibility of hepatocytes to different apoptotic stimuli by altering both pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators, which reinforces the importance of the diet in aging studies. Because virgin olive oil may increase susceptibility of hepatocytes to apoptosis induced through the intrinsic pathway under conditions of decreased oxidative stress, our results may have important implications to understand the potential beneficial effects of that edible oil against liver carcinogenesis during aging.

  20. Respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential are not required for apoptosis and anti-apoptotic action of Bcl-2 in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Shchepina, L A; Popova, E N; Pletjushkina, O Yu; Chernyak, B V

    2002-02-01

    The release of cytochrome c from intermembrane space of mitochondria into cytosol is one of the critical events in apoptotic cell death. The important anti-apoptotic oncoprotein Bcl-2 inhibits this process. In the present study it was shown that apoptosis and release of cytochrome c induced by staurosporine or by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in HeLa cells were not affected by inhibitors of respiration (rotenone, myxothiazol, antimycin A) or by uncouplers (CCCP, DNP) that decrease the membrane potential at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The inhibitors of respiration and the uncouplers did not affect also the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2.

  1. Mitochondrial Thiols in the Regulation of Cell Death Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Sancheti, Harsh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Regulation of mitochondrial H2O2 homeostasis and its involvement in the regulation of redox-sensitive signaling and transcriptional pathways is the consequence of the concerted activities of the mitochondrial energy- and redox systems. Recent Advances: The energy component of this mitochondrial energy-redox axis entails the formation of reducing equivalents and their flow through the respiratory chain with the consequent electron leak to generate \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland, xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\\begin{document} $${ \\rm O}_2^{ \\cdot - }$$ \\end{document} and H2O2. The mitochondrial redox component entails the thiol-based antioxidant system, largely accounted for by glutathione- and thioredoxin-based systems that support the activities of glutathione peroxidases, peroxiredoxins, and methionine sulfoxide reductase. The ultimate reductant for these systems is NADPH: mitochondrial sources of NADPH are the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase-2, and malic enzyme. NADPH also supports the glutaredoxin activity that regulates the extent of S-glutathionylation of mitochondrial proteins in response to altered redox status. Critical Issues: The integrated network of these mitochondrial thiols constitute a regulatory device involved in the maintenance of steady-state levels of H2O2, mitochondrial and cellular redox and metabolic homeostasis, as well as the modulation of cytosolic redox-sensitive signaling; disturbances of this regulatory device affects transcription, growth, and ultimately influences cell survival/death. Future Directions: The modulation of key mitochondrial thiol proteins, which participate in redox signaling, maintenance of the bioenergetic machinery, oxidative

  2. Mechanisms of drug sensitization to TRA-8, an agonistic death receptor 5 antibody, involve modulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Amm, Hope M.; Zhou, Tong; Steg, Adam D.; Kuo, Huichien; Li, Yufeng; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    TRA-8, a monoclonal antibody to death receptor 5 induces apoptosis in various cancer cells; however the degree of sensitivity varies from highly sensitive to resistant. We have previously shown resistance to TRA-8 can be reversed using chemotherapeutic agents, but the mechanism underlying this sensitization was not fully understood. Here, we examined the combination of TRA-8 with doxorubicin or bortezomib in breast cancer cells. In TRA-8 resistant BT-474 and T47D cells, both chemotherapy agents synergistically sensitized cells to TRA-8 cytotoxicity with enhanced activation of apoptosis demonstrated by cleavage of caspases and PARP, reduced Bid, increased pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, and increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Doxorubicin or bortezomib combined with TRA-8 also reduced Bcl-XL and XIAP in treated cells. Furthermore, targeting these proteins with pharmacological modulators, AT-101, BH3I-2′ and AT-406, produced sensitization to TRA-8. TRA-8 combined with AT-101 or BH3I-2′, inhibitors of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, produced synergistic cytotoxicity against ZR-75-1, BT-474, and T47D cells. The IAP targeting compound, AT-406, was synergistic with TRA-8 in BT-474 cells and to a lesser extent T47D cells. Activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was a common mechanism associated with sensitization of TRA-8 resistant breast cancer cell lines. Collectively, these studies show that the Bcl-2 and IAP families of proteins are involved in TRA-8 and chemotherapy resistance via their modulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Targeting these proteins with novel agents sensitized TRA-8 resistant breast cancer cells, suggesting this approach may represent a potent therapeutic strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:21357440

  3. Biliverdin reductase/bilirubin mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of hypoxia in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Yao, Lan; Xing, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liao, Lin; Zhu, Daling

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis induced by hypoxia plays an important role in pulmonary arterial remodeling leading to aggravate hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the mechanisms of hypoxia acting on PASMC apoptosis remain exclusive. Biliverdin reductase (BVR) has many essential biologic roles in physiological and pathological processes. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the hypoxia-induced inhibition on PASMC apoptosis is mediated by BVR. In the present work, we found BVR majorly localized in PASMCs and was up-regulated in levels of protein and mRNA by hypoxia. Then we studied the contribution of BVR to anti-apoptotic response of hypoxia in PASMCs. Our results showed that siBVR, blocking generation of bilirubin, reversed the effect of hypoxia on enhancing cell survival and apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, procasepase-9, procasepase-3) expression, preventing nuclear shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization in starved PASMCs, which were recovered by exogenous bilirubin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of bilirubin on PASMC apoptosis under hypoxic condition was blocked by the inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that BVR contributes to the inhibitory process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis, which is mediated by bilirubin through ERK1/2 pathway. Highlights: • BVR expresses in PASMC and is up-regulated by hypoxia in protein and mRNA levels. • BVR/bilirubin contribute to the inhibitive process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis. • Bilirubin protects PASMC from apoptosis under hypoxia via ERK1/2 pathway.

  4. Cystein cathepsin and Hsp90 activities determine the balance between apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in caspase-compromised U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Imre, Gergely; Dunai, Zsuzsanna; Petak, Istvan; Mihalik, Rudolf

    2007-10-01

    Caspase-inhibited cells induced to die may exhibit the traits of either apoptosis or necrosis or both, simultaneously. However, mechanisms regulating the commitment to these distinct forms of cell death are barely identified. We found that staurosporine induced both apoptotic and necrotic traits in U937 cells exposed to the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone. Morphology and flow cytometry revealed that individual cells exhibited either apoptotic or necrotic traits, but not the mixed phenotype. Inhibition of cathepsin activity by benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone rendered caspase-compromised cells resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, but switched the cell death form to necrosis. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) chaperon activity by geldanamycin conferred resistance to necrosis in caspase-compromised cells but switched the cell death form to apoptosis. Combination of benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone and geldanamycin halted the onset of both forms of cell death by saving mitochondrial trans-membrane potential and preventing acidic volume (lysosomes) loss. These effects of benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone and/or geldanamycin on cell death were restricted to caspase-inhibited cells exposed to staurosporine but influenced neither only the staurosporine-provoked apoptosis nor hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-generated necrosis. Our results demonstrate that the staurosporine-induced death pathway bifurcates in caspase-compromised cells and commitment to apoptotic or necrotic phenotypes depends on cathepsin protease or Hsp90 chaperon activities.

  5. Altered Transmission of HOX and Apoptotic SNPs Identify a Potential Common Pathway for Clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Ester, Audrey R.; Weymouth, Katelyn S.; Burt, Amber; Wise, Carol; Scott, Allison; Gurnett, Christina A; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Blanton, Susan H.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

    2009-01-01

    Clubfoot is a common birth defect that affects 135,000 newborns each year worldwide. It is characterized by equinus deformity of one or both feet and hypoplastic calf muscles. Despite numerous study approaches, the cause(s) remains poorly understood although a multifactorial etiology is generally accepted. We considered the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as candidate genes because of their important roles in limb and muscle morphogenesis. Twenty SNPs from the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and 12 SNPs in IGFBP3 were genotyped in a sample composed of nonHispanic white and Hispanic multiplex and simplex families (discovery samples) and a second sample of nonHispanic white simplex trios (validation sample). Four SNPs (rs6668, rs2428431, rs3801776 and rs3779456) in the HOXA cluster demonstrated altered transmission in the discovery sample, but only rs3801776, located in the HOXA basal promoter region, showed altered transmission in both the discovery and validation samples (p=0.004 and p=0.028). Interestingly, HOXA9 is expressed in muscle during development. A SNP in IGFBP3, rs13223993, also showed altered transmission (p=0.003) in the discovery sample. Gene-gene interactions were identified between variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3 and with previously associated SNPs in mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic genes. The most significant interactions were found between CASP3 SNPS and variants in HOXA, HOXD and IGFBP3. These results suggest a biologic model for clubfoot in which perturbation of HOX and apoptotic genes together affect muscle and limb development, which may cause the downstream failure of limb rotation into a plantar grade position. PMID:19938081

  6. Altered transmission of HOX and apoptotic SNPs identify a potential common pathway for clubfoot.

    PubMed

    Ester, Audrey R; Weymouth, Katelyn S; Burt, Amber; Wise, Carol A; Scott, Allison; Gurnett, Christina A; Dobbs, Matthew B; Blanton, Susan H; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2009-12-01

    Clubfoot is a common birth defect that affects 135,000 newborns each year worldwide. It is characterized by equinus deformity of one or both feet and hypoplastic calf muscles. Despite numerous study approaches, the cause(s) remains poorly understood although a multifactorial etiology is generally accepted. We considered the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as candidate genes because of their important roles in limb and muscle morphogenesis. Twenty SNPs from the HOXA and HOXD gene clusters and 12 SNPs in IGFBP3 were genotyped in a sample composed of non-Hispanic white and Hispanic multiplex and simplex families (discovery samples) and a second sample of non-Hispanic white simplex trios (validation sample). Four SNPs (rs6668, rs2428431, rs3801776, and rs3779456) in the HOXA cluster demonstrated altered transmission in the discovery sample, but only rs3801776, located in the HOXA basal promoter region, showed altered transmission in both the discovery and validation samples (P = 0.004 and 0.028). Interestingly, HOXA9 is expressed in muscle during development. An SNP in IGFBP3, rs13223993, also showed altered transmission (P = 0.003) in the discovery sample. Gene-gene interactions were identified between variants in HOXA, HOXD, and IGFBP3 and with previously associated SNPs in mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic genes. The most significant interactions were found between CASP3 SNPS and variants in HOXA, HOXD, and IGFBP3. These results suggest a biologic model for clubfoot in which perturbation of HOX and apoptotic genes together affect muscle and limb development, which may cause the downstream failure of limb rotation into a plantar grade position.

  7. 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Meili; Wan, Fuqiang; Li, Zhengling; Zhang, Fenghua

    2016-03-04

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by 4SC-202, a novel class I HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). The associated signaling mechanisms were also analyzed. We showed that 4SC-202 treatment induced potent cytotoxic and proliferation–inhibitory activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, adding 4SC-202 in HCC cells activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, cytochrome C cytosol release and caspase-3/-9 activation. Inhibition of this apoptosis pathway, by caspase-3/-9 inhibitors, mPTP blockers, or by shRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D, a key component of mPTP), significantly attenuated 4SC-202-induced HCC cell death and apoptosis. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D enhanced 4SC-202's sensitivity in HCC cells. Further studies showed that 4SC-202 induced apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation, causing it translocation to mitochondria and physical association with Cyp-D. This mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation appeared required for mediating 4SC-202-induced apoptosis activation. ASK1 stable knockdown by targeted-shRNAs largely inhibited 4SC-202-induced mPTP opening, cytochrome C release, and following HCC cell apoptotic death. Together, we suggest that 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to potently inhibit human HCC cells. - Highlights: • 4SC-202 exerts potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity against established/primary HCC cells. • SC-202-induced anti-HCC cell activity relies on caspase-dependent apoptosis activation. • 4SC-202 activates Cyp-D-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in HCC cells. • 4SC-202 activates ASK1 in HCC cells, causing it translocation to mitochondria. • Mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation mediates 4SC-202's activity in HCC cells.

  8. The study of the Oxytropis kansuensis-induced apoptotic pathway in the cerebrum of SD rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Locoweeds cause significant livestock poisoning and economic loss all over the world. Animals can develop locoism, a chronic neurological disease, after grazing on locoweeds. Oxytropis kansuensis is a variety of locoweed that contains swainsonine as its main toxic ingredient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptotic pathway induced in the cerebrum by swainsonine. Results Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (experimental groups I, II, III and a control group) and 6 SD rats of each group were feed in 3 cages separately. Rats were penned as groups and fed with feeds containing 15% (SW content 0.03‰), 30% (SW content 0.06‰), or 45% (SW content 0.09‰) O. kansuensis for experimental groups I, II, and III, respectively, or complete feed in the case of the control group. One hundred and nineteen days after poisoning, and all rats showed neurological disorders at different degrees, which were considered to be successful established a chronic poisoning model of O. kansuensis. rats were sacrificed and the expression of Fas, FasL, Bcl-2, Bax as well as cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins in brain tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that SW treatment up-regulated Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) (P < 0.05), and that there was an increase in Bax and a decrease in Bcl-2 protein (P < 0.01). Moreover, SW treatment significantly increases the activation of caspase-3, 8 and -9, the key effectors in apoptosis pathway (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our data suggest that SW induces apoptosis in cells of the brain through death receptor and mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways in the brain tissue of SD rats. PMID:24148892

  9. Upregulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in curcumin-mediated antiproliferative effect on human pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Youns, Mahmoud; Fathy, Gihan Mahmoud

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers, with almost identical incidence and mortality rates. Curcumin, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has a long history of use as coloring agent and for a wide variety of disorders. Here, the antiproliferative activity of curcumin and its modulatory effect on gene expression of pancreatic cancer cell lines were investigated. The effect of curcumin on cellular proliferation and viability was monitored by sulphurhodamine B assay. Apoptotic effect was evaluated by flow cytometry and further confirmed by measuring amount of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments. Analysis of gene expression was performed with and without curcumin treatment using microarray expression profiling techniques. Array results were confirmed by real-time PCR. ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) has been used to classify the list of differentially expressed genes and to indentify common biomarkergenes modulating the chemopreventive effect of curcumin. Results showed that curcumin induces growth arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Its effect was more obvious on the highly COX-2 expressing cell line. Additionally, the expression of 366 and 356 cancer-related genes, involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, metastasis, was significantly altered after curcumin treatment in BxPC-3 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, respectively. Our results suggested that up-regulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was among signaling pathways modulating the growth inhibitory effects of curcumin on pancreatic cancer cells. Curcumin effect was mediated through activation of TNFR, CASP 8, CASP3, BID, BAX, and down-regulation of NFκB, NDRG 1, and BCL2L10 genes.

  10. The study of the Oxytropis kansuensis-induced apoptotic pathway in the cerebrum of SD rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Shan-shan; Wang, Wen-long; Zhao, Bao-yu

    2013-10-22

    Locoweeds cause significant livestock poisoning and economic loss all over the world. Animals can develop locoism, a chronic neurological disease, after grazing on locoweeds. Oxytropis kansuensis is a variety of locoweed that contains swainsonine as its main toxic ingredient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptotic pathway induced in the cerebrum by swainsonine. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (experimental groups I, II, III and a control group) and 6 SD rats of each group were feed in 3 cages separately. Rats were penned as groups and fed with feeds containing 15% (SW content 0.03‰), 30% (SW content 0.06‰), or 45% (SW content 0.09‰) O. kansuensis for experimental groups I, II, and III, respectively, or complete feed in the case of the control group. One hundred and nineteen days after poisoning, and all rats showed neurological disorders at different degrees, which were considered to be successful established a chronic poisoning model of O. kansuensis. rats were sacrificed and the expression of Fas, FasL, Bcl-2, Bax as well as cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins in brain tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that SW treatment up-regulated Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) (P < 0.05), and that there was an increase in Bax and a decrease in Bcl-2 protein (P < 0.01). Moreover, SW treatment significantly increases the activation of caspase-3, 8 and -9, the key effectors in apoptosis pathway (P < 0.01). Our data suggest that SW induces apoptosis in cells of the brain through death receptor and mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways in the brain tissue of SD rats.

  11. Methane attenuates retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Sun, Qinglei; Wang, Ruobing; Chen, Zeli; Wu, Jiangchun; Xia, Fangzhou; Fan, Xian-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) may cause incurable visual impairment due to neural regeneration limits. Methane was shown to exert a protective effect against IRI in many organs. This study aims to explore the possible protective effects of methane-rich saline against retinal IRI in rat. Retinal IRI was performed on the right eyes of male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were immediately injected intraperitoneally with methane-saturated saline (25ml/kg). At one week after surgery, the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), total retinal thickness, visual function were measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining, FluoroGold anterograde labeling and flash visual evoked potentials. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), caspase-3, caspase-9, B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in retinas were assessed by immunofluorescence staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. As expected, methane treatment significantly improved the retinal IRI-induced RGC loss, total retinal layer thinning and visual dysfunction. Moreover, methane treatment significantly reduced the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (8-OHdG, 4-HNE, MDA) and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx) in the retinas with IRI. Meanwhile, methane treatment significantly increased the anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl-2) expression and decreased the pro-apoptotic gene (Bax) expression, accompanied by the suppression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. Thus, these data demonstrated that methane can exert a neuroprotective role against retinal IRI through anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Anti-apoptotic role of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Shiori; Mitsuyasu, Takeshi; Nakao, Yu; Kawano, Shintaro; Goto, Yuichi; Matsubara, Ryota; Nakamura, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is crucial to growth and patterning during organogenesis. Aberrant activation of the SHH signaling pathway can result in tumor formation. We examined the expression of SHH signaling molecules and investigated the involvement of the SHH pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma, the most common benign tumor of the jaws. We used immunohistochemistry on ameloblastoma specimens and immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR on the ameloblastoma cell line AM-1. We also used the inhibitors of SHH signaling, SHH neutralizing antibody and cyclopamine, to assess the effects of SHH on the proliferation of AM-1 cells. We detected expression of SHH, patched, GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 in the ameloblastoma specimens and AM-1 cells. The proliferation of these cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody or cyclopamine; this was confirmed by BrdU incorporation assays. Furthermore, in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody, nuclear translocation of GLI1 and GLI2 was abolished, apoptosis was induced, BCL-2 expression decreased and BAX expression increased. Our results suggest that the SHH signaling pathway is constitutively active in ameloblastoma and plays an anti-apoptotic role in the proliferation of ameloblastoma cells through autocrine loop stimulation.

  13. Anti-apoptotic role of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    KANDA, SHIORI; MITSUYASU, TAKESHI; NAKAO, YU; KAWANO, SHINTARO; GOTO, YUICHI; MATSUBARA, RYOTA; NAKAMURA, SEIJI

    2013-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is crucial to growth and patterning during organogenesis. Aberrant activation of the SHH signaling pathway can result in tumor formation. We examined the expression of SHH signaling molecules and investigated the involvement of the SHH pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma, the most common benign tumor of the jaws. We used immunohistochemistry on ameloblastoma specimens and immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR on the ameloblastoma cell line AM-1. We also used the inhibitors of SHH signaling, SHH neutralizing antibody and cyclopamine, to assess the effects of SHH on the proliferation of AM-1 cells. We detected expression of SHH, patched, GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 in the ameloblastoma specimens and AM-1 cells. The proliferation of these cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody or cyclopamine; this was confirmed by BrdU incorporation assays. Furthermore, in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody, nuclear translocation of GLI1 and GLI2 was abolished, apoptosis was induced, BCL-2 expression decreased and BAX expression increased. Our results suggest that the SHH signaling pathway is constitutively active in ameloblastoma and plays an anti-apoptotic role in the proliferation of ameloblastoma cells through autocrine loop stimulation. PMID:23835807

  14. Interaction of biologically active amines with mitochondria and their role in the mitochondrial-mediated pathway of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Toninello, A; Salvi, M; Mondovì, B

    2004-09-01

    The natural polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine, polycationic molecules at physiological pH, interact with mitochondrial membranes at two specific binding sites exhibiting low affinity and high binding capacity. This binding represents the first step in the electrophoretic mechanism of polyamine transport into mitochondria. Spermine accumulated into the mitochondrial matrix is able to flow out by an electroneutral mechanism. This process promotes bi-directional transport of polyamines in and out of mitochondria, driven by electrical potential and pH gradient, respectively. Polyamines and biogenic amines are oxidized by cytosolic and mitochondrial amine oxidases with the production of hydrogen peroxide and aldehydes, both of which are involved in the induction and/or amplification of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). This phenomenon, which provokes a bioenergetic collapse and redox catastrophe, is strongly inhibited by polyamines in isolated mitochondria. Monoamines also exhibit an inhibitory effect at higher concentrations, but at low concentrations behave as inducer agents. MPT is characterized by the opening of a channel, the transition pore, which permits non-specific bi-directional traffic of solutes across the inner membrane, leading to swelling of the organelle and release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factors. These proteins in turn activate the caspase-cascade, which triggers the apoptotic pathway. Depending on their cytosolic concentration, metabolic conditions and cell type, polyamines act as promoting, modulating or protective agents in mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. While their protective effect could reflect inhibition of MPT and retention of cytochrome c, the promoting effect can be explained by the generation of reactive oxygen species that induce the opposite effect on MPT and cytochrome c release. Polyamines and other active amines can also participate in the regulation of apoptotic pathways by interacting with

  15. Gold nanoparticles enhance TRAIL sensitivity through Drp1-mediated apoptotic and autophagic mitochondrial fission in NSCLC cells

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Sunkui; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Peiyan; Wang, Yange; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Keman; Ren, Lei; Ye, Shefang

    2017-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its agonistic receptors have been identified as highly promising antitumor agents preferentially eliminating cancer cells with minimal damage, the emergence of TRAIL resistance in most cancers may contribute to therapeutic failure. Thus, there is an urgent need for new approaches to overcome TRAIL resistance. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most promising nanomaterials that show immense antitumor potential via targeting various cellular and molecular processes; however, the effects of AuNPs on TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we found that AuNPs combined with TRAIL exhibited a greater potency in promoting apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells compared with TRAIL alone, suggesting that AuNPs sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. Further experiments demonstrated that the combination of TRAIL and AuNPs was more effective in causing excessive mitochondrial fragmentation in cancer cells accompanied by a dramatic increase in mitochondrial recruitment of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial dysfunctions, and enhancement of autophagy induction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of Drp1 or inhibition of autophagy could effectively alleviate apoptosis in cells exposed to TRAIL combined with AuNPs. In vivo studies revealed that AuNPs augmented TRAIL sensitivity in tumor-bearing mice. Our data indicated that AuNPs potentiate apoptotic response to TRAIL in NSCLC cells through Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, and TRAIL combined with AuNPs can be a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:28408823

  16. Gold nanoparticles enhance TRAIL sensitivity through Drp1-mediated apoptotic and autophagic mitochondrial fission in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Sunkui; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Peiyan; Wang, Yange; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Keman; Ren, Lei; Ye, Shefang

    2017-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its agonistic receptors have been identified as highly promising antitumor agents preferentially eliminating cancer cells with minimal damage, the emergence of TRAIL resistance in most cancers may contribute to therapeutic failure. Thus, there is an urgent need for new approaches to overcome TRAIL resistance. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most promising nanomaterials that show immense antitumor potential via targeting various cellular and molecular processes; however, the effects of AuNPs on TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we found that AuNPs combined with TRAIL exhibited a greater potency in promoting apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells compared with TRAIL alone, suggesting that AuNPs sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. Further experiments demonstrated that the combination of TRAIL and AuNPs was more effective in causing excessive mitochondrial fragmentation in cancer cells accompanied by a dramatic increase in mitochondrial recruitment of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial dysfunctions, and enhancement of autophagy induction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of Drp1 or inhibition of autophagy could effectively alleviate apoptosis in cells exposed to TRAIL combined with AuNPs. In vivo studies revealed that AuNPs augmented TRAIL sensitivity in tumor-bearing mice. Our data indicated that AuNPs potentiate apoptotic response to TRAIL in NSCLC cells through Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, and TRAIL combined with AuNPs can be a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of NSCLC.

  17. Ilexsaponin A attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury through anti-apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Qiang, Jiao; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of ilexsaponin A on ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury were investigated. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model was established in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Myocardial injury was evaluated by TTC staining and myocardial marker enzyme leakage. The in vitro protective potential of Ilexsaponin A was assessed on hypoxia/reoxygenation cellular model in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Cellular viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT and TUNEL assay. Caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, bax, bcl-2, p-Akt and Akt protein expression levels were detected by western-blot. Ilexsaponin A treatment was able to attenuate the myocardial injury in ischemia/reperfusion model by reducing myocardial infarct size and lower the serum levels of LDH, AST and CK-MB. The in vitro study also showed that ilexsaponin A treatment could increase cellular viability and inhibit apoptosis in hypoxia/reoxygenation cardiomyocytes. Proapoptotic proteins including caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and bax were significantly reduced and anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 was significantly increased by ilexsaponin A treatment in hypoxia/reoxygenation cardiomyocytes. Moreover, Ilexsaponin A treatment was able to increase the expression levels of p-Akt in hypoxia/reoxygenation cellular model and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion animal model. Coupled results from both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that Ilexsaponin A attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury through anti-apoptotic pathway. PMID:28182689

  18. The small GTPase Cdc42 initiates an apoptotic signaling pathway in Jurkat T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, T H; Hahn, K M; Lee, J D; Danley, D E; Bokoch, G M

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in regulating development and homeostasis of the immune system, yet the elements of the signaling pathways that control cell death have not been well defined. When expressed in Jurkat T cells, an activated form of the small GTPase Cdc42 induces cell death exhibiting the characteristics of apoptosis. The death response induced by Cdc42 is mediated by activation of a protein kinase cascade leading to stimulation of c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK). Apoptosis initiated by Cdc42 is inhibited by dominant negative components of the JNK cascade and by reagents that block activity of the ICE protease (caspase) family, suggesting that stimulation of the JNK kinase cascade can lead to caspase activation. The sequence of morphological events observed typically in apoptotic cells is modified in the presence of activated Cdc42, suggesting that this GTPase may account for some aspects of cytoskeletal regulation during the apoptotic program. These data suggest a means through which the biochemical and morphological events occurring during apoptosis may be coordinately regulated. Images PMID:9307966

  19. Apoptotic transition of senescent cells accompanied with mitochondrial hyper-function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danli; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fen; Sui, Weihao; Chen, Li; Zheng, Ran; Chen, Xiaowen; Wen, Feiqiu; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Ji, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Defined as stable cell-cycle arrest, cellular senescence plays an important role in diverse biological processes including tumorigenesis, organismal aging, and embryonic development. Although increasing evidence has documented the metabolic changes in senescent cells, mitochondrial function and its potential contribution to the fate of senescent cells remain largely unknown. Here, using two in vitro models of cellular senescence induced by doxorubicin treatment and prolonged passaging of neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts, we report that senescent cells exhibited high ROS level and augmented glucose metabolic rate concomitant with both morphological and quantitative changes of mitochondria. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarized at late stage of senescent cells which eventually led to apoptosis. Our study reveals that mitochondrial hyper-function contributes to the implementation of cellular senescence and we propose a model in which the mitochondrion acts as the key player in promoting fate-determination in senescent cells. PMID:27056883

  20. Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiwen; Zhou, Peijiang; Guo, Yongyong; Lee, Jae-Seong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP, also known as TDCPP), an extensively used flame retardant, is frequently detected in the environment and biota. Recent studies have shown that TDCIPP has neurotoxic effects. In this study, we determined the mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. By using morphological examination, flow cytometry, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm) measurement, we confirmed that exposure to TDCIPP caused apoptosis accompanied by the activation of apoptosis-related genes (e.g. Bax and Bcl-2) and caspase 3 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and intracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)]i) were also observed in TDCIPP-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to TDCIPP led to the activation of protein markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a subunit (p-EIF2a), activation transcription factor (ATF4), glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and the proapoptotic factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). To determine the role of the ER in apoptosis, phenyl butyric acid (PBA), an ER stress inhibitor, was applied. Treatment with PBA effectively attenuated TDCIPP-induced ER stress and protected against apoptotic death in SH-SY5Y cells by inhibition of Bax expression and promotion of Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, we found that pretreatment of the cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibited the ER stress response and prevented apoptosis. The combination of PBA and NAC pretreatment could further prevent TDCIPP induced ER-stress and apoptotic death compared with PBA or NAC pretreatment alone. Thus, in the present study, we demonstrated that TDCIPP induces cytotoxicity through a ROS-dependent mechanism involving ER stress and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in SH-SY5Y cells.

  1. Phloroglucinol induces apoptosis via apoptotic signaling pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    KANG, MI-HYE; KIM, IN-HYE; NAM, TAEK-JEO NG

    2014-01-01

    Phloroglucinol is a polyphenolic compound that is used to treat and prevent several human diseases, as it exerts beneficial biological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of phloroglucinol on apoptotic signaling pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that phloroglucinol suppressed cell viability and induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Phloroglucinol treatment of HT-29 cells resulted in characteristic apoptosis-related changes: altered Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This study also showed that proteins involved in apoptosis were stimulated by treatment with phloroglucinol. These findings demonstrated that phloroglucinol exerts anticancer activity in HT-29 colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. PMID:25070748

  2. A new pathway for mitochondrial quality control: mitochondrial-derived vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Ayumu; McLelland, Gian-Luca; Fon, Edward A; McBride, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has been marked by tremendous progress in our understanding of the cell biology of mitochondria, with the identification of molecules and mechanisms that regulate their fusion, fission, motility, and the architectural transitions within the inner membrane. More importantly, the manipulation of these machineries in tissues has provided links between mitochondrial dynamics and physiology. Indeed, just as the proteins required for fusion and fission were identified, they were quickly linked to both rare and common human diseases. This highlighted the critical importance of this emerging field to medicine, with new hopes of finding drugable targets for numerous pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammation and cancer. In the midst of these exciting new discoveries, an unexpected new aspect of mitochondrial cell biology has been uncovered; the generation of small vesicular carriers that transport mitochondrial proteins and lipids to other intracellular organelles. These mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) were first found to transport a mitochondrial outer membrane protein MAPL to a subpopulation of peroxisomes. However, other MDVs did not target peroxisomes and instead fused with the late endosome, or multivesicular body. The Parkinson's disease-associated proteins Vps35, Parkin, and PINK1 are involved in the biogenesis of a subset of these MDVs, linking this novel trafficking pathway to human disease. In this review, we outline what has been learned about the mechanisms and functional importance of MDV transport and speculate on the greater impact of these pathways in cellular physiology. PMID:25107473

  3. A new pathway for mitochondrial quality control: mitochondrial-derived vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumu; McLelland, Gian-Luca; Fon, Edward A; McBride, Heidi M

    2014-10-01

    The last decade has been marked by tremendous progress in our understanding of the cell biology of mitochondria, with the identification of molecules and mechanisms that regulate their fusion, fission, motility, and the architectural transitions within the inner membrane. More importantly, the manipulation of these machineries in tissues has provided links between mitochondrial dynamics and physiology. Indeed, just as the proteins required for fusion and fission were identified, they were quickly linked to both rare and common human diseases. This highlighted the critical importance of this emerging field to medicine, with new hopes of finding drugable targets for numerous pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammation and cancer. In the midst of these exciting new discoveries, an unexpected new aspect of mitochondrial cell biology has been uncovered; the generation of small vesicular carriers that transport mitochondrial proteins and lipids to other intracellular organelles. These mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) were first found to transport a mitochondrial outer membrane protein MAPL to a subpopulation of peroxisomes. However, other MDVs did not target peroxisomes and instead fused with the late endosome, or multivesicular body. The Parkinson's disease-associated proteins Vps35, Parkin, and PINK1 are involved in the biogenesis of a subset of these MDVs, linking this novel trafficking pathway to human disease. In this review, we outline what has been learned about the mechanisms and functional importance of MDV transport and speculate on the greater impact of these pathways in cellular physiology.

  4. The extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in gastric adenocarcinomas assessed by tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thiago S; Oshima, Celina T F; Segreto, Helena R C; Barrazueta, Luis M; Costa, Henrique O; Lima, Flavio O; Forones, Nora M; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the immunoexpression of FasL, Fas, FADD, cleaved caspase 8, and cleaved caspase 3 in gastric cancer. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinoma tissues from 87 patients, including adjacent normal tissues, were included on tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. The tumor and the adjacent normal tissues were positive for FasL in 66.7% and 90.6%, for Fas in 52.8% and 52.4%, for FADD in 67.4% and 82.3%, for cleaved caspase 8 in 27.9% and 37.7%, and for cleaved caspase 3 in 33.7% and 8.3%, respectively. FasL and the FADD from tumor were statistically different in relation to the histological type. Cleaved caspase 8 was statistically different in relation to clinical stage (p=0.031). The FADD from normal tissue was statistically different in relation to age (p=0.039), sex (p=0.055), clinical stage (p=0.019), and Fas was different in relation to tumor size (p=0.012). In the tumor, we observed a correlation between FasL and Fas, FasL and FADD, and FasL and cleaved caspase 3. In the adjacent normal tissue, a correlation was observed between FasL and Fas, FasL and FADD. There was no association of another marker with sex, age, clinical stage, and survival. Our results suggest that these proteins mediate the early extrinsic apoptotic pathway in gastric cancer and adjacent normal mucosa. FasL protein binds to Fas protein and subsequently binds to death receptor FADD signaling activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In this phase, there was inhibition of caspase 8 and, consequently, decreased apoptosis.

  5. Molecular Pathways: Mitochondrial Reprogramming in Tumor Progression and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Caino, M. Cecilia; Altieri, Dario C.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt and mTOR pathway currently in the clinic produce a paradoxical reactivation of the pathway they are intended to suppress. Furthermore, fresh experimental evidence with PI3K antagonists in melanoma, glioblastoma and prostate cancer shows that mitochondrial metabolism drives an elaborate process of tumor adaptation culminating with drug resistance and metastatic competency. This is centered on reprogramming of mitochondrial functions to promote improved cell survival and to fuel the machinery of cell motility and invasion. Key players in these responses are molecular chaperones of the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) family compartmentalized in mitochondria, which suppress apoptosis via phosphorylation of the pore component, Cyclophilin D, and enable the subcellular repositioning of active mitochondria to membrane protrusions implicated in cell motility. An inhibitor of mitochondrial Hsp90s in preclinical development (Gamitrinib) prevents adaptive mitochondrial reprogramming and shows potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Other therapeutic strategies to target mitochondria for cancer therapy include small molecule inhibitors of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) IDH1 (AG-120) and IDH2 (AG-221) which opened new therapeutic prospects for high-risk AML patients. A second approach of mitochondrial therapeutics focuses on agents that elevate toxic ROS levels from a leaky electron transport chain, nevertheless the clinical experience with these compounds, including a quinone derivative, ARQ 501, and a copper chelator, elesclomol (STA-4783) is limited. In light of these evidences, we discuss how best to target a resurgence of mitochondrial bioenergetics for cancer therapy. PMID:26660517

  6. Neuronal apoptotic signaling pathways probed and intervened by synthetically and modularly modified (SMM) chemokines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Tak; Kaul, Marcus; Kumar, Santosh; Wang, Jun; Kumar, I M Krishna; Dong, Chang-Zhi; An, Jing; Lipton, Stuart A; Huang, Ziwei

    2007-03-09

    As the main coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, CXCR4 and CCR5 play important roles in HIV-associated dementia (HAD). HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 contributes to HAD by causing neuronal damage and death, either directly by triggering apoptotic pathways or indirectly by stimulating glial cells to release neurotoxins. Here, to understand the mechanism of CXCR4 or CCR5 signaling in neuronal apoptosis associated with HAD, we have applied synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokine analogs derived from natural stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha or viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II as chemical probes of the mechanism(s) whereby these SMM-chemokines prevent or promote neuronal apoptosis. We show that inherently neurotoxic natural ligands of CXCR4, such as stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha or viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II, can be modified to protect neurons from apoptosis induced by CXCR4-preferring gp120(IIIB), and that the inhibition of CCR5 by antagonist SMM-chemokines, unlike neuroprotective CCR5 natural ligands, leads to neurotoxicity by activating a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway. Furthermore, we discover distinct signaling pathways activated by different chemokine ligands that are either natural agonists or synthetic antagonists, thus demonstrating a chemical biology strategy of using chemically engineered inhibitors of chemokine receptors to study the signaling mechanism of neuronal apoptosis and survival.

  7. Emerging (and converging) pathways in Parkinson's disease: keeping mitochondrial wellness.

    PubMed

    Cieri, Domenico; Brini, Marisa; Calì, Tito

    2017-02-19

    The selective cell loss in the ventral component of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of alpha-synuclein (α-syn)-rich intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common motor system disorder whose aetiology remains largely elusive. Although most cases of PD are idiopathic, there are rare familial forms of the disease that can be traced to single gene mutations that follow Mendelian inheritance pattern. The study of several nuclear encoded proteins whose mutations are linked to the development of autosomal recessive and dominant forms of familial PD enhanced our understanding of biochemical and cellular mechanisms contributing to the disease and suggested that many signs of neurodegeneration result from compromised mitochondrial function. Here we present an overview of the current understanding of PD-related mitochondrial dysfunction including defects in bioenergetics and Ca(2+) homeostasis, mitochondrial DNA mutations, altered mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. We emphasize, in particular, the convergence of many "apparently" different pathways towards a common route involving mitochondria. Understanding whether mitochondrial dysfunction in PD represents the cause or the consequence of the disease is challenging and will help to define the pathogenic processes at the basis of the PD onset and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteasomal Dysfunction Induced By Diclofenac Engenders Apoptosis Through Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Amanullah, Ayeman; Upadhyay, Arun; Chhangani, Deepak; Joshi, Vibhuti; Mishra, Ribhav; Yamanaka, Koji; Mishra, Amit

    2017-05-01

    Diclofenac is the most commonly used phenylacetic acid derivative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that demonstrates significant analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative activity of NSAIDs and examined their apoptotic induction effects in different cancer cell lines. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these pharmacological agents induce apoptosis and exert anti-carcinogenic properties are not well known. Here, we have observed that diclofenac treatment induces proteasome malfunction and promotes accumulation of different critical proteasome substrates, including few pro-apoptotic proteins in cells. Exposure of diclofenac consequently elevates aggregation of various ubiquitylated misfolded proteins. Finally, we have shown that diclofenac treatment promotes apoptosis in cells, which could be because of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release into cytosol. This study suggests possible beneficial insights of NSAIDs-induced apoptosis that may improve our existing knowledge in anti-proliferative interspecific strategies development. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1014-1027, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sanguisorba officinalis L synergistically enhanced 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells by promoting a reactive oxygen species-mediated, mitochondria-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-ping; Liao, Min; Dai, Cong; Chen, Jie-feng; Yang, Chun-juan; Liu, Ming; Chen, Zuan-guang; Yao, Mei-cun

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorba officinalis L. radix is a widely used herb called DiYu (DY) in China and has an extensive range of bioactivities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. However, there is little evidence to support its anti-cancer effects against colorectal cancer (CRC). The first-line chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is used to treat CRC, but its efficiency is hampered by acquired drug resistance. This study found that a water extract of DY exerted anti-proliferative effects against two CRC cell lines (HCT-116 and RKO), and it sensitized CRC cells to 5-FU therapy by activating a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated, mitochondria-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Co-treatment of DY and 5-FU significantly elevated ROS levels, up-regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, followed by a release of cytochrome c and up-regulation of proteins such as cleaved-caspase-9/3 and cleaved-PARP. Additionally, the induction of autophagy may be involved in mediating synergism of DY in HCT-116 cells. Gallic acid (GA), catechinic acid (CA) and ellagic acid (EA) were identified as the potential chief constituents responsible for the synergistic effects of DY. In conclusion, co-treatment of DY, specifically GA, CA and EA, with 5-FU may be a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for CRC by enhancing an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:27671231

  10. Antimicrobial Peptide-induced Apoptotic Death of Leishmania Results from Calcium-de pend ent, Caspase-independent Mitochondrial Toxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manjusha M.; Robert McMaster, W.; Kamysz, Wojciech; McGwire, Bradford S.

    2009-01-01

    α- and θ-defensin-, magainin-, and cathelicidin-type antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can kill the pathogenic protozoan Leishmania. Comparative studies of a panel of AMPs have defined two distinct groups: those that induce nonapoptotic (Class I) and apoptotic (Class II) parasite killing based on their differential ability to induce phosphatidyl serine exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ATP production, induction of caspase-3/7 and -12 activity, and DNA degradation. Class II AMPs cause rapid influx of the vital stain SYTOX and an increase in intracellular Ca2+, whereas Class I AMPs cause a slow accumulation of SYTOX and do not affect intracellular Ca2+ levels. Inhibitors of cysteine or caspase proteases diminished fast influx of SYTOX through the surface membrane and DNA degradation but do not ablate the annexin V staining or the induction of apoptosis by Class II AMPs. This suggests that the changes in surface permeability in AMP-mediated apoptosis are related to the downstream events of intracellular cysteine/caspase activation or the loss of ATP. The activation of caspase-12-like activity was Ca2+-dependent, and inhibitors of voltage-gated and nonspecific Ca2+ channels diminished this activity. Flufenamic acid, a nonspecific Ca2+ inhibitor, completely ablated AMP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death, indicating the importance of dysregulation of Ca2+ in antimicrobial peptide-induced apoptosis. PMID:19357081

  11. Erastin Disrupts Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (mPTP) and Induces Apoptotic Death of Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Haizhong; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Qin, Jian; Liu, Wenyong; Wang, Bing; Gu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We here evaluated the potential anti-colorectal cancer activity by erastin, a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)-binding compound. Our in vitro studies showed that erastin exerted potent cytotoxic effects against multiple human colorectal cancer cell lines, possibly via inducing oxidative stress and caspase-9 dependent cell apoptosis. Further, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was observed in erastin-treated cancer cells, which was evidenced by VDAC-1 and cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D) association, mitochondrial depolarization, and cytochrome C release. Caspase inhibitors, the ROS scavenger MnTBAP, and mPTP blockers (sanglifehrin A, cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid), as well as shRNA-mediated knockdown of VDAC-1, all significantly attenuated erastin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. On the other hand, over-expression of VDAC-1 augmented erastin-induced ROS production, mPTP opening, and colorectal cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that intraperitoneal injection of erastin at well-tolerated doses dramatically inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Together, these results demonstrate that erastin is cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic to colorectal cancer cells. Erastin may be further investigated as a novel anti-colorectal cancer agent. PMID:27171435

  12. The pivotal role of the mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 2 in protecting human cells against apoptotic effects of the base analog N6-hydroxylaminopurine.

    PubMed

    Plitzko, Birte; Havemeyer, Antje; Kunze, Thomas; Clement, Bernd

    2015-04-17

    N-Hydroxylated nucleobases and nucleosides as N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) or N-hydroxyadenosine (HAPR) may be generated endogenously in the course of cell metabolism by cytochrome P450, by oxidative stress or by a deviating nucleotide biosynthesis. These compounds have shown to be toxic and mutagenic for procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. For DNA replication fidelity it is therefore of great importance that organisms exhibit effective mechanisms to remove such non-canonical base analogs from DNA precursor pools. In vitro, the molybdoenzymes mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 and 2 (mARC1 and mARC2) have shown to be capable of reducing N-hydroxylated base analogs and nucleoside analogs to the corresponding canonical nucleobases and nucleosides upon reconstitution with the electron transport proteins cytochrome b5 and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. By RNAi-mediated down-regulation of mARC in human cell lines the mARC-dependent N-reductive detoxication of HAP in cell metabolism could be demonstrated. For HAPR, on the other hand, the reduction to adenosine seems to be of less significance in the detoxication pathway of human cells as HAPR is primarily metabolized to inosine by direct dehydroxylamination catalyzed by adenosine deaminase. Furthermore, the effect of mARC knockdown on sensitivity of human cells to HAP was examined by flow cytometric quantification of apoptotic cell death and detection of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. mARC2 was shown to protect HeLa cells against the apoptotic effects of the base analog, whereas the involvement of mARC1 in reductive detoxication of HAP does not seem to be pivotal.

  13. In vitro analysis of the role of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in CSBE therapy against human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    JI, YU-BIN; YU, LEI

    2015-01-01

    The caper plant (Capparis spinosa L.) was a common Uyghur folk medicine, and is a member of the Capparidaceae family. In a previous study, the n-butanol extract of C. spinosa L. (CSBE) was demonstrated to exert anti-tumor activity; however, the underlying mechanism is currently not understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the CSBE-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, in order to investigate the anti-tumor effects of this plant extract. CSBE-induced apoptosis of the SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cell line was observed, and alterations in the expression levels and localization of initiators, markers, and executors of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were analyzed. Following treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CBSE, proliferation was inhibited and apoptosis was induced; and these effects were associated with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. CSBE may have induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis by upregulating the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2)-associated X protein, and downregulating the expression of BCL-2. The results of the present study suggested that CSBE may induce SGC-7901 cell apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:26668648

  14. Activation of IL-11/STAT3 pathway in preconditioned human skeletal myoblasts blocks apoptotic cascade under oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Idris, Niagara Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rafeeq P H; Shujia, Jiang; Haider, Khawaja H

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether our novel approach of diazoxide-induced stem cell preconditioning might be extrapolated to human skeletal myoblasts to support their survival under lethal oxidant stress. Using an in vitro model of H(2)O(2) treatment of human skeletal myoblasts, we report the ability of diazoxide-preconditioned human skeletal myoblasts to express cytokines and growth factors, which act in an autocrine and paracrine fashion to promote their own survival. Preconditioning of skeletal myoblasts was cytoprotective and significantly reduced their apoptotic index (p < 0.05). IL-11 gene and protein expression was significantly increased in preconditioned skeletal myoblasts. Transfection of skeletal myoblasts with IL-11-specific siRNA incurred their death under oxidant stress. The cytoprotective effect of diazoxide preconditioning was blocked by Erk1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (20-100 µM), which abrogated STAT-3 phosphorylation, thus confirming a possible involvement of Erk1/2/STAT3 signaling downstream of IL-11 in cell survival. We also investigated the time course of subcellular changes and signaling pathway of skeletal myoblasts apoptosis under oxidant stress before and after preconditioning. Apoptosis was induced in skeletal myoblasts with 100-500 µM H(2)O(2) for time points ranging from 1 to 24 h. Release of lactate dehydrogenase, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome-c translocation into cytoplasm were the earliest signs of apoptosis. Total Akt protein remained unchanged whereas marked reduction in pAkt was observed in the native skeletal myoblasts. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling and annexin-V positivity were significantly increased after 4 h. Ultra-structure studies showed condensed chromatin, shriveled nuclei and swollen mitochondria. These data suggest that skeletal myoblasts undergo apoptosis under oxidant stress in a time-dependent manner and preconditioning of skeletal myoblasts significantly prevented their apoptosis via IL-11/STAT3

  15. Rasagiline and selegiline suppress calcium efflux from mitochondria by PK11195-induced opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a novel anti-apoptotic function for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqiu; Kazumura, Kimiko; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Rasagiline and selegiline, inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), protect neurons from cell death in cellular and animal models. Suppression of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and subsequent activation of apoptosis cascade, and induction of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival genes are proposed to contribute the anti-apoptotic function. Rasagiline suppresses neurotoxin- and oxidative stress-induced membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, but the mechanism has been not fully clarified. In this paper, regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by rasagiline and selegiline was examined in apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of the outer membrane translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in SH-SY5Y cells. The pore opening was quantitatively measured using a simultaneous monitoring system for calcium (Ca(2+)) and superoxide (O2(-)) (Ishibashi et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:571-580, 2006). The association of the pore opening with Ca(2+) efflux and ROS increase was proved by the inhibition of Bcl-2 overexpression and cyclosporine A treatment. Potency to release Ca(2+) was correlated with the cytotoxicity of TSPO antagonists, PK11195, FGIN-1-27 and protoporphyrin IX, whereas a TSPO agonist, 4-chloro-diazepamine, did not significantly increase Ca(2+) or cause cell death. Rasagiline and selegiline inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore dose dependently. Ca(2+) efflux was confirmed as the initial signal in mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, and the suppression of Ca(2+) efflux may account for the neuroprotective function of rasagiline and selegiline. The quantitative measurement of Ca(2+) efflux can be applied to determine anti-apoptotic activity of neuroprotective compounds. The role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) release in neuronal death and also in neuroprotection by MAO-B inhibitors is discussed.

  16. Dysregulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway mediates megakaryocytic hyperplasia in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Malherbe, Jacques A J; Fuller, Kathryn A; Mirzai, Bob; Kavanagh, Simon; So, Chi-Chiu; Ip, Ho-Wan; Guo, Belinda B; Forsyth, Cecily; Howman, Rebecca; Erber, Wendy N

    2016-01-01

    Aims Megakaryocyte expansion in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is due to uncontrolled proliferation accompanied by dysregulation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic mechanisms. Here we have investigated the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways of megakaryocytes in human MPNs to further define the mechanisms involved. Methods The megakaryocytic expression of proapoptotic caspase-8, caspase-9, Diablo, p53 and antiapoptotic survivin proteins was investigated in bone marrow specimens of the MPNs (n=145) and controls (n=15) using immunohistochemistry. The megakaryocyte percentage positivity was assessed by light microscopy and correlated with the MPN entity, JAK2V617F/CALR mutation status and platelet count. Results The proportion of megakaryocytes in the MPNs expressing caspase-8, caspase-9, Diablo, survivin and p53 was significantly greater than controls. A greater proportion of myeloproliferative megakaryocytes expressed survivin relative to its reciprocal inhibitor, Diablo. Differences were seen between myelofibrosis, polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia for caspase-9 and p53. CALR-mutated cases had greater megakaryocyte p53 positivity compared to those with the JAK2V617F mutation. Proapoptotic caspase-9 expression showed a positive correlation with platelet count, which was most marked in myelofibrosis and CALR-mutated cases. Conclusions Disruptions targeting the intrinsic apoptotic cascade promote megakaryocyte hyperplasia and thrombocytosis in the MPNs. There is progressive dysfunction of apoptosis as evidenced by the marked reduction in proapoptotic caspase-9 and accumulation of p53 in myelofibrosis. The dysfunction of caspase-9, which is necessary for proplatelet formation, may be the mechanism for the excess thrombocytosis associated with CALR mutations. Survivin seems to be the key protein mediating the megakaryocyte survival signature in the MPNs and is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27060176

  17. Interactions between genetic polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway and environmental factors on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Chen-yu; Chen, Feng; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Heist, Rebecca S; Kulke, Matthew H; Liu, Geoffrey; Christiani, David C

    2011-04-01

    How genetic variations in apoptosis pathway interact with environmental factors to contribute to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) risk has not been comprehensively investigated. We conducted a case-only analysis in 335 Caucasian EA patients that were genotyped for 242 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 apoptotic genes. Gene-environment interactions were assessed using a two-step approach. First, random forest algorithm was used to screen for the potential interacting markers. Next, we used case-only logistic regression model to estimate the effects of gene-environment interactions on EA risk. Four SNPs (PERP rs648802; PIK3CA rs4855094, rs7644468 and TNFRSF1A rs4149579) had significant interaction with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The presence of variant alleles in TP53BP1 rs560191, CASP7 rs7907519 or BCL2 rs12454712 enhanced the risk of smoking by 2.08-2.58 times [interaction odds ratio (ORi)=2.08-2.58, adjusted P-value (Padj)=0.02-0.04]. Compared with patients carrying ≤1 risk genotype, the risk of GERD on EA was increased in persons with two (ORi=1.89, Padj=0.016) or ≥3 (ORi=4.30, Padj<0.0001) risk genotypes. Compared with cases with ≤1 risk genotype, smoking-associated EA risk increased by 3.15 times when ≥2 risk genotypes were present (ORi=3.15, Padj<0.0001). In conclusion, interactions among apoptotic SNPs and GERD or smoking play an important role in EA development.

  18. Interactions between genetic polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway and environmental factors on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Chen-yu.; Chen, Feng; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Heist, Rebecca S.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Liu, Geoffrey; Christiani, David C.

    2011-01-01

    How genetic variations in apoptosis pathway interact with environmental factors to contribute to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) risk has not been comprehensively investigated. We conducted a case-only analysis in 335 Caucasian EA patients that were genotyped for 242 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 apoptotic genes. Gene–environment interactions were assessed using a two-step approach. First, random forest algorithm was used to screen for the potential interacting markers. Next, we used case-only logistic regression model to estimate the effects of gene–environment interactions on EA risk. Four SNPs (PERP rs648802; PIK3CA rs4855094, rs7644468 and TNFRSF1A rs4149579) had significant interaction with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The presence of variant alleles in TP53BP1 rs560191, CASP7 rs7907519 or BCL2 rs12454712 enhanced the risk of smoking by 2.08–2.58 times [interaction odds ratio (ORi) = 2.08–2.58, adjusted P-value (Padj) = 0.02–0.04]. Compared with patients carrying ≤1 risk genotype, the risk of GERD on EA was increased in persons with two (ORi = 1.89, Padj = 0.016) or ≥3 (ORi = 4.30, Padj < 0.0001) risk genotypes. Compared with cases with ≤1 risk genotype, smoking-associated EA risk increased by 3.15 times when ≥2 risk genotypes were present (ORi = 3.15, Padj < 0.0001). In conclusion, interactions among apoptotic SNPs and GERD or smoking play an important role in EA development. PMID:21212151

  19. Nanomedicine-based paclitaxel induced apoptotic signaling pathways in A562 leukemia cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Meng; Sun, Zhong-Liang; Zhang, Chang-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized an amphiphilic pH-sensitive structure of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-(poly lactic acid-co-poly(b-amino esters)) (MPEG-b-(PLA-co-PAE)) to load paclitaxel to increase the therapeutic efficacy in leukemia. The micelles exhibit excellent drug-loading capacities for paclitaxel (PTX) and exhibited a typical pH-responsive drug release pattern. The release of PTX from the micelles was significantly accelerated by decreasing pH from 7.4 to 5.0 which just fitted the pathological process. The most important advantage of this design is that the polymeric micelles provide an effective approach for rapid transport of cargo into the cytosol, which significantly increases the antitumor efficacy of PTX against K562 cancer cells. Paclitaxel-loaded polymer micelles (PTX-M) showed significantly higher cytotoxic effect than that of free PTX. The PTX-M exhibited a superior apoptosis effect in cancer cells compared to that of free PTX at all time points. We have showed that the PTX-M activated upstream of apoptosis signaling and inhibited the anti-apoptotic factors. The PTX-M remarkably increased the upregulation of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP-1 expression and downregulated the Bcl-2 expression in K562 cancer cells. The results show that PTX-M induced cell apoptosis through intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. Importantly, PTX had a remarkably prolonged plasma circulation time after administration of PTX-M. Overall, this novel cancer specific, pH-responsive, and potentially in vivo stable unimolecular micelles may provide a very promising approach for targeted cancer therapy in the effective treatment of Leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-{kappa}B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-{kappa}B (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-{kappa}B and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-{kappa}B activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection

  1. Heat shock induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species involving mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in corneal cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Yu, Hsin-Su; Lin, Hsien-Chung; Wu, Kwou-Yeung; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2011-10-01

    Although many studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular consequences of ultraviolet irradiation, little is known about the effect of infrared radiation on ocular disease. In addition to photons, heat is generated as a consequence of infrared irradiation, and heat shock is widely considered to be an environmental stressor. Here, we are the first to investigate the biological effect of heat shock on Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells. Our results indicate that heat shock exhibits effective cell proliferation inhibition by inducing apoptosis. Heat shock triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway indicated by a change in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, resulting in caspase-9 activity. In addition, heat shock triggered the death receptor apoptotic pathway indicated by a change in Fas ligand expression, resulting in caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, we also found that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical mediator in heat shock-induced apoptosis. In addition, the antioxidant vitamin C significantly decreased heat shock-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest a critical role for ROS involving mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in heat shock-mediated apoptosis of cornea cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Keap1-Nrf2 Stress Response Pathway Promotes Mitochondrial Hyperfusion Through Degradation of the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1.

    PubMed

    Sabouny, Rasha; Fraunberger, Erik; Geoffrion, Michèle; Ng, Andy Cheuk-Him; Baird, Stephen D; Screaton, Robert A; Milne, Ross; McBride, Heidi M; Shutt, Timothy E

    2017-07-07

    Mitochondrial function is coupled to metabolic and survival pathways through both direct signaling cascades and dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology. For example, a hyperfused mitochondrial reticulum is activated upon cellular stress and is protective against cell death. As part of a genome-wide small inhibitory ribonucleic acid screen, we identified the central redox regulator, Keap1, as a novel regulator of mitochondrial morphology. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism through which redox signaling and Keap1 mediate changes in mitochondrial morphology. We found that the Nrf2 transcription factor is required for mitochondrial hyperfusion induced by knockdown of Keap1. Nrf2, which is negatively regulated by Keap1, mediates the cell's response to stress by controlling the expression of several hundred genes, including proteasome expression. We next showed that increased proteasome activity, a result of increased Nrf2 activity, is responsible for the degradation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, which occurs in an ubiquitin-independent manner. Our study described a novel pathway by which Nrf2 activation, known to occur in response to increased oxidative stress, decreases mitochondrial fission and contributes to a hyperfused mitochondrial network. This study has identified the Keap1-Nrf2 nexus and modulation of proteasomal activity as novel avenues to inhibit mitochondrial fission. These findings are important, because inhibiting mitochondrial fission is a promising therapeutic approach to restore the balance between fission and fusion, which is attractive for an increasing number of disorders linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  3. Cholesterol secoaldehyde induces apoptosis in J774 macrophages via mitochondrial pathway but not involving reactive oxygen species as mediators.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueli; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C; D'Auvergne, Oswald; Uppu, Rao M

    2009-11-13

    Cholesterol secoaldehyde (3beta-hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al or ChSeco) is an oxysterol known to be formed in reactions of ozone with cholesterol and also when cholesterol-5alpha-hydroperoxide undergoes Hock cleavage. In view of its widespread occurrence and atherogenic potential, we examined the effects of ChSeco on mouse J774 macrophage viability and events associated with apoptosis. A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, disruptions in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (64+/-5.5%; mean+/-SD, n=3), increased levels of cytosolic cytochrome c (8.8+/-0.84 ng/ml; mean+/-SD, n=3), activation of caspase-3 (ca. 3.6-fold) and caspase-9 (ca.1.8-fold), and increased DNA fragmentation (ca. 5-fold), all indicative of apoptosis, were observed in response to exposure to ChSeco. The apoptotic nature of cell death in macrophages was confirmed by dual staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. However, unlike the case with cardiomyoblasts and neuronal cells, the apoptotic process in these immune cells was not mediated by increased levels of reactive oxygen species as indicated by a minimal or no increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. It is suggested that the apoptotic process is mediated via the mitochondrial pathway and that ChSeco formed in biological environments contributes to the initiation, progression, and culmination of atherosclerotic plaque formation, as these processes are critically dependent on macrophage apoptosis.

  4. Sine Oculis Homeobox Homolog 1 Regulates Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway Via Caspase-7 In Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peizhun; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yongchao; Ren, Hong; Patel, Rajan; Hu, Cheng'en; Zhang, Wenhong; Huang, Guangjian

    2017-01-01

    Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (Six1) is crucial in normal organ development. Recently, Six1 is reported to display aberrant expression in various cancers and plays important roles in cancer development. However, the regulatory mechanism of Six1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In the current study, we found that Six1 was increased in gastric cancer tissues, and its upregulation significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.042) and poor differentiation (p=0.039). Next, we took advantage of public available microarray data to assess Six1 prognostic value with online K-M Plotter software in gastric cancer, which demonstrated that patients with higher Six1 expression had shorter survival time (p=0.02). To explore the underlying mechanism of Six1, we silenced its upregulation in gastric cells to detect cellular functions. Our results indicated that knock-down Six1 could decrease colony formation number and rendered cells sensitive to 5- Fluorouracil drug treatment. The flow cytometry analyses showed that Six1 silence could promote apoptosis but had little effect on cell cycle transition. Along this clue, we tested mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1 assay, which suggested that Six1 inhibition could trigger mitochondrial apoptosis. Our subsequent results revealed that Six1 knock-down could reduce the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and caspase-7 but not caspase-3 was involved to execute the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Taken together, we find Six1 has oncogenic role in gastric cancer development, and silenced Six1 expression can promote mitochondrial apoptosis by repressing Bcl-2 and activating executor caspase-7. These findings suggest that Six1 may become a valuable prognostic and therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:28367243

  5. Crocetin Reduces Activation of Hepatic Apoptotic Pathways and Improves Survival in Experimental Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rongjie; Vernon, Kathy; Thomas, Ann; Morrison, David; Qureshi, Nilofer; Van Way, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock results in cellular damage and cell death. A primary mechanism is cellular apoptosis from mitochondrial damage. This study demonstrated that administration of crocetin to experimental animals during resuscitation from shock significantly improved postshock survival and reduced apoptosis. Crocetin is a component of saffron and has long been used in traditional medicine in Asia. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350 ± 30g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 8 animals. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood until the mean arterial pressure was 35–40 mm Hg, and blood pressure was maintained at that level for 60 minutes with further withdrawals as needed. Resuscitation was carried out by administration of 21 mL/kg lactated Ringer’s solution and return of shed blood, with or without concurrent administration of crocetin (2 mg/kg). Control animals were sham-treated with surgical preparation, without shock or resuscitation, and with and without crocetin. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after completion of resuscitation. The extent of activation of hepatic apoptosis was established by measuring levels of hepatic cytosolic cytochrome c, caspase-3, and bcl-2. A separate group of 53 animals treated identically was used to assess survival. Results Crocetin administration during resuscitation resulted in less extensive activation of hepatic apoptosis and significantly increased survival relative to controls. Conclusions Crocetin administration to experimental animals during resuscitation post hemorrhage increased survival, at least in part by protecting the liver from activation of apoptotic cell death. This agent continues to show promise as a potential treatment strategy for hemorrhagic shock. PMID:21224437

  6. Mitochondrial function in ageing: coordination with signalling and transcriptional pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Sancheti, Harsh; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction entailing decreased energy‐transducing capacity and perturbed redox homeostasis is an early and sometimes initiating event in ageing and age‐related disorders involving tissues with high metabolic rate such as brain, liver and heart. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent findings from our and other groups suggest that the mitochondrion‐centred hypometabolism is a key feature of ageing brains and Alzheimer's disease. This hypometabolic state is manifested by lowered neuronal glucose uptake, metabolic shift in the astrocytes, and alternations in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle function. Similarly, in liver and adipose tissue, mitochondrial capacity around glucose and fatty acid metabolism and thermogenesis is found to decline with age and is implicated in age‐related metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These mitochondrion‐related disorders in peripheral tissues can impact on brain functions through metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory signals. At the cellular level, studies in CNS and non‐CNS tissues support the notion that instead of being viewed as autonomous organelles, mitochondria are part of a dynamic network with close interactions with other cellular components through energy‐ or redox‐sensitive cytosolic kinase signalling and transcriptional pathways. Hence, it would be critical to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the communication between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. Therapeutic strategies that effectively preserves or improve mitochondrial function by targeting key component of these signalling cascades could represent a novel direction for numerous mitochondrion‐implicated, age‐related disorders. PMID:26293414

  7. Huaier aqueous extract induces apoptosis of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    CUI, YANG; MENG, HONGMEI; LIU, WEIDONG; WANG, HUAN; LIU, QINGPENG

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aqueous extract of Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used in China for complementary cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of Huaier extract to inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis and suppress mobility in the fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in vitro. The cells were treated with gradient doses of Huaier extract at concentrations of 0, 4, 8 or 16 mg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 h. The cell viability and motility were measured in vitro using MTT, invasive, migration and scratch assays. The distribution of the cell cycle and the extent of cellular apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic pathways were detected using a mitochondrial membrane potential transition assay and western blotting. The results revealed that the cellular viability decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of Huaier extract. In addition, cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. It was demonstrated that Huaier extract induced G2 cell-cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 and pro-caspase-3, and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 suggested that Huaier extract induced the apoptosis of HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The results of the present study indicate that Huaier extract is a potential complementary agent for the treatment of fibrosarcoma. PMID:25789006

  8. Apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by benzo(a)pyrene in liver epithelial cells: role of p53 and pHi changes.

    PubMed

    Huc, Laurence; Gilot, David; Gardyn, Claire; Rissel, Mary; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Guillouzo, André; Fardel, Olivier; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2003-12-01

    How pH(i) changes, more specifically alkalinization, affect the apoptotic cascade has yet to be determined. The aim of the present work was to test the involvement of mitochondria in the apoptotic cascade triggered by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and to determine the role of pH(i) changes and p53 relative to mitochondria. Our results indicate that B(a)P-induced apoptosis might rely upon a p53-dependent and a pH-sensitive mitochondrial dysfunction.

  9. Yishen Jiangzhuo Granules affect tubulointerstitial fibrosis via a mitochondrion-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-fang; Ruan, Shi-wei; Lin, Jiu-mao; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of Yishen Jiangzhuo Granules, YSJZG) on mitochondrial injury and regeneration and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis in chronic renal failure (CRF) rats and explore its mechanism from molecular pathology, gene, protein levels, and relative pathway. The CRF rat model was established using 5/6 nephrectomy. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham-operation group, model (CRF) group, Niaoduqing Granules-treated group [5 g/(kg.day)], low-, moderate-, and high-dose [L-YSJZG, M-YSJZG, H-YSJZG at 3, 6, and 9 g/(kg day)] YSJZG-treated group (n=10 each). The levels of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and 24-h urine protein were assessed after 10 weeks of treatment. The tubulointerstitial injury and collagen deposition were evaluated using periodic acid-schiff stain and Masson staining. Renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis was assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, mitochondrial injury was observed using an electron microscope, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed using chromometry. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator- 1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation were evaluated by Western blot. YSJZG decreased the 24-h urine protein, BUN, Scr, remnant kidney weight-to-body weight ratio, renal tubular injury, deposition of collagen, and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. YSJZG dose-dependently restored the number and structure of mitochondria and the expression of Tfam and PCG-1α, up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and inhibited the expression of Bax. YSJZG also dose-dependently inhibited TGF-β1 expression, increased SOD and GSH activity

  10. Role of the calcium-sensing receptor in cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial death pathway in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang-Hao; Fu, Song-Bin; Leng, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xinying; Dong, Shiyun; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Ren, Huan; Li, Hulun; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in calcium homeostasis in the intracellular endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) and mitochondria of cardiomyocytes cause cell death via the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, contributing to ventricular dysfunction. However, the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure has not been studied. This study examined the possible involvement of CaR in the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in an experimental model of heart failure. In Wistar rats, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure were induced by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (Iso). Calindol, an activator of CaR, and calhex231, an inhibitor of CaR, were administered by caudal vein injection. Cardiac remodeling and left ventricular function were then analyzed in these rats. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the administration of Iso, the rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and failure. The cardiac expression of ER chaperones and related apoptotic proteins was significantly increased in the failing hearts. Furthermore, the expression of ER chaperones and the apoptotic rate were also increased with the administration of calindol, whereas the expression of these proteins was reduced with the treatment of calhex231. We also induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure via thoracic aorta constriction (TAC) in mice. After 2 and 4 weeks of TAC, the expression of ER chaperones and apoptotic proteins were increased in the mouse hearts. Furthermore, Iso induced ER stress and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, while pretreatment with calhex231 prevented ER stress and protected the myocytes against apoptosis. To further investigate the effect of CaR on the concentration of intracellular calcium, the calcium concentration in the SR and mitochondria was determined with Fluo-5N and x-rhod-1 and the mitochondrial membrane potential was examined with JC-1 using laser confocal microscopy. After treatment with Iso for 48 hours, activation of CaR reduced [Ca(2+)]SR

  11. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai; Shao, Jingjing; Zhou, Keyuan; Qiu, Haitao; Cao, Fengxiang; Li, Caihong; Dai, De

    2016-08-01

    Although modern radiotherapy offers excellent local control in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), current therapeutic decisions remain burdensome due to the frequency of local recurrence and treatment failure at distant sites. One potential and promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of cancers is the use of bioactive components of plant origin, including dietary plant products. Herein, we studied one class of these bioactive compounds, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), and explored their effect on NPC CNE-2 cells, as well as the primary mechanism underlying this effect. Our results revealed that treatment of human NPC CNE-2 cells with GSPs reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and moreover, markedly induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, leading to induction of apoptosis. In addition, we found that the underlying mechanism was associated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PRAP) protein, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (Δψm). Furthermore, GSPs upregulated the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins, Bim and Bad, in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data supported our hypothesis that, in human NPC CNE-2 cells, GSPs could induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and ultimately reduce cell viability. Collectively, the results discussed above provide substantive evidence for the potential of GSPs as an effective bioactive phytochemical for the treatment of NPC.

  12. Synthesis and anticancer potential of benzothiazole linked phenylpyridopyrimidinones and their diones as mitochondrial apoptotic inducers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Ashraf, Md; Vishnu Vardhan, M V P S; Faazil, Shaikh; Nayak, V Lakshma

    2014-01-01

    A series of benzothiazole linked phenylpyridopyrimidinones (8a-g) and their diones (9a-g) have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity. Among the series one of the conjugate 8b showed significant cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer cell line ME-180 with IC50 value of 4.01μM. This compound was tested on the cell cycle perturbations and DNA damage. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the compound 8b showed drastic cell cycle perturbations due to concentration dependent increase in the sub-G0 phase in ME-180 cell line. DNA fragmentation and Hoechst staining reveals that this compound induced cell death by apoptosis. Further caspase-3 and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that the compound induces cell death by apoptosis.

  13. Diallyl disulfide ameliorates isoproterenol induced cardiac hypertrophy activating mitochondrial biogenesis via eNOS-Nrf2-Tfam pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Tarak Nath; Dinda, Amit K; Putcha, Uday K; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial effect of garlic on cardiovascular disease is well known. However, the use of raw garlic against cardiac hypertrophy is not established. In the present study we explored whether raw garlic and its compound, diallyl disulfide (DADS) could inhibit hypertrophy through H2S and/or mitochondrial biogenesis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rat by giving isoproterenol at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 14 days through alzet minipump. Aqueous garlic homogenate, DADS and NaHS (liberate H2S) were fed to third, forth and fifth group of rats for 14 days at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day, 14 µM/kg/day respectively. Garlic and DADS reduced cardiac hypertrophy markers and normalized mitochondrial ETC-complex activities, mitochondrial enzyme activites and mitochondrial biogenetic and apoptotic genes expression. Garlic and DADS enhanced eNOS and p-AKT level in rat heart along with increased NRF2 protein level and Tfam gene expression. However, normalization was not observed after administration of NaHS which generates H2S in-vivo. In conclusion, garlic and DADS induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy via activation of eNOS-Nrf2-Tfam pathway in rats.

  14. Tricholoma matsutake Aqueous Extract Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis via Caspase-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhen; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Xinrui; Cai, Guangsheng; An, Shengshu; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake, one of widely accepted functional mushrooms, possesses various pharmacological activities, and its antitumor effect has become an important research point. Our study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity activities of T. matsutake aqueous extract (TM) in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. In in vitro experiments, TM strikingly reduced cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited cell migration ability, induced excessive generation of ROS, and caused caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In in vivo experiments, 14-day TM treatment strongly suppressed tumor growth in HepG2 and SMMC-7721-xenografted nude mice without influence on their body weights and liver function. Furthermore, TM increased the levels of cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bad, and Bax and reduced the expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in treated cells and tumor tissues. All aforementioned results suggest that caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathways are involved in TM-mediated antihepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28018916

  15. Betulinic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Differentiated PC12 Cells Via ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Lu, Xiaocheng; Zhu, Ronglan; Zhang, Kaixin; Li, Shuai; Chen, Zhongjun; Li, Lixin

    2017-01-25

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene of natural origin, has been demonstrated to have varied biologic activities including anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-malarial effects; it has also been found to induce apoptosis in many types of cancer. However, little is known about the effect of BA on normal cells. In this study, the effects of BA on normal neuronal cell apoptosis and the mechanisms involved were studied using differentiated PC12 cells as a model. Treatment with 50 μM BA for 24 h apparently induced PC12 cell apoptosis. In the early stage of apoptosis, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased. Afterwards, the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-3 occurred. Treatment with antioxidants could significantly reduce BA-induced PC12 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we report for the first time that BA induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in differentiated PC12 cells through ROS.

  16. Galangin induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the caspase 8/t-Bid mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Wu, Jun; Wen, Min; Su, Li-Juan; Luo, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study has investigated whether galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance and used as food additives in southern China, induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) by activation of the caspase-8 and Bid pathway. The apoptosis of HCCs was evaluated by in situ uptake of propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Protein expressions were detected by Western blotting. Caspase-8 activity was measured using colorimetric method. To confirm the galangin-induced apoptotic pathway, inhibition of caspase-8 activity by Z-IETD-FMK, knockdown of Bid expression with siRNA, and overexpression of Bcl-2 in cells were carried out, respectively. The results show that galangin has significantly induced apoptosis in HCC lines. The caspase-8 is activated, and the cleavage of Bid results in the increase in tBid. The galangin-induced apoptosis is attenuated by Z-IETD-FMK, Bid siRNA, and Bcl-2 overexpression, respectively. However, Bcl-2 fails to suppress caspase-8 activation and the cleavage of Bid. This study has demonstrated that galangin induces apoptosis in HCCs by activating caspase 8/t-Bid mitochondrial pathway. Although Bcl-2 overexpression attenuates galangin-mediated apoptosis of HCCs, it is not mediated by the inhibition of tBid generation and caspase-8 activation.

  17. Allicin protects against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction by inhibiting the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianmin; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiaofei; Li, He; Li, Jianfeng; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Wenwen; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin

    2017-03-01

    Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that causes the impairment of inner ear function as side effects, including hearing loss and balance dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction in mice and to make clear the mechanism underlying the protective effects of allicin on oto-vestibulotoxicity. Mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin exhibited vestibular dysfunction in swimming test, which agreed with impairment in vestibule. However, these impairments were significantly prevented by pre-treatment with allicin. Allicin markedly reduced cisplatin-activated expression of cleaved-caspase-3 in hair cells and vascular layer cells of utricule, saccule and ampulla, but also decreased AIF nuclear translocation of hair cells in utricule, saccule and ampulla. These results showed that allicin played an effective role in protecting vestibular dysfunction induced by cisplatin via inhibiting caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, allicin may be useful in preventing oto-vestibulotoxicity mediated by cisplatin.

  18. Molecular evidence of apoptotic pathway activation in semen samples with high DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Manente, Lucrezia; Pecoraro, Stefano; Picillo, Esther; Gargiulo, Umberto; Gargiulo, Paolo; De Luca, Antonio; Politano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is diagnosed by semen parameters, such as concentration, motility and morphology; however, these are not sufficient for the prediction of male fertility capacity. In the clinical routine, several other sperm functions have been introduced, including the sperm DNA fragmentation test. The objective of the present study was to evaluate sperm chromatin integrity in semen samples. Sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) was used in ejaculates from men divided into five groups: normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, oligoasthenozoospermic and cryptozoospermic. The data obtained showed that the SCD percentage appeared to be significantly associated with oligozoospermia diagnosis. We also evaluated total testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B serum hormonal levels in all samples examined, in order to assess whether DNA fragmentation increase could correlate with abnormal hormonal values. Finally we selected certain samples with an increasing DNA fragmentation and analyzed the molecular activated apoptotic pathways. A significant relationship was found between caspase-3 activation and increased DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Xanthohumol induces different cytotoxicity and apoptotic pathways in malignant and normal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zajc, I; Filipič, M; Lah, T T

    2012-11-01

    Cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by xanthohumol (XN) were compared in normal and cancerous human cells as the differences may be relevant for the potential use of XN in cancer therapy. The cancer cells seemed to be more susceptible to the cytotoxicity of XN than normal cells, but a significant difference was observed only in astrocytic cells. XN induced a higher rate of apoptosis in glioblastoma cells than in normal astrocytes, which was associated with activation of p53 and an elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in glioblastoma cells, indicating an intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. In contrast, a reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was observed in normal human astrocytes. This was also associated with higher expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, in glioblastoma cells than in normal astrocytes. In addition, at a lower, non-cytotoxic concentration, XN partially inhibited the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells. Due to the selective sensitivity of astrocytic cells to XN, this compound should be studied further as a candidate for adjuvant therapy in the treatment of glioma.

  20. Insights into sepsis therapeutic design based on the apoptotic death pathway.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yuichi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Teramae, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Yokoo, Hiroki; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. A major problem contributing to sepsis-related high mortality is the lack of effective medical treatment. Thus, the key goal in critical care medicine is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that will impact favorably on septic patient outcome. While it is generally accepted that sepsis is an inflammatory state resulting from the systemic response to infection, apoptosis is implicated to be an important mechanism of the death of lymphocytes, gastrointestinal and lung epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells associated with the development of multiple organ failure in sepsis. The pivotal role of cell apoptosis is now highlighted by multiple studies demonstrating that prevention of cell apoptosis can improve survival in clinically relevant animal models of sepsis. In this review article, we address the scientific rationale for remedying apoptotic cell death in sepsis and propose that therapeutic efforts aimed at blocking cell signaling pathways leading to apoptosis may represent an attractive target for sepsis therapy.

  1. A neuronal C5a receptor and an associated apoptotic signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Farkas, I; Baranyi, L; Takahashi, M; Fukuda, A; Liposits, Z; Yamamoto, T; Okada, H

    1998-03-15

    1. We report the first experimental evidence of a neuronal C5a receptor (nC5aR) in human cells of neuronal origin. Expression of nC5aR mRNA was demonstrated by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in TGW human neuroblastoma cells. 2. Expression of a functional C5aR was supported by the finding that C5a evoked a transient increase in the intracellular calcium level as measured by flow cytometry (FACS). 3. To analyse the function of the nC5aR, an antisense peptide fragment of the C5aR was used. Previous data showed that a C5aR fragment (a peptide termed PR226) has C5aR agonist and antagonist effects in U-937 cells depending on the concentration of the peptide. We found that a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) form of the same peptide (termed PR226-MAP) induced rapid elevation of nuclear c-fos immunoreactivity and resulted in DNA fragmentation, a characteristic sign of apoptosis, in TGW cells. 4. Early electrophysiological events characteristic of apoptosis were also detected: intermittent calcium current pulses were recorded within 1-2 min of peptide administration. C5a pretreatment delayed the onset of this calcium influx. 5. We also demonstrated that the apoptotic pathway is linked to nC5aR via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. 6. Although the function of C5a and its receptor on neurons is unknown, these results suggest that an abnormal activation of this signal transduction pathway can result in apoptosis and, subsequently, in neurodegeneration.

  2. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up- regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16 days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity. PMID:25016296

  3. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  4. Mitochondrial pathways in sarcopenia of aging and disuse muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Adhihetty, Peter J.; Miccheli, Alfredo; Bossola, Maurizio; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Muscle loss during aging and disuse is a highly prevalent and disabling condition, but knowledge about cellular pathways mediating muscle atrophy is still limited. Given the postmitotic nature of skeletal myocytes, the maintenance of cellular homeostasis relies on the efficiency of cellular quality control mechanisms. In this scenario, alterations in mitochondrial function are considered a major factor underlying sarcopenia and muscle atrophy. Damaged mitochondria are not only less bioenergetically efficient, but also generate increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, interfere with cellular quality control mechanisms, and display a greater propensity to trigger apoptosis. Thus, mitochondria stand at the crossroad of signaling pathways that regulate skeletal myocyte function and viability. Studies on these pathways have sometimes provided unexpected and counterintuitive results, which suggests that they are organized into a complex, heterarchical network that is currently insufficiently understood. Untangling the complexity of such a network will likely provide clinicians with novel and highly effective therapeutics to counter the muscle loss associated with aging and disuse. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms whereby mitochondrial dysfunction intervenes in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and disuse atrophy, and highlight the prospect of targeting specific processes to treat these conditions. PMID:23154422

  5. The Macrophage Phagocytic Receptor CD36 Promotes Fibrogenic Pathways on Removal of Apoptotic Cells during Chronic Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pennathur, Subramaniam; Pasichnyk, Katie; Bahrami, Nadia M.; Zeng, Lixia; Febbraio, Maria; Yamaguchi, Ikuyo; Okamura, Daryl M.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of apoptotic cells is an innate function of tissue macrophages; however, its role in disease progression is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the role of macrophage CD36, a recognized receptor of apoptotic cells and oxidized lipids, in two models of kidney injury: unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and ischemia reperfusion. To differentiate the macrophage CD36-specific effects in vivo, we generated CD36 chimeric mice by bone marrow transplantation and evaluated the two models. Fibrosis severity was substantially decreased after UUO with a corresponding decrease in matrix synthesis in macrophage CD36-deficient mice. Despite a reduction in fibrosis severity, a 56% increase in apoptotic cells was found without an increase in apoptotic effectors. In addition, a substantial reduction was observed in tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 mRNA levels and intracellular bioactive oxidized lipid levels in CD36-deficient macrophages. To validate the functional role of macrophage CD36, we performed unilateral ischemia reperfusion, followed by contralateral nephrectomy. Similarly, we found that the severity of fibrosis was reduced by 55% with a corresponding improvement in kidney function by 88% in macrophage CD36-deficient mice. Taken together, these data suggest that macrophage CD36 is a critical regulator of oxidative fibrogenic signaling and that CD36-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells may serve as an important pathway in the progression of fibrosis. PMID:26092500

  6. Involvement of dopamine receptors in binge methamphetamine-induced activation of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Genevieve; Atwell, Kenisha; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2011-01-01

    Single large doses of methamphetamine (METH) cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in rodent striata. The dopamine D(1) receptor appears to be involved in these METH-mediated stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate if dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors are involved in ER and mitochondrial stresses caused by single-day METH binges in the rat striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 injections of 10 mg/kg of METH alone or in combination with a putative D(1) or D(2) receptor antagonist, SCH23390 or raclopride, respectively, given 30 min prior to each METH injection. Rats were euthanized at various timepoints afterwards. Striatal tissues were used in quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses. We found that binge METH injections caused increased expression of the pro-survival genes, BiP/GRP-78 and P58(IPK), in a SCH23390-sensitive manner. METH also caused up-regulation of ER-stress genes, Atf2, Atf3, Atf4, CHOP/Gadd153 and Gadd34. The expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was increased after METH injections. SCH23390 completely blocked induction in all analyzed ER stress-related proteins that included ATF3, ATF4, CHOP/Gadd153, HSPs and caspase-12. The dopamine D(2)-like antagonist, raclopride, exerted small to moderate inhibitory influence on some METH-induced changes in ER stress proteins. Importantly, METH caused decreases in the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but increases in the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Bad and cytochrome c, in a SCH23390-sensitive fashion. In contrast, raclopride provided only small inhibition of METH-induced changes in mitochondrial proteins. These findings indicate that METH-induced activation of striatal ER and mitochondrial stress pathways might be more related to activation of SCH23390-sensitive receptors.

  7. Involvement of Dopamine Receptors in Binge Methamphetamine-Induced Activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrial Stress Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Beauvais, Genevieve; Atwell, Kenisha; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2011-01-01

    Single large doses of methamphetamine (METH) cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in rodent striata. The dopamine D1 receptor appears to be involved in these METH-mediated stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate if dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in ER and mitochondrial stresses caused by single-day METH binges in the rat striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 injections of 10 mg/kg of METH alone or in combination with a putative D1 or D2 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 or raclopride, respectively, given 30 min prior to each METH injection. Rats were euthanized at various timepoints afterwards. Striatal tissues were used in quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses. We found that binge METH injections caused increased expression of the pro-survival genes, BiP/GRP-78 and P58IPK, in a SCH23390-sensitive manner. METH also caused up-regulation of ER-stress genes, Atf2, Atf3, Atf4, CHOP/Gadd153 and Gadd34. The expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was increased after METH injections. SCH23390 completely blocked induction in all analyzed ER stress-related proteins that included ATF3, ATF4, CHOP/Gadd153, HSPs and caspase-12. The dopamine D2-like antagonist, raclopride, exerted small to moderate inhibitory influence on some METH-induced changes in ER stress proteins. Importantly, METH caused decreases in the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but increases in the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Bad and cytochrome c, in a SCH23390-sensitive fashion. In contrast, raclopride provided only small inhibition of METH-induced changes in mitochondrial proteins. These findings indicate that METH-induced activation of striatal ER and mitochondrial stress pathways might be more related to activation of SCH23390-sensitive receptors. PMID:22174933

  8. BL-038, a Benzofuran Derivative, Induces Cell Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species/Mitochondrial Dysfunction and the Caspases Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Hsien-Te; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-09-07

    Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant cartilage-forming bone tumor that has the capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. Moreover, chondrosarcoma is intrinsically resistant to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The novel benzofuran derivative, BL-038 (2-amino-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzofuran-4-yl acetate), has been evaluated for its anticancer effects in human chondrosarcoma cells. BL-038 caused cell apoptosis in two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and SW1353, but not in primary chondrocytes. Treatment of chondrosarcoma with BL-038 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, BL-038 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and changed mitochondrial-related apoptosis, by downregulating the anti-apoptotic activity members (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) and upregulating pro-apoptotic members (Bax, Bak) of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins, key regulators of the apoptotic machinery in cells. These results demonstrate that in human chondrosarcoma cells, the apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of BL-038 are mediated by the intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which in turn causes the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), to elicit apoptosis response. Our results show that the benzofuran derivative BL-038 induces apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells.

  9. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek; Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  10. The Core Molecular Machinery Used for Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells Regulates the JNK Pathway Mediating Axon Regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pastuhov, Strahil Iv; Fujiki, Kota; Tsuge, Anna; Asai, Kazuma; Ishikawa, Sho; Hirose, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Hisamoto, Naoki

    2016-09-14

    The mechanisms that govern the ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by the JNK-MAPK pathway. In this study, we identify two components functioning upstream of the JNK pathway: the Ste20-related protein kinase MAX-2 and the Rac-type GTPase CED-10. CED-10, when bound by GTP, interacts with MAX-2 and functions as its upstream regulator in axon regeneration. CED-10, in turn, is activated by axon injury via signals initiated from the integrin α-subunit INA-1 and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase SRC-1 and transmitted via the signaling module CED-2/CrkII-CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO. This module is also known to regulate the engulfment of apoptotic cells during development. Our findings thus reveal that the molecular machinery used for engulfment of apoptotic cells also promotes axon regeneration through activation of the JNK pathway. The molecular mechanisms of axon regeneration after injury remain poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by the JNK-MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that integrin, Rac-GTPase, and several other molecules, all of which are known to regulate engulfment of apoptotic cells during development, also regulate axon regeneration. This signaling module activates the JNK-MAPK cascade via MAX-2, a PAK-like protein kinase that binds Rac. Our findings thus reveal that the molecular machinery used for engulfment of apoptotic cells also promotes axon regeneration through activation of the JNK pathway. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/369710-12$15.00/0.

  11. Lithospermic acid B protects beta-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis by alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Wan; Chun, Sung Wan; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yongho; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-04-01

    Lithospermic acid B (LAB) has been reported to protect OLETF rats, an established type 2 diabetic animal model, from the development of diabetes-related vascular complications. We investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) has a protective role under cytokine-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells in vitro and whether it slows the development of diabetes in OLETF rats in vivo. Pretreatment with 50 {mu}M LAB significantly reduced the 1000 U/mL INF-{gamma} and 100 U/mL IL-1{beta}-induced INS-1 cell death. LAB significantly alleviated cytokine-induced phosphorylations of p38 and JNK in accordance with a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 activity in beta-cells. LAB also protected against the cytokine-induced caspase-3 apoptotic pathway via significant activation of Nrf2-HO (heme-oxigenase)-1 and Sirt1 expression. OLETF rats treated with 40 mg/kg/day LAB showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance compared to untreated OLETF control rats in vivo. Our results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of LAB on pancreatic {beta}-cells are related with both alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1.

  12. Triggering apoptotic death of human epidermal keratinocytes by malic Acid: involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Lai, Wan-Wen; Wu, Shi-Bei; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2015-01-09

    Malic acid (MA) has been commonly used in cosmetic products, but the safety reports in skin are sparse. To investigate the biological effects of MA in human skin keratinocytes, we investigated the potential cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of MA in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). The data showed that MA induced apoptosis based on the observations of DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, and sub-G1 phase in HaCaT cells and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Flow cytometric assays also showed that MA increased the production of mitochondrial superoxide (mito-SOX) but decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analysis of bioenergetics function with the XF 24 analyzer Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was significantly decreased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) was increased in MA-treated keratinocytes. The occurrence of apoptosis was proved by the increased expressions of FasL, Fas, Bax, Bid, caspases-3, -8, -9, cytochrome c, and the declined expressions of Bcl-2, PARP. MA also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress associated protein expression such as GRP78, GADD153, and ATF6α. We demonstrated that MA had anti-proliferative effect in HaCaT cell through the inhibition of cell cycle progression at G0/G1, and the induction of programmed cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent pathways.

  13. Triggering Apoptotic Death of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes by Malic Acid: Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress- and Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Lai, Wan-Wen; Wu, Shi-Bei; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid (MA) has been commonly used in cosmetic products, but the safety reports in skin are sparse. To investigate the biological effects of MA in human skin keratinocytes, we investigated the potential cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of MA in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). The data showed that MA induced apoptosis based on the observations of DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, and sub-G1 phase in HaCaT cells and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Flow cytometric assays also showed that MA increased the production of mitochondrial superoxide (mito-SOX) but decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analysis of bioenergetics function with the XF 24 analyzer Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was significantly decreased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) was increased in MA-treated keratinocytes. The occurrence of apoptosis was proved by the increased expressions of FasL, Fas, Bax, Bid, caspases-3, -8, -9, cytochrome c, and the declined expressions of Bcl-2, PARP. MA also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress associated protein expression such as GRP78, GADD153, and ATF6α. We demonstrated that MA had anti-proliferative effect in HaCaT cell through the inhibition of cell cycle progression at G0/G1, and the induction of programmed cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. PMID:25584429

  14. Novel combination of mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) and platinum agents produces synergistic pro-apoptotic effect in drug resistant tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei; Wang, Jingnan; Roginskaya, Vera; McDermott, Lee A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Stolz, Donna B.; Llambi, Fabien; Green, Douglas R.; Houten, Bennett Van

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming platinum drug resistance represents a major clinical challenge in cancer treatment. We discovered a novel drug combination using cisplatin and a class of thioquinazolinone derivatives including mdivi-1 (mitochondrial division inhibitor-1), that induces synergistic apoptosis in platinum resistant tumor cells, including those from cisplatin-refractory endstage ovarian cancer patients. However, through study of the combination effect on Drp1 (the reported target of mdivi-1) knockout MEF cells and the functional analysis of mdivi-1 analogs, we revealed that the synergism between mdivi-1 and cisplatin is Drp1-independent. Mdivi-1 impairs DNA replication and its combination with cisplatin induces a synergistic increase of replication stress and DNA damage, causing a preferential upregulation of a BH3-only protein Noxa. Mdivi-1 also represses mitochondrial respiration independent of Drp1, and the combination of mdivi-1 and cisplatin triggers substantial mitochondrial uncoupling and swelling. Upregulation of Noxa and simultaneous mitochondrial swelling causes synergistic induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), proceeding robust mitochondrial apoptotic signaling independent of Bax/Bak. Thus, the novel mode of MOMP induction by the combination through the “dual-targeting” potential of mdivi-1 on DNA replication and mitochondrial respiration suggests a novel class of compounds for platinum-based combination option in the treatment of platinum as well as multidrug resistant tumors. PMID:24952704

  15. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation. PMID:26526304

  16. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-11-03

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development.

  18. Deubiquitination of Tip60 by USP7 determines the activity of the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ashraf; Shibata, Etsuko; Dutta, Anindya

    2013-08-01

    Tip60 is an essential acetyltransferase required for acetylation of nucleosomal histones and other nonhistone proteins. Tip60 acetylates the p53 tumor suppressor at lysine 120 (K120), a modification essential for p53-dependent induction of PUMA and apoptosis. It is known that Tip60 is turned over in cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the deubiquitinase activity for stabilizing Tip60 is unknown. Here we show that USP7 interacts with and deubiquitinates Tip60 both in vitro and in vivo. USP7 deubiquitinase activity is required for the stabilization of Tip60 in order to operate an effective p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to genotoxic stress. Inhibiting USP7 with the small-molecule inhibitor P22077 attenuates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway by destabilizing Tip60. P22077, however, is still cytotoxic, and this is partly due to destabilization of Tip60.

  19. Deubiquitination of Tip60 by USP7 Determines the Activity of the p53-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Ashraf; Shibata, Etsuko

    2013-01-01

    Tip60 is an essential acetyltransferase required for acetylation of nucleosomal histones and other nonhistone proteins. Tip60 acetylates the p53 tumor suppressor at lysine 120 (K120), a modification essential for p53-dependent induction of PUMA and apoptosis. It is known that Tip60 is turned over in cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the deubiquitinase activity for stabilizing Tip60 is unknown. Here we show that USP7 interacts with and deubiquitinates Tip60 both in vitro and in vivo. USP7 deubiquitinase activity is required for the stabilization of Tip60 in order to operate an effective p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to genotoxic stress. Inhibiting USP7 with the small-molecule inhibitor P22077 attenuates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway by destabilizing Tip60. P22077, however, is still cytotoxic, and this is partly due to destabilization of Tip60. PMID:23775119

  20. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharide from Hirsutella sinensis on human non-small cell lung cancer and nude mice through intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Bin; Xie, Fei; Sun, Hui-Qing; Meng, Meng; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Our previous works had proved the structural properties of Hirsutella sinensis polysaccharide-III(HSP-III). Herein, its anti-tumor effect on lung cancer correlated with mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was investigated. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that HSP-III induces the apoptosis of H1299 cells; however the proliferation viability of normal lung epithelial cells is not affected. HSP-III treatment collapses the H1299 cell mitochondrial membrane potential, and western blot analysis of cytochrome C, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 further indicates that apoptotic effects induced by HSP-III is through the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, we found the apoptotic effects of HSP-III are triggered by Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Blue native Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (PAGE) showed the expressions of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I-V were also decreased. Taken together, anti-tumor effect of HSP-III is through intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis mechanism pathway and involving ROS increasing. Finally, in vivo nude mice experiment, HSP-III attenuated the growth of tumor compared with control. In contrast, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) could restore the cell apoptosis effects induced by HSP-III. These findings suggest that HSP-III induce apoptosis of H1299 cells and attenuated growth of nude mice tumor in vivo through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and stimulating ROS. HSP-III could be a composition for lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Beginnings of a good apoptotic meal: the find-me and eat-me signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Prompt and efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is necessary to prevent secondary necrosis of dying cells, and to avoid immune responses to autoantigens. Recent studies have shed light on how apoptotic cells through soluble ‘find-me signals’ advertise their presence to phagocytes at the earliest stages of cell death. Phagocytes sense the find-me signal gradient, and in turn the presence of dying cells, and migrate to their vicinity. The apoptotic cells also expose specific eat-me signals on their surface that are recognized by phagocytes through specific engulfment receptors. This review covers the recent progress in the areas of find-me and eat-me signals, and how these relate to prompt and immunologically silent clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:22035837

  2. Cardiac Fas-Dependent and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Pathways in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bor-Tsang; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Tasi, Ching-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Kao, Chung-Lan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da

    2016-04-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Heart disease is the second leading cause of death in patients with Huntington's disease. This study was to evaluate whether cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways are activated in transgenic mice with Huntington's disease. Sixteen Huntington's disease transgenic mice (HD) and sixteen wild-type (WT) littermates were studied at 10.5 weeks of age. The cardiac characteristics, myocardial architecture, and two major apoptotic pathways in the excised left ventricle from mice were measured by histopathological analysis, Western blotting, and TUNEL assays. The whole heart weight and the left ventricular weight decreased significantly in the HD group, as compared to the WT group. Abnormal myocardial architecture, enlarged interstitial spaces, and more cardiac TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the HD group. The key components of Fas-dependent apoptosis (TNF-alpha, TNFR1, Fas ligand, Fas death receptors, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3) and the key components of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis (Bax, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, cytosolic cytochrome c, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3) increased significantly in the hearts of the HD group. Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways were activated in transgenic mice with Huntington's disease, which might provide one of possible mechanisms to explain why patients with Huntington's disease will develop heart failure.

  3. Deoxynivalenol induces apoptosis in PC12 cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xichun; Xu, Wei; Fan, Mengxue; Meng, Tingting; Chen, Xiaofang; Jiang, Yunjing; Zhu, Dianfeng; Hu, Wenjuan; Gong, Jiajie; Feng, Shibin; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has broad toxicity in animals and humans. In this study the impact of DON treatment on apoptotic pathways in PC12 cells was determined. The effects of DON were evaluated on (i) typical indicators of apoptosis, including cellular morphology, cell activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and apoptosis ratio in PC12 cells, and on (ii) the expression of key genes and proteins related to apoptosis, including Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, cytochrome C (Cyt C), apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), cleaved-Caspase9, and cleaved-Caspase3. DON treatment inhibited proliferation of PC12 cells, induced significant morphological changes and apoptosis, promoted the release of Cyt C and AIF from the mitochondria, and increased the activities of cleaved-Caspase9 and cleaved-Caspase3. Bcl-2 expression decreased with increasing DON concentrations, in contrast to Bax and Bid, which were increased with increasing DON concentration. These data demonstrate that DON induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  4. 4-methylcatechol-Induced Oxidative Stress Induces Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Florastina; Bose, Rumu; Alworth, William L; Kumar, Addanki P; Ghosh, Rita

    2011-01-01

    There has been a steady rise in fatalities associated with thick melanomas (>4mm). Although understanding of the biology of the disease has improved, effective treatment strategies for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma remain elusive. Therefore, more intensive testing of agents with therapeutic potential are needed to improve survival of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. We have tested the ability of 4-methylcatechol, a metabolite of quercetin; a naturally occurring compound that is commonly found in a variety of fruits for its potential as an anti-melanoma agent. Our results show that 4-methylcatechol inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells in culture while not affecting the growth of normal human epidermal melanocytes. Further, the ability of metastatic melanoma cells to form colonies on soft agar was also inhibited. 4-methylcatechol caused the accumulation of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. There was an increase in reactive oxygen species following treatment with 4-methylcatechol that led to apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Treatment also inhibited cell survival mediated by Akt, a key player in melanoma cell survival. Taken together our results suggest that 4-methylcatechol exhibits cytotoxicity towards metastatic malignant melanoma cells while sparing normal melanocytes and should be tested further as a potential drug candidate for malignant melanoma. PMID:21419106

  5. The Role of c-FLIP(L) in Regulating Apoptotic Pathways in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Abnormalities in programmed cell death (apoptosis) machinery play a crucial role in initiation, progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. Therefore...in apoptotic machinery play a crucial role in initiation, progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. c-FLIP(L), an anti-apoptotic molecule, has...Massachusetts General Hospital; 2Division of Urologic Surgery ; 3Center for Genomics and 4Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard

  6. Inorganic mercury causes pancreatic beta-cell death via the oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and necrotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yawen; Huang Chunfa; Yang Chingyao; Yen Chengchieh; Tsai Kehsung; Liu Shinghwa

    2010-03-15

    Mercury is a well-known highly toxic metal. In this study, we characterize and investigate the cytotoxicity and its possible mechanisms of inorganic mercury in pancreatic beta-cells. Mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) dose-dependently decreased the function of insulin secretion and cell viability in pancreatic beta-cell-derived HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. HgCl{sub 2} significantly increased ROS formation in HIT-T15 cells. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine effectively reversed HgCl{sub 2}-induced insulin secretion dysfunction in HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Moreover, HgCl{sub 2} increased sub-G1 hypodiploids and annexin-V binding in HIT-T15 cells, indicating that HgCl{sub 2} possessed ability in apoptosis induction. HgCl{sub 2} also displayed several features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals including disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activations of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3. Exposure of HIT-T15 cells to HgCl{sub 2} could significantly increase both apoptotic and necrotic cell populations by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining. Meanwhile, HgCl{sub 2} could also trigger the depletion of intracellular ATP levels and increase the LDH release from HIT-T15 cells. These HgCl{sub 2}-induced cell death-related signals could be significantly reversed by N-acetylcysteine. The intracellular mercury levels were markedly elevated in HgCl{sub 2}-treated HIT-T15 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HgCl{sub 2}-induced oxidative stress causes pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity involved the co-existence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death.

  7. The Effect of Selenium on the Cd-Induced Apoptosis via NO-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in Chicken Liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runxiang; Yi, Ran; Bi, Yanju; Xing, Lu; Bao, Jun; Li, Jianhong

    2017-01-06

    Cd-induced apoptosis and the protective effects of Se against Cd-induced injury have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Cd-induced apoptosis in hepatic cells and the antagonistic effects of Se on Cd in poultry. In the present study, 128 healthy 31-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into four groups, which were fed basic diets, with the addition of Se (Na2SeO3, 2 mg/kg), Cd (CdCl2, 150 mg/kg), or Se + Cd (150 mg/kg of CdCl2 and 2 mg/kg of Na2SeO3) for 90 days. Ultrastructural changes, nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities, results of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay of apoptosis, and the expression of iNOS and apoptosis-related genes in livers were determined. It was observed that Cd treatment significantly increased the concentrations of NO and iNOS activity in chicken livers. The production of excessive NO initiated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Exposure to Cd increased the mRNA and the protein expression levels of iNOS, caspase-3, Bax, p53, and Cyt-c. Furthermore, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 decreased. Treatment with Se significantly alleviated Cd-induced apoptosis in chicken livers, as evidenced by a reduction in the production of NO, iNOS activity, the number of apoptotic cells, and mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS, caspase-3, Bax, and Cyt-c. It indicated that Cd induced NO-mediated apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and Se exerted antagonizing effects. The present study provides new insights as to how Se affects Cd-induced toxicity in the chicken liver.

  8. The ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum attenuates ultraviolet B radiation-induced apoptotic cell death via regulation of MAPK- and caspase-dependent signaling pathways in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Zheng, Jian; Yao, Cheng Wen; Cha, Ji Won; Boo, Sun Jin; Yoon, Weon Jong; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Ko, Mi Hee; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-09-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that an ethyl acetate extract derived from Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fenshol (SME) protected human HaCaT keratinocytes against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant activity in the cells, thereby inhibiting apoptosis. The aim of the current study was to further elucidate the anti-apoptotic mechanism of SME against UVB-induced cell damage. The expression levels of several apoptotic-associated and mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signaling proteins were determined by western blot analysis of UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells with or without prior SME treatment. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was detected using flow cytometry or confocal microscopy and the mitochondria membrane-permeate dye, JC-1. Apoptosis was assessed by quantifying DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. Furthermore, cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. SME absorbed electromagnetic radiation in the UVB range (280-320 nm) of the UV/visible light spectrum. SME also increased Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expression in UVB-irradiated cells and decreased the Bax expression. Moreover, SME inhibited the UVB-induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented UVB-mediated increases in activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 (an apoptotic initiator and executor, respectively) levels. Notably, treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor enhanced the anti-apoptotic effects of SME in UVB-irradiated cells. Finally, SME reduced the UVB-mediated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK, and prevented the UVB-mediated dephosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt. The present results indicate that SME safeguards HaCaT keratinocytes from UVB-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting a caspase-dependent signaling pathway.

  9. Mouse cytotoxic T cell-derived granzyme B activates the mitochondrial cell death pathway in a Bim-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Elena; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Aguiló, Nacho; Simon, Markus M; Froelich, Christopher J; Pardo, Julián

    2015-03-13

    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) use perforin and granzyme B (gzmB) to kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that human gzmB primarily induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway by either cleaving Bid or activating Bim leading to the activation of Bak/Bax and subsequent generation of active caspase-3. In contrast, mouse gzmB is thought to predominantly induce apoptosis by directly processing pro-caspase-3. However, in certain mouse cell types gzmB-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. To investigate whether Bim is involved under the latter conditions, we have now employed ex vivo virus-immune mouse Tc that selectively kill by using perforin and gzmB (gzmB(+)Tc) as effector cells and wild type as well as Bim- or Bak/Bax-deficient spontaneously (3T9) or virus-(SV40) transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as targets. We show that gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis (phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation) was severely reduced in 3T9 cells lacking either Bim or both Bak and Bax. This outcome was related to the ability of Tc cells to induce the degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, the anti-apoptotic counterparts of Bim. In contrast, gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis was not affected in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells lacking Bak/Bax. The data provide evidence that Bim participates in mouse gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis of certain targets by activating the mitochondrial pathway and suggest that the mode of cell death depends on the target cell. Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB(+)Tc-induced death pathways.

  10. Mouse Cytotoxic T Cell-derived Granzyme B Activates the Mitochondrial Cell Death Pathway in a Bim-dependent Fashion*

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Elena; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Aguiló, Nacho; Simon, Markus M.; Froelich, Christopher J.; Pardo, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) use perforin and granzyme B (gzmB) to kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that human gzmB primarily induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway by either cleaving Bid or activating Bim leading to the activation of Bak/Bax and subsequent generation of active caspase-3. In contrast, mouse gzmB is thought to predominantly induce apoptosis by directly processing pro-caspase-3. However, in certain mouse cell types gzmB-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. To investigate whether Bim is involved under the latter conditions, we have now employed ex vivo virus-immune mouse Tc that selectively kill by using perforin and gzmB (gzmB+Tc) as effector cells and wild type as well as Bim- or Bak/Bax-deficient spontaneously (3T9) or virus-(SV40) transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as targets. We show that gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis (phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation) was severely reduced in 3T9 cells lacking either Bim or both Bak and Bax. This outcome was related to the ability of Tc cells to induce the degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, the anti-apoptotic counterparts of Bim. In contrast, gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis was not affected in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells lacking Bak/Bax. The data provide evidence that Bim participates in mouse gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis of certain targets by activating the mitochondrial pathway and suggest that the mode of cell death depends on the target cell. Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB+Tc-induced death pathways. PMID:25605735

  11. Microcystin-LR Induced Apoptosis in Rat Sertoli Cells via the Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Pathway: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Liu, Chuanrui; Fu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shenshen; Xin, Yongjuan; Li, Yang; Xue, Lijian; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). After exposure to various concentrations of MC-LR for 24 h, the growth of Sertoli cells was concentration-dependently decreased with an IC50 of ~32 μg/mL. Mitochondria-mediated apoptotic changes were observed in Sertoli cells exposed to 8, 16, and 32 μg/mL MC-LR including the increased expression of caspase pathway proteins, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and generation of ROS. Pretreatment with a global caspase inhibitor was found to depress the activation of caspases, and eventually increased the survival rate of Sertoli cells, implying that the mitochondrial caspases pathway is involved in MC-LR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, N-acetyl-l-cysteine attenuated the MC-LR-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and cytochrome c release, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Taken together, the observed results suggested that MC-LR induced apoptotic death of Sertoli cells by the activation of mitochondrial caspases cascade, while its effects on the ROS-mediated signaling pathway may contribute toward the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27667976

  12. Mechanisms of drug sensitization to TRA-8, an agonistic death receptor 5 antibody, involve modulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Amm, Hope M; Zhou, Tong; Steg, Adam D; Kuo, Huichien; Li, Yufeng; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2011-04-01

    TRA-8, a monoclonal antibody to death receptor 5 induces apoptosis in various cancer cells; however, the degree of sensitivity varies from highly sensitive to resistant. We have previously shown that resistance to TRA-8 can be reversed by using chemotherapeutic agents, but the mechanism underlying this sensitization was not fully understood. Here, we examined the combination of TRA-8 with doxorubicin or bortezomib in breast cancer cells. In TRA-8-resistant BT-474 and T47D cells, both chemotherapy agents synergistically sensitized cells to TRA-8 cytotoxicity with enhanced activation of apoptosis shown by cleavage of caspases and PARP, reduced Bid, increased proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, and increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Doxorubicin or bortezomib combined with TRA-8 also reduced Bcl-XL and X-linked inhibitors of apoptosis (XIAP) in treated cells. Furthermore, targeting these proteins with pharmacologic modulators, AT-101, BH3I-2' and AT-406, produced sensitization to TRA-8. TRA-8 combined with AT-101 or BH3I-2', inhibitors of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, produced synergistic cytotoxicity against ZR-75-1, BT-474, and T47D cells. The IAP-targeting compound, AT-406, was synergistic with TRA-8 in BT-474 cells, and to a lesser extent T47D cells. Activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was a common mechanism associated with sensitization of TRA-8-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Collectively, these studies show that the Bcl-2 and IAP families of proteins are involved in TRA-8 and chemotherapy resistance via their modulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Targeting these proteins with novel agents sensitized TRA-8-resistant breast cancer cells, suggesting this approach may represent a potent therapeutic strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. ©2011 AACR.

  13. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species

  14. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    van Griensven, Leo Jld; Verhoeven, Harrie A

    2013-12-18

    The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species seems to play an important role in cell

  15. Role of SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial and Akt pathways in glioblastoma cell death induced by Cotinus coggygria flavonoid nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Jun Jie; To, Tony SS; Zhao, Hua Fu; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, the major polyphenol components in Cotinus coggygria (CC), have been found to show an anticancer effect in our previous study; however, the exact mechanisms of inducing human glioblastoma (GBM) cell death remain to be resolved. In this study, a novel polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30/sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyethyleneglycol-coated liposome loaded with CC flavonoids (CCFs) was developed to enhance solubility and the antibrain tumor effect, and the molecular mechanism regarding how CCF nanoliposomes (CCF-NLs) induce apoptotic cell death in vitro was investigated. DBTRG-05MG GBM cell lines treated with CCF-NLs showed potential antiproliferative effects. Regarding the underlying mechanisms of inducing apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG GBM cells, CCF-NLs were shown to downregulate the expression of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2), an apoptosis-related protein family member, but the expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein was enhanced compared with that in controls. CCF-NLs also inhibited the activity of caspase-3 and -9, which is the initiator caspase of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Blockade of caspase activation consistently induced apoptosis and inhibited growth in CCF-NL-treated DBTRG-05MG cells. This study further investigated the role of the Akt pathway in the apoptotic cell death by CCF-NLs, showing that CCF-NLs deactivated Akt. Specifically, CCF-NLs downregulated the expression of p-Akt and SIRT1 as well as the level of phosphorylated p53. Together, these results indicated SIRT1/p53-mediated cell death was induced by CCF-NLs, but not by extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in DBTRG-05MG cells. Overall, this study suggested caspase-dependent activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways, probably through blockade of the SIRT1/p53-mediated mitochondrial and Akt pathways to exert the proapoptotic effect of CCF-NLs in DBTRG-05MG GBM cells. PMID:26345416

  16. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the ethanolic herbal extract of Achillea falcata in human cervical cancer cells are mediated via cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial membrane potential loss.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing; Zang, Yong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most common malignancy in females and most of the cases are found in developing countries. The objectives of the present study were (a): to demonstrate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Achillea falcata (A.falcata) extract in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and (b): to study the effect of the extract on cellular morphology, cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential. MTT assay was used to evaluate the anticancer effect of the extract on HeLa cells. Phase contrast, fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the morphological changes in these cancer cells after extract treatment. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the effects of the extract on cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results revealed that A. falcata extract led to a significant antiproliferative effect in HeLa cancer cells. The extract induced cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation and appearance of apoptotic bodies which are the hallmarks of cellular apoptosis. TEM results showed that extract-treated cells had nuclear membrane which was hemispherical and the nuclear chromatin was concentrated and bundled on the inner border of karyotheca. The endoplasmic reticulum also became enlarged in the inner segment. The extract also induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Achillea falcata extract induced potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in HeLa cells. This was accompanied by cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in these cancer cells.

  17. A polysaccharide from Glycyrrhiza inflata Licorice inhibits proliferation of human oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huan; Zeng, Guang; Sun, Bin; Cai, Xingwei; Bi, Lixia; Tang, Guo; Yang, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we isolated and characterized a water-soluble polysaccharide (GIP1) from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of GIP1 on the human oral cancer SCC-25 cell line and to explore the possible mechanism. Our experimental result showed that GIP1 (50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) specifically decreased cell viability of SCC-25 cells in a concentration-dependent manner via the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that exposure of SCC-25 cells to GIP1 led to down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, thus causing a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Moreover, we observed activation of the initiator caspaes-9, and the effector caspases-3, but not caspase-8. Concomitantly, GIP1-induced apoptosis can be blocked by caspase-3- or caspase-9-specific inhibitor, but not caspase-8 inhibitor. As well, the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, as a caspae-3 substrate, occurred in SCC-25 cells following GIP1 treatment at three concentrations. Collectively, our results showed that the GIP1 induced apoptosis in SCC-25 cells involving a caspase-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  18. AS-2, a novel inhibitor of p53-dependent apoptosis, prevents apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction in a transcription-independent manner and protects mice from a lethal dose of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Akinori; Ariyasu, Shinya; Wang, Bing; Asanuma, Tetsuo; Onoda, Takayoshi; Sawa, Akiko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ippei; Togami, Shotaro; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Toshiya; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • A bidentate HQ derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis by DNA damage. • AS-2 does not significantly affect nuclear p53 response. • UV-excited blue emission of AS-2 clearly showed its extranuclear localization. • AS-2 prevents mitochondrial dysfunction despite the increase of mitochondrial p53. • AS-2 protects mice from a radiation dose that causes lethal hematopoietic syndrome. - Abstract: In a previous study, we reported that some tetradentate zinc(II) chelators inhibit p53 through the denaturation of its zinc-requiring structure but a chelator, Bispicen, a potent inhibitor of in vitro apoptosis, failed to show any efficient radioprotective effect against irradiated mice because the toxicity of the chelator to mice. The unsuitability of using tetradentate chelators as radioprotectors prompted us to undertake a more extensive search for p53-inhibiting agents that are weaker zinc(II) chelators and therefore less toxic. Here, we show that an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis through a transcription-independent mechanism. A mechanistic study using cells with different p53 characteristics revealed that the suppressive effect of AS-2 on apoptosis is specifically mediated through p53. In addition, AS-2 was less effective in preventing p53-mediated transcription-dependent events than pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Fluorescence visualization of the extranuclear distribution of AS-2 also supports that it is ineffective on the transcription-dependent pathway. Further investigations revealed that AS-2 suppressed mitochondrial apoptotic events, such as the mitochondrial release of intermembrane proteins and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, although AS-2 resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial translocation of p53 as opposed to the decrease of cytosolic p53, and did not affect the apoptotic interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. AS-2 also

  19. Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced Cell Death Through Inhibition of Mitochondrial Intrinsic Cell Death Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Li; Kumari, Santosh; Mendelev, Natalia; Li, P. Andy

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) induces cell death by increasing free radical production, activating apoptotic cell death pathways and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, serves as a potent antioxidant in the mitochondria. The aim of the present study is to establish whether CoQ10 is capable of protecting neuronal cells against UVB-induced damage. Murine hippocampal HT22 cells were treated with 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM of CoQ10 3 or 24 h prior to the cells being exposed to UVB irradiation. The CoQ10 concentrations were maintained during irradiation and 24 h post-UVB. Cell viability was assessed by counting viable cells and MTT conversion assay. Superoxide production and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured using fluorescent probes. Levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were detected using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. The results showed that UVB irradiation decreased cell viability and such damaging effect was associated with increased superoxide production, mitochondrial depolarization, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Treatment with CoQ10 at three different concentrations started 24 h before UVB exposure significantly increased the cell viability. The protective effect of CoQ10 was associated with reduction in superoxide production, normalization of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. It is concluded that the neuroprotective effect of CoQ10 results from inhibiting oxidative stress and blocking caspase-3 dependent cell death pathway. PMID:22174665

  20. Genes regulated in neurons undergoing transcription-dependent apoptosis belong to signaling pathways rather than the apoptotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Desagher, Solange; Severac, Dany; Lipkin, Alexey; Bernis, Cyril; Ritchie, William; Le Digarcher, Anne; Journot, Laurent

    2005-02-18

    Neuronal apoptosis has been shown to require de novo RNA/protein synthesis. However, very few genes whose expression is necessary for inducing apoptosis have been identified so far. To systematically identify such genes, we have used genome-scale, long oligonucleotide microarrays and characterized the gene expression profile of cerebellar granule neurons in the early phase of apoptosis elicited by KCl deprivation. We identified 368 significantly differentially expressed genes, including most of the genes previously reported to be transcriptionally regulated in this paradigm. In addition, we identified several hundreds of genes whose transcriptional regulation has never been associated with neuronal apoptosis. We used automated Gene Ontology annotation, analysis of promoter sequences, and statistical tools to characterize these regulations. Although differentially expressed genes included some components of the apoptotic machinery, this functional category was not significantly over-represented among regulated genes. On the other hand, categories related to signal transduction were the most significantly over-represented group. This indicates that the apoptotic machinery is mainly constitutive, whereas molecular pathways that lead to the activation of apoptotic components are transcriptionally regulated. In particular, we show for the first time that signaling pathways known to be involved in the control of neuronal survival are regulated at the transcriptional level and not only by post-translational mechanisms. Moreover, our approach provides insights into novel transcription factors and novel mechanisms, such as the unfolded protein response and cell adhesion, that may contribute to the induction of neuronal apoptosis.

  1. Circadian acetylome reveals regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Patel, Vishal R.; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L.; Peleg, Shahaf; Forne, Ignasi; Ladurner, Andreas G.; Baldi, Pierre; Imhof, Axel; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is constituted by a complex molecular network that integrates a number of regulatory cues needed to maintain organismal homeostasis. To this effect, posttranslational modifications of clock proteins modulate circadian rhythms and are thought to convert physiological signals into changes in protein regulatory function. To explore reversible lysine acetylation that is dependent on the clock, we have characterized the circadian acetylome in WT and Clock-deficient (Clock−/−) mouse liver by quantitative mass spectrometry. Our analysis revealed that a number of mitochondrial proteins involved in metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by clock-driven acetylation. Pathways such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were found to be highly enriched hits. The significant number of metabolic pathways whose protein acetylation profile is altered in Clock−/− mice prompted us to link the acetylome to the circadian metabolome previously characterized in our laboratory. Changes in enzyme acetylation over the circadian cycle and the link to metabolite levels are discussed, revealing biological implications connecting the circadian clock to cellular metabolic state. PMID:23341599

  2. Circadian acetylome reveals regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Masri, Selma; Patel, Vishal R; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Peleg, Shahaf; Forne, Ignasi; Ladurner, Andreas G; Baldi, Pierre; Imhof, Axel; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-02-26

    The circadian clock is constituted by a complex molecular network that integrates a number of regulatory cues needed to maintain organismal homeostasis. To this effect, posttranslational modifications of clock proteins modulate circadian rhythms and are thought to convert physiological signals into changes in protein regulatory function. To explore reversible lysine acetylation that is dependent on the clock, we have characterized the circadian acetylome in WT and Clock-deficient (Clock(-/-)) mouse liver by quantitative mass spectrometry. Our analysis revealed that a number of mitochondrial proteins involved in metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by clock-driven acetylation. Pathways such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were found to be highly enriched hits. The significant number of metabolic pathways whose protein acetylation profile is altered in Clock(-/-) mice prompted us to link the acetylome to the circadian metabolome previously characterized in our laboratory. Changes in enzyme acetylation over the circadian cycle and the link to metabolite levels are discussed, revealing biological implications connecting the circadian clock to cellular metabolic state.

  3. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial caspase-dependent signaling pathways in murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Sasmal, D; Bhaskar, Amand; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal; Thakur, Aman; Sharma, Neelima

    2016-07-01

    Deltamethrin (DLM) is a well-known pyrethroid insecticide used extensively in pest control. Exposure to DLM has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in various cells. However, the immunotoxic effects of DLM on mammalian system and its mechanism is still an open question to be explored. To explore these effects, this study has been designed to first observe the interactions of DLM to immune cell receptors and its effects on the immune system. The docking score revealed that DLM has strong binding affinity toward the CD45 and CD28 receptors. In vitro study revealed that DLM induces apoptosis in murine splenocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. The earliest markers of apoptosis such as enhanced reactive oxygen species and caspase 3 activation are evident as early as 1 h by 25 and 50 µM DLM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase and Bax expression is increased in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas Bcl 2 expression is significantly reduced after 3 h of DLM treatment. Glutathione depletion has been also observed at 3 and 6 h by 25 and 50 µM concentration of DLM. Flow cytometry results imply that the fraction of hypodiploid cells has gradually increased with all the concentrations of DLM at 18 h. N-acetyl cysteine effectively reduces the percentage of apoptotic cells, which is increased by DLM. In contrast, buthionine sulfoxamine causes an elevation in the percentage of apoptotic cells. Phenotyping data imply the effect of DLM toxicity in murine splenocytes. In brief, the study demonstrates that DLM causes apoptosis through its interaction with CD45 and CD28 receptors, leading to oxidative stress and activation of the mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathways which ultimately affects the immune functions. This study provides mechanistic information by which DLM causes toxicity in murine splenocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 808-819, 2016.

  4. Interferon-γ Exacerbates Dry Eye–Induced Apoptosis in Conjunctiva through Dual Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wei; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Corrales, Rosa M.; Volpe, Eugene A.; McClellan, Andrew J.; Farley, William J.; Li, De-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-γ in dry eye–associated conjunctival apoptosis. Methods. Desiccating stress (DS) was created in C57BL/6 (B6) and C57BL/6 IFN-γ-knockout (B6γKO) mice. A separate group of mice of both strains also received subconjunctival injections of exogenous IFN-γ or vehicle control (BSA) at days 0, +2, and +4 after DS. Immunoreactivity to active (Ac)-caspase-3, -8, and -9 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) were evaluated in cryosections. Goblet cell apoptosis was assessed by MUC5AC and TUNEL double staining. Levels of caspase-3, -8, -9, Fas, and Fas-associated protein with Death Domain (FADD) mRNA in conjunctiva were measured by real-time PCR. The activity of caspase-3, -8, or -9 was measured using fluorometric assay. Results. Increased Ac-caspase-3 and -8 and TUNEL immunoreactivity were noted in conjunctival epithelia in B6 mice compared with B6γKO mice after DS, and exogenous IFN-γ administration further increased these parameters. DS-induced conjunctival apoptosis was greatest in the goblet cell area and was accompanied by a decrease in MUC5AC expression in the B6 and B6-IFN-γ–injected groups compared with the B6γKO and B6-BSA–injected groups. B6γKO mice were resistant to DS-induced apoptosis; however, B6γKO receiving IFN-γ yielded results similar to those for B6 wild-type. Caspase-9 production and activity were not increased with DS in B6 or B6γKO mice; however, the administration of IFN-γ significantly increased caspase-9 production and activity in both strains compared with vehicle-injected mice. Conclusions. IFN-γ plays a pivotal role in exacerbating conjunctival apoptosis through dual apoptotic pathways with DS. PMID:21474767

  5. Dihydromethysticin kavalactone induces apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells through modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun-Qi; Huang, Yi-Gang; He, Ai-Na

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the tumor and apoptotic effects of dihydromethysticin kavalactone against human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells. Antiproliferative activity was measured with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis induction by dihydromethysticin was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, quantitative videomicroscopy and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit. Mitochondrial membrane potential disruption was demonstrated by rhodamine-123 dye using flow cytometry. We also evaluated the effect of dihydromethysticin on PI3K/Akt pathway with an immunoblotting analysis. The results showed that the compound induced dose-dependent as well as time-dependent antiproliferative effects against MG-63 cell growth. Cell death and apoptotic body formation was noticed followed dihydromethysticin treatment at various doses. The percentage of apoptotic cells (early apoptosis+late apoptosis) increased from 6.63% in untreated control to 23.92%, 23.81% and 93.9% in 25 µM, 75 µM and 100 µ Mdihydromethysticin-treated cells respectively. Flow cytometric analysis showed dihydromethysticin induced an increase in G0/G1 cells (apoptotic cells). Furthermore, we observed mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization along with decreased phosphorylation levels for PI3K, AKT (Ser 473), AKT (Thr 308), GSK-3β, and BAD. These reductions were associated with down regulation of AKT and upregulation of both GSK-3β and BAD.

  6. Extracellular polymeric substance from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xing; Lv, Ying; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Youhong; Zhang, Lili; Xu, Shiyuan

    2015-09-01

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is a substance secreted during algal growth, which has been found to have numerous health-promoting effects. In the present study, A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were selected as target cells and cultivated in vitro as an experimental model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of extracellular polymeric substances from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (EPS-A) and the possible underlying mechanism. Apoptosis- and cell cycle-associated molecules as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells were quantified using flow cytometry (FCM). FCM showed that EPS-A induced cell cycle arrest, which led to a loss of mitochondrial function of the A431 cells and an increase in necrotic and late apoptotic cells. In order to evaluate the apoptosis and cell viability, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used, morphological changes were observed using fluorescence microscopy and typical apoptotic characteristics were observed. Following treatment with a high dose of EPS-A, transmission electron microscopy showed nuclear fragmentation, chromosome condensation, cell shrinkage and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum; apoptotic bodies were also observed. In conclusion, EPS-A caused cell cycle arrest, stimulated cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and exhibited important anti-cancer activity.

  7. Extracellular polymeric substance from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    XUE, XING; LV, YING; LIU, QING; ZHANG, XIAOLAN; ZHAO, YOUHONG; ZHANG, LILI; XU, SHIYUAN

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is a substance secreted during algal growth, which has been found to have numerous health-promoting effects. In the present study, A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were selected as target cells and cultivated in vitro as an experimental model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of extracellular polymeric substances from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (EPS-A) and the possible underlying mechanism. Apoptosis- and cell cycle-associated molecules as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells were quantified using flow cytometry (FCM). FCM showed that EPS-A induced cell cycle arrest, which led to a loss of mitochondrial function of the A431 cells and an increase in necrotic and late apoptotic cells. In order to evaluate the apoptosis and cell viability, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used, morphological changes were observed using fluorescence microscopy and typical apoptotic characteristics were observed. Following treatment with a high dose of EPS-A, transmission electron microscopy showed nuclear fragmentation, chromosome condensation, cell shrinkage and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum; apoptotic bodies were also observed. In conclusion, EPS-A caused cell cycle arrest, stimulated cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and exhibited important anti-cancer activity. PMID:26622416

  8. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuates Ethanol-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Damage in Mice: Role of Mitochondrial Death Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Methods ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Results Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O2•−. Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-α, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis. PMID:20090911

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-18

    Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2) (*-). Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  10. Diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide ameliorate cardiac dysfunction by suppressing apoptotic and enhancing survival pathways in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Te; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Way, Chia-Li; Lee, Kung-Wei; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Kuo, Wei-Wen

    2013-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of mortality in diabetic patients. Mounting studies have shown that garlic exhibits, possibly through its antioxidant potential, diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effects of garlic oil (GO) and its two major components, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. Physiological cardiac parameters were obtained using echocardiography. Apoptotic cells were evaluated using TUNEL and DAPI staining. Protein expression levels were determined using Western blotting analysis. Our findings indicated that in diabetic rat hearts significantly decreased fractional shortening percentage, increased levels of nitrotyrosine, an elevated number of TUNEL-positive cells, enhanced levels of caspase 3 expression, and decreased PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activities were observed. Furthermore, all of these alterations were reversed following both GO and DATS (or DADS) administrations through increasing PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activities and inhibiting both the death receptor-dependent and the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, this study shows that DATS and DADS, with the efficacy order DATS > DADS, have the therapeutic potential for ameliorating diabetic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of GO on diabetic cardiomyopathy should be mainly from DATS and DADS.

  11. Topical Administration of the Mitochondrial PTP Opening Inhibitor CoQ10 Prevents Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by UVC-Irradiation in Rat's Corneas and Rabbit's Retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Schiavone, Nicola; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lulli, Matteo; Lazzarano, Stefano; Simoncini, Madine; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated in vitro that ubiquitous free radical scavenger coenzyme Q10 prevents keratocyte apoptosis induced by excimer laser irradiation more efficiently than other antioxidants. We showed that its anti apoptotic property is independent of its free radical scavenging ability and is related to direct inhibition of PTP (permeability transition pore) opening and mitochondrial depolarization. Here, we demonstrate in vivo, that CoQ10 can efficiently protect rat's corneas and rabbit's retinas irradiated with UVC. Therefore, we propose application of CoQ10 as countermeasure to prevent micro radiation-induced eye damage during interplanetary space exploration.

  12. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptotic insults to mouse cerebral endothelial cells via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.-G.; Chen, T.-L.; Chang, H.-C.; Tai, Y.-T.; Cherng, Y.-G.; Chang, Y.-T.; Chen, R.-M. . E-mail: rmchen@tmu.edu.tw

    2007-02-15

    Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, ox

  13. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptotic insults to mouse cerebral endothelial cells via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tyng-Guey; Chen, Ta-Liang; Chang, Huai-Chia; Tai, Yu-Ting; Cherng, Yih-Giun; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2007-02-15

    Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, ox

  14. 4'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde from Alpinia galanga (Linn.) induces human leukemic cell apoptosis via mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Punyati, Pimpinun; Nakrob, Aree; Pompimon, Wilart; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    Rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (Linn.) or 'Kha' in Thai are used in food and as folk medicine in South and Southeast Asia. The aims of this study were to identify the mechanism of cell death of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cells induced by 4'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (4'-HCA) isolated from A. galanga. 4'-HCA was cytotoxic to both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) as demonstrated by MTT assay. Apoptosis induced by 4'-HCA was demonstrated by a variety of methods: visualization of propidium iodide (PI)-stained cells under fluorescence microscope, detection of subdiploid cells by PI-staining and flow cytometry, and assay of active caspase-3 using a specific fluorogenic substrate. 4'-HCA-treated cells (10 and 50 μg/ml for 4 h) showed significant increase in reactive oxygen species production and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential as detected by dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide respectively, together with flow cytometry. The apoptotic death involved cytochrome c release, increase in Bax level and concomitant decreases in levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (using Western blotting), and elevation in cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca²⁺ contents (using compartment-specific fluorescent Ca2+ dyes). These results indicate that 4'-HCA induces apoptosis of human leukemic cell through a combination of mitochondrial and ER stress pathways.

  15. Diallyl trisulfide induces apoptosis of human basal cell carcinoma cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress and the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Chi; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Yang, Jen-Hung; Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an active component of garlic oil, has attracted much attention because of its anticancer effect on several types of cancers. However, the mechanism of DATS-induced apoptosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not fully understood. In the present study, we revealed that DATS-mediated dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in BCC cells was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. Western analysis demonstrated concordant expression of molecules involved in mitochondrial apoptosis, including DATS-associated increases in phospho-p53, proapoptotic Bax, and decreases in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in BCC cells. Moreover, DATS induced the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and HtrA2/Omi into the cytoplasm, and activated factors downstream of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis, including nuclear translocation of apoptotic-inducing factor and endonuclease G and the caspase cascade. These results were confirmed by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), the latter of which did not completely enhance the viability of DATS-treated BBC cells. Exposure to DATS additionally induced endogenous endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and intracellular Ca2⁺ mobilization, upregulation of Bip/GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153, and activation of caspase-4. Our findings suggest that DATS exerts chemopreventive potential via ER stress and the mitochondrial pathway in BCC cells.

  16. In vitro cytotoxicity of Mokko lactone in human leukemia HL-60 cells: induction of apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial membrane potential collapse.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y G; Oh, H; Oh, G S; Pae, H O; Choi, B M; Kwon, J W; Kwon, T O; Jang, S I; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2004-08-01

    We studied the effect of mokko lactone (ML) isolated from the roots of Saussurea lappa (Compositae), a plant that is used for medicinal purposes in Korea, on the induction of apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. ML was cytotoxic to HL-60 cells, and this cytotoxic effect of ML appears to be attributable to its induction of apoptotic cell death, as ML induced nuclear morphologic changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and increased the proportion of Annexin V-positive cells and the activity of caspase-3. Further studies revealed that the induction of apoptosis by ML was associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Collectively, our results suggest that apoptosis induced by ML in HL-60 cells was executed by a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential followed by the activation of caspase-3. This is the first report on the mechanism of apoptosis-inducing effect of ML.

  17. α-Lipoic acid attenuates vascular calcification via reversal of mitochondrial function and restoration of Gas6/Axl/Akt survival pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Han-Jong; Lee, Kyunghee; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hee Sun; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Joon-Young; Harris, Robert A; Jeong, Daewon; Lee, In-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular calcification is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several reports have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, little is known about the potential role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the process of vascular calcification. This study investigated the effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring antioxidant that improves mitochondrial function, on vascular calcification in vitro and in vivo. Calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) treated with inorganic phosphate (Pi) exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, the disruption of mitochondrial structural integrity and concurrently increased production of reactive oxygen species. These Pi-induced functional and structural mitochondrial defects were accompanied by mitochondria-dependent apoptotic events, including release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, subsequent activation of caspase-9 and -3, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Intriguingly, ALA blocked the Pi-induced VSMC apoptosis and calcification by recovery of mitochondrial function and intracellular redox status. Moreover, ALA inhibited Pi-induced down-regulation of cell survival signals through the binding of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) to its cognate receptor Axl and subsequent Akt activation, resulting in increased survival and decreased apoptosis. Finally, ALA significantly ameliorated vitamin D3-induced aortic calcification and mitochondrial damage in mice. Collectively, the findings suggest ALA attenuates vascular calcification by inhibiting VSMC apoptosis through two distinct mechanisms; preservation of mitochondrial function via its antioxidant potential and restoration of the Gas6/Axl/Akt survival pathway. PMID:21362131

  18. Fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Wang, Peisheng; Wang, Huaxin; Li, Qiaomei; Teng, Hongming; Liu, Zhichao; Yang, Wenbo; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2013-06-10

    Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of the fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated. SMMC-7721 cells exposed to fucoidan displayed growth inhibition and several typical features of apoptotic cells, such as chromatin condensation and marginalization, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, and in mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation. Fucoidan-induced cell death was associated with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), accumulation of high intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and accompanied by damage to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) and caspase activation. Moreover, fucoidan led to altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, including downregulating Livin and XIAP mRNA, which are members of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein (IAP) family, and increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These findings suggest that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  19. The H63D HFE gene variant promotes activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via mitochondria dysfunction following β-amyloid peptide exposure.

    PubMed

    Mairuae, Nootchanat; Hall Ii, Eric C; Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp; Lee, Sang Y; Connor, James R

    2010-11-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that the expression of the HFE allelic variant H63D may be a risk factor or genetic modifier for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The H63D variant alters cellular iron homeostasis and increases baseline oxidative stress. The elevated cellular stress milieu, we have proposed, may alter cellular responses to genetic and environmental determinants of AD. Accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) is one of the most prominent pathogenic characteristics of AD. Several studies have demonstrated that Aβ can induce neuronal cell death through apoptosis. In this study, we provide evidence that an Aβ(25-35) fragment, which contains the cytotoxic sequence of the amyloid peptide, activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells expressing the HFE allelic variant H63D to a greater extent than in cells with wild-type (WT) HFE. Specifically, Aβ(25-35) peptide exposure significantly induced Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria in H63D-expressing cells compared with WT cells. This translocation was associated with increased cytochrome c release from mitochondria and an increase in active caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity in H63D cells. Consequently, there is increased apoptosis in cells expressing the H63D variant as opposed to cells expressing WT HFE. We also found increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ(1-42) peptide in the mitochondrial compartment as well as increased mitochondrial stress in H63D-expressing cells compared with WT. These findings support our hypothesis that the presence of the HFE H63D allele enables factors that trigger neurodegenerative processes associated with AD and predisposes cells to cytotoxcity.

  20. Nesfatin-1 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+/MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the C-Raf–ERK1/2-dependent anti-apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Li; Song, Ning; Du, Xi-Xun; Li, Yong; Xie, Jun-Xia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Several brain-gut peptides have been reported to have a close relationship with the central dopaminergic system; one such brain-gut peptide is nesfatin-1. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety peptide that is predominantly secreted by X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric glands, where ghrelin is also secreted. We previously reported that ghrelin exerted neuroprotective effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons, which implied a role for ghrelin in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we aim to clarify whether nesfatin-1 has similar effects on dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro. We show that nesfatin-1 attenuates the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. In addition, nesfatin-1 antagonized 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridillium ion (MPP+)-induced toxicity by restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting cytochrome C release and preventing caspase-3 activation in MPP+-treated MES23.5 dopaminergic cells. These neuroprotective effects could be abolished by selective inhibition of C-Raf and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our data suggest that C-Raf-ERK1/2, which is involved in an anti-apoptotic pathway, is responsible for the neuroprotective effects of nesfatin-1 in the context of MPTP-induced toxicity. These results imply that nesfatin-1 might have therapeutic potential for PD. PMID:28106099

  1. Therapeutic targeting of liver cancer with a recombinant DNA vaccine containing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus via apoptotic-dependent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Gang; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Zheng, Tang-Hui; Chen, Xu; Li, Ping; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2016-01-01

    A total of ~38.6 million mortalities occur due to liver cancer annually, worldwide. Although a variety of therapeutic methods are available, the efficacy of treatment at present is extremely limited due to an increased risk of malignancy and inherently poor prognosis of liver cancer. Gene therapy is considered a promising option, and has shown notable potential for the comprehensive therapy of liver cancer, in keeping with advances that have been made in the development of cancer molecular biology. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of the abilities of the hemagglutinin neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the pro-apoptotic factor apoptin from chicken anaemia virus, and the interferon-γ inducer interleukin-18 (IL-18) in antagonizing liver cancer. Therefore, a recombinant DNA plasmid expressing the three exogenous genes, VP3, IL-18 and hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN), was constructed. Flow cytometry, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and analysis of caspase-3 activity were performed in H22 cell lines transfected with the recombinant DNA plasmid. In addition, 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a H22 hepatoma-bearing mouse model. Mice tumor tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the present study revealed that the recombinant DNA vaccine containing the VP3, IL-18 and HN genes inhibited cell proliferation and induced autophagy via the mitochondrial pathway in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27900002

  2. ROS generation mediates the anti-cancer effects of WZ35 via activating JNK and ER stress apoptotic pathways in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Peng; Zhang, Junru; Xia, Yiqun; Kanchana, Karvannan; Guo, Guilong; Chen, Wenbo; Huang, Yi; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, and finding novel agents and strategies for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is of urgent need. Curcumin is a well-known natural product with anti-cancer ability, but is limited by its poor chemical stability. In this study, an analog of curcumin with high chemical stability, WZ35, was designed and evaluated for its anti-cancer effects and underlying mechanisms against human gastric cancer. WZ35 showed much stronger anti-proliferative effects than curcumin, accompanied by dose-dependent induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Mechanistically, our data showed that WZ35 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, resulting in the activation of both JNK-mitochondrial and ER stress apoptotic pathways and eventually cell apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Blockage of ROS production totally reversed WZ35-induced JNK and ER stress activation as well as cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo, WZ35 showed a significant reduction in SGC-7901 xenograft tumor size in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, this work provides a novel anticancer candidate for the treatment of gastric cancer, and importantly, reveals that increased ROS generation might be an effective strategy in human gastric cancer treatment. PMID:25714022

  3. The crude extract of Corni Fructus induces apoptotic cell death through reactive oxygen species-modulated pathways in U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ching-Lung; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Yu, Chien-Chih; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tang, Nou-Ying; Wood, Wellington Gibson; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-09-01

    Crude extract of Corni Fructus (CECF) has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of different diseases for hundreds of years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of CECF on U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cells. Flow cytometry was used for measuring the percentage of viable cells, cell-cycle distribution, apoptotic cells in sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca(2+) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ). Comet assay and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining were used for examining DNA damage and condensation. Western blotting was used to examine apoptosis-associated protein levels in U-2 OS cells after exposed to CECF. Immunostaining and confocal laser system microscope were used to examine protein translocation after CECF incubation. CECF decreased the percentage of viability, induced DNA damage and DNA condensation, G₀/G₁ arrest, and apoptosis in U-2 OS cells. CECF-stimulated activities of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, ROS, and Ca(2+) production, decreased ΔΨm levels of in U-2 OS cells. CECF increased protein levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, cytochrome c, GRP78, AIF, ATF-6α, Fas, TRAIL, p21, p27, and p16 which were associated with cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings suggest that CECF triggers apoptosis in U-2 OS cells via ROS-modulated caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  4. Therapeutic targeting of liver cancer with a recombinant DNA vaccine containing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus via apoptotic-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Gang; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Zheng, Tang-Hui; Chen, Xu; Li, Ping; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2016-11-01

    A total of ~38.6 million mortalities occur due to liver cancer annually, worldwide. Although a variety of therapeutic methods are available, the efficacy of treatment at present is extremely limited due to an increased risk of malignancy and inherently poor prognosis of liver cancer. Gene therapy is considered a promising option, and has shown notable potential for the comprehensive therapy of liver cancer, in keeping with advances that have been made in the development of cancer molecular biology. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of the abilities of the hemagglutinin neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the pro-apoptotic factor apoptin from chicken anaemia virus, and the interferon-γ inducer interleukin-18 (IL-18) in antagonizing liver cancer. Therefore, a recombinant DNA plasmid expressing the three exogenous genes, VP3, IL-18 and hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN), was constructed. Flow cytometry, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and analysis of caspase-3 activity were performed in H22 cell lines transfected with the recombinant DNA plasmid. In addition, 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a H22 hepatoma-bearing mouse model. Mice tumor tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the present study revealed that the recombinant DNA vaccine containing the VP3, IL-18 and HN genes inhibited cell proliferation and induced autophagy via the mitochondrial pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  5. Involvement of caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway in ionic radiocontrast urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Cheng Tien; Weng, Te I.; Chen, Li Ping; Chiang, Chih Kang; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Contrast medium (CM) induces a direct toxic effect on renal tubular cells. This toxic effect subjects in the disorder of CM-induced nephropathy. Our previous work has demonstrated that CM shows to activate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related adaptive unfolding protein response (UPR) activators. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-related pathways play a protective role during the urografin (an ionic CM)-induced renal tubular injury. However, the involvement of ER stress-related apoptotic signals in the urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury remains unclear. Here, we examined by the in vivo and in vitro experiments to explore whether ER stress-regulated pro-apoptotic activators participate in urografin-induced renal injury. Urografin induced renal tubular dilation, tubular cells detachment, and necrosis in the kidneys of rats. The tubular apoptosis, ER stress-related pro-apoptotic transcriptional factors, and kidney injury marker-1 (kim-1) were also conspicuously up-regulated in urografin-treated rats. Furthermore, treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E tubular cells with urografin augmented the expressions of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Bax, caspase-12, JNK, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE) 1 signals. Urografin-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis was not reversed by the inhibitors of ATF-6, JNK signals or CHOP siRNA transfection, but it could be partially reversed by the inhibitor of caspase-12. Taken together, the present results and our previous findings suggest that exposure of CM/urografin activates the ER stress-regulated survival- and apoptosis-related signaling pathways in renal tubular cells. Caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway may be partially involved in the urografin-induced nephropathy. -- Highlights: ► Ionic contrast medium-urografin induces renal tubular cell apoptosis. ► Urografin induces the ER stress-regulated survival and apoptosis

  6. Cinnamaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells involves the mitochondrial death pathway and is sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporin A and z-VAD-fmk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chang, Shun-Pang; Chen, Jin-Liang; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-12-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) has been shown to exert chemopreventive activity against several types of human cancer cells. We previously reported that CIN induced apoptosis of human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells and this effect was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and the MAPK cascade. To further clarify the underlying mechanism of CIN-induced apoptosis, we examined in this study its relationship with the mitochondrial death pathway using the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), and the general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. Results indicated that CIN-induced apoptosis involved enhanced ROS generation, disruption of mitochondrial potential, and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO into the cytosol, which in turn promoted caspase-3 to its active form and the subsequent cleavage of PARP. Treatment with CIN also downregulated protein levels of the anti-apoptotic factors XIAP and Bcl-2 with concomitant accumulation of the pro-apoptotic Bax in a timedependent manner. These mitochondria-related apoptotic effects induced by CIN were however blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk pretreatments, which prevented cells from undergoing programmed cell death triggered by CIN. Furthermore, the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 and XIAP protein expression due to CIN treatment were also reversely modulated by the two inhibitors. Taken together, these results suggested that CIN is an apoptotic inducer that acts on the mitochondrial death pathway in PLC/PRF/5 cells and its effect could be blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk.

  7. Interferon α Induces the Apoptosis of Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells by Activating both the Intrinsic Mitochondrial Pathway and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Ye; Cao, Cheng; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The interferon α (IFN-α) has been often used as a sensitizing agent for the treatment of various malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and renal cell cancer by promoting the apoptosis of thesetumor cell types. However, the effect of IFN-α on cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, HeLa cells were used as a testing model for the treatment of IFN-α on cervical cancer. The results indicate that IFN-α markedly inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of HeLa cells. The activation of caspase 3, the up-regulation of both Bim and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1, the down-regulation of Bcl-xL, as well as the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were significantly induced upon IFN-α treatment, indicating that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway could be activated by IFN-α treatment. In addition, caspase 4—which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis—was activated in response to IFN-α treatment. Knocking down caspase 4 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly reduced the IFN-α-mediated cell apoptosis. However, no significant changes in the expressions of caspases 8 and 10 were observed upon IFN-α treatment, indicating that the apoptosis caused by IFN-α might be independent of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. These findings suggest that IFN-α may possess anti-cervical cancer capacity by activating cell apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and caspase-4-related ER stress-induced pathway. PMID:27827850

  8. Sonic hedgehog pathway activation increases mitochondrial abundance and activity in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Pamela J.; Manor, Uri; Petralia, Ronald S.; Brose, Rebecca D.; Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Ott, Carolyn; Wang, Ya-Xian; Charnoff, Ari; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mattson, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles whose biogenesis, structure, and function are regulated by many signaling pathways. We present evidence that, in hippocampal neurons, activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway affects multiple aspects of mitochondria. Mitochondrial mass was increased significantly in neurons treated with Shh. Using biochemical and fluorescence imaging analyses, we show that Shh signaling activity reduces mitochondrial fission and promotes mitochondrial elongation, at least in part, via suppression of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like GTPase Drp1. Mitochondria from Shh-treated neurons were more electron-dense, as revealed by electron microscopy, and had higher membrane potential and respiratory activity. We further show that Shh protects neurons against a variety of stresses, including the mitochondrial poison rotenone, amyloid β-peptide, hydrogen peroxide, and high levels of glutamate. Collectively our data suggest a link between Shh pathway activity and the physiological properties of mitochondria in hippocampal neurons. PMID:27932496

  9. MicroRNA-125a promotes resistance to BRAF inhibitors through suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Koetz-Ploch, Lisa; Hanniford, Douglas; Dolgalev, Igor; Sokolova, Elena; Zhong, Judy; Díaz-Martínez, Marta; Bernstein, Emily; Darvishian, Farbod; Flaherty, Keith T; Chapman, Paul B; Tawbi, Hussein; Hernando, Eva

    2017-01-31

    Melanoma patients with BRAF(V)(600E) -mutant tumors display striking responses to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi); however, almost all invariably relapse with drug-resistant disease. Here we report that microRNA-125a (miR-125a) expression is upregulated in human melanoma cells and patient tissues upon acquisition of BRAFi resistance. We show that miR-125a induction confers resistance to BRAF(V)(600E) melanoma cells to BRAFi by directly suppressing pro-apoptotic components of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, including BAK1 and MLK3. Apoptotic suppression and prolonged survival favor reactivation of the MAPK and AKT pathways by drug-resistant melanoma cells. We demonstrate that miR-125a inhibition suppresses the emergence of resistance to BRAFi and, in a subset of resistant melanoma cell lines, leads to partial drug re-sensitization. Finally, we show that miR-125a upregulation is mediated by TGFβ signaling. In conclusion, the identification of this novel role for miR-125a in BRAFi resistance exposes clinically relevant mechanisms of melanoma cell survival that can be exploited therapeutically. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles and Metabolic Pathways in the Amygdala Associated with Exaggerated Fear in an Animal Model of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Li, Xin; Smerin, Stanley E.; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Min; Xing, Guoqiang; Su, Yan A.; Wen, Jillian; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic mechanisms underlying the development of exaggerated fear in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well defined. In the present study, alteration in the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function in the amygdala of an animal model of PTSD was determined. Amygdala tissue samples were excised from 10 non-stressed control rats and 10 stressed rats, 14 days post-stress treatment. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined using a cDNA microarray. During the development of the exaggerated fear associated with PTSD, 48 genes were found to be significantly upregulated and 37 were significantly downregulated in the amygdala complex based on stringent criteria (p < 0.01). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed up- or downregulation in the amygdala complex of four signaling networks – one associated with inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, one with immune mediators and metabolism, one with transcriptional factors, and one with chromatin remodeling. Thus, informatics of a neuronal gene array allowed us to determine the expression profile of mitochondrial genes in the amygdala complex of an animal model of PTSD. The result is a further understanding of the metabolic and neuronal signaling mechanisms associated with delayed and exaggerated fear. PMID:25295026

  11. Britannin, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial signaling pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Fallahian, Faranak; Jafari, Seyyed Mehdi; Dolati, Masoumeh; Abdolmohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hajiahmadi, Sima; Esmaeili, Somayeh

    2015-02-01

    Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells can be a promising treatment method in cancer therapy. Naturally derived products had drawn growing attention as agent in cancer therapy. The main target of anticancer drugs may be distinct, but eventually, they lead to identical cell death pathway, which is apoptosis. Here, we indicated that britannin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Asteraceae family, has antiproliferative activity on the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and caspase-3/9 activity assay confirmed that britannin is able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. The Western blot analysis showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was noticeably decreased in response to britannin treatment, while the expression of Bax protein was increased, which were positively correlated with elevated expression of p53. Moreover, britannin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which in turn triggered the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and the subsequent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol. Taken together, these results suggest that britannin inhibits growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells through the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and may potentially serve as an agent for breast cancer therapy.

  12. Synergistic effect of fisetin combined with sorafenib in human cervical cancer HeLa cells through activation of death receptor-5 mediated caspase-8/caspase-3 and the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Te; Lin, Chia-Liang; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chu-Liang; Wu, Chih-Chien; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Tsai, Jen-Pi

    2016-05-01

    Combining antitumor agents with bioactive compounds is a potential strategy for improving the effect of chemotherapy on cancer cells. The goal of this study was to elucidate the antitumor effect of the flavonoid, fisetin, combined with the multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib, against human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The combination of fisetin and sorafenib synergistically induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, which is accompanied by a marked increase in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Apoptosis induction was achieved by caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation which increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and caused the subsequent cleavage of PARP level while disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential in HeLa cells. Decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio level and mitochondrial membrane potential were also observed in siDR5-treated HeLa cells. In addition, in vivo studies revealed that the combined fisetin and sorafenib treatment was clearly superior to sorafenib treatment alone using a HeLa xenograft model. Our study showed that the combination of fisetin and sorafenib exerted better synergistic effects in vitro and in vivo than either agent used alone against human cervical cancer, and this synergism was based on apoptotic potential through a mitochondrial- and DR5-dependent caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling pathway. This combined fisetin and sorafenib treatment represents a novel therapeutic strategy for further clinical developments in advanced cervical cancer.

  13. Upstream Pathways Controlling Mitochondrial Function in Major Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Pan, Alexander Yongshuai; da Silva, Tatiane Morgana; Duong, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is commonly observed in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and may be a central feature of psychosis. These illnesses are complex and heterogeneous, which is reflected by the complexity of the processes regulating mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are typically associated with energy production; however, dysfunction of mitochondria affects not only energy production but also vital cellular processes, including the formation of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle and survival, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and neurotransmission. In this review, we characterize the upstream components controlling mitochondrial function, including 1) mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, 2) mitochondrial dynamics, and 3) intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Characterizing and understanding the upstream factors that regulate mitochondrial function is essential to understand progression of these illnesses and develop biomarkers and therapeutics. PMID:27310240

  14. The Nrf2/ARE Pathway: A Promising Target to Counteract Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tufekci, Kemal Ugur; Civi Bayin, Ezgi; Genc, Sermin; Genc, Kursad

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases as strict regulation of integrated mitochondrial functions is essential for neuronal signaling, plasticity, and transmitter release. Many lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several PD-associated genes interface with mitochondrial dynamics regulating the structure and function of the mitochondrial network. Mitochondrial dysfunction can induce neuron death through a plethora of mechanisms. Both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation, a common denominator of PD, lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species, which are detrimental to neurons. The transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, NFE2L2) is an emerging target to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction and its consequences in PD. Nrf2 activates the antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, including a battery of cytoprotective genes such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory genes and several transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, the current knowledge about the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, Nrf2/ARE stress-response mechanisms, and the evidence for specific links between this pathway and PD are summarized. The neuroprotection of nigral dopaminergic neurons by the activation of Nrf2 through several inducers in PD is also emphasized as a promising therapeutic approach. PMID:21403858

  15. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  16. Tetrahydroxy stilbene glycoside (TSG) antagonizes Aβ-induced hippocampal neuron injury by suppressing mitochondrial dysfunction via Nrf2-dependent HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chenli; Gao, Feng; Ou, Li; Yu, Jinhua; Li, Min; Wei, Peifeng; Miao, Feng

    2017-10-05

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) ranks as a pivotal cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common devastating dementia form in elderly. Recent research corroborated the beneficial roles of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) in alleviating the learning and memory of AD model and aged mice. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Here, treatment with non-toxic TSG dose-dependently antagonized Aβ-induced cytotoxic death in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis. Furthermore, TSG also alleviated cell oxidative stress injury in response to Aβ by attenuating lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, ROS levels and MDA leakage. Importantly, TSG administration abrogated Aβ-triggered loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δym), release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial to cytosol, increase in caspase-3 activity and pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and decrease in Bcl-2 protein, indicating that TSG could rescue mitochondrial dysfunctions of neuron cells under adverse Aβ condition. Subsequently, TSG induced the activation of Nrf2-HO-1 pathway. Importantly, blocking this pathway by si-Nrf2 transfection or HO-1 antagonist ZnPP notably muted the cytoprotective effects of TSG on neuronal cell cytotoxic injury upon Aβ stimulation. Together, this research substantiated a new mechanism that TSG protectively antagonized Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal cell damage by restoring mitochondrial function via Nrf2-HO-1 pathway, implying a promising candidate against neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Withania somnifera alleviates parkinsonian phenotypes by inhibiting apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Westfall, Susan; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-12-01

    Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) are environmental toxins that have been experimentally used to induce selective damage of dopaminergic neurons leading to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this selective neuronal toxicity in not fully understood, oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by Withania somnifera (Ws), a herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic root extract of Ws was co-treated with the MB-PQ induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue canonical indicators of PD including compromised locomotor activity, reduced dopamine in the substantia nigra and various aspects of oxidative damage. In particular, Ws reduced the expression of iNOS, a measure of oxidative stress. Ws also significantly improved the MB + PQ mediated induction of a pro-apoptotic state by reducing Bax and inducing Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Finally, Ws reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory marker of astrocyte activation, GFAP. Altogether, the present study suggests that Ws treatment provides nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB-PQ induced Parkinsonism by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery possibly accounting for the behavioural effects.

  18. Downregulation of PI3-K/Akt/PTEN pathway and activation of mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis by Diclofenac and Curcumin in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Rana, Chandan; Piplani, Honit; Vaish, Vivek; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, S N

    2015-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/PTEN/Akt signaling is over activated in various tumors including colon cancer. Activation of this pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as apoptosis, metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell growth that underlie the biology of a cancer cell. In the present study, the chemopreventive effects have been observed of Diclofenac, a preferential COX-2 inhibitory non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and Curcumin, a natural anti-inflammatory agent, in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride in rats. The tumor-promoting role of PI3-K/Akt/PTEN signal transduction pathway and its association with anti-apoptotic family of proteins are also observed. Both Diclofenac and Curcumin downregulated the PI3-K and Akt expression while promoting the apoptotic mechanism. Diclofenac and Curcumin administration significantly increased the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (Bad and Bax) while decreasing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. An up-regulation of cysteine protease family apoptosis executioner, such as caspase-3 and -9, is seen. Diclofenac and Curcumin inhibited the Bcl-2 protein by directly interacting at the active site by multiple hydrogen bonding, as also evident by negative glide score of Bcl-2. These drugs stimulated apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and simultaneously decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ M). Diclofenac and Curcumin showed anti-neoplastic effects by downregulating PI3-K/Akt/PTEN pathway, inducing apoptosis, increasing ROS generation, and decreasing ΔΨ M. The anti-neoplastic and apoptotic effects were found enhanced when both Diclofenac and Curcumin were administered together, rather than individually.

  19. Highly efficient synthetic iron-dependent nucleases activate both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic death pathways in leukemia cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Horn, Adolfo; Fernandes, Christiane; Parrilha, Gabrieli L; Kanashiro, Milton M; Borges, Franz V; de Melo, Edésio J T; Schenk, Gerhard; Terenzi, Hernán; Pich, Claus T

    2013-11-01

    The nuclease activity and the cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cancer cells of iron complexes, [Fe(HPClNOL)Cl2]NO3 (1), [Cl(HPClNOL)Fe(μ-O)Fe(HPClNOL)Cl]Cl2·2H2O (2), and [(SO4)(HPClNOL)Fe(μ-O)Fe(HPClNOL)(SO4)]·6H2O (3) (HPClNOL=1-(bis-pyridin-2-ylmethyl-amino)-3-chloropropan-2-ol), were investigated. Each complex was able to promote plasmid DNA cleavage and change the supercoiled form of the plasmid to circular and linear ones. Kinetic data revealed that (1), (2) and (3) increase the rate of DNA hydrolysis about 278, 192 and 339 million-fold, respectively. The activity of the complexes was inhibited by distamycin, indicating that they interact with the minor groove of the DNA. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes toward U937, HL-60, Jukart and THP-1 leukemia cancer cells was studied employing 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), fluorescence and electronic transmission microscopies, flow cytometry and a cytochrome C release assay. Compound (2) has the highest activity toward cancer cells and is the least toxic for normal ones (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)). In contrast, compound (1) is the least active toward cancer cells but displays the highest toxicity toward normal cells. Transmission electronic microscopy indicates that cell death shows features typical of apoptotic cells, which was confirmed using the annexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide) assay. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that at an early stage during the treatment with complex (2) mitochondria lose their transmembrane potential, resulting in cytochrome C release. A quantification of caspases 3, 9 (intrinsic apoptosis pathway) and caspase 8 (extrinsic apoptosis pathway) indicated that both the intrinsic (via mitochondria) and extrinsic (via death receptors) pathways are involved in the apoptotic stimuli.

  20. Pyrimidine biosynthesis links mitochondrial respiration to the p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Khutornenko, Anastasia A.; Roudko, Vladimir V.; Chernyak, Boris V.; Vartapetian, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Peter M.; Evstafieva, Alexandra G.

    2010-01-01

    While many functions of the p53 tumor suppressor affect mitochondrial processes, the role of altered mitochondrial physiology in a modulation of p53 response remains unclear. As mitochondrial respiration is affected in many pathologic conditions such as hypoxia and intoxications, the impaired electron transport chain could emit additional p53-inducing signals and thereby contribute to tissue damage. Here we show that a shutdown of mitochondrial respiration per se does not trigger p53 response, because inhibitors acting in the proximal and distal segments of the respiratory chain do not activate p53. However, strong p53 response is induced specifically after an inhibition of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 (the electron transport chain complex III). The p53 response is triggered by the deficiency in pyrimidines that is developed due to a suppression of the functionally coupled mitochondrial pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). In epithelial carcinoma cells the activation of p53 in response to mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III inhibitors does not require phosphorylation of p53 at Serine 15 or up-regulation of p14ARF. Instead, our data suggest a contribution of NQO1 and NQO2 in stabilization of p53 in the nuclei. The results establish the deficiency in pyrimidine biosynthesis as the cause of p53 response in the cells with impaired mitochondrial respiration. PMID:20566882

  1. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin.

  2. Evaluation of apoptotic molecular pathways for smooth muscle cells isolated from thoracic aortic aneurysms in response to oxidized sterols.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Zelal; Arda, Nazli; Kacar, Omer; Serhatli, Muge; Gezer Tas, Serpil; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Baysal, Kemal; Acilan, Ceyda

    2014-12-01

    Oxysterols, oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol, are found abundantly in the plasma and atherosclerotic plaques, a common risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). Among the oxysterols, namely 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC), lead both to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and to apoptosis in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) probably due to increased oxidative stress. Since loss of SMCs through apoptosis is a major event in TAA formation, it is important to understand the molecular pathways of apoptosis in response to ROS in TAAs. Very little is known about the effect of oxysterols on TAA SMCs. Therefore, we investigated molecular pathways participating in the oxysterol induced cell death of TAAs. Our results showed that TAA SMCs died mainly as a result of apoptosis as suggested by cellular shrinkage, blebbing, DNA condensation/fragmentation in response to oxysterol treatment. There was no significant difference in oxysterol induced cell death between TAA and control SMCs. Addition of antioxidant molecules prevented cell death, hence ROS appears to be involved in the apoptosis of these cells. While oxysterol treatment increased caspase 3 activity, cell death was not rescued in its absence. Efficient silencing of other targets including apoptotic proteins (p53, Bax), and survival proteins (Akt1, Akt2) showed that apoptosis can occur through p53, and Bax independent pathways. Silencing Akt1 or Akt2 did not lead to further cell death. These results indicate that oxysterols can induce several cell death pathways in TAA SMCs.

  3. Bioactive natural products against prostate cancer: mechanism of action and autophagic/apoptotic molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Gioti, Katerina; Tenta, Roxane

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide for men. There is increasing evidence that diet and lifestyle play a crucial role in prostate cancer biology and tumorigenesis. Due to the fact that conventional chemotherapy is not adequately effective against prostate cancer and has severe side effects, numerous in vitro studies have been conducted in order to identify the potent cytotoxic or chemopreventive activity of naturally occurring compounds and their respective molecular mechanisms of action. In this context, many natural compounds isolated from plants have been found to inhibit cancer growth and to induce cell cycle arrest, suppress angiogenesis, and promote apoptotic or autophagic cell death. Therefore, in this article, the most promising bioactive natural products and their respective mechanisms of action for the prevention or/and treatment of prostate cancer are presented.

  4. Apigenin drives the production of reactive oxygen species and initiates a mitochondrial mediated cell death pathway in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Colm; O'Neill, Amanda; Spengler, Barbara; Christoffel, Volker; Fitzpatrick, John M; Watson, R William G

    2005-05-01

    Phytoestrogens may reduce tumorigenesis in prostate cancer. We screened five phytoestrogens for their effect on cell growth and apoptosis in PWR-1E, LNCaP, PC-3, and DU145 prostate epithelial cells in vitro. We assessed cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis using crystal violet assays, flow cytometric analysis, and TUNEL. Focusing specifically on apigenin we assessed the ability of calpain, serine protease, caspase, estrogen receptor, and ceramide synthase inhibitors to block apigenin induced apoptosis. We also analyzed caspase 3, 7, 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, and cytochrome C by Western analysis, and mitochondrial permeability and reactive oxygen species production by flow cytometry using mitosensor(TM) and DCFH-DA, respectively. Apigenin and silybinin significantly reduced cell number, with apigenin inducing apoptosis in PWR-1E, LNCaP, PC-3, and DU145 cells. The PC-3 and DU145 cells were less susceptible to apigenin induced apoptosis then LNCaP and PWR-1E cells. The induction of apoptosis by apigenin was caspase dependent. Apigenin generated reactive oxygen species, a loss of mitochondrial Bcl-2 expression, mitochondrial permeability, cytochrome C release, and the cleavage of caspase 3, 7, 8, and 9 and the concomitant cleavage of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, cIAP-2. The overexpression of Bcl-2 in LNCaP B10 cells reduced the apoptotic effects of apigenin. Apigenin induces cell death in prostate epithelial cells using a mitochondrial mediated cell death pathway. Bcl-2 has a role in inhibiting apigenin induced cell death in prostate epithelial cells. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Regulation of Apoptotic Pathways by Stylophora pistillata (Anthozoa, Pocilloporidae) to Survive Thermal Stress and Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Zandbank, Keren; Tchernov, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal stress. These include caspase activity and the expression profiles of the S. pistillata caspase and Bcl-2 genes (StyCasp and StyBcl-2-like) cloned in this study. In corals exposed to thermal stress (32 or 34°C), caspase activity and the expression levels of the StyBcl-2-like gene increased over time (6–48 h) and declined to basal levels within 72 h of thermal stress. Distinct transcript levels were obtained for the StyCasp gene, with stimulated expression from 6 to 48 h of 34°C thermal stress, coinciding with the onset of bleaching. Increased cell death was detected in situ only between 6 to 48 h of stress and was limited to the gastroderm. The bleached corals survived up to one month at 32°C, and recovered back symbionts when placed at 24°C. These results point to a two-stage response in corals that withstand thermal stress: (i) the onset of apoptosis, accompanied by rapid activation of anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic mediators that block the progression of apoptosis to other cells and (ii) acclimatization of the coral to the chronic thermal stress alongside the completion of symbiosis breakdown. Accordingly, the coral's ability to rapidly curb apoptosis appears to be the most important trait affecting the coral's thermotolerance and survival. PMID:22194880

  6. Regulation of apoptotic pathways by Stylophora pistillata (Anthozoa, Pocilloporidae) to survive thermal stress and bleaching.

    PubMed

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Zandbank, Keren; Tchernov, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal stress. These include caspase activity and the expression profiles of the S. pistillata caspase and Bcl-2 genes (StyCasp and StyBcl-2-like) cloned in this study. In corals exposed to thermal stress (32 or 34°C), caspase activity and the expression levels of the StyBcl-2-like gene increased over time (6-48 h) and declined to basal levels within 72 h of thermal stress. Distinct transcript levels were obtained for the StyCasp gene, with stimulated expression from 6 to 48 h of 34°C thermal stress, coinciding with the onset of bleaching. Increased cell death was detected in situ only between 6 to 48 h of stress and was limited to the gastroderm. The bleached corals survived up to one month at 32°C, and recovered back symbionts when placed at 24°C. These results point to a two-stage response in corals that withstand thermal stress: (i) the onset of apoptosis, accompanied by rapid activation of anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic mediators that block the progression of apoptosis to other cells and (ii) acclimatization of the coral to the chronic thermal stress alongside the completion of symbiosis breakdown. Accordingly, the coral's ability to rapidly curb apoptosis appears to be the most important trait affecting the coral's thermotolerance and survival.

  7. Yessotoxin as an apoptotic inducer.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Mónica Suárez; Espenes, Arild

    2011-06-01

    This work summarises current knowledge on how the marine toxin yessotoxin (YTX) induces apoptosis in different types of cells. The work also addresses perspectives for future research on this topic. YTX triggers apoptosis in a variety of cellular systems including cancer cells. The actual apoptotic pathways are not fully understood and seem to be cell-specific. YTX can induce the mitochondrial pathway in myoblast cell lines, but its potential to activate other signalling pathways and possible cross-talk between them has not been reported. Improvement in our understanding of death signalling induction by YTX may contribute to identifying novel molecular mechanisms of interest for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Cai-ping; Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    The degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis (OA) is closely associated with the death of chondrocytes in apoptosis fashion. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), higher expression following acute damage in OA patients, has been shown to be up-regulated during apoptosis in a bulk of experimental models. This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of H2O2-induced rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. Articular cartilage was biopsied from the joints of 6 weeks old New Zealand rabbits. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability. We used flow cytometry to assess the form of cell death with Annexin-V/PI double staining, and found that H2O2 treatment induced apoptosis in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Exposure of chondrocytes to 1.5 mM of H2O2 for 2 h induced a burst apoptosis that can be alleviated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) pretreatment, an anti-oxidant amino-acid derivative. Loss of mitochondria membrane potential (▵Ψm) was evaluated using confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry (FCM). H2O2 treatment induced a marked reduction of ▵Ψm, and the abrupt disappearance of ▵Ψm occurred within 5 minutes. These results indicate that H2O2 induces a rapid apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in rabbit chondrocytes.

  9. E-Cigarette Vapor Induces an Apoptotic Response in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells Through the Caspase-3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Park, Hyun Jin; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Chmielewski, Witold; Chakir, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes represent an increasingly significant proportion of today's consumable tobacco products. E-cigarettes contain several chemicals which may promote oral diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of e-cigarette vapor on human gingival epithelial cells. Results show that e-cigarette vapor altered the morphology of cells from small cuboidal form to large undefined shapes. Both single and multiple exposures to e-cigarette vapor led to a bulky morphology with large faint nuclei and an enlarged cytoplasm. E-cigarette vapor also increased L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the targeted cells. This activity was greater with repeated exposures. Furthermore, e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic/necrotic epithelial cell percentages compared to that observed in the control. Epithelial cell apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay showing that exposure to e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic cell numbers, particularly after two and three exposures. This negative effect involved the caspase-3 pathway, the activity of which was greater with repeated exposure and which decreased following the use of caspase-3 inhibitor. The adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor on gingival epithelial cells may lead to dysregulated gingival cell function and result in oral disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Brazilian green propolis induced apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Frión-Herrera, Yahima; Díaz-García, Alexis; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2015-10-01

    Propolis effect on the growth and apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells) was investigated as well as its mechanisms. Cells were incubated with propolis for 72 h, and 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were employed to assess cell viability and the inhibitory concentration (IC). Apoptosis was detected by Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining after 24 and 48 h of incubation with ¼ IC50 of propolis by testing the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL , Noxa, Puma and p21) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Propolis displayed antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but it did not suppress the growth of normal Vero cells. An enhanced apoptosis was seen in A549 propolis-treated cells after 48 h compared with the control cells. Propolis decreased mitochondrial membrane potential by overexpression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax and Noxa) and reduction of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-XL . The expression level of other genes remained unchanged (p53, Caspse-3 and Bax), whereas p21 expression was increased. Propolis induced caspase-independent apoptosis through a p53-independent mitochondrial pathway, and cell cycle arrest by upregulation of p21. Although propolis induces apoptosis mainly by p53-independent manner, it may be induced by another pathway, and new insights may arise for preventing or treating lung cancer. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Polyphyllin I induces mitophagic and apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells by increasing mitochondrial PINK1 levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Bing; Fu, Ruo-Qiu; Shen, Han-Ming; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiao-Ye; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Yu-Nong; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yan-Hao; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Gao, Ning

    2017-02-07

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-breast cancer effects of polyphyllin I, a natural compound extracted from Paris polyphylla rhizomes, are not fully understood. In the present study, we found that polyphyllin I induces mitochondrial translocation of DRP1 by dephosphorylating DRP1 at Ser637, leading to mitochondrial fission, cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol and, ultimately apoptosis. Polyphyllin I also increased the stabilization of full-length PINK1 at the mitochondrial surface, leading to the recruitment of PARK2, P62, ubiquitin, and LC3B-II to mitochondria and culminating in mitophagy. PINK1 knockdown markedly suppressed polyphyllin I-induced mitophagy and enhanced polyphyllin I-induced, DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Furthermore, suppression of DRP1 by mdivi-1 or shRNA inhibited PINK1 knockdown/polyphyllin I-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis, suggesting that PINK1 depletion leads to excessive fission and, subsequently, mitochondrial fragmentation. An in vivo study confirmed that polyphyllin I greatly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 xenografts, and these effects were enhanced by PINK1 knockdown. These data describe the mechanism by which PINK1 contributes to polyphyllin I-induced mitophagy and apoptosis and suggest that polyphyllin I may be an effective drug for breast cancer treatment.

  12. Mitochondrial protein 18 (MTP18) plays a pro-apoptotic role in chemotherapy-induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Lynn H.H.; Li, Ruibei; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Maker, Ajay V.; Li, Peifeng

    2017-01-01

    One of the severe limitations of chemotherapy is the development of drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance remain to be elucidated. Mitochondrial mediated apoptosis is a form of cell death induced by chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce mitochondrial fission, and finally activate the apoptosis cascade in various cancer cells. Here, we report that the mitochondrial membrane protein 18 (MTP18) induced mitochondrial fragmentation in gastric cancer cells under doxorubicin (DOX) exposure. Upon over-expression of MTP18, a sub-cytotoxic dose of DOX could sensitize a significant number of cells to undergo mitochondrial fission and subsequent apoptosis. These findings suggest that MTP18 can enhance the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to DOX. Mechanistically, we found that MTP18 enriched dynamic-related protein 1 (DRP1) accumulation in mitochondria and it was responsible for mediating DOX-induced signaling required for mitochondrial fission. Intriguingly, MTP18 expression was downregulated during DOX treatment. Thus, down-regulation of MTP18 expression could be one of the resistance factors interfering with DOX-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. PMID:28915614

  13. Inhibition of anti-apoptotic signals by Wortmannin induces apoptosis in the remote myocardium after LAD ligation: evidence for a protein kinase C-δ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Stephan; Wessela, Teresa; Schwarz, Kerstin; Joachim, Dirk; Jercke, Marcel; Strasser, Ruth H; Ebner, Bernd; Simonis, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that, in the remote myocardium after infarction (MI), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition reduces apoptosis both by blocking proapoptotic pathways and by activating antiapoptotic signals including the Akt pathway. However, it was open if vice versa, blockade of antiapoptotic pathways may influence proapoptotic signals. To clarify this, the present study tested the effects of the PI3-kinase blocker Wortmannin on proapoptotic signals and on apoptosis execution in the remote myocardium after infarction. Rats were subjected to MI by LAD ligation in situ. Some were pre-treated with Wortmannin alone or in combination with the PKC inhibitor Chelerythrine. After 24 h, pro- and anti-apoptotic signals (caspase-3, PKC isoforms, p38-MAPK, p42/44-MAPK, Akt, Bad), and marker of apoptosis execution (TUNEL) were quantified in the myocardium remote from the infarction. Wortmannin treatment increased apoptosis in the remote myocardium both at baseline and after MI, together with an activation of the PKC-δ/p38-MAPK-pathway. PKC-ε and p42/44-MAPK were unaffected. Combined treatment with Wortmannin and Chelerythrine fully reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of Wortmannin both at baseline and after MI. The PKC-δ-p38-MAPK-pathway as a strong signal for apoptosis in the non-infarcted myocardium can be influenced by targeting the anti-apoptotic PI3-kinase pathway. This gives evidence of a bi-directional crosstalk of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals after infarction.

  14. [Mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways of death of hepatocytes of lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis L].

    PubMed

    Konovalova, S A; Savina, M V; Nikiforov, A A; Puchkova, L V

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways of natural cell death in lamprey hepatocytes at the spring period of prespawning migration are described. The mitochondrial pathways (release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol and activation ofcaspases) operates according to the classical scheme known for apoptosis. The lysosomal cell death pathway connected with activation of cathepsin B has been revealed quite recently in cells in pathologies, in particular at obstruction of gallbladder and bile ducts. The peculiarity of lamprey hepatocytes consists in biliary atresia (the absence both of gallbladder and of bile ducts) in liver of adult animals. Thereby the lamprey hepatocytes represent an excellent object for study of this new pathway of cell death. We have revealed a parallel development of the mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways of cell death of lamprey hepatocytes.

  15. Interconnections between apoptotic and autophagic pathways during thiopurine-induced toxicity in cancer cells: the role of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Wiem; Appell, Malin Lindqvist

    2016-01-01

    Thiopurines (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine) are a class of genotoxic drugs extensively used in the treatment of various illnesses including leukemia. Their underlying molecular mechanism of action involves the activation of apoptosis and autophagy but remains widely unclear. Here we present evidence that autophagy induction by thiopurines is a survival mechanism that antagonizes apoptosis and is involved in degrading damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. On the other hand, apoptosis is the main cell death mechanism by thiopurines as its inhibition prohibited cell death. Thus a tight interplay between apoptosis and autophagy controls cell fate in response to thiopurine treatment. Moreover, thiopurines disrupt mitochondrial function and induce a loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in thiopurine-induced apoptosis was further confirmed by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibiting oxidative stress protected the cells from thiopurine-induced cell death and ROS scavenging prohibited autophagy induction by thiopurines. Our data indicate that the anticarcinogenic effects of thiopurines are mediated by complex interplay between cellular mechanisms governing redox homeostasis, apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:27689330

  16. Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via caspase-8-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Lu, Yao-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Li, Yi-Chen; Wang, Shyang-Guang; N G, Sue-Hwee; Wu, Chia-Yin; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2010-05-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural, biologically active compound from the rhizome of Rheum palmatum, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, its molecular mechanism of action in the apoptosis induction of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells has not been explored. This study shows that AE induced G(2)/M phase arrest by increasing levels of cyclin B1 bound to Cdc2, and also caused an increase in apoptosis of NPC cells, which was characterized by morphological changes, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and increased sub-G(1) population. Treatment of NPC cells with AE also resulted in a decrease in Bcl-X(L) and an increase in Bax expression. Ectopic expression of Bcl-X(L) but not Bcl-2 or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated attenuation of Bax suppressed AE-induced apoptotic cell death. AE-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase in cellular Ca(++) content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death were suppressed by the treatment of cyclosporin A (CsA) or caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK. Co-treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK could inhibit AE-induced cell death and the activation of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, suppression of caspase-8 with the specific inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK inhibited AE-induced the activation of Bax, the cleavage of Bid, the translocation of tBid to the mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Endo G from the mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that the caspase-8-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway plays a critical role in AE-induced apoptosis of NPC cells.

  17. TDRG1 regulates chemosensitivity of seminoma TCam-2 cells to cisplatin via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yu; Wang, Yong; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-07-02

    We previously identified TDRG1 (testis developmental related gene 1), a novel gene with exclusive expression in testis, promoted the proliferation and progression of cultured human seminoma cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. As increasing evidence reveal that aberrant activation of this signaling is involved in cisplatin resistance. Then, in this study, we further explored whether TDRG1 regulated the chemosensitivity of seminoma TCam-2 cells to cisplatin. Our researches showed TDRG1 could regulate the viability of TCam-2 cells following cisplatin treatment in vitro through control of both cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Mechanistically, we observed TDRG1 positively regulated the expression levels of the key elements in PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway including p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR and also affected the translocation of nuclear p-Akt in TCam-2 cells during cisplatin treatment. Meanwhile, the levels of Bad, cytochrome c, caspase-9 ratio (activated/total), caspase-3 ratio (activated/total) and cleaved-PARP were negatively modulated by TDRG1, which meant the involvement of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, we found the effect of TDRG1 knockdown or TDRG1 overexpression could be reversed by IGF-1, a PI3K signaling activator, or LY294002, a inhibitor of this pathway, respectively. Similar effects of TDRG1 on cisplatin chemosensitivity and associated molecular mechanism were also confirmed in vivo by employing xenograft assays. In addition, the positive correlation between TDRG1 and p-PI3K, or p-Akt, was found in tumor tissues from seminoma patients. In conclusion, we uncover that TDRG1 regulates chemosensitivity of TCam-2 cells to cisplatin through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. TDRG1 regulates chemosensitivity of seminoma TCam-2 cells to cisplatin via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yu; Wang, Yong; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously identified TDRG1 (testis developmental related gene 1), a novel gene with exclusive expression in testis, promoted the proliferation and progression of cultured human seminoma cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. As increasing evidence reveal that aberrant activation of this signaling is involved in cisplatin resistance. Then, in this study, we further explored whether TDRG1 regulated the chemosensitivity of seminoma TCam-2 cells to cisplatin. Our researches showed TDRG1 could regulate the viability of TCam-2 cells following cisplatin treatment in vitro through control of both cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Mechanistically, we observed TDRG1 positively regulated the expression levels of the key elements in PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway including p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR and also affected the translocation of nuclear p-Akt in TCam-2 cells during cisplatin treatment. Meanwhile, the levels of Bad, cytochrome c, caspase-9 ratio (activated/total), caspase-3 ratio (activated/total) and cleaved-PARP were negatively modulated by TDRG1, which meant the involvement of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, we found the effect of TDRG1 knockdown or TDRG1 overexpression could be reversed by IGF-1, a PI3K signaling activator, or LY294002, a inhibitor of this pathway, respectively. Similar effects of TDRG1 on cisplatin chemosensitivity and associated molecular mechanism were also confirmed in vivo by employing xenograft assays. In addition, the positive correlation between TDRG1 and p-PI3K, or p-Akt, was found in tumor tissues from seminoma patients. In conclusion, we uncover that TDRG1 regulates chemosensitivity of TCam-2 cells to cisplatin through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27104982

  19. β-Amyloid-evoked apoptotic cell death is mediated through MKK6-p66shc pathway.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Muneesa; Parray, Arif A; Baba, Rafia A; Bhat, Hina F; Bhat, Sehar S; Mushtaq, Umar; Andrabi, Khurshid I; Khanday, Firdous A

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown the involvement of p66shc in mediating apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate the novel mechanism of β-Amyloid-induced toxicity in the mammalian cells. β-Amyloid leads to the phosphorylation of p66shc at the serine 36 residue and activates MKK6, by mediating the phosphorylation at serine 207 residue. Treatment of cells with antioxidants blocks β-Amyloid-induced serine phosphorylation of MKK6, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and hence protected cells against β-Amyloid-induced cell death. Our results indicate that serine phosphorylation of p66shc is carried out by active MKK6. MKK6 knock-down resulted in decreased serine 36 phosphorylation of p66shc. Co-immunoprecipitation results demonstrate a direct physical association between p66shc and WT MKK6, but not with its mutants. Increase in β-Amyloid-induced ROS production was observed in the presence of MKK6 and p66shc, when compared to triple mutant of MKK6 (inactive) and S36 mutant of p66shc. ROS scavengers and knock-down against p66shc, and MKK6 significantly decreased the endogenous level of active p66shc, ROS production, and cell death. Finally, we show that the MKK6-p66shc complex mediates β-Amyloid-evoked apoptotic cell death.

  20. Cardiac arrest triggers hippocampal neuronal death through autophagic and apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Derong; Shang, Hanbing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Wei; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of neuronal death induced by ischemic injury remains unknown. We investigated whether autophagy and p53 signaling played a role in the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, in a rat model of 8-min asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Increased autophagosome numbers, expression of lysosomal cathepsin B, cathepsin D, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) suggested autophagy in hippocampal cells. The expression of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and its target genes: Bax, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) were upregulated following CA. The p53-specific inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) significantly reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and PUMA) and autophagic proteins (LC3-II and DRAM) that generally increase following CA. PFT-α also reduced hippocampal neuronal damage following CA. Similarly, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which inhibits autophagy and bafilomycin A1 (BFA), which inhibits lysosomes, significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal damage after CA. These results indicate that CA affects both autophagy and apoptosis, partially mediated by p53. Autophagy plays a significant role in hippocampal neuronal death induced by cerebral I/R following asphyxial-CA. PMID:27273382

  1. Apoptotic effect of quercetin on HT-29 colon cancer cells via the AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Sang-Ki; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Park, Young-Seok; Park, Byung-Kwon; Kim, So-Jung; Kim, Jin; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sung-Dae; Jung, Ji-Won; Roh, Kyong-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Ji-Youn

    2010-08-11

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a physiological cellular energy sensor, strongly suppresses cell proliferation in both nonmalignant and tumor cells. This study demonstrates the mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of cells with quercetin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, quercetin increased cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and up-regulated apoptosis-related proteins, such as AMPK, p53, and p21, within 48 h. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that quercetin treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume over 6 weeks, and apoptosis-related protein induction by quercetin was significantly higher in the 100 mg/kg treated group compared to the control group. All of these results indicate that quercetin induces apoptosis via AMPK activation and p53-dependent apoptotic cell death in HT-29 colon cancer cells and that it may be a potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against HT-29 colon cancer.

  2. Chloroacetic acid induced neuronal cells death through oxidative stress-mediated p38-MAPK activation pathway regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Chen, Sz-Jie; Su, Chin-Chuan; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Tseng, To-Jung; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Tang, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Kuo-Liang; Su, Yi-Chang; Lee, kuan-I; Hung, Dong-Zong; Huang, Chun-Fa

    2013-01-07

    Chloroacetic acid (CA), a toxic chlorinated analog of acetic acid, is widely used in chemical industries as an herbicide, detergent, and disinfectant, and chemical intermediates that are formed during the synthesis of various products. In addition, CA has been found as a by-product of chlorination disinfection of drinking water. However, there is little known about neurotoxic injuries of CA on the mammalian, the toxic effects and molecular mechanisms of CA-induced neuronal cell injury are mostly unknown. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of CA on cultured Neuro-2a cells and investigated the possible mechanisms of CA-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of Neuro-2a cells with CA significantly reduced the number of viable cells (in a dose-dependent manner with a range from 0.1 to 3mM), increased the generation of ROS, and reduced the intracellular levels of glutathione depletion. CA also increased the number of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells; increased mitochondrial dysfunction (loss of MMP, cytochrome c release, and accompanied by Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 down-regulation and Bax up-regulation), and activated the caspase cascades activations, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. These CA-induced apoptosis-related signals were markedly prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Moreover, CA activated the JNK and p38-MAPK pathways, but did not that ERK1/2 pathway, in treated Neuro-2a cells. Pretreatment with NAC and specific p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), but not JNK inhibitor (SP600125) effectively abrogated the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and attenuated the apoptotic signals (including: decrease in cytotoxicity, caspase-3/-7 activation, the cytosolic cytochrome c release, and the reversed alteration of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA) in CA-treated Neuro-2a cells. Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress-induced p38-MAPK activated pathway-regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in CA-caused neuronal cell

  3. Intrinsic apoptotic and thioredoxin pathways in human prostate cancer cell response to histone deacetylase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weisheng; Ngo, Lang; Perez, Gisela; Dokmanovic, Milos; Marks, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great need to develop better mechanism-based therapies for prostate cancer. In this investigation, we studied four human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP, DU145, LAPC4, and PC3, which differ in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat), a new anticancer drug. Examining the role of intrinsic mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptosis and caspase-independent, reactive oxygen species (ROS) facilitated cell death, has provided an understanding of mechanisms that may determine the varied response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor. We found striking differences among these cancer cells in constitutive expression and response to suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in levels of antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, mitochondria membrane integrity, activation of caspases, ROS accumulation, and expression of thioredoxin, the major scavenger of ROS. Identifying these differences can have predictive value in assessing therapeutic response and identifying targets to enhance therapeutic efficacy. PMID:17030815

  4. Allicin sensitizes hepatocellular cancer cells to anti-tumor activity of 5-fluorouracil through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xuejing; Liang, Jiyun; Sun, Jingyuan; Hu, Xiaoyun; Lei, Ling; Wu, Dehua; Liu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistance and hepatic dysfunction are the two major factors that limit the application of chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that allicin has the hepatic protective effect and antitumor activity. Hence allicin may be an ideal enhancer to chemotherapy regimen of HCC. In the present study, we demonstrated that allicin enhanced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) inducing cytotoxicity in HCC cells. In vivo experiment, combined treatment group with allicin (5 mg/kg/d; every two days for 3 weeks) and 5-FU (20 mg/kg/d; 5 consecutive days) showed a dramatic inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC xenograft tumors in nude mice. The co-treatment group showed highly apoptotic level compared with 5-FU treated alone. Cells combined treatment with allicin and 5-FU increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), activated caspase-3 and PARP, and down-regulated Bcl-2 compared with DMSO, allicin and 5-FU treated alone. Moreover, the increase of activated caspase-3 and PARP was blocked by the ROS inhibitor antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that allicin sensitized HCC cells to 5-FU induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. These results provided evidences for the combination used of allicin and 5-FU as a novel chemotherapy regimen in HCC.

  5. [Hydrogen peroxide induces oxidative stress and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in RAT intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6)].

    PubMed

    Xu, L; He, S S; Li, D Y; Mei, C; Hou, X L; Jiang, L S; Liu, F H

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), IEC-6 cells were subjected to 20 μmol/L H(2)O(2) and cell proliferation activity was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Cell morphology was observed by microscopy and cell apoptosis was detected by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining and the portion of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Genes and proteins related to cell apoptosis were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by fluorescence probes. Significant morphology damage was caused by exposure to H(2)O(2), and results showed that ROS generation significantly increased (P < 0.01). The activity of superoxide dismutase decreased significantly (P < 0.05), malondialdehyde content increased (P < 0.05), and expression of both catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the H(2)O(2) treatment group. Mitochondrion membrane potential was reduced, cytochrome released into the cytoplasm and caspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly increased (P < 0.01) after treatment with H(2)O(2). Moreover, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and apoptosis were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the H(2)O(2) group. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the mitochondrial pathway plays a vital role in H(2)O(2) induced IEC-6 cell apoptosis.

  6. The mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum pathways involved in the apoptosis of bursa of Fabricius cells in broilers exposed to dietary aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; Liang, Na; Zhou, Mingqiang; Huang, Cheng; Peng, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic metabolite produced by some fungi, exerts well-known hepatocarcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects, the latter can increase the apoptotic immune cells in vitro. However, it is largely unknown that which signaling pathways contribute to excessive apoptosis of immune cells which induced by AFB1. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and death receptor activated apoptotic pathways in the bursal of Fabricius (BF) cells in the broilers exposed to AFB1 diet. We found that (1) AFB1 diet induced morphological changes in the BF. (2) FCM and TUNEL methods showed that excessive apoptosis could be resulted from AFB1 intake. (3) AFB1-induced apoptosis of bursal cells involved mitochondrial pathway (increase of Bax, Bak, cytC, caspase-9, Apaf-1, caspase-3 and decrease of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and ER pathway (increase of Grp78/Bip, Grp94 and CaM). (4) Oxidative stress was confirmed in the BF of chicken fed on AFB1 diet. Overall, this work is the first to demonstrate that the activation of mitochondria and ER apoptosis pathways can lead to excessive apoptosis in BF cells, and oxidative stress is a crucial driver during AFB1 exposure. PMID:27542244

  7. The mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum pathways involved in the apoptosis of bursa of Fabricius cells in broilers exposed to dietary aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shibin; Wu, Bangyuan; Yu, Zhengqiang; Fang, Jing; Liang, Na; Zhou, Mingqiang; Huang, Cheng; Peng, Xi

    2016-10-04

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic metabolite produced by some fungi, exerts well-known hepatocarcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects, the latter can increase the apoptotic immune cells in vitro. However, it is largely unknown that which signaling pathways contribute to excessive apoptosis of immune cells which induced by AFB1. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and death receptor activated apoptotic pathways in the bursal of Fabricius (BF) cells in the broilers exposed to AFB1 diet. We found that (1) AFB1 diet induced morphological changes in the BF. (2) FCM and TUNEL methods showed that excessive apoptosis could be resulted from AFB1 intake. (3) AFB1-induced apoptosis of bursal cells involved mitochondrial pathway (increase of Bax, Bak, cytC, caspase-9, Apaf-1, caspase-3 and decrease of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and ER pathway (increase of Grp78/Bip, Grp94 and CaM). (4) Oxidative stress was confirmed in the BF of chicken fed on AFB1 diet. Overall, this work is the first to demonstrate that the activation of mitochondria and ER apoptosis pathways can lead to excessive apoptosis in BF cells, and oxidative stress is a crucial driver during AFB1 exposure.

  8. Granzyme H induces cell death primarily via a Bcl-2-sensitive mitochondrial cell death pathway that does not require direct Bid activation.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Catherine L; Kane, Kevin P; Bleackley, R Chris

    2013-07-01

    Natural killer and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is important for the elimination of viruses and transformed cells. The granule lytic pathway utilizes perforin and granzymes to induce cell death, while receptor-mediated lytic pathways rely on molecules such as FasL. Pro-apoptotic activities of Granzyme B (GrB) and Fas are well-established, and many of their cellular targets have been identified. However, humans express additional related granzymes - GrA, GrM, GrK, and GrH. Neither the cytotoxic potential of GrH, nor the mechanism by which GrH may induce target cell death is currently understood. We proposed that GrH would have pro-apoptotic activity that would be distinct from that of GrB and FasL, which could be relevant when Fas/FasL or GrB activity or death pathways were impaired. Our results, using a purified recombinant form of GrH, revealed that GrH induced cell death via a Bcl-2-sensitive mitochondrial pathway without direct processing of Bid. Additionally, neither the apoptosome nor caspase-3 was essential to the induction of GrH-mediated cell death. However, GrH did directly process DFF45, potentially leading to DNA damage. Our findings support the idea that multiple, non-redundant death pathways may be initiated by cytotoxic cells to counteract various immune evasion strategies.

  9. Dietary fat modifies mitochondrial and plasma membrane apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon Jay; de Cabo, Rafael; Burón, María Isabel; Villalba, José M

    2013-12-01

    Calorie restriction decreases skeletal muscle apoptosis, and this phenomenon has been mechanistically linked to its protective action against sarcopenia of aging. Alterations in lipid composition of membranes have been related with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. However, no study has been designed to date to elucidate if different dietary fat sources with calorie restriction modify apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle. We show that a 6-month calorie restriction decreased the activity of the plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, although caspase-8/10 activity was not altered, in young adult mice. Lipid hydroperoxides, Bax levels, and cytochrome c and AIF release/accumulation into the cytosol were also decreased, although caspase-9 activity was unchanged. No alterations in caspase-3 and apoptotic index (DNA fragmentation) were observed, but calorie restriction improved structural features of gastrocnemius fibers by increasing cross-sectional area and decreasing circularity of fibers in cross sections. Changing dietary fat with calorie restriction produced substantial alterations of apoptotic signaling. Fish oil augmented the protective effect of calorie restriction decreasing plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, Bax levels, caspase-8/10, and -9 activities, while increasing levels of the antioxidant coenzyme Q at the plasma membrane, and potentiating the increase of cross-sectional area and the decrease of fiber circularity in cross sections. Many of these changes were not found when we used lard. Our data support that dietary fish oil with calorie restriction produces a cellular anti-apoptotic environment in skeletal muscle with a downregulation of components involved in the initial stages of apoptosis engagement, both at the plasma membrane and the mitochondria.

  10. [Pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and low dose edaravone could attenuate myocardial reperfusion injury through mitochondrial pathway].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-ming; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-yan; Xu, Lin; Sun, Yuan-yuan; Li, Yu-zhen; Liu, Li-feng

    2013-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that pharmacological postconditioning with lactic acid and low dose edaravone could mimic the upper trigger of mechanical postconditioning and relieve reperfusion injury through mitochondrial pathway. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 18 each): sham, reperfusion/injury(I/R), postconditioning (IP), lactic acid (Lac, 60 µl), low dose edaravone (Eda, 3 µg/kg), and Lac+Eda. After 45 min myocardial ischemia, different drugs or saline were administrated around the infarct border according to different groups using micro syringe at the time of reperfusion. After 10 min reperfusion, right atrial plasma pH value was determined in all rats. Then the rats were sacrificed at 1, 6 and 24 h (n = 6 each), apoptotic index was measured by TUNEL, infarct area and ischemic area were measured through Evans blue-TTC double staining, mitochondrial absorbance, the contents of MDA and SOD in ischemic myocardium were detected by spectrophotometry, and the expression of apoptotic pathway molecules, such as Bcl-2, Bax and Cytochrome c (Cyt-c) , were detected by Western blot. Right atrial plasma pH value was significantly lower, the content of MDA was significantly lower, and the content of SOD was significantly higher in IP and Lac+Eda groups than in I/R group (all P < 0.05). The mitochondrial absorbance in Lac+Eda group at all time points were all significantly higher than those in I/R group (all P < 0.05). The level of Bcl-2 in ischemic myocardium in Lac+Eda group was significantly higher than in I/R group (1.02 ± 0.19 vs.0.02 ± 0.01, P < 0.05), the level of Bax (0.38 ± 0.07 vs.2.40 ± 0.45, P < 0.05) and Cyt-c(0.78 ± 0.05 vs.6.54 ± 1.86, P < 0.05) were all lower than those in I/R group. The content of CK[(849 ± 228) vs.(1249 ± 211) U/L, P < 0.05] and CK-MB[(470 ± 266) vs. (966 ± 263) U/L, P < 0.05] in Lac+Eda group were all significantly lower than in I/R group, apoptotic index [(10.51 ± 1.52)% vs. (15.00 ± 1.90) %, P < 0.05] and infarct

  11. A Biophysical Systems Approach to Identifying the Pathways of Acute and Chronic Doxorubicin Mitochondrial Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Bernardo L.; Niederer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The clinical use of the anthracycline doxorubicin is limited by its cardiotoxicity which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Redox cycling, mitochondrial DNA damage and electron transport chain inhibition have been identified as potential mechanisms of toxicity. However, the relative roles of each of these proposed mechanisms are still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to identify which of these pathways independently or in combination are responsible for doxorubicin toxicity. A state of the art mathematical model of the mitochondria including the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and ROS production and scavenging systems was extended by incorporating a novel representation for mitochondrial DNA damage and repair. In silico experiments were performed to quantify the contributions of each of the toxicity mechanisms to mitochondrial dysfunction during the acute and chronic stages of toxicity. Simulations predict that redox cycling has a minor role in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Electron transport chain inhibition is the main pathway for acute toxicity for supratherapeutic doses, being lethal at mitochondrial concentrations higher than 200μM. Direct mitochondrial DNA damage is the principal pathway of chronic cardiotoxicity for therapeutic doses, leading to a progressive and irreversible long term mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27870850

  12. Repurposing of phentolamine as a potential anticancer agent against human castration-resistant prostate cancer: A central role on microtubule stabilization and mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Chang, Wei-Ling; Chao, Chuck C-K; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Drug repurposing of phentolamine, an α-adrenoceptor antagonist, as an anticancer agent has been studied in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Cell proliferation was examined by sulforhodamine B and CFSE staining assays. Cell cycle progression and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Effect on tubulin/microtubule was determined using confocal immunofluorescence microscopic examination, microtubule assembly detection, tubulin turbidity assay, and binding assay. Several assessments were used to characterize apoptotic signaling pathways and combinatory effect. Phentolamine induced anti-proliferative effect in PC-3 and DU-145, two CRPC cell lines, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing cells. This effect was not significantly reduced in paclitaxel-resistant cells. Rhodamine 123 efflux assay showed that phentolamine was not a P-gp substrate. Phentolamine induced mitotic arrest of the cell cycle and formation of hyperdiploid cells, followed by an increase of apoptosis. Mitotic arrest was confirmed by cyclin B1 up-regulation, Cdk1 activation, and a dramatic increase of mitotic protein phosphorylation. Both in vitro and cellular identification demonstrated that phentolamine, similar to paclitaxel, induced tubulin polymerization and formation of multiple nuclei. Besides, it did not compete with paclitaxel binding on tubulin. Phentolamine induced the phosphorylation and degradation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, two anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, and the loss of ΔΨm indicating the induction of mitochondrial damage. It ultimately induced the activation of caspase-9, -8, and -3 and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, combination treatment with phentolamine and paclitaxel caused a synergistic apoptosis. The data suggest that phentolamine is a potential anticancer agent. In contrast to a wide variety of microtubule disrupting agents, phentolamine induces microtubule

  13. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  14. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YUE-YONG; HUANG, HONG-YAN; WU, YIN-LIAN

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine-123 DNA-binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose-dependent, as well as time-dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub-G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose-dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC. PMID:26151733

  15. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Yong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Wu, Yin-Lian

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose‑dependent, as well as time‑dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub‑G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose‑dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose‑dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose‑dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC.

  16. Skeletal muscle differentiation evokes endogenous XIAP to restrict the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle I; Huang, Yolanda Y; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2009-01-01

    Myotube apoptosis occurs normally during muscle development and aging but it can lead to destruction of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular diseases. Therefore, understanding how myotube apoptosis is regulated is important for developing novel strategies for treatment of muscle loss. We investigated the regulation of apoptosis in skeletal muscle and report a striking increase in resistance to apoptosis following differentiation. We find mitotic C2C12 cells (myoblast-like cells) are sensitive to cytosolic cytochrome c microinjection. However, differentiated C2C12 cells (myotube-like cells) and primary myotubes are markedly resistant. This resistance is due to endogenous X-linked inhibitor of apoptotic protein (XIAP). Importantly, the selective difference in the ability of XIAP to block myotube but not myoblast apoptosis is not due to a change in XIAP but rather a decrease in Apaf-1 expression. This decrease in Apaf-1 links XIAP to caspase activation and death. Our findings suggest that in order for myotubes to die, they may degrade XIAP, functionally inactivate XIAP or upregulate Apaf-1. Importantly, we identify a role for endogenous Smac in overcoming XIAP to allow myotube death. However, in postmitotic cardiomyocytes, where XIAP also restricts apoptosis, endogenous Smac was not capable of overcoming XIAP to cause death. These results show that as skeletal muscle differentiate, they become resistant to apoptosis because of the ability of XIAP to regulate caspase activation. The increased restriction of apoptosis in myotubes is presumably important to ensure the long term survival of these postmitotic cells as they play a vital role in the physiology of organisms.

  17. The anesthetic agent sevoflurane attenuates pulmonary acute lung injury by modulating apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Ye, Y.; Su, H.B.; Yang, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lung protection by the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane (SEVO), which inhibits apoptosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–280 g; n=18) were randomly divided into three groups. The LPS group received 5 mg/kg endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), which induced acute lung injury (ALI). The control (CTRL) group received normal saline and the SEVO group received sevoflurane (2.5%) for 30 min after ALI was induced by 5 mg/kg LPS. Samples were collected for analysis 12 h after LPS. Lung injury was assessed by pathological observations and tissue wet to dry weight (W/D) ratios. Apoptotic index (AI) was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and electron microscopy. Caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-3 protein levels were determined by immunocytochemistry and western blotting, respectively. Bcl-xl levels were measured by western blotting and Bcl-2 levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In the LPS group, W/D ratios, AI values, caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-3 levels were significantly higher than in the CTRL group and lung injury was more severe. In the SEVO group, W/D ratios, AI, caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-3 were lower than in the LPS group. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression were higher than in the LPS group and lung injury was attenuated. Sevoflurane inhalation protected the lungs from injury by regulating caspase-3 activation and Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 expression to inhibit excessive cell apoptosis, and such apoptosis might be important in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced ALI. PMID:28225890

  18. Droxinostat, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines via Activation of the Mitochondrial Pathway and Downregulation of FLIP1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Li, Guangming; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Juanxia; Kong, Yin; Ding, Jie; Li, Juan; Zhang, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current chemotherapeutic outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not encouraging, and long-term survival of this patient group remains poor. Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of histone deacetylase inhibitors that can disrupt cell proliferation and survival in HCC management. However, the effects of droxinostat, a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor, on HCC remain to be established. Methods: The effects of droxinostat on HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and HepG2 were investigated. Histone acetylation and apoptosis-modulating proteins were assessed via Western blot. Proliferation was examined with 3-(4, 5 dimetyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl 2H-tetrazolium bromide, cell proliferation, and real-time cell viability assays, and apoptosis with flow cytometry. Results: Droxinostat inhibited proliferation and colony formation of the HCC cell lines examined. Hepatoma cell death was induced through activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and downregulation of FLIP expression. Droxinostat suppressed histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 expression and promoted acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Knockdown of HDAC3 induced hepatoma cell apoptosis and histone H3 and H4 acetylation. Conclusions: Droxinostat suppresses HDAC3 expression and induces histone acetylation and HCC cell death through activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and downregulation of FLIP, supporting its potential application in the treatment of HCC. PMID:26947884

  19. Selenium (sodium selenite) causes cytotoxicity and apoptotic mediated cell death in PLHC-1 fish cell line through DNA and mitochondrial membrane potential damage.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Tomblin, Justin; Yeager Armistead, Mindy; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Elevated concentration of selenium poses a toxic threat to organisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems influenced by excessive inputs from anthropogenic sources. Selenium is also an essential micronutrient in living things, particularly in fish, and provides antioxidant properties to tissues. Whole fish and hepatocytes in primary culture show selenite toxicity above threshold levels. The present study was designed to investigate the process by which selenite exposure causes cellular toxicity and apoptotic and necrotic cell death in fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to various selenite concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 μM) for 10, 20 and 40 h intervals. The 24h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC₅₀) of selenite in PLHC-1 cell line was found to be 237 μM. Flow cytometery data showed that selenite exposed cells promote apoptotic and necrotic mediated cell death when selenite concentrations were ≥10 μM compared to control. Selenite exposure was associated with a significant increase of caspase-3 activities suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Selenite exposure at high levels (≥10 μM) and longer exposure times (≥20 h) induces mitochondrial membrane potential damage (ΔΨ(m)), DNA damage and elevated production of ROS which could be associated with cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of Akt by arsenic trioxide induces cell death via mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hao-Peng; Yang, Shu-Meng; Yang, Yue; Ma, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Yan-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been recognized as a potential chemotherapeutic agent, yet the details concerning its mechanism of action in solid cancers remain undetermined. The present study assessed the role of Akt in the cell death induced by As2O3. The MTT assay showed that As2O3 suppressed the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Characteristic apoptotic changes were observed in the As2O3‑treated cells by Hoechst 33342 staining, and FACS analysis showed that As2O3 caused dose-dependent apoptotic cell death. As2O3 activated caspase-3 and -9, and PARP cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Compromised mitochondrial membrane potential and an increased protein level of Bax indicated involvement of mitochondia. As2O3 decreased the levels of p-Akt (Ser473), p-Akt (Thr308) and p-GSK-3β (Ser9), suggesting that As2O3 inactivated Akt kinase. In addition, LY294002 (a PI3 kinase inhibitor) augmented the apoptosis induced by As2O3. These results demonstrated that inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling was involved in As2O3-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

  1. PTEN regulates apoptotic cell death through PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway in DMH induced early colon carcinogenesis in rat.

    PubMed

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and Akt (protein kinase B), are both essential signaling molecules that are up-regulated in various cancers. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which PI3-K and Akt expression are regulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in the early stages of experimental colon carcinogenesis. 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was utilized for the induction of colon cancer while piroxicam, a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and c-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis (cyanobacterium) as the chemopreventive agents. Western blotting and immunofluorescence results indicated that the expression of PI3-K and Akt was promoted in the DMH group while least apoptosis was detected in this group as analyzed by Hoechst 33342-propidium iodide co-staining. DMH group further detected lower GSK-3β and PTEN expression as compared to other groups. Piroxicam and c-phycocyanin treatment resulted significant apoptotic cell death while showing low PI3-K and Akt expressions. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(M)) alterations (examined by JC-1 and rhodamine 123 labeling of colonocytes) and fluorescence intensity measurement of ROS level, were also analyzed showing the raised ΔΨ(M) while reduced ROS levels in DMH group, however piroxicam and c-phycocyanin treatment resulted in falling of ΔΨ(M) although both stimulated the ROS production as analyzed by flow cytometry. The present study thus identified that piroxicam, a traditional NSAID and c-phycocyanin, a newly discovered COX-2 selective inhibitor, constitute remarkable chemopreventive targets in mediating apoptosis in the DMH induced early rat colon carcinogenesis via regulating PI3-K/Akt/GSK-3β/PTEN signaling pathways. Further, a combination of the two drugs provides a better therapeutic option, than the monotherapy regimen.

  2. Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission via MiD49/51 is essential for apoptotic cristae remodeling.

    PubMed

    Otera, Hidenori; Miyata, Non; Kuge, Osamu; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2016-02-29

    Mitochondrial fission facilitates cytochrome c release from the intracristae space into the cytoplasm during intrinsic apoptosis, although how the mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 and its mitochondrial receptors Mff, MiD49, and MiD51 are involved in this reaction remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the functional division of these receptors with their knockout (KO) cell lines. In marked contrast to Mff-KO cells, MiD49/MiD51-KO and Drp1-KO cells completely resisted cristae remodeling and cytochrome c release during apoptosis. This phenotype in MiD49/51-KO cells, but not Drp1-KO cells, was completely abolished by treatments disrupting cristae structure such as OPA1 depletion. Unexpectedly, OPA1 oligomers generally thought to resist cytochrome c release by stabilizing the cristae structure were similarly disassembled in Drp1-KO and MiD49/51-KO cells, indicating that disassembly of OPA1 oligomers is not directly linked to cristae remodeling for cytochrome c release. Together, these results indicate that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission through MiD49/MiD51 regulates cristae remodeling during intrinsic apoptosis.

  3. Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission via MiD49/51 is essential for apoptotic cristae remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Otera, Hidenori; Miyata, Non; Kuge, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fission facilitates cytochrome c release from the intracristae space into the cytoplasm during intrinsic apoptosis, although how the mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 and its mitochondrial receptors Mff, MiD49, and MiD51 are involved in this reaction remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the functional division of these receptors with their knockout (KO) cell lines. In marked contrast to Mff-KO cells, MiD49/MiD51-KO and Drp1-KO cells completely resisted cristae remodeling and cytochrome c release during apoptosis. This phenotype in MiD49/51-KO cells, but not Drp1-KO cells, was completely abolished by treatments disrupting cristae structure such as OPA1 depletion. Unexpectedly, OPA1 oligomers generally thought to resist cytochrome c release by stabilizing the cristae structure were similarly disassembled in Drp1-KO and MiD49/51-KO cells, indicating that disassembly of OPA1 oligomers is not directly linked to cristae remodeling for cytochrome c release. Together, these results indicate that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission through MiD49/MiD51 regulates cristae remodeling during intrinsic apoptosis. PMID:26903540

  4. The Assembly Pathway of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex I.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Baertling, Fabian; Kownatzki, Daniel; Wessels, Hans J; Arnold, Susanne; Brandt, Ulrich; Nijtmans, Leo

    2017-01-10

    Mitochondrial complex I is the largest integral membrane enzyme of the respiratory chain and consists of 44 different subunits encoded in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Its biosynthesis is a highly complicated and multifaceted process involving at least 14 additional assembly factors. How these subunits assemble into a functional complex I and where the assembly factors come into play is largely unknown. Here, we applied a dynamic complexome profiling approach to elucidate the assembly of human mitochondrial complex I and its further incorporation into respiratory chain supercomplexes. We delineate the stepwise incorporation of all but one subunit into a series of distinct assembly intermediates and their association with known and putative assembly factors, which had not been implicated in this process before. The resulting detailed and comprehensive model of complex I assembly is fully consistent with recent structural data and the remarkable modular architecture of this multiprotein complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction and sarcopenia of aging: from signaling pathways to clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Calvani, Riccardo; Cesari, Matteo; Buford, Thomas W.; Lorenzi, Maria; Behnke, Bradley J.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, imposes a dramatic burden on individuals and society. The development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against sarcopenia is therefore perceived as an urgent need by health professionals and has instigated intensive research on the pathophysiology of this syndrome. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is multifaceted and encompasses lifestyle habits, systemic factors (e.g., chronic inflammation and hormonal alterations), local environment perturbations (e.g., vascular dysfunction), and intramuscular specific processes. In this scenario, derangements in skeletal myocyte mitochondrial function are recognized as major factors contributing to the age-dependent muscle degeneration. In this review, we summarize prominent findings and controversial issues on the contribution of specific mitochondrial processes – including oxidative stress, quality control mechanisms and apoptotic signaling – on the development of sarcopenia. Extramuscular alterations accompanying the aging process with a potential impact on myocyte mitochondrial function are also discussed. We conclude with presenting methodological and safety considerations for the design of clinical trials targeting mitochondrial dysfunction to treat sarcopenia. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of monitoring the effects of an intervention on muscle mitochondrial function and identifying the optimal target population for the trial. PMID:23845738

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction and sarcopenia of aging: from signaling pathways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Calvani, Riccardo; Cesari, Matteo; Buford, Thomas W; Lorenzi, Maria; Behnke, Bradley J; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, imposes a dramatic burden on individuals and society. The development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against sarcopenia is therefore perceived as an urgent need by health professionals and has instigated intensive research on the pathophysiology of this syndrome. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is multifaceted and encompasses lifestyle habits, systemic factors (e.g., chronic inflammation and hormonal alterations), local environment perturbations (e.g., vascular dysfunction), and intramuscular specific processes. In this scenario, derangements in skeletal myocyte mitochondrial function are recognized as major factors contributing to the age-dependent muscle degeneration. In this review, we summarize prominent findings and controversial issues on the contribution of specific mitochondrial processes - including oxidative stress, quality control mechanisms and apoptotic signaling - on the development of sarcopenia. Extramuscular alterations accompanying the aging process with a potential impact on myocyte mitochondrial function are also discussed. We conclude with presenting methodological and safety considerations for the design of clinical trials targeting mitochondrial dysfunction to treat sarcopenia. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of monitoring the effects of an intervention on muscle mitochondrial function and identifying the optimal target population for the trial. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Apoptotic effects of Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human breast carcinoma T-47D cells mediated by c-myc-, p53-, and caspase-3-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kheng Leong; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Lim, Chui Hun; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

    2010-03-01

    The chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced a significant growth inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells as compared with other extracts with an EC(50) value of 3.8 microg/mL. An analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited an apoptotic cell death. mRNA expression analysis revealed the coregulation of apoptotic genes, that is, c-myc , p53, and caspase-3. The c-myc was significantly induced by the chloroform extract at the earlier phase of treatment, followed by p53 and caspase-3. Biochemical assay and ultrastructural observation displayed typical apoptotic features in the treated cells, including DNA fragmentation, blebbing and convolution of cell membrane, clumping and margination of chromatin, and production of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. The presence of different stages of apoptotic cell death and phosphatidylserine externalization were further reconfirmed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Thus, the results from this study strongly suggest that the chloroform extract of P. minima induced apoptotic cell death via p53-, caspase-3-, and c-myc-dependent pathways.

  8. HnRNP-L mediates bladder cancer progression by inhibiting apoptotic signaling and enhancing MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Daojun; Wu, Huayan; Xing, Rongwei; Shu, Fangpeng; Lei, Bin; Lei, Chengyong; Zhou, Xumin; Wan, Bo; Yang, Yu; Zhong, Liren; Mao, Xiangming; Zou, Yaguang

    2017-01-11

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP-L) is a promoter of various kinds of cancers, but its actions in bladder cancer (BC) are unclear. In this study, we investigated the function and the underlying mechanism of hnRNP-L in bladder carcinogenesis. Our results demonstrated that enhanced hnRNP-L expression in BC tissues was associated with poor overall survival of BC patients. Depletion of hnRNP-L significantly suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, downregulation of hnRNP-L resulted in G1-phase cell cycle arrest and enhanced apoptosis accompanied by inhibition of EMT and cell migration. All these cellular changes were reversed by ectopic expression of hnRNP-L. Deletion of hnRNP-L resulted in decreased expression of Bcl-2, enhanced expression of caspases-3, -6 and -9 and inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway. These findings demonstrate that hnRNP-L contributes to poor prognosis and tumor progression of BC by inhibiting the intrinsic apoptotic signaling and enhancing MAPK signaling pathways.