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Sample records for mitochondrial apoptotic pathways

  1. Altered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in placentas from undernourished rat gestations.

    PubMed

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Desai, Mina; Nelson, D Michael; Ross, Michael G

    2011-12-01

    Maternal undernutrition (MUN) during pregnancy results in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses and small placentas. Although reduced fetal nutrient supply has been presumed to be etiologic in IUGR, MUN-induced placental dysfunction may occur prior to detectable fetal growth restriction. Placental growth impairment may result from apoptosis signaled by mitochondria in response to reduced energy substrate. Therefore, we sought to determine the presence of mitochondrial-induced apoptosis under MUN and ad libitum diet (AdLib) pregnancies. Pregnant rats were fed an AdLib or a 50% MUN diet from embryonic day 10 (E10) to E20. At E20, fetuses and placentas from proximal- and mid-horns (extremes of nutrient/oxygen supply) were collected. Right-horn placentas were used to quantify apoptosis. Corresponding left-horn placentas were separated into basal (hormone production) and labyrinth (feto-maternal exchange) zones, and protein expression of the mitochondrial pathway was determined. Our results show that the MUN placentas had significantly increased apoptosis, with lower expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and Bcl-X(L), and significantly higher expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak especially in the labyrinth zone. This was paralleled by higher coimmunostaining with the mitochondrial marker manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), indicating transition of pro-apoptotic factors to the mitochondrial membrane. Also, cytosolic cytochrome c and activated caspases-9 and -3 were significantly higher in all MUN. Conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor family with anti-apoptotic properties, was significantly downregulated in both zones and horns. Our results suggest that MUN during rat pregnancy enhances mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the placenta, probably due to the downregulation of PPARγ expression.

  2. Carbon disulfide induces rat testicular injury via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinsheng; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Yijun; Chen, Guoyuan

    2014-08-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2), one of the most important volatile organic chemicals, was shown to have serious impairment to male reproductive system. But the underline mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we aim to investigate the male germ cell apoptosis induced by CS2 exposure alone and by co-administration with cyclosporin A (CsA), which is the inhibitor of membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP). It was shown that CS2 exposure impaired ultrastructure of germ cells, increased the numbers of apoptotic germ cells, accumulated intracellular level of calcium, elevated ROS level, and increased activities of complexes of respiratory chain. Meanwhile, exposure to CS2 dramatically decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and levels of ATP and MPTP opening. Exposure to CS2 can also cause a significantly dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of Bax, Cytc, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3, but decreased the expression level of Bcl-2. Moreover, co-administration of CsA with CS2 can reverse or alleviate the above apoptotic damage effects of CS2 on testicular germ cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that CS2 can cause damage to testicular germ cells via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and MPTP play a crucial role in this process. PMID:24582363

  3. Lysosomal photodamage induces cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xian-wang; Li, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Lysosomal photosensitizers have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Combination of such photosensitizers and light causes lysosomal photodamage, inducing cell death. The lysosomal disruption can lead to apoptosis but its signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. In this study, we selected N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6), an effective photosensitizer which preferentially accumulates in lysosomes, to study the mechanism of apoptosis caused by lysosomal photodamage. Apoptosis in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells treated by NPe6-PDT was studied using real-time single-cell analysis. In this study, the fluorescence probes Cyto c-GFP and DsRed-Mit were used to detect the spatial and temporal changes of cytochrome c in real-time in sub-cell level; the Rhodamine 123 dyes were used to monitor the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential. The results showed that, after PDT treatment,the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, and cytochrome c released from mitochondria; The caspase-3 was activated obviously. These results suggested that lysosomal photodamage activates mitochondrial apoptotic pathway to induce cell death.

  4. Genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Romero, Alejandro; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress.

  5. Deficiency in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway reveals the toxic potential of autophagy under ER stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Logue, Susan E; Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bertrand, Mathieu JM; Samali, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death is normally associated with activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is characterized by CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) release, apoptosome formation, and caspase activation, resulting in cell death. In this study, we demonstrate that under conditions of ER stress cells devoid of CASP9/caspase-9 or BAX and BAK1, and therefore defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, still undergo a delayed form of cell death associated with the activation of caspases, therefore revealing the existence of an alternative stress-induced caspase activation pathway. We identified CASP8/caspase-8 as the apical protease in this caspase cascade, and found that knockdown of either of the key autophagic genes, ATG5 or ATG7, impacted on CASP8 activation and cell death induction, highlighting the crucial role of autophagy in the activation of this novel ER stress-induced death pathway. In line with this, we identified a protein complex composed of ATG5, FADD, and pro-CASP8 whose assembly coincides with caspase activation and cell death induction. Together, our results reveal the toxic potential of autophagy in cells undergoing ER stress that are defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and suggest a model in which the autophagosome functions as a platform facilitating pro-CASP8 activation. Chemoresistance, a common problem in the treatment of cancer, is frequently caused by the downregulation of key mitochondrial death effector proteins. Alternate stress-induced apoptotic pathways, such as the one described here, may become of particular relevance for tackling the problem of chemoresistance in cancer cells. PMID:25470234

  6. Deficiency in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway reveals the toxic potential of autophagy under ER stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Logue, Susan E; Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Samali, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death is normally associated with activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is characterized by CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) release, apoptosome formation, and caspase activation, resulting in cell death. In this study, we demonstrate that under conditions of ER stress cells devoid of CASP9/caspase-9 or BAX and BAK1, and therefore defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, still undergo a delayed form of cell death associated with the activation of caspases, therefore revealing the existence of an alternative stress-induced caspase activation pathway. We identified CASP8/caspase-8 as the apical protease in this caspase cascade, and found that knockdown of either of the key autophagic genes, ATG5 or ATG7, impacted on CASP8 activation and cell death induction, highlighting the crucial role of autophagy in the activation of this novel ER stress-induced death pathway. In line with this, we identified a protein complex composed of ATG5, FADD, and pro-CASP8 whose assembly coincides with caspase activation and cell death induction. Together, our results reveal the toxic potential of autophagy in cells undergoing ER stress that are defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and suggest a model in which the autophagosome functions as a platform facilitating pro-CASP8 activation. Chemoresistance, a common problem in the treatment of cancer, is frequently caused by the downregulation of key mitochondrial death effector proteins. Alternate stress-induced apoptotic pathways, such as the one described here, may become of particular relevance for tackling the problem of chemoresistance in cancer cells.

  7. Deficiency in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway reveals the toxic potential of autophagy under ER stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Logue, Susan E; Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Samali, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death is normally associated with activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is characterized by CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) release, apoptosome formation, and caspase activation, resulting in cell death. In this study, we demonstrate that under conditions of ER stress cells devoid of CASP9/caspase-9 or BAX and BAK1, and therefore defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, still undergo a delayed form of cell death associated with the activation of caspases, therefore revealing the existence of an alternative stress-induced caspase activation pathway. We identified CASP8/caspase-8 as the apical protease in this caspase cascade, and found that knockdown of either of the key autophagic genes, ATG5 or ATG7, impacted on CASP8 activation and cell death induction, highlighting the crucial role of autophagy in the activation of this novel ER stress-induced death pathway. In line with this, we identified a protein complex composed of ATG5, FADD, and pro-CASP8 whose assembly coincides with caspase activation and cell death induction. Together, our results reveal the toxic potential of autophagy in cells undergoing ER stress that are defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and suggest a model in which the autophagosome functions as a platform facilitating pro-CASP8 activation. Chemoresistance, a common problem in the treatment of cancer, is frequently caused by the downregulation of key mitochondrial death effector proteins. Alternate stress-induced apoptotic pathways, such as the one described here, may become of particular relevance for tackling the problem of chemoresistance in cancer cells. PMID:25470234

  8. BCDO2 acts as a carotenoid scavenger and gatekeeper for the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Glenn P.; Isken, Andrea; Hoff, Sylvia; Babino, Darwin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids and their metabolites are widespread and exert key biological functions in living organisms. In vertebrates, the carotenoid oxygenase BCMO1 converts carotenoids such as β,β-carotene to retinoids, which are required for embryonic pattern formation and cell differentiation. Vertebrate genomes encode a structurally related protein named BCDO2 but its physiological function remains undefined. Here, we show that BCDO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-regulated protein during zebrafish development. Targeted knockdown of this mitochondrial enzyme resulted in anemia at larval stages. Marker gene analysis and staining for hemoglobin revealed that erythropoiesis was not impaired but that erythrocytes underwent apoptosis in BCDO2-deficient larvae. To define the mechanism of this defect, we have analyzed the role of BCDO2 in human cell lines. We found that carotenoids caused oxidative stress in mitochondria that eventually led to cytochrome c release, proteolytic activation of caspase 3 and PARP1, and execution of the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, BCDO2 prevented this induction of the apoptotic pathway by carotenoids. Thus, our study identifying BCDO2 as a crucial protective component against oxidative stress establishes this enzyme as mitochondrial carotenoid scavenger and a gatekeeper of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:22764054

  9. Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 induce mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, O. A.; Isaeva, A. V.; Prokhorenko, T. S.; Zima, A. P.; Novitsky, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Cellular malignant transformation is often accompanied by increased gene expression of low-molecular proteins of lectins family-galectins. But it is unknown how galectins promote tumor growth and malignization. Galectins-1 and galectin-3 are thought to be possible immunoregulators exerting their effects by regulating the balance of CD4+ lymphocytes. In addition it is known that tumor cells overexpressing galectins are capable of escaping immunological control, causing apoptosis of lymphocytes. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in the implementation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells. Methods: Jurkat cells were used as a model for the study of T-lymphocytes. Jurkat cells were activated with antibodies to CD3 and CD28 and cultured with recombinant galectin-1 and -3. Apoptosis of Jurkat cells and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. It was found that galectin-1 and galectin-3 have a dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effect on Jurkat cells in vitro and enlarge the number of cells with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential compared with intact cells.

  10. Genistein suppresses the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons in rats with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Cai, Biao; Shao, Jing; Wang, Ting-Ting; Cai, Run-Ze; Ma, Chang-Ju; Han, Tao; Du, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Genistein is effective against amyloid-β toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that genistein may protect neurons by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and thereby play a role in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. A rat model of Alzheimer's disease was established by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and intracerebral injection of amyloid-β peptide (25-35). In the genistein treatment groups, a 7-day pretreatment with genistein (10, 30, 90 mg/kg) was given prior to establishing Alzheimer's disease model, for 49 consecutive days. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay demonstrated a reduction in apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats treated with genistein. Western blot analysis showed that expression levels of capase-3, Bax and cytochrome c were decreased compared with the model group. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in cytochrome c and Bax immunoreactivity in these rats. Morris water maze revealed a substantial shortening of escape latency by genistein in Alzheimer's disease rats. These findings suggest that genistein decreases neuronal loss in the hippocampus, and improves learning and memory ability. The neuroprotective effects of genistein are associated with the inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as shown by its ability to reduce levels of caspase-3, Bax and cytochrome c. PMID:27630702

  11. Genistein suppresses the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons in rats with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Cai, Biao; Shao, Jing; Wang, Ting-ting; Cai, Run-ze; Ma, Chang-ju; Han, Tao; Du, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is effective against amyloid-β toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that genistein may protect neurons by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and thereby play a role in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. A rat model of Alzheimer’s disease was established by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and intracerebral injection of amyloid-β peptide (25–35). In the genistein treatment groups, a 7-day pretreatment with genistein (10, 30, 90 mg/kg) was given prior to establishing Alzheimer’s disease model, for 49 consecutive days. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay demonstrated a reduction in apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats treated with genistein. Western blot analysis showed that expression levels of capase-3, Bax and cytochrome c were decreased compared with the model group. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in cytochrome c and Bax immunoreactivity in these rats. Morris water maze revealed a substantial shortening of escape latency by genistein in Alzheimer’s disease rats. These findings suggest that genistein decreases neuronal loss in the hippocampus, and improves learning and memory ability. The neuroprotective effects of genistein are associated with the inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as shown by its ability to reduce levels of caspase-3, Bax and cytochrome c. PMID:27630702

  12. A novel prohibitin-binding compound induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through NOXA and BIM upregulation.

    PubMed

    Moncunill-Massaguer, Cristina; Saura-Esteller, José; Pérez-Perarnau, Alba; Palmeri, Claudia Mariela; Núñez-Vázquez, Sonia; Cosialls, Ana M; González-Gironès, Diana M; Pomares, Helena; Korwitz, Anne; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Pons, Gabriel; Langer, Thomas; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Gil, Joan

    2015-12-01

    We previously described diaryl trifluorothiazoline compound 1a (hereafter referred to as fluorizoline) as a first-in-class small molecule that induces p53-independent apoptosis in a wide range of tumor cell lines. Fluorizoline directly binds to prohibitin 1 and 2 (PHBs), two proteins involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, including apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that fluorizoline-induced apoptosis is mediated by PHBs, as cells depleted of these proteins are highly resistant to fluorizoline treatment. In addition, BAX and BAK are necessary for fluorizoline-induced cytotoxic effects, thereby proving that apoptosis occurs through the intrinsic pathway. Expression analysis revealed that fluorizoline induced the upregulation of Noxa and Bim mRNA levels, which was not observed in PHB-depleted MEFs. Finally, Noxa(-/-)/Bim(-/-) MEFs and NOXA-downregulated HeLa cells were resistant to fluorizoline-induced apoptosis. All together, these findings show that fluorizoline requires PHBs to execute the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  13. Mitochondrial ROS and the Effectors of the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Aging Cells: The Discerning Killers!

    PubMed Central

    Hekimi, Siegfried; Wang, Ying; Noë, Alycia

    2016-01-01

    It has become clear that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are not simply villains and mitochondria the hapless targets of their attacks. Rather, it appears that mitochondrial dysfunction itself and the signaling function of mtROS can have positive effects on lifespan, helping to extend longevity. If events in the mitochondria can lead to better cellular homeostasis and better survival of the organism in ways beyond providing ATP and biosynthetic products, we can conjecture that they act on other cellular components through appropriate signaling pathways. We describe recent advances in a variety of species which promoted our understanding of how changes of mtROS generation are part of a system of signaling pathways that emanate from the mitochondria to impact organism lifespan through global changes, including in transcriptional patterns. In unraveling this, many old players in cellular homeostasis were encountered. Among these, maybe most strikingly, is the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which is the conduit by which at least one class of mtROS exercise their actions in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This is a pathway that normally contributes to organismal homeostasis by killing defective or otherwise unwanted cells, and whose various compounds have also been implicated in other cellular processes. However, it was a surprise that that appropriate activation of a cell killing pathway can in fact prolong the lifespan of the organism. In the soma of adult C. elegans, all cells are post-mitotic, like many of our neurons and possibly some of our immune cells. These cells cannot simply be killed and replaced when showing signs of dysfunction. Thus, we speculate that it is the ability of the apoptotic pathway to pull together information about the functional and structural integrity of different cellular compartments that is the key property for why this pathway is used to decide when to boost defensive and repair processes in irreplaceable

  14. Mitochondrial ROS and the Effectors of the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Aging Cells: The Discerning Killers!

    PubMed Central

    Hekimi, Siegfried; Wang, Ying; Noë, Alycia

    2016-01-01

    It has become clear that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are not simply villains and mitochondria the hapless targets of their attacks. Rather, it appears that mitochondrial dysfunction itself and the signaling function of mtROS can have positive effects on lifespan, helping to extend longevity. If events in the mitochondria can lead to better cellular homeostasis and better survival of the organism in ways beyond providing ATP and biosynthetic products, we can conjecture that they act on other cellular components through appropriate signaling pathways. We describe recent advances in a variety of species which promoted our understanding of how changes of mtROS generation are part of a system of signaling pathways that emanate from the mitochondria to impact organism lifespan through global changes, including in transcriptional patterns. In unraveling this, many old players in cellular homeostasis were encountered. Among these, maybe most strikingly, is the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which is the conduit by which at least one class of mtROS exercise their actions in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This is a pathway that normally contributes to organismal homeostasis by killing defective or otherwise unwanted cells, and whose various compounds have also been implicated in other cellular processes. However, it was a surprise that that appropriate activation of a cell killing pathway can in fact prolong the lifespan of the organism. In the soma of adult C. elegans, all cells are post-mitotic, like many of our neurons and possibly some of our immune cells. These cells cannot simply be killed and replaced when showing signs of dysfunction. Thus, we speculate that it is the ability of the apoptotic pathway to pull together information about the functional and structural integrity of different cellular compartments that is the key property for why this pathway is used to decide when to boost defensive and repair processes in irreplaceable

  15. A novel prohibitin-binding compound induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through NOXA and BIM upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Moncunill-Massaguer, Cristina; Saura-Esteller, José; Pérez-Perarnau, Alba; Palmeri, Claudia Mariela; Núñez-Vázquez, Sonia; Cosialls, Ana M.; González-Gironès, Diana M.; Pomares, Helena; Korwitz, Anne; Preciado, Sara; Albericio, Fernando; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Pons, Gabriel; Langer, Thomas; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Gil, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We previously described diaryl trifluorothiazoline compound 1a (hereafter referred to as fluorizoline) as a first-in-class small molecule that induces p53-independent apoptosis in a wide range of tumor cell lines. Fluorizoline directly binds to prohibitin 1 and 2 (PHBs), two proteins involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, including apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that fluorizoline-induced apoptosis is mediated by PHBs, as cells depleted of these proteins are highly resistant to fluorizoline treatment. In addition, BAX and BAK are necessary for fluorizoline-induced cytotoxic effects, thereby proving that apoptosis occurs through the intrinsic pathway. Expression analysis revealed that fluorizoline induced the upregulation of Noxa and Bim mRNA levels, which was not observed in PHB-depleted MEFs. Finally, Noxa−/−/Bim−/− MEFs and NOXA-downregulated HeLa cells were resistant to fluorizoline-induced apoptosis. All together, these findings show that fluorizoline requires PHBs to execute the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:26497683

  16. The involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in eugenol-induced cell death in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol, a natural phenolic constituent of clove oil, has a wide range of applications in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. However, the effect of eugenol on human glioblastoma is unclear. This study examined whether eugenol elevated intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) and induced apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells. Eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises which were reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). Eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises were not altered by store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers but were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonist capsazepine. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 significantly inhibited eugenol-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Eugenol killed cells which were not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Eugenol induced apoptosis through increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, releasing cytochrome c and activating caspase-9/caspase-3. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells, eugenol evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum and caused Ca(2+) influx possibly through TRPM8 or PKC-sensitive channels. Furthermore, eugenol induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:25455450

  17. ChBax/Bak as key regulators of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway: cloned and characterized in Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhiming; Qu, Fufa; Wang, Fuxuan; Xiao, Shu; Jun, Li; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-02-01

    Apoptosis has been primarily investigated in mammals, and little is known about apoptosis in mollusks. The proteins Bax and Bak play critical roles in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and in determining cell fate. In this study, ChBax and ChBak, homologs of the well-known Bax and Bak proteins, were identified from the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The ChBax/Bak proteins consist of 207/232 amino acids with the typical domains found in BCL-2 family members. ChBax and ChBak mRNA expression were detected in all 8 of the selected oyster tissues and at the different stages of development. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the full-length proteins of ChBax/Bak were located in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial outer membrane, of HEK293T cells, respectively. Furthermore, both of the genes' expression levels were found to increase in the hemocytes of oysters challenged with pathogens. The over-expression of ChBax or ChBak activates the p53-Luc reporter gene in HEK293T cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that ChBax and ChBak may play important roles in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in oysters.

  18. The role of lysosomes in BDE 47-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Chengquan; Zhu, Chunyan; Qian, Bo; Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Chang; Shao, Jing; Yan, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of widely used flame retardants. The rising presence of PBDEs in human tissues has received considerable concerns with regard to potential health risks. While the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway has been suggested in PBDEs-induced apoptosis, the role of lysosomes is yet to be understood. In the present study, HepG2 cells were exposed to BDE 47 at various concentrations and durations to establish the causal and temporal relationships among various cellular events, such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, and expression of cytochrome C and caspase 3. The involvement of lysosomes was simultaneously studied by evaluating lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and changes in the expression of cathepsin B, a lysosome hydrolase. In addition, a cathepsin B inhibitor (10 μM CA-074) was used to determine the involvement of lysosomes and potential interactions between lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results showed that ROS production was an initial response of HepG2 to BDE 47 exposure, followed by a decreased MMP; a loss of MMP caused additional ROS generation which acted to induce LMP; an increased LMP resulted in a release of cathepsin B which aggravated the loss of MMP leading to release of cytochrome C and caspase 3 and subsequent apoptosis. Pretreatment with CA-074 did not abolish the initial ROS generation, however, all downstream events were dramatically alleviated. Taken together, our data indicate that lysosomes might be involved in BDE 47-mediated mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells, possibly through feedback interactions between mitochondria and lysosomes. PMID:25479806

  19. Cytochalasin B induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Yi, Myeongjin; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yi; Jung, Jee H; Kim, Dong-Kyoo

    2013-10-01

    Cytochalasin B (CB) is a cell-permeable mycotoxin. It inhibits cytoplasmic division by blocking the formation of contractile microfilaments, it inhibits cell movement and induces nuclear extrusion. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of CB in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. CB showed significant cytotoxicity, with an IC50 of 7.9 µM, in a WST-8 assay and significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, results from Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double-staining indicated that CB induced early apoptosis of HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. The cells exhibited apoptotic morphology, including cell shrinkage and nuclear condensation. CB induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase. We also observed inhibition of DNA replication in a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Furthermore, CB induced a time-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot analysis showed an increase in levels of mitochondrial factors Bax and Bcl-2, which was followed by activation of caspase-9 and -3. These results suggested that CB induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HeLa cells. PMID:23863920

  20. The Key Role of Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in the Cytotoxic Effect of Mushroom Extracts on Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Ling, Ming-Tat; Chen, Jiezhong

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have been extensively studied for their medicinal effects. They can stimulate immune responses and thus have been explored in cancer treatment. Recently, it has also been shown that some mushroom extracts can produce direct cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the cytotoxic effect of mushroom extracts in cancer treatment revealed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. We also summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms associated with such an effect with an emphasis on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The recent finding that mushroom extracts have direct cytotoxic effects supplements their known immune stimulating effects. Thus, novel anticancer agents based on new findings from mushroom extracts may soon be added to the present pool of anticancer drugs. Specifically, we propose that nanodelivery of the bioactive compounds of mushroom extracts to mitochondria will further increase their potential treatment efficacy.

  1. Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro by inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Soo A; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intra-articular injection of local anesthetics (LAs) is a common procedure for therapeutic purposes. However, LAs have been found toxic to articular cartilage, and hyaluronan may attenuate this toxicity. In this study we investigated whether hyaluronan attenuated lidocaine-induced chondrotoxicity, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and newly isolated murine chondrocytes were incubated in culture medium containing hyaluronan and/or lidocaine for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with DAPI staining, caspase 3/7 activity assay and flow cytometry. Cell cycle distributions, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of p53 and p53-regulated gene products was measured with Western blotting. Results: Lidocaine (0.005%−0.03%) dose-dependently decreased the viability of SW1353 cells. This local anesthetic (0.015%, 0.025%) induced apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and loss of ΔΨm, and markedly increased ROS production in SW1353 cells. Hyaluronan (50−800 μg/mL) alone did not affect the cell viability, but co-treatment with hyaluronan (200 μg/mL) significantly attenuated lidocaine-induced apoptosis and other abnormalities in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with lidocaine and hyaluronan significantly decreased the levels of p53 and its transcription targets Bax and p21 in SW1353 cells, although treatment with lidocaine alone did not significantly change these proteins. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured murine chondrocytes. Conclusion: Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro through inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27041463

  2. Acetylation of p53 Protein at Lysine 120 Up-regulates Apaf-1 Protein and Sensitizes the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yun, Tao; Yu, Kaiwen; Yang, ShuangShuang; Cui, Yifan; Wang, Zixi; Ren, Huiyu; Chen, She; Li, Lin; Liu, Xiaoyun; Fang, Min; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-04-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor controls cell growth, metabolism, and death by regulating the transcription of various target genes. The target-specific transcriptional activity of p53 is highly regulated. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of p53 at Lys-120 up-regulates its transcriptional activity toward Apaf-1, a core component in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and thus sensitizes caspase activation and apoptosis. We found that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including butyrate, augment Lys-120 acetylation of p53 and thus Apaf-1 expression by inhibiting HDAC1. In p53-null cells, transfection of wild-type but not K120R mutant p53 can restore the p53-dependent sensitivity to butyrate. Strikingly, transfection of acetylation-mimicking K120Q mutant p53 is sufficient to up-regulates Apaf-1 in a manner independent of butyrate treatment. Therefore, HDAC inhibitors can induce p53 acetylation at lysine 120, which in turn enhances mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis through transcriptional up-regulation of Apaf-1. PMID:26851285

  3. Carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotube enhanced its biocompatibility with L02 cells through decreased activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenbao; Dong, Xia; Song, Liping; Zhang, Hailing; Liu, Lanxia; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Cunxian; Leng, Xigang

    2014-03-01

    Modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with carboxyl group is one of the widely used strategies to increase their water dispersibility. Various molecules can be further coupled to the surface of carboxylated CNTs for the desired applications. However, the effect of carboxylation of CNTs on their cytotoxicity is far from being completely understood. In this study, the impact of carboxylated multiwalled CNT (MWCNT-COOH) on human normal liver cell line L02 was studied and compared with pristine multiwalled CNT (p-MWCNT). The data accumulated in this study revealed that modification with carboxyl group reduced the toxicity of MWCNT on L02 cells, probably due to the decreased activation of mitochondria mediated apoptotic pathway. Both p-MWCNT and MWCNT-COOH, when reaching to certain concentration, induced significant decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytoplasm as well as activation of caspase-9, and -3. However, the changes induced by MWCNT-COOH were significantly milder than that by p-MWCNT. Our observation suggests that carboxylated MWCNTs might be safer for in vivo application as compared with p-MWCNT.

  4. Astragaloside IV inhibits doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Daiying; Li, Zengqiang; Liu, Hanmo; Dai, Zhengning; Cai, Jiayi; Pang, Lili; Wu, Yingliang

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used antitumor drug whose application is seriously limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of astragaloside IV (3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol, AS-IV), a pure saponin isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, against DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Immunocytochemistry and Microculture Tetrazolium (MTT) assays showed that AS-IV significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiomyocyte loss. Additionally, AS-IV markedly ameliorated DOX-caused cardiomyocyte dysfunction via restoring the beating cell ratio and beating rate in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, AS-IV substantially reduced the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and cytochrome c (CytC) release, and restored the reduced ATP level, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase activities induced by DOX, suggesting that AS-IV significantly attenuated DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. It was further observed that DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, as qualitatively evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining and accurately quantified by flow cytometry, was markedly inhibited by AS-IV. Western blot analysis manifested that AS-IV significantly inhibited the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (MAP) via inducing the phosphorylation of Akt and Bad. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) remarkably inhibited the anti-apoptotic effect of AS-IV. Moreover, AS-IV didn't compromise the antitumor activity of DOX. Taken together, our findings indicate that AS-IV ameliorates DIC, and this beneficial effect appears to be dependent on the activation of the PI3K

  5. A Small Molecule That Protects the Integrity of the Electron Transfer Chain Blocks the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xian; Li, Li; Ying, Zhengxin; Pan, Chenjie; Huang, Shaoqiang; Li, Lin; Dai, Miaomiao; Yan, Bo; Li, Ming; Jiang, Hui; Chen, She; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-21

    In response to apoptotic stimuli, mitochondria in mammalian cells release cytochrome c and other apoptogenic proteins, leading to the subsequent activation of caspases and apoptotic cell death. This process is promoted by the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, such as Bim and Bax, which, respectively, initiate and execute cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. Here we report the discovery of a small molecule that efficiently blocks Bim-induced apoptosis after Bax is activated on the mitochondria. The cellular target of this small molecule was identified to be the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) protein of complex II of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC). The molecule protects the integrity of the ETC and allows treated cells to continue to proliferate after apoptosis induction. Moreover, this molecule blocked dopaminergic neuron death and reversed Parkinson-like behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27447985

  6. Osteopontin-stimulated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial death pathway: role of a pro-apoptotic protein BIK.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Suman; Zha, Qinqin; Singh, Mahipal; Singh, Krishna

    2016-07-01

    Increased osteopontin (OPN) expression in the heart, specifically in myocytes, associates with increased myocyte apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction. Recently, we provided evidence that OPN interacts with CD44 receptor, and induces myocyte apoptosis via the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial death pathways. Here we tested the hypothesis that OPN induces oxidative stress in myocytes and the heart via the involvement of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4). Treatment of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs) with OPN (20 nM) increased oxidative stress as analyzed by protein carbonylation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as analyzed by ROS detection kit and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate staining. Pretreatment with NAC (antioxidant), apocynin (NOX inhibitor), MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase mimetic), and mitochondrial KATP channel blockers (glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate) decreased OPN-stimulated ROS production, cytosolic cytochrome c levels, and apoptosis. OPN increased NOX-4 expression, while decreasing SOD-2 expression. OPN decreased mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by JC-1 staining, and induced mitochondrial abnormalities including swelling and reorganization of cristae as observed using transmission electron microscopy. OPN increased expression of BIK, a pro-apoptotic protein involved in reorganization of mitochondrial cristae. Expression of dominant-negative BIK decreased OPN-stimulated apoptosis. In vivo, OPN expression in cardiac myocyte-specific manner associated with increased protein carbonylation, and expression of NOX-4 and BIK. Thus, OPN induces oxidative stress via the involvement of mitochondria and NOX-4. It may affect mitochondrial morphology and integrity, at least in part, via the involvement of BIK. PMID:27262843

  7. Involvement of Bcl-xL degradation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway in pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Lili; Chen Ying; Liu Tianyu; Wang Zhengtao

    2008-09-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural hepatotoxins with worldwide distribution in more than 6000 high plants including medicinal herbs or teas. The aim of this study is to investigate the signal pathway involved in PAs-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that clivorine, isolated from Ligularia hodgsonii Hook, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in L-02 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Western-blot results showed that clivorine induced caspase-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in a time (8-48 h)- and concentration (1-100 {mu}M)-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly inhibited clivorine-induced apoptosis and rescued clivorine-decreased cell viability. Polyubiquitination of Bcl-xL was detected after incubation with 100 {mu}M clivorine for 40 h in the presence of proteasome specific inhibitor MG132, indicating possible degradation of Bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, pretreatment with MG132 or calpain inhibitor I for 2 h significantly enhanced clivorine-decreased Bcl-xL level and cell viability. All the other tested PAs such as senecionine, isoline and monocrotaline decreased mouse hepatocytes viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine (10 {mu}M) induced caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL was also confirmed in mouse hepatocytes. Meanwhile, another PA senecionine isolated from Senecio vulgaris L also induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAs may share the same hepatotoxic signal pathway, which involves degradation of Bcl-xL protein and thus leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.

  8. Topological Transitions in Mitochondrial Membranes controlled by Apoptotic Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Sanders, Lori K.; Mishra, Abhijit; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Ivashyna, Olena; Schlesinger, Paul H.

    2010-03-01

    The Bcl-2 family comprises pro-apoptotic proteins, capable of permeabilizing the mitochondrial membrane, and anti-apoptotic members interacting in an antagonistic fashion to regulate programmed cell death (apoptosis). They offer potential therapeutic targets to re-engage cellular suicide in tumor cells but the extensive network of implicated protein-protein interactions has impeded full understanding of the decision pathway. We show, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, that pro-apoptotic proteins interact with mitochondrial-like model membranes to generate saddle-splay (negative Gaussian) curvature topologically required for pore formation, while anti-apoptotic proteins can deactivate curvature generation by molecules drastically different from Bcl-2 family members and offer evidence for membrane-curvature mediated interactions general enough to affect very disparate systems.

  9. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  10. The apoptotic effect of nanosilver is mediated by a ROS- and JNK-dependent mechanism involving the mitochondrial pathway in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Yi-Hong; Chen, Chun-Feng; Huang, Shing; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lai, Ping-Shan; Chueh, Pin Ju

    2008-07-10

    Nanomaterials and nanoparticles have received considerable attention recently because of their unique properties and diverse biotechnology and life sciences applications. Nanosilver products, which have well-known antimicrobial properties, have been used extensively in a range of medical settings. Despite the widespread use of nanosilver products, relatively few studies have been undertaken to determine the biological effects of nanosilver exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of nanosilver and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of nanosilver. Here, we show that nanosilver is cytotoxic, inducing apoptosis in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Treatment with nanosilver induced the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and translocation of Bax to mitochondria, indicating that nanosilver-mediated apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. Nanosilver-induced apoptosis was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and JNK activation, and inhibition of either ROS or JNK attenuated nanosilver-induced apoptosis. In nanosilver-resistant HCT116 cells, up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 appeared to be associated with a diminished apoptotic response. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for a molecular mechanism of nanosilver cytotoxicity, showing that nanosilver acts through ROS and JNK to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.

  11. Puerarin attenuates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells through the JNK- and Akt-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongdong; Mu, Shuai; Zhao, Danyang; Wang, Guangbin; Chen, Zhiguang; Ren, Hongfei; Fu, Qin

    2015-08-01

    Puerarin is an active component of Pueraria lobata, which is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of puerarin on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts in vitro. The effects of puerarin on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced cell apoptosis were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and found that the viability of hFOB1.19 cells was significantly increased following exposure to between 10(-6) and 10(-10) M puerarin, with a maximal anti-apoptotic effect at a concentration of 10(-8) M. In addition, compared with the control group, puerarin upregulated the transcription and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 and downregulated B-cell-associated X protein in the hFOB1.19 cells. Puerarin attenuated the DEX-induced release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase-3, and treatment with puerarin inhibited the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in the hFOB1.19 cells. Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partly eliminated the protective effect of puerarin on DEX-induced apoptosis, and puerarin combined with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed DEX-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent than in the cells treated with SP600125 alone. These results suggested that the JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways mediate the inhibitory effects of puerarin on apoptosis in the hFOB1.19 cells. In conclusion, puerarin prevented DEX-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells via inhibition of the JNK pathway and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the cells, dependent on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These results support puerarin as a promising target in the treatment of GC-induced osteoporosis. PMID:26101183

  12. Involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and nitric oxide synthase in dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Kumar, Sachin; Dikshit, Madhu

    2010-01-01

    The primary pathology in Parkinson's disease patients is significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra through multiple mechanisms. We previously have demonstrated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. The present study was undertaken to investigate further the role of NO in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons during the early time period after administration of 6-OHDA and LPS. Measurement of dopamine and its metabolites, TH immunolabeling, cytochrome-c release, mitochondrial complex-I and caspase-3 activity assessment was performed in both the 6-OHDA- and LPS-induced experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Significant decreases in dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunolabeling and mitochondrial complex-I activity were observed, with increase in cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 activation. Dopmaine and its metabolite levels, mitochondrial complex-I activity and caspase-3 activity were significantly reversed with treatment of the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. The reduction in the extent of cytochrome-c release responded variably to NOS inhibition in both the models. The results obtained suggest that NO contributes to mitochondria-mediated neuronal apoptosis in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA and LPS in rats. PMID:20594414

  13. PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic disruption by hypoxic postconditioning.

    PubMed

    Li, YuZhen; Guo, Qi; Liu, XiuHua; Wang, Chen; Song, DanDan

    2015-08-01

    Postconditioning can reduce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting mitochondria. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is involved in lethal I/R injury. Here, we hypothesized that postconditioning might inhibit mitochondrial pathway-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis by controlling PUMA expression. The cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes underwent 3 h of hypoxia and 3 h of reoxygenation. Postconditioning consisted of three cycles of 5 min reoxygenation and 5 min hypoxia after prolonged hypoxia. Hypoxic postconditioning reduced the levels of PUMA mRNA and protein. Concomitantly, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation were decreased significantly by postconditioning. Overexpression of PUMA increased greatly not only the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, but also the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation under postconditioning condition. The data suggest that reduction of PUMA expression mediates the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms of postconditioning by disrupting mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  14. Ethanol extract of Forsythia suspensa root induces apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANMEI; YAN, XI; SHI, JUAN; REN, FENGZHI; LIU, LIHUA; SUN, SHIPING; SHAN, BAOEN

    2015-01-01

    Forsythia suspensa root is used in the treatment of fever and jaundice in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In the present study, the anti-tumor activity of the ethanolic extract of Forsythia suspensa root (FSREE) against esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo and its anti-cancer mechanism was examined. The results revealed that FSREE, rather than Forsythia suspensa ethanolic extracts from the leaf (FSLEE) and fruit (FSFEE) exhibited marked anti-tumor activity towards human esophageal cancer cells. FSREE induced cancer cell apoptosis and growth arrest by downregulating B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-extra large and myeloid cell leukemia 1, while upregulating Bcl-2-associated X protein, Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1. This led to the activation of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-8. Furthermore, the anti-cancer activity of FSREE was associated with a decreased level of phosphorylated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling activity. It was also observed that the levels of cytochrome c were elevated in the cytoplasm, accounting for the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in the TE-13 cells upon treatment with FSEER. In addition, FSEER inhibited the growth of esophageal cancer cells in xenograft models and no detectable toxicity was present in the lung or liver tissues. These observations provided further evidence of the anti-tumor effect of FSEER and may be of importance to further examine the potential role of Forsythia suspensa root as a therapeutic agent in esophageal carcinoma therapy. PMID:25373392

  15. Organization of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic BAK Pore

    PubMed Central

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Mandal, Tirtha; Hustedt, Eric; Fajer, Peter; Choe, Jun Yong; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2014-01-01

    The multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins BAK and BAX are believed to form large oligomeric pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. Formation of these pores results in the release of apoptotic factors including cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm, where they initiate the cascade of events that lead to cell death. Using the site-directed spin labeling method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we have determined the conformational changes that occur in BAK when the protein targets to the membrane and forms pores. The data showed that helices α1 and α6 disengage from the rest of the domain, leaving helices α2-α5 as a folded unit. Helices α2-α5 were shown to form a dimeric structure, which is structurally homologous to the recently reported BAX “BH3-in-groove homodimer.” Furthermore, the EPR data and a chemical cross-linking study demonstrated the existence of a hitherto unknown interface between BAK BH3-in-groove homodimers in the oligomeric BAK. This novel interface involves the C termini of α3 and α5 helices. The results provide further insights into the organization of the BAK oligomeric pores by the BAK homodimers during mitochondrial apoptosis, enabling the proposal of a BAK-induced lipidic pore with the topography of a “worm hole.” PMID:24337568

  16. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles activate IL-1b, NFKB1, CCL21 and NOS2 signaling to induce mitochondrial dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway in WISH cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Shams T.; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-12-01

    localization of NPs. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs induce DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in WISH cells. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs activate inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in WISH cells. • Elevation of p53, CASP 3, bax and bcl 2 genes affirms intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  17. The apoptotic effect of hesperetin on human cervical cancer cells is mediated through cell cycle arrest, death receptor, and mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Ramesh, E; Periasamy, V S; Subash-Babu, P

    2013-12-01

    Hesperetin, a flavonoid from citrus fruits, has several bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic effects. However, studies elucidating the role and the mechanism(s) of action of hesperetin in cervical cancer are sparse. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the antiproliferative and apoptotic actions exerted by hesperetin on human cervical cancer SiHa cells. The viability of SiHa cells was evaluated using the MTT assay, apoptosis by acridine orange/ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, TUNEL assay, and Annexin V-Cy3, cell cycle distribution and mitochondrial transmembrane potential using flow cytometry, and apoptotic marker genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The treatment of SiHa cells with hesperetin (IC50, 650 μm) showed a marked concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h. There was an attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential with increased expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53, Bax, and Fas death receptor and its adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain-containing protein (FADD), indicating the participation of both death receptor- and mitochondria-related mechanisms. Furthermore, hesperetin-induced apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL and Annexin V-Cy3. This study shows that hesperetin exhibits a potential anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cell lines in vitro through the reduction in cell viability and the induction of apoptosis. Altogether, these data sustain our contention that hesperetin has anticancer properties and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial dysregulation in HeLa cells treated with dichloromethane extract of Dillenia suffruticosa

    PubMed Central

    Wan Nor Hafiza, Wan Abd Ghani; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Tor, Yin Sim; Foo, Jhi Biau; Armania, Nurdin; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extract of Dillenia suffruticosa (EADS and DCMDS, respectively) can be a potential anticancer agent. The effects of EADS and DCMDS on the growth of HeLa cervical cancer cells and the expression of apoptotic-related proteins had been investigated in vitro. Cytotoxicity of the extracts toward the cells was determined by 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the effects on cell cycle progression and the mode of cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry technique, while the effects on apoptotic-related genes and proteins were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Treatment with DCMDS inhibited (P < 0.05) proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The expression of cyclin B1 was downregulated that led to G2/M arrest in the cells after treatment with DCMDA. In summary, DCMDS induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptotic pathway and dysregulation of mitochondria. The data suggest the potential application of DCMDS in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:27041866

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial dysregulation in HeLa cells treated with dichloromethane extract of Dillenia suffruticosa.

    PubMed

    Wan Nor Hafiza, Wan Abd Ghani; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Tor, Yin Sim; Foo, Jhi Biau; Armania, Nurdin; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extract of Dillenia suffruticosa (EADS and DCMDS, respectively) can be a potential anticancer agent. The effects of EADS and DCMDS on the growth of HeLa cervical cancer cells and the expression of apoptotic-related proteins had been investigated in vitro. Cytotoxicity of the extracts toward the cells was determined by 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the effects on cell cycle progression and the mode of cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry technique, while the effects on apoptotic-related genes and proteins were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Treatment with DCMDS inhibited (P < 0.05) proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The expression of cyclin B1 was downregulated that led to G2/M arrest in the cells after treatment with DCMDA. In summary, DCMDS induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptotic pathway and dysregulation of mitochondria. The data suggest the potential application of DCMDS in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:27041866

  20. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production. PMID:26851027

  1. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production.

  2. Mangiferin Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress Mediated Signaling Cascade, TNFα Related and Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptotic Pathways in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in hyperglycemic conditions. It has already been reported that mangiferin, a natural C-glucosyl xanthone and polyhydroxy polyphenol compound protects kidneys from diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the mechanism of its beneficial action in this pathophysiology. The present study, therefore, examines the detailed mechanism of the beneficial action of mangiferin on STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in Wister rats as the working model. A significant increase in plasma glucose level, kidney to body weight ratio, glomerular hypertrophy and hydropic changes as well as enhanced nephrotoxicity related markers (BUN, plasma creatinine, uric acid and urinary albumin) were observed in the experimental animals. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress related parameters, increased ROS production and decreased the intracellular antioxidant defenses were detected in the kidney. Studies on the oxidative stress mediated signaling cascades in diabetic nephropathy demonstrated that PKC isoforms (PKCα, PKCβ and PKCε), MAPKs (p38, JNK and ERK1/2), transcription factor (NF-κB) and TGF-β1 pathways were involved in this pathophysiology. Besides, TNFα was released in this hyperglycemic condition, which in turn activated caspase 8, cleaved Bid to tBid and finally the mitochorndia-dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, oxidative stress also disturbed the proapoptotic-antiapoptotic (Bax and Bcl-2) balance and activated mitochorndia-dependent apoptosis via caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Mangiferin treatment, post to hyperglycemia, successfully inhibited all of these changes and protected the cells from apoptotic death. PMID:25233093

  3. Apoptotic effect of novel Schiff Based CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex is mediated via activation of the mitochondrial pathway in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Salga, Muhammad Saleh; Karimian, Hamed; Shams, Keivan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    The development of metal-based agents has had a tremendous role in the present progress in cancer chemotherapy. One well-known example of metal-based agents is Schiff based metal complexes, which hold great promise for cancer therapy. Based on the potential of Schiff based complexes for the induction of apoptosis, this study aimed to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of a CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex on HT-29 cells. The complex exerted a potent suppressive effect on HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 2.57 ± 0.39 after 72 h of treatment. The collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the elevated release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol indicate the involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the induction of apoptosis. The role of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway was further proved by the significant activation of the initiator caspase-9 and the executioner caspases-3 and -7. In addition, the activation of caspase-8, which is associated with the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, also revealed the involvement of the extrinsic pathway in the induced apoptosis. The results suggest that the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex is able to induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells and is a potential candidate for future cancer studies. PMID:25764970

  4. Sulfiredoxin-1 protects against simulated ischaemia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocyte by inhibiting PI3K/AKT-regulated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiankai; He, Zhangyou; Guo, Jinhua; Li, Zhe; Wang, Xiaohong; Yang, Chun; Cui, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-triggered cardiac cell injury is recognized as the major contributor for the pathogenesis progression of ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. Sulfiredoxin-1 (Srx-1) is an endogenous antioxidant and exerts the crucial neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischaemia. However, its function and the underlying mechanism in ischaemic heart diseases remain poorly defined. Here, a dramatical decrease in Srx-1 was validated in H9c2 cardiomyocytes upon simulated ischaemia–reperfusion (SI/R) injury. Moreover, Srx-1 protected H9c2 cells from SI/R-injured injury as the evidences that Srx-1 up-regulation attenuated the inhibitory effects on cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell apoptosis upon SI/R treatment. Knockdown of Srx-1 accelerated cell injury upon SI/R. Mechanism assay corroborated that SI/R treatment noticeably aggravated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), which was remarkably abated in Ad-Srx-1 groups. Importantly, Srx-1 elevation substantially reduced cytochrome c release, the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3, accompany with the subsequent decrease in the cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP). Concomitantly, overexpression of Srx-1 also decreased the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax and increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. Further analysis substantiated that Srx-1 treatment remarkably induced the activation of PI3K/AKT signalling. Preconditioning with LY294002 dramatically decreased Srx-1-enhanced cell resistance to SI/R injury. Importantly, LY294002 mitigated the inhibitory effects of Srx-1 on Δψm loss, cytochrome c release, caspase-9/3 activity, and the expression of Bcl-2 family. Together, these results suggested that Srx-1 might protect cardiomyocyte injury upon SI/R by suppressing PI3K/AKT-mediated mitochondria dependent apoptosis, revealing a promising therapeutic agent against ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26992405

  5. Gallic acid induces apoptosis and enhances the anticancer effects of cisplatin in human small cell lung cancer H446 cell line via the ROS-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixuan; Ma, Lijie; Weng, Dan; Yao, Jiahui; Liu, Xueying; Jin, Faguang

    2016-05-01

    via the ROS-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:26987028

  6. The mitochondrial death pathway: a promising therapeutic target in diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Kass, George EN; Szegezdi, Eva; Joseph, Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis is a major pathway of physiological cell death in vertebrates. The mitochondrial cell death pathway commences when apoptogenic molecules present between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes are released into the cytosol by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). BCL-2 family members are the sentinels of MOMP in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway; the pro-apoptotic B cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 proteins, BCL-2 associated x protein and BCL-2 antagonist killer 1 induce MOMP whereas the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins, BCL-2, BCL-xl and myeloid cell leukaemia 1 prevent MOMP from occurring. The release of pro-apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c from mitochondria leads to formation of a multimeric complex known as the apoptosome and initiates caspase activation cascades. These pathways are important for normal cellular homeostasis and play key roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the mitochondrial death pathway and focus on a selection of diseases whose pathogenesis involves the mitochondrial death pathway and we will examine the various pharmacological approaches that target this pathway. PMID:19220575

  7. Cancer therapeutics: Targeting the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khurum H; Blanco-Codesido, Montserrat; Molife, L Rhoda

    2014-06-01

    Apoptosis, a physiological process of programmed cell death, is disrupted in various malignancies. It has been exploited as an anti-cancer strategy traditionally by inducing DNA damage with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. With an increased understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in recent years, novel approaches of targeting the apoptotic pathways have been tested in pre-clinical and clinical models. There are several early phase clinical trials investigating the therapeutic role of pro-apoptotic agents, both as single agents and in combination. In this review, we examine such treatment strategies, detailing the various compounds currently under clinical investigation, their potential roles in cancer therapeutics, and discussing approaches to their optimal use in the clinic.

  8. A combination of cilostazol and Ginkgo biloba extract protects against cisplatin-induced Cochleo-vestibular dysfunction by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic and ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, C J; Kim, Y J; Kim, S W; Lim, H J; Kim, Y S; Choung, Y-H

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum; CDDP) is an anticancer drug that induces significant hearing loss and balance dysfunction as side effects. Cilostazol (CS, 6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl) butoxy]-3, 4-dihydro-2-(1H)-quinolinone) has neuroprotective and antioxidant effects, whereas Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has preventive effects on CDDP-induced hearing loss in rats, and GbE enhances the antiatherogenic effect of CS by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of renexin (RXN), which contains GbE and CS, against CDDP-induced cochleo-vestibular dysfunction in rats and to elucidate the mechanism underlying the protective effects of RXN on auditory cells. Rats intraperitoneally injected with CDDP exhibited an increase in hearing threshold and vestibular dysfunction, which agreed with hair cell damage in the Organ of Corti and otoliths. However, these impairments were significantly prevented in a dose-dependent manner by pre- and co-treatment with RXN, and these preventive effects in RXN-treated rats were more prominent than those in GbE-treated rats. In a CDDP pharmacokinetic study, platinum concentration was very similar between CDDP-only treated and RXN+CDDP cotreated rats. RXN markedly attenuated CDDP-induced intracellular ROS and significantly reduced CDDP-activated expression of p-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), BAX, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, but increased BCL-XL expression. These results show that RXN may have a synergistic effect by strongly protecting hearing and vestibular dysfunction induced by CDDP by inhibiting ROS production, mitochondrial pathways and the ERK pathway, without interfering with CDDP pharmacokinetics. Therefore, RXN could potentially be used to reduce CDDP-related hearing loss and dizziness. PMID:23429295

  9. Costunolide induces G1/S phase arrest and activates mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways in SK-MES 1 human lung squamous carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HUA, PEIYAN; ZHANG, GUANGXIN; ZHANG, YIFAN; SUN, MEI; CUI, RANJI; LI, XIN; LI, BINGJIN; ZHANG, XINGYI

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, a safer and more effective modality strategy is required for the treatment of lung cancer. Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone which isolated from the Saussurea lappa, has potent anticancer properties. In the present study, the effects of costunolide on cell viability, the cell cycle and apoptosis in SK-MES-1 human lung squamous carcinoma cells were investigated. Costunolide induced morphological changes and inhibited growth of SK-MES-1 cells growth. Flow cytometric analysis data demonstrated that costunolide significantly induced apoptosis of SK-MES-1 cells and induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase in a dose-dependent manner. Through upregulation in the expression of p53 and Bax, and downregulation in the expression of Bcl-2 and activation of caspase-3, costunolide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by western blot analysis. In addition, the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated that costunolide may induce apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in SK-MES-1 cells. These results highlight the potential effects of costunolide as an anti-cancer agent in a human lung squamous carcinoma cell line. PMID:27073552

  10. Apoptotic Volume Decrease (AVD) Is Independent of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Initiator Caspase Activation.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Emi; Tsubata, Takeshi; Okada, Yasunobu

    2012-12-05

    Persistent cell shrinkage is a major hallmark of apoptotic cell death. The early-phase shrinkage, which starts within 30-120 min after apoptotic stimulation and is called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), is known to be accomplished by activation of K+ channels and volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl- channels in a manner independent of caspase-3 activation. However, it is controversial whether AVD depends on apoptotic dysfunction of mitochondria and activation of initiator caspases. Here, we observed that AVD is induced not only by a mitochondrial apoptosis inducer, staurosporine (STS), in mouse B lymphoma WEHI-231 cells, but also by ligation of the death receptor Fas in human B lymphoblastoid SKW6.4 cells, which undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis without involving mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-2 failed to inhibit the STS-induced AVD in WEHI-231 cells. These results indicate that AVD does not require the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In human epithelial HeLa cells stimulated with anti-Fas antibody or STS, the AVD induction was found to precede activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and to be resistant to pan-caspase blockers. Thus, it is concluded that the AVD induction is an early event independent of the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway and initiator caspase activation.

  11. The Modulation of Apoptotic Pathways by Gammaherpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Uppal, Timsy; Strahan, Roxanne; Dabral, Prerna; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a tightly regulated process fundamental for cellular development and elimination of damaged or infected cells during the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is also an important cellular defense mechanism against viral invasion. In many instances, abnormal regulation of apoptosis has been associated with a number of diseases, including cancer development. Following infection of host cells, persistent and oncogenic viruses such as the members of the Gammaherpesvirus family employ a number of different mechanisms to avoid the host cell’s “burglar” alarm and to alter the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways by either deregulating the expressions of cellular signaling genes or by encoding the viral homologs of cellular genes. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on how gammaherpesviruses inhibit cellular apoptosis via virus-encoded proteins by mediating modification of numerous signal transduction pathways. We also list the key viral anti-apoptotic proteins that could be exploited as effective targets for novel antiviral therapies in order to stimulate apoptosis in different types of cancer cells. PMID:27199919

  12. HDAC inhibitor misprocesses bantam oncomiRNA, but stimulates hid induced apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bhadra, Utpal; Mondal, Tanmoy; Bag, Indira; Mukhopadhyay, Debasmita; Das, Paromita; Parida, Bibhuti B.; Mainkar, Prathama S.; Reddy, Chada Raji; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is critical for embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Uncontrolled apoptosis leads to different human disorders including immunodeficiency, autoimmune disorder and cancer. Several small molecules that control apoptosis have been identified. Here, we have shown the functional role of triazole derivative (DCPTN-PT) that acts as a potent HDAC inhibitor and mis-express proto onco microRNA (miRNA) bantam. To further understanding the mechanism of action of the molecule in apoptotic pathway, a series of experiments were also performed in Drosophila, a well known model organism in which the nature of human apoptosis is very analogous. DCPTN-PT mis processes bantam microRNA and alters its down regulatory target hid function and cleavage of Caspase-3 which in turn influence components of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Drosophila. However regulatory microRNAs in other pro-apoptotic genes are not altered. Simultaneously, treatment of same molecule also affects the mitochondrial regulatory pathway in human tumour cell lines suggesting its conservative nature between fly and human. It is reasonable to propose that triazole derivative (DCPTN-PT) controls bantam oncomiRNA and increases hid induced apoptosis and is also able to influence mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:26442596

  13. Stimulating basal mitochondrial respiration decreases doxorubicin apoptotic signaling in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Deus, Cláudia M; Zehowski, Cheryl; Nordgren, Kendra; Wallace, Kendall B; Skildum, Andrew; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-08-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is currently used in cancer chemotherapy, however, its use often results in adverse effects highlighted by the development of cardiomyopathy and ultimately heart failure. Interestingly, DOX cardiotoxicity is decreased by resveratrol or by physical activity, suggesting that increased mitochondrial activity may be protective. Conversely, recent studies showed that troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, increases the cytotoxicity of DOX against breast cancer cells by up-regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. The hypothesis for the current investigation was that DOX cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts is decreased when mitochondrial capacity is increased. We focused on several end-points for DOX cytotoxicity, including loss of cell mass, apoptotic signaling and alterations of autophagic-related proteins. Our results show that a galactose-based, modified cell culture medium increased H9c2 basal mitochondrial respiration, protein content, and mtDNA copy number without increasing maximal or spare respiratory capacity. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts cultured in the galactose-modified media showed lower DOX-induced activation of the apoptotic pathway, measured by decreased caspase-3 and -9 activation, and lower p53 expression, although ultimately loss of cells was not prevented. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone had no effect on DOX toxicity in this cardiac cell line, which agrees with the fact that troglitazone did not increase mitochondrial DNA content or capacity at the concentrations and duration of exposure used in this investigation. Our results show that mitochondrial remodeling caused by stimulating basal rates of oxidative phosphorylation decreased DOX-induced apoptotic signaling and increased DOX-induced autophagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The differential effect on cytotoxicity in cardiac versus breast cancer cell lines suggests a possible overall improvement in the clinical efficacy for doxorubicin in treating cancer.

  14. Millepachine, a novel chalcone, induces G2/M arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity and causing apoptosis via ROS-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenshuang; Ye, Haoyu; Wan, Li; Han, Xiaolei; Wang, Guangcheng; Hu, Jia; Tang, Minhai; Duan, Xingmei; Fan, Yi; He, Shichao; Huang, Li; Pei, Heying; Wang, Xuewei; Li, Xiuxia; Xie, Caifeng; Zhang, Ronghong; Yuan, Zhu; Mao, Yongqiu; Wei, Yuquan; Chen, Lijuan

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we reported millepachine (MIL), a novel chalcone compound for the first time isolated from Millettia pachycarpa Benth (Leguminosae), induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro screening experiments, MIL showed strong antiproliferation activity in several human cancer cell lines, especially in HepG2 cells with an IC50 of 1.51 µM. Therefore, we chose HepG2 and SK-HEP-1 cells to study MIL's antitumor mechanism. Flow cytometry showed that MIL induced a G2/M arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot demonstrated that MIL-induced G2/M arrest was correlated with the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity, including a remarkable decrease in cell division cycle (cdc) 2 synthesis, the accumulation of phosphorylated-Thr14 and decrease of phosphorylation at Thr161 of cdc2. This effect was associated with the downregulation of cdc25C and upmodulation of checkpoint kinase 2 in response to DNA damage. MIL also activated caspase 9 and caspase 3, and significantly increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and stimulated the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, suggesting MIL induced apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Associated with those effects, MIL also induced the generation of reactive oxygen species. In HepG2 tumor-bearing mice models, MIL remarkably and dose dependently inhibited tumor growth. Treatment of mice with MIL (20mg/kg intravenous [i.v.]) caused more than 65% tumor inhibition without cardiac damage compared with 47.57% tumor reduction by 5mg/kg i.v. doxorubicin with significant cardiac damage. These effects suggested that MIL and its easily modified structural derivative might be a potential lead compound for antitumor drug. PMID:23471882

  15. Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Platform during Rubella Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Claudia; Manssen, Lena; Hübner, Denise; Roßmark, Sarah; Bothe, Viktoria; Petzold, Alice; Große, Claudia; Reins, Mareen; Mankertz, Annette; Frey, Teryl K.; Liebert, Uwe G.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria- as well as p53-based signaling pathways are central for the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Their contribution to rubella virus (RV)-induced apoptosis was addressed through time-specific evaluation of characteristic parameters such as permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequent release of the pro-apoptotic proteins apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c from mitochondria. Additionally, expression and localization pattern of p53 and selected members of the multifunctional and stress-inducible cyclophilin family were examined. The application of pifithrin μ as an inhibitor of p53 shuttling to mitochondria reduced RV-induced cell death to an extent similar to that of the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk (benzyloxycarbonyl-V-A-D-(OMe)-fmk). However, RV progeny generation was not altered. This indicates that, despite an increased survival rate of its cellular host, induction of apoptosis neither supports nor restricts RV replication. Moreover, some of the examined apoptotic markers were affected in a strain-specific manner and differed between the cell culture-adapted strains: Therien and the HPV77 vaccine on the one hand, and a clinical isolate on the other. In summary, the results presented indicate that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program contributes to RV-induced apoptosis. PMID:26703711

  16. Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Platform during Rubella Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Claus, Claudia; Manssen, Lena; Hübner, Denise; Roßmark, Sarah; Bothe, Viktoria; Petzold, Alice; Große, Claudia; Reins, Mareen; Mankertz, Annette; Frey, Teryl K; Liebert, Uwe G

    2015-11-26

    Mitochondria- as well as p53-based signaling pathways are central for the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Their contribution to rubella virus (RV)-induced apoptosis was addressed through time-specific evaluation of characteristic parameters such as permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequent release of the pro-apoptotic proteins apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c from mitochondria. Additionally, expression and localization pattern of p53 and selected members of the multifunctional and stress-inducible cyclophilin family were examined. The application of pifithrin μ as an inhibitor of p53 shuttling to mitochondria reduced RV-induced cell death to an extent similar to that of the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk (benzyloxycarbonyl-V-A-D-(OMe)-fmk). However, RV progeny generation was not altered. This indicates that, despite an increased survival rate of its cellular host, induction of apoptosis neither supports nor restricts RV replication. Moreover, some of the examined apoptotic markers were affected in a strain-specific manner and differed between the cell culture-adapted strains: Therien and the HPV77 vaccine on the one hand, and a clinical isolate on the other. In summary, the results presented indicate that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program contributes to RV-induced apoptosis.

  17. Prometaphase arrest-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2 family proteins and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway are associated with 17α-estradiol-induced apoptosis in human Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Cho Rong; Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-10-01

    In Jurkat T cell clone (JT/Neo), G2/M arrest, apoptotic sub-G1 peak, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss, and TUNEL-positive DNA fragmentation were induced following exposure to 17α-estradiol (17α-E2), whereas none of these events (except for G2/M arrest) were induced in Jurkat cells overexpressing Bcl-2 (JT/Bcl-2). Under these conditions, phosphorylation at Thr161 and dephosphorylation at Tyr15 of Cdk1, upregulation of cyclin B1 level, histone H1 phosphorylation, Cdc25C phosphorylation at Thr-48, Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Thr-56 and Ser-70, Mcl-1 phosphorylation, and Bim phosphorylation were detected in the presence of Bcl-2 overexpression. However, the 17α-E2-induced upregulation of Bak levels, activation of Bak, activation of caspase-3, and PARP degradation were abrogated by Bcl-2 overexpression. In the presence of the G1/S blocking agent hydroxyurea, 17α-E2 failed to induce G2/M arrest and all apoptotic events including Cdk1 activation and phosphorylation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bim. The 17α-E2-induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial apoptotic events were suppressed by a Cdk1 inhibitor but not by aurora A and aurora B kinase inhibitors. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis showed that an aberrant bipolar microtubule array, incomplete chromosome congression at the metaphase plate, and prometaphase arrest, which was reversible, were the underlying factors for 17α-E2-induced mitotic arrest. The in vitro microtubule polymerization assay showed that 17α-E2 could directly inhibit microtubule formation. These results show that the apoptogenic activity of 17α-E2 was due to the impaired mitotic spindle assembly causing prometaphase arrest and prolonged Cdk1 activation, the phosphorylation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bim, and the activation of Bak and mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade. PMID:23707954

  18. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Abraha, Aman M; Ketema, Ezra B

    2016-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27574550

  19. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abraha, Aman M; Ketema, Ezra B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27574550

  20. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    PubMed Central

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  1. Investigation of the apoptotic pathway induced by benzimidazole-oxindole conjugates against human breast cancer cells MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Lakshma Nayak, Vadithe; Nagaseshadri, Bobburi; Vishnuvardhan, M V P S; Kamal, Ahmed

    2016-07-15

    In our previous studies, benzimidazole-oxindole conjugates were synthesized and evaluated by National Cancer Institute (NCI) for their cytotoxic activity and the new molecules like 5c and 5p were considered as potential leads. These conjugates arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase and inhibited tubulin polymerization. These observations prompted us to investigate the apoptotic mechanism induced by these lead molecules against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Studies like measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC assay revealed that these compounds induced mitochondrial mediated (intrinsic apoptotic pathway) apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. It was further confirmed by western blot analysis of pro apoptotic protein Bax, anti apoptotic protein Bcl-2, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activity and cleavage of PARP. PMID:27262596

  2. The inflammatory role of phagocyte apoptotic pathways in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cuda, Carla M; Pope, Richard M; Perlman, Harris

    2016-08-23

    Rheumatoid arthritis affects nearly 1% of the world's population and is a debilitating autoimmune condition that can result in joint destruction. During the past decade, inflammatory functions have been described for signalling molecules classically involved in apoptotic and non-apoptotic death pathways, including, but not limited to, Toll-like receptor signalling, inflammasome activation, cytokine production, macrophage polarization and antigen citrullination. In light of these remarkable advances in the understanding of inflammatory mechanisms of the death machinery, this Review provides a snapshot of the available evidence implicating death pathways, especially within the phagocyte populations of the innate immune system, in the perpetuation of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Elevated levels of signalling mediators of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis, as well as the autophagy, are observed in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, risk polymorphisms are present in signalling molecules of the extrinsic apoptotic and autophagy death pathways. Although research into the mechanisms underlying these pathways has made considerable progress, this Review highlights areas where further investigation is particularly needed. This exploration is critical, as new discoveries in this field could lead to the development of novel therapies for rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. PMID:27549026

  3. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor protects against apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial damage in ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis pathway, plays a brain and neuronal protective role in ischemic stroke. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect after ischemia in the primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Using apoptotic cell death assay, fluorescent imaging, molecular biology, mitochondrial biogenesis measurements and Western blotting analysis, our results show that the overexpression of PBEF in neurons can significantly promote neuronal survival, reduce the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei and inhibit the activation of capase-3 after glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We further found that the overexpression of PBEF can suppress glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, the loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and the reduction of PGC-1 and NRF-1 expressions. Furthermore, these beneficial effects by PBEF are dependent on its enzymatic activity of NAD+ synthesis. In summary, our study demonstrated that PBEF ameliorates ischemia-induced neuronal death through inhibiting caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic signaling pathways and suppressing mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of PBEF, and helps to identify potential targets for ischemic stroke therapy. PMID:27576732

  4. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor protects against apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial damage in ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD(+) biosynthesis pathway, plays a brain and neuronal protective role in ischemic stroke. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect after ischemia in the primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Using apoptotic cell death assay, fluorescent imaging, molecular biology, mitochondrial biogenesis measurements and Western blotting analysis, our results show that the overexpression of PBEF in neurons can significantly promote neuronal survival, reduce the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei and inhibit the activation of capase-3 after glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We further found that the overexpression of PBEF can suppress glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, the loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and the reduction of PGC-1 and NRF-1 expressions. Furthermore, these beneficial effects by PBEF are dependent on its enzymatic activity of NAD(+) synthesis. In summary, our study demonstrated that PBEF ameliorates ischemia-induced neuronal death through inhibiting caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic signaling pathways and suppressing mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of PBEF, and helps to identify potential targets for ischemic stroke therapy. PMID:27576732

  5. Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaou, Katerina A.; Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas; Constantinou, Constantina; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L.; Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A.; Constantinou, Andreas I.

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

  6. Cedrol induces autophagy and apoptotic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells through the P13K/Akt signaling pathway, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the generation of ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Yi; Li, Xue-Bo; Hou, Sheng-Guang; Sun, Yao; Shi, Yi-Ran; Lin, Song-Sen

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anticancer effects of cedrol in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells by examining the effects of cedrol on apoptosis induction, the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). The anticancer effects of cedrol were examined using A549 human lung carcinoma cells as an in vitro model. Cell viability was determined using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and an inverted phase contrast microscope was used to examine the morphological changes in these cells. Cedrol‑triggered autophagy was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the cells, as well as by western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3)B expression. Intracellular ROS generation was measured by flow cytometry using 5-(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-DCFH2-DA) staining and MTP was measured using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that cedrol reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic evaluations indicated that cedrol induced apoptosis by reducing the MTP and by decreasing the levels of phosphorylated (p-)PI3K and p-Akt. Cedrol induced autophagy, which was confirmed by TEM analysis, by increasing intracellular ROS formation in a concentration-dependent manner, which was almost completely reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and tocopherol. Taken together, these findings reveal that cedrol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Our findings also reveal that cedrol induced pro-death autophagy by increasing intracellular ROS production.

  7. CGP57380 enhances efficacy of RAD001 in non-small cell lung cancer through abrogating mTOR inhibition-induced phosphorylation of eIF4E and activating mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiuyuan; Wang, Weiyuan; Luo, Jiadi; Chu, Shuzhou; Chen, Lingjiao; Xu, Lina; Zang, Hongjing; Alnemah, Mohannad Ma; Ma, Jian; Fan, Songqing

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a potentially important therapeutic target in a broad range of cancer types. mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin and its analogs (rapalogs) have been proven effective as anticancer agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas they strongly enhance phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and activation of Akt, which cause resistance to mTOR-targeted therapy after an initial response. Rapamycin induces eIF4E phosphorylation by activating MAPK-interacting kinases (Mnks), and therefore targeting Mnk/eIF4E pathway represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NSCLC. Here, our results showed that over-expression of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E was significantly associated with poor overall survival of NSCLC patients and high expression of p-Mnk1 might act as an independent prognostic biomarker for these patients. Meanwhile, inhibiting Mnk1 expression by Mnk inhibitor (CGP57380) could abrogate rapalogs (RAD001)-induced eIF4E phosphorylation and Akt activation. Furthermore, combination of CGP57380 and RAD001 could induce NSCLC cells apoptosis via activating intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, and exert synergistic antitumor efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, combination of targeting both mTOR and Mnk/eIF4E signaling pathways to enhance effectiveness of mTOR-targeted cancer therapy might be significant innovation for the personalized treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27050281

  8. Poncirin Induces Apoptosis in AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells through Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by up-Regulation of Fas Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, Venu; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Poncirin, a natural bitter flavanone glycoside abundantly present in many species of citrus fruits, has various biological benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The anti-cancer mechanism of Poncirin remains elusive to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of Poncirin in AGS human gastric cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinoma). The results revealed that Poncirin could inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed Poncirin induced accumulation of sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic cell population, apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in AGS cells. The expression of Fas Ligand (FasL) protein was up-regulated dose dependently in Poncirin-treated AGS cells Moreover, Poncirin in AGS cells induced activation of Caspase-8 and -3, and subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibitor studies’ results confirm that the induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in Poncirin-treated AGS cells was led by the Fas death receptor. Interestingly, Poncirin did not show any effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) in AGS-treated cells followed by no activation in the mitochondrial apoptotic protein caspase-9. This result suggests that the mitochondrial-mediated pathway is not involved in Poncirin-induced cell death in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that Poncirin has a potential anti-cancer effect via extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis, possibly making it a strong therapeutic agent for human gastric cancer. PMID:26393583

  9. The distribution and apoptotic function of outer membrane proteins depend on mitochondrial fusion

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, David; Eisner, Verónica; Liu, Xingguo; Várnai, Péter; Hunyady, László; Gross, Atan; Hajnóczky, György

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cells deficient in mitochondrial fusion have been shown to have defects linked to the exchange of innermembrane and matrix components. Because outer-mitochondrial membrane (OMM) constituents insert directly from the cytoplasm, a role for fusion in their inter-mitochondrial transfer was unanticipated. Here we show that fibroblasts lacking the GTPases responsible for OMM fusion, Mitofusins1/2 (MFN1/2), display more heterogeneous distribution of OMM proteins. Proteins with different modes of OMM association display varying degrees of heterogeneity in Mfn1/2−/− cells and different kinetics of transfer during fusion in fusion-competent cells. Pro-apoptotic Bak exhibits marked heterogeneity, which is normalized upon expression of MFN2. Bak is critical for Bid-induced OMM permeabilization and cytochrome c release and Mfn1/2−/− cells show dysregulation of Bid-dependent apoptotic signaling. Bid sensitivity of Bak-deficient mitochondria is regained upon fusion with Bak-containing mitochondria. Thus, OMM protein distribution depends on mitochondrial fusion and is a locus of apoptotic dysfunction in conditions of fusion deficiency. PMID:24813948

  10. Mitochondrial swelling and incipient outer membrane rupture in preapoptotic and apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Sesso, A; Belizário, J E; Marques, M M; Higuchi, M L; Schumacher, R I; Colquhoun, A; Ito, E; Kawakami, J

    2012-10-01

    Outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) rupture was first noted in isolated mitochondria in which the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) had lost its selective permeability. This phenomenon referred to as mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) refers to a permeabilized inner membrane that originates a large swelling in the mitochondrial matrix, which distends the outer membrane until it ruptures. Here, we have expanded previous electron microscopic observations that in apoptotic cells, OMM rupture is not caused by a membrane stretching promoted by a markedly swollen matrix. It is shown that the widths of the ruptured regions of the OMM vary from 6 to 250 nm. Independent of the perforation size, herniation of the mitochondrial matrix appeared to have resulted in pushing the IMM through the perforation. A large, long focal herniation of the mitochondrial matrix, covered with the IMM, was associated with a rupture of the OMM that was as small as 6 nm. Contextually, the collapse of the selective permeability of the IMM may precede or follow the release of the mitochondrial proteins of the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm. When the MPT is a late event, exit of the intermembrane space proteins to the cytoplasm is unimpeded and occurs through channels that transverse the outer membrane, because so far, the inner membrane is impermeable. No channel within the outer membrane can expose to the cytoplasm a permeable inner membrane, because it would serve as a conduit for local herniation of the mitochondrial matrix.

  11. Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling: Triggers, Pathways, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Fernanda Marques; Torelli, Nicole Quesada; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles for eukaryotic homeostasis. Although these organelles possess their own DNA, the vast majority (>99%) of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. This situation makes systems that allow the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus a requirement not only to coordinate mitochondrial protein synthesis during biogenesis but also to communicate eventual mitochondrial malfunctions, triggering compensatory responses in the nucleus. Mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling has been described in various organisms, albeit with differences in effector pathways, molecules, and outcomes, as discussed in this review. PMID:26583058

  12. Protective effect of FGF21 on type 1 diabetes-induced testicular apoptotic cell death probably via both mitochondrial- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent pathways in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Chi; Xin, Ying; Huang, Zhifeng; Tan, Yi; Huang, Yadong; Wang, Yonggang; Feng, Wenke; Li, Xiaokun; Li, Wei; Qu, Yaqin; Cai, Lu

    2013-05-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel member identified and was reported to express predominantly in pancreas, liver and adipose tissue, and relatively less in other organs, such as the testis. However, the role of FGF21 in the testis has never been addressed. The present study examined FGF21 expression at mRNA level by real-time RT-PCR assay in the testis of fasting and non-fasting mice or mice with type 1 diabetes that was induced with streptozotocin. We also examined the effect of Fgf21 gene deletion or supplementation of the exogenous FGF21 on the testicular apoptotic cell death spontaneously or induced by type 1 diabetes in FGF21 knockout (FGF21-KO) mice. Deletion of Fgf21 gene does not affect testicular cell proliferation, but significantly increases the spontaneous incidence of testicular TUNEL positive cells with increases in the Bax/Bcl2 expression ratio and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) expression. Diabetes induced significant increases in testicular TUNEL positive cells, Bax/Bcl2 expression ratio, AIF expression, CHOP and cleaved caspase-12 expression, and oxidative damage, but did not change the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8. Deletion of Fgf21 gene also significantly enhances diabetes-induced TUNEL positive cells along with the increased expression of Bax/Bcl2 ratio, AIF, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12, and oxidative damage, which was significantly prevented by the supplementation of exogenous FGF21. These results suggest that Fgf21 gene may involve in maintaining normal spermatogenesis and also protect the germ cells from diabetes-induced apoptotic cell death probably via the prevention of diabetes-induced oxidative damage. PMID:23499715

  13. Effects of glycerol on apoptotic signaling pathways during boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changjun; Tang, Keyi; He, Lian; Peng, Wenpei; Ding, Li; Fang, Donghui; Zhang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) with post-thawed boar spermatozoa results in low farrowing rates and reduced litter sizes mainly due to cryoinjury or damages to spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Low viability and motility of post-thawed boar spermatozoa are highly associated with apoptosis during cryopreservation. Although glycerol is widely used a cryoprotectant (CPA) for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation, the mechanism and relationship between glycerol and apoptosis-related gene expression needs to be clarified. In this study, we treated boar spermatozoa with different concentrations of glycerol in lactose egg yolk (LEY) extender to evaluate the apoptosis-related gene expression and protease activities of caspases. These results show that: (1) low concentrations of glycerol (2% and 3%) were more suitable for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation; (2) apoptosis-related genes involved in intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor apoptotic signaling pathways were widely expressed in different concentrations of glycerol treated boar spermatozoa; (3) there was a significant positive correlation (r=0.840, P=0.037) between the percentage of Annexin V(+)/PI(+) staining spermatozoa and caspase-6/9 protease activity. In conclusion, 2% and 3% glycerol have the best anti-apoptotic effects, and the expression of Fas/FasL and Bcl-2/Bax have a strong correlation with spermatozoa parameters. PMID:24680861

  14. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release.

  15. Mitochondrial stress engages E2F1 apoptotic signaling to cause deafness

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Nuno; Song, Lei; Shutt, Timothy E.; McKay, Sharen E.; Cotney, Justin; Guan, Min-Xin; Gilliland, Thomas C.; Hohuan, David; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial dysfunction causes poorly understood tissue-specific pathology stemming from primary defects in respiration, coupled with altered reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolic signaling and apoptosis. The A1555G mtDNA mutation that causes maternally inherited deafness disrupts mitochondrial ribosome function, in part, via increased methylation of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA by the methyltransferase mtTFB1. In patient-derived A1555G cells, we show that 12S rRNA hyper-methylation causes ROS-dependent activation of AMP kinase and the pro-apoptotic nuclear transcription factor E2F1. This retrograde mitochondrial-stress relay is operative in vivo as transgenic-mtTFB1 mice exhibit enhanced 12S rRNA methylation in multiple tissues, increased E2F1 and apoptosis in the stria vascularis and spiral ganglion neurons of the inner ear, and progressive E2F1-dependent hearing loss. This transgenic-mtTFB1 mouse mitochondrial disease model provides a robust platform for deciphering the complex tissue-specificity of human mitochondrial-based disorders, as well as the precise pathogenic mechanism of maternally inherited deafness and its exacerbation by environmental factors. PMID:22341444

  16. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1: Activation of Dual Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pastori, Silvia; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; Castellani, Chiara; Fedrigo, Marny; Thiene, Gaetano; Valente, Maria Luisa; Angelini, Annalisa; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS1) pathophysiology is complex, and immune-mediated damage, including alterations in the immune response with monocyte apoptosis and cytokine release, has been reported as a potential mechanism. In this study, we examined the putative role of renal tubular epithelial cell (RTC) apoptosis as a pathogenic mechanism in CRS1. In particular, we investigated the caspase pathways involved in induced apoptosis. We enrolled 29 patients with acute heart failure (AHF), 11 patients with CRS1, and 15 controls (CTR) without AHF or acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients who had AKI prior to the episode of AHF or who had any other potential causes of AKI were excluded. Plasma from different groups was incubated with RTCs for 24 h. Subsequently, cell apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3, −8, and −9 activities were investigated in RTCs incubated with AHF, CRS1, and CTR plasma. A p value <0.5 was considered statistically significant. A quantitative analysis of apoptosis showed significantly higher apoptosis rates in CRS1 patients compared to AHF patients and CTR (p < 0.01). This increase in apoptosis was strongly confirmed by caspase-3 levels (ρ = 0.73). Caspase-8 and −9 were significantly higher in CRS1 patients compared to AHF patients and CTR (p < 0.01). Furthermore, caspase-3 levels showed a significantly positive correlation with caspase-8 (ρ = 0.57) and −9 (ρ = 0.47; p < 0.001). This study demonstrated the significantly heightened presence of dual apoptotic disequilibrium in CRS1. Our findings indicated that apoptosis may have a central role in the mechanism of CRS1, and it could be a potential therapeutic target in this syndrome. PMID:26648947

  17. Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-11-15

    The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles ({approx} 25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 {mu}g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles

  18. PINK1 protects against cell death induced by mitochondrial depolarization, by phosphorylating Bcl-xL and impairing its pro-apoptotic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Arena, G; Gelmetti, V; Torosantucci, L; Vignone, D; Lamorte, G; De Rosa, P; Cilia, E; Jonas, E A; Valente, E M

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the PINK1 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase with neuroprotective activity, implicated in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. In concurrence with Parkin, PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking and degradation of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Moreover, PINK1 can activate autophagy by interacting with the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Here, we report that, upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein also known to inhibit autophagy through its binding to Beclin-1. PINK1–Bcl-xL interaction does not interfere either with Beclin-1 release from Bcl-xL or the mitophagy pathway; rather it protects against cell death by hindering the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Bcl-xL. Our data provide a functional link between PINK1, Bcl-xL and apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism through which PINK1 regulates cell survival. This pathway could be relevant for the pathogenesis of PD as well as other diseases including cancer. PMID:23519076

  19. Important role of energy-dependent mitochondrial pathways in cultured rat cardiac myocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, J; Tatsumi, T; Keira, N; Akashi, K; Mano, A; Yamanaka, S; Matoba, S; Asayama, J; Yaoi, T; Fushiki, S; Fliss, H; Nakagawa, M

    2001-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that apoptosis and necrosis share common features in their signaling pathway and that apoptosis requires intracellular ATP for its mitochondrial/apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 suicide cascade. The present study was, therefore, designed to examine the role of intracellular energy levels in determining the form of cell death in cardiac myocytes. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were first incubated for 1 h in glucose-free medium containing oligomycin to achieve metabolic inhibition. The cells were then incubated for another 4 h in similar medium containing staurosporine and graded concentrations of glucose to manipulate intracellular ATP levels. Under ATP-depleting conditions, the cell death caused by staurosporine was primarily necrotic, as determined by creatine kinase release and nuclear staining with ethidium homodimer-1. However, under ATP-replenishing conditions, staurosporine increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, as determined by nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation. Caspase-3 activation by staurosporine was also ATP dependent. However, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), Bax translocation, and cytochrome c release were observed in both apoptotic and necrotic cells. Moreover, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, attenuated staurosporine-induced apoptosis and necrosis through the inhibition of DeltaPsi(m) reduction, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. Our data therefore suggest that staurosporine induces cell demise through a mitochondrial death signaling pathway and that the presence of intracellular ATP favors a shift from necrosis to apoptosis through caspase activation. PMID:11557554

  20. Organization of the mitochondrial apoptotic BAK pore: oligomerization of the BAK homodimers.

    PubMed

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Mandal, Tirtha; Hustedt, Eric; Fajer, Peter; Choe, Jun Yong; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2014-01-31

    The multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins BAK and BAX are believed to form large oligomeric pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. Formation of these pores results in the release of apoptotic factors including cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm, where they initiate the cascade of events that lead to cell death. Using the site-directed spin labeling method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we have determined the conformational changes that occur in BAK when the protein targets to the membrane and forms pores. The data showed that helices α1 and α6 disengage from the rest of the domain, leaving helices α2-α5 as a folded unit. Helices α2-α5 were shown to form a dimeric structure, which is structurally homologous to the recently reported BAX "BH3-in-groove homodimer." Furthermore, the EPR data and a chemical cross-linking study demonstrated the existence of a hitherto unknown interface between BAK BH3-in-groove homodimers in the oligomeric BAK. This novel interface involves the C termini of α3 and α5 helices. The results provide further insights into the organization of the BAK oligomeric pores by the BAK homodimers during mitochondrial apoptosis, enabling the proposal of a BAK-induced lipidic pore with the topography of a "worm hole."

  1. 2-Anilinonicotinyl linked 2-aminobenzothiazoles and [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-b] [1,2,4]benzothiadiazine conjugates as potential mitochondrial apoptotic inducers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Srikanth, Y V V; Naseer Ahmed Khan, M; Ashraf, Md; Kashi Reddy, M; Sultana, Farheen; Kaur, Tandeep; Chashoo, Gousia; Suri, Nitasha; Sehar, Irum; Wani, Zahoor A; Saxena, Arpita; Sharma, Parduman R; Bhushan, Shashi; Mondhe, Dilip M; Saxena, Ajit K

    2011-12-01

    A series of N-(2-anilino-pyridyl) linked 2-amino benzothiazoles (4a-n) and [1,2,4]triazolo [1,5-b]benzothiadiazine conjugates (5a-j) have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. Some of these compounds (4h-k, 4n, and 5e) have exhibited potent cytotoxicity specifically against human leukemia HL-60 cell lines with IC(50) values in the range of 0.08-0.70 μM. All these compounds were tested for their effects on the cell cycle perturbations and induction of apoptosis. Morphological evidences of apoptosis, including fragmentation of nuclei and inter nucleosomal DNA laddering formation were clearly observed after 24h exposure to compound 4i. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that compound 4i showed drastic cell cycle perturbations due to concentration dependant increase in the sub-G0 region which comprises of both the apoptotic and debris fraction, thus implying the extent of cell death. These compounds trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway that results in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential through activation of multiple caspases followed by activation of caspase-3, and finally cleavage of PARP. Further the mechanism of cell death was analysed by fluorescent microscopic analysis and also by scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of 4i correlated with induction of apoptosis, caspases activation and DNA damage and thus indicating the apoptotic pathway of anticancer effect of these compounds. PMID:22047801

  2. Physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics and alters apoptotic, dynamic and auto(mito)phagy markers.

    PubMed

    Marques-Aleixo, I; Santos-Alves, E; Balça, M M; Rizo-Roca, D; Moreira, P I; Oliveira, P J; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A

    2015-08-20

    We here investigate the effects of two exercise modalities (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) on the brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics, permeability transition pore (mPTP), oxidative stress, as well as on proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and quality control. Eighteen male rats were assigned to sedentary-SED, TM and FW groups. Behavioral alterations and ex vivo brain mitochondrial function endpoints were assessed. Proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, including the adenine nucleotide translocator), oxidative stress markers and regulatory proteins (SIRT3, p66shc, UCP2, carbonyls, MDA, -SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD), as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, TFAM) were evaluated. Apoptotic signaling was measured through quantifying caspase 3, 8 and 9-like activities, Bax, Bcl2, CypD, and cofilin expression. Mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1/2, OPA1 and DRP1) and auto(mito)phagy (LC3II, Beclin1, Pink1, Parkin, p62)-related proteins were also measured by Western blotting. Only the TM exercise group showed increased spontaneous alternation and exploratory activity. Both exercise regimens improved mitochondrial respiratory activity, increased OXPHOS complexes I, III and V subunits in both brain subareas and decreased oxidative stress markers. Increased resistance to mPTP and decreased apoptotic signaling were observed in the brain cortex from TM and in the cerebellum from TM and FW groups. Also, exercise increased the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and fusion, simultaneous with decreased expression of mitochondrial fission-related protein DRP1. In conclusion, physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial function, decreasing oxidative stress and apoptotic related markers. It is also possible that favorable alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy signaling induced by exercise

  3. Mitochondrial control of autophagic lysosomal pathway in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, S M; Pereira, C F; Moreira, P I; Arduino, D M; Esteves, A R; Oliveira, C R

    2010-06-01

    When first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907, AD was seen as a disorder that causes dementia and characterized by two defining neuropathological lesions, later associated with all forms of AD. While the etiology of AD remains largely unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs prior to the onset of symptoms in AD. Mitochondria are exceptionally poised to play a crucial role in neuronal cell survival or death because they are regulators of both energy metabolism and apoptotic pathways. This review is mainly focused in the discussion of evidence suggesting a clear association between mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy impairment and amyloid-beta accumulation in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The knowledge that autophagic insufficiency may compromise the cellular degradation mechanisms that may culminate in the progressive accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, aberrant protein aggregates buildup and lysossomal burden shield new insights to the way we address Alzheimer's disease. In line with this knowledge an innovative window for new therapeutic strategies aimed to activate or ameliorate macroautophagy may be opened.

  4. Assembly of Bak homodimers into higher order homooligomers in the mitochondrial apoptotic pore

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Tirtha; Shin, Seungjin; Aluvila, Sreevidya; Chen, Hui-Chen; Grieve, Carter; Choe, Jun-Yong; Cheng, Emily H.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondrial apoptosis, Bak is activated by death signals to form pores of unknown structure on the mitochondrial outer membrane via homooligomerization. Cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors are released from the intermembrane space through these pores, initiating downstream apoptosis events. Using chemical crosslinking and double electron electron resonance (DEER)-derived distance measurements between specific structural elements in Bak, here we clarify how the Bak pore is assembled. We propose that previously described BH3-in-groove homodimers (BGH) are juxtaposed via the ‘α3/α5’ interface, in which the C-termini of helices α3 and α5 are in close proximity between two neighboring Bak homodimers. This interface is observed concomitantly with the well-known ‘α6:α6’ interface. We also mapped the contacts between Bak homodimers and the lipid bilayer based on EPR spectroscopy topology studies. Our results suggest a model for the lipidic Bak pore, whereby the mitochondrial targeting C-terminal helix does not change topology to accommodate the lining of the pore lumen by BGH. PMID:27488021

  5. Assembly of Bak homodimers into higher order homooligomers in the mitochondrial apoptotic pore.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tirtha; Shin, Seungjin; Aluvila, Sreevidya; Chen, Hui-Chen; Grieve, Carter; Choe, Jun-Yong; Cheng, Emily H; Hustedt, Eric J; Oh, Kyoung Joon

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondrial apoptosis, Bak is activated by death signals to form pores of unknown structure on the mitochondrial outer membrane via homooligomerization. Cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors are released from the intermembrane space through these pores, initiating downstream apoptosis events. Using chemical crosslinking and double electron electron resonance (DEER)-derived distance measurements between specific structural elements in Bak, here we clarify how the Bak pore is assembled. We propose that previously described BH3-in-groove homodimers (BGH) are juxtaposed via the 'α3/α5' interface, in which the C-termini of helices α3 and α5 are in close proximity between two neighboring Bak homodimers. This interface is observed concomitantly with the well-known 'α6:α6' interface. We also mapped the contacts between Bak homodimers and the lipid bilayer based on EPR spectroscopy topology studies. Our results suggest a model for the lipidic Bak pore, whereby the mitochondrial targeting C-terminal helix does not change topology to accommodate the lining of the pore lumen by BGH. PMID:27488021

  6. Licochalcone A induces apoptosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma through downregulation of Sp1 and subsequent activation of mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ka Hwi; Yoon, Goo; Cho, Jung Jae; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Cho, Young Sik; Chae, Jung-Il; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) is a natural product derived from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata exhibiting a wide range of bioactivities such as antitumor, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial effects. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an extremely aggressive type of cancer with a poor prognosis because of its rapid progression. However, LCA has not been investigated concerning its effects on MPM. Preliminarily, we observed that LCA negatively modulated not only cell growth, but also specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression in MSTO-211H and H28 cell lines. It was found that IC50 values of LCA for growth inhibition of MSTO-211H and H28 cells were approximately 26 and 30 µM, respectively. Consistent with downregulation of Sp1, expression of Sp1 regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, Mcl-1 and Survivin was substantially diminished. Mechanistically, LCA triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by affecting the ratio of mitochondrial proapoptotic Bax to anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL. Bid induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, eventually leading to multi-caspase activation and increased sub-G1 population. Moreover, nuclear staining with DAPI highlighted nuclear condensation and fragmentation of apoptotic features. Flow cytometry analyses after staining cells with Annexin V and propiodium iodide corroborated LCA-mediated apoptotic cell death of MPM cells. In conclusion, these results present that LCA may be a potential bioactive material to control human MPM cells by apoptosis via the downregulation of Sp1.

  7. Crosstalk between tumor suppressors p53 and PKCδ: Execution of the intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Dashzeveg, Nurmaa; Yoshida, Kiyotsugu

    2016-07-28

    p53 and PKCδ are tumor suppressors that execute apoptotic mechanisms in response to various cellular stresses. p53 is a transcription factor that is frequently mutated in human cancers; it regulates apoptosis in transcription-dependent and -independent ways in response to genotoxic stresses. PKCδ is a serine/threonine protein kinase and mutated in human cancers. Available evidence shows that PKCδ activates p53 by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. Moreover, PKCδ is also implicated in the transcriptional regulation of p53 in response to DNA damage. Recent findings demonstrated that p53, in turn, binds onto the PKCδ promoter and induces its expression upon DNA damage to facilitate apoptosis. Both p53 and PKCδ are associated with the apoptotic mechanisms in the mitochondria by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins to provide mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. This review discusses the crosstalk between p53 and PKCδ in the context of apoptotic cell death and cancer therapy.

  8. Apoptotic pathway induced by diallyl trisulfide in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hong-Bing; Huang, Shan; Yin, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yang; Di, Zheng-Li

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, in pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cells with wild-type p53 gene (Capan-2) and normal pancreatic epithelial cells (H6C7) were cultured in RPMI1640. DATS was prepared at a concentration of 100 μmol/L. Cell viability was determined via the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bax and Bcl-2 expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Apoptosis genes and cell cycle were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: DATS suppressed the viability of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-2) by increasing the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase and induced apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis indicated that DATS enhanced the expression of Fas, p21, p53 and cyclin B1, but downregulated the expression of Akt, cyclin D1, MDM2 and Bcl-2. DATS induced cell cycle inhibition which was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1 and p21, and reduced levels of cyclin D1 in Capan-2 cells and H6C7 cells. DATS-induced apoptosis was markedly elevated in Capan-2 cells compared with H6C7 cells, and this was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1 and p53, and reduced levels of Bcl-2. DATS-induced apoptosis was correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, Akt and cyclin D1 protein levels, and up-regulation of Bax, Fas, p53 and cyclin B protein levels in Capan-2 cells. CONCLUSION: DATS induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-2) and non-tumorigenic pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (H6C7). PMID:24415872

  9. Visual pathway neurodegeneration winged by mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Axel; Nijland, Philip G; Balk, Lisanne J; Amorini, Angela Maria; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Wattjes, Mike P; Gasperini, Claudio; van der Valk, Paul; Tavazzi, Barbara; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; van Horssen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test for structural and functional contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). A visual pathway model void of MS lesions was chosen in order to exclude neurodegeneration secondary to lesion related axonotmesis. Methods A single-centre cohort study (230 MS patients, 63 controls). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the retina, 3T magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, spectrophotometric assessment of serum lactate levels. Postmortem immunohistochemistry. Results The visual pathway was void of MS lesions in 31 patients and 31 age-matched controls. Serum lactate was higher in MS compared to controls (P = 0.029). High serum lactate was structurally related to atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer at the optic disc (P = 0.041), macula (P = 0.025), and the macular ganglion cell complex (P = 0.041). High serum lactate was functionally related to poor color vision (P < 0.01), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (R = 0.37, P = 0.041), Guy's Neurological disability score (R = 0.38, P = 0.037), MS walking scale (R = 0.50, P = 0.009), upper limb motor function (R = 0.53, P = 0.002). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased astrocytic expression of a key lactate generating enzyme in MS lesions as well as profound vascular expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1, which is involved in lactate transport. Interpretation This study provides structural, functional, and translational evidence for visual pathway neurodegeneration in MS related to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25750919

  10. Involvement of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways in cisplatin-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Xianwang

    2009-02-01

    Cisplatin, an efficient anticancer agent, can trigger multiple apoptotic pathways in cancer cells. However, the signal transduction pathways in response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy are complicated, and the mechanism is not fully understood. In current study, we showed that, during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells, both the caspase-dependent and -independent pathways were activated. Herein, we reported that after cisplatin treatment, the activities of caspase-9/-3 were sharply increased; pre-treatment with Z-LEHD-fmk (inhibitor of caspase-9), Z-DEVD-fmk (inhibitor of caspase-3), and Z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor) increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway was activated following cisplatin treatment. Confocal imaging of the cells transfected with AIF-GFP demonstrated that AIF release occurred about 9 h after cisplatin treatment. The event proceeded progressively over time, coinciding with a nuclear translocation and lasting for more than 2 hours. Down-regulation of AIF by siRNA also significantly increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis, these results suggested that AIF-mediated caspase-independent apoptotic pathway was involved in cispatin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways were involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  11. Mitochondrial quality control pathways as determinants of metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Held, Ntsiki M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is key for maintaining cellular health, while mitochondrial failure is associated with various pathologies, including inherited metabolic disorders and age‐related diseases. In order to maintain mitochondrial quality, several pathways of mitochondrial quality control have evolved. These systems monitor mitochondrial integrity through antioxidants, DNA repair systems, and chaperones and proteases involved in the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Additional regulation of mitochondrial function involves dynamic exchange of components through mitochondrial fusion and fission. Sustained stress induces a selective autophagy – termed mitophagy – and ultimately leads to apoptosis. Together, these systems form a network that acts on the molecular, organellar, and cellular level. In this review, we highlight how these systems are regulated in an integrated context‐ and time‐dependent network of mitochondrial quality control that is implicated in healthy aging. PMID:26010263

  12. Plasma-activated medium induces A549 cell injury via a spiral apoptotic cascade involving the mitochondrial-nuclear network.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nonomura, Saho; Hara, Hirokazu; Kondo, Shin-ichi; Hori, Masaru

    2015-02-01

    Plasma medicine is a rapidly expanding new field of interdisciplinary research that combines physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma can be applied to living cells and tissues and has emerged as a novel technology for cancer therapy. Plasma has recently been shown to affect cells not only directly, but also by indirect treatment with previously prepared plasma-activated medium (PAM). The objective of this study was to demonstrate the inhibitory effects of PAM on A549 cell survival and elucidate the signaling mechanisms responsible for cell death. PAM maintained its ability to suppress cell viability for at least 1 week when stored at -80°C. The severity of PAM-triggered cell injury depended on the kind of culture medium used to prepare the PAM, especially that with or without pyruvate. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or its derived or cooperating reactive oxygen species reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2, activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and released apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria with endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the activation of caspase 3/7 and attenuation of cell viability by the addition of caspase inhibitor were not observed. The accumulation of adenine 5'-diphosphoribose as a product of the above reactions activated transient receptor potential melastatin 2, which elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels and subsequently led to cell death. These results demonstrated that H2O2 and/or other reactive species in PAM disturbed the mitochondrial-nuclear network in cancer cells through a caspase-independent apoptotic pathway. Moreover, damage to the plasma membrane by H2O2-cooperating charged species not only induced apoptosis, but also increased its permeability to extracellular reactive species. These phenomena were also detected in PAM-treated HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. PMID:25433364

  13. Ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kapasi, Aditi A; Patel, Geeta; Goenka, Anuj; Nahar, Nilay; Modi, Neeraj; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Reddy, Krishna; Franki, Nicholas; Patel, Jaimita; Singhal, Pravin C

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that acute ethanol intoxication is often associated with lymphopenia. Previously, ethanol was reported to invoke thymocyte apoptosis. We studied the effect of ethanol on T cell apoptosis. In addition, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of ethanol-induced T cell apoptosis. Human T cells harvested from healthy subjects after an alcohol drinking binge showed enhanced T cell apoptosis (before, 0·4 ± 0·2% versus after, 19·6 ± 2·5% apoptotic lymphocytes/field; P < 0·001). In in vitro studies, ethanol in a concentration of 50 mm and higher enhanced the apoptosis of Jurkat cells. DNA isolated from ethanol-treated Jurkat cells displayed integer multiples of 180 base pairs. Ethanol decreased Jurkat cell expression of Bcl-2, whereas ethanol increased Jurkat cell expression of Bax. Jurkat cells treated with ethanol also showed translocation of cytochrome C into cytosol. Moreover, a caspase-9 inhibitor partially inhibited ethanol-induced Jurkat cell apoptosis. In in vivo studies, after binge drinking, T cell expression of Bcl-2 also decreased. In addition, binge drinking induced the cleavage of caspase-3, suggesting activation of caspase-3 in T cells. These results suggest that ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. PMID:12603597

  14. Apoptosis and apoptotic pathway in actinic prurigo by immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-González, Juan-Carlos; García-Vázquez, Francisco-Javier; Rodríguez-Lobato, Erika; Farfán-Morales, José-Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Actinic prurigo (AP) is an idiopathic photodermatosis, this entity requires exposure to UV-B and -A to develop lesions. Apoptosis is a physiological death program that can be initiated by a permanently active mechanism (extrinsic pathway) or irreparable damage (intrinsic pathway). Material and Methods Descriptive study, the sample size comprised 64 paraffin blocks of tissue with a diagnosis of AP. In H&E-stained slides, the diagnosis of AP was corroborated, and 1-µm-thick sections were processed for immunohistochemistry (IHC). A database was constructed with SPSS version 20, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, and descriptive statistics were analyzed by X2 test and comparison of means. Results A total of 64 cases were processed, of which 40 (62.5%) were cheilitis AP and 24 (37.5%) were AP in the skin. Of the 40 cheilitis samples, 27 were positive for Bcl-2 and caspase 3 (67.5%), p53 was expressed in 30 (75%). Of the skin lesions,p53 and caspase 3 were expressed in 18 of 24 cases (75%), and 13 were positive for Bcl-2 (54%). Conclusions We propose that apoptosis is the last step in the type IV subtype a-b hypersensitivity response-activation of the intrinsic pathway indicates that external factors, such as UV-A and -B are the trigger. Key words:Apoptosis, actinic prurigo, cheilitis actinic prurigo. PMID:26615506

  15. Reduction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway by the administration of acetyl-L-carnitine to mouse fibroblasts in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Pillich, Rudolf Tito; Scarsella, Gianfranco; Risuleo, Gianfranco . E-mail: gianfranco.risuleo@uniroma1.it

    2005-05-15

    It is shown in literature that stress, such as deprivation of trophic factors and hypoxia, induces apoptosis in cultured cells and in tissues. In light of these results, we explored the possibility of protecting cells from programmed death by improving the metabolism of the mitochondrion. To this end, acetyl-L-carnitine was administered at various concentrations under conditions of serum deprivation. The choice of this drug was based on the accepted notion that acetyl-L-carnitine is able to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and to increase the supply of energy to the organelle. The results presented here indicate that the drug protects cells from apoptotic death: this is demonstrated by a lower positivity to the TUNEL reaction and by a strong reduction of the apoptotic DNA ladder in serum-deprived cells. The involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was assessed by cytochrome C release and immunoreactivity to caspase 3. Moreover, acetyl-L-carnitine stimulates cell proliferation.

  16. Unraveling Biochemical Pathways Affected by Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Using Metabolomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Demine, Stéphane; Reddy, Nagabushana; Renard, Patricia; Raes, Martine; Arnould, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction(s) (MDs) can be defined as alterations in the mitochondria, including mitochondrial uncoupling, mitochondrial depolarization, inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondrial network fragmentation, mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations and the mitochondrial accumulation of protein aggregates. All these MDs are known to alter the capacity of ATP production and are observed in several pathological states/diseases, including cancer, obesity, muscle and neurological disorders. The induction of MDs can also alter the secretion of several metabolites, reactive oxygen species production and modify several cell-signalling pathways to resolve the mitochondrial dysfunction or ultimately trigger cell death. Many metabolites, such as fatty acids and derived compounds, could be secreted into the blood stream by cells suffering from mitochondrial alterations. In this review, we summarize how a mitochondrial uncoupling can modify metabolites, the signalling pathways and transcription factors involved in this process. We describe how to identify the causes or consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction using metabolomics (liquid and gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry analysis, NMR spectroscopy) in the obesity and insulin resistance thematic. PMID:25257998

  17. Proteasome Impairment Induces Recovery of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and an Alternative Pathway of Mitochondrial Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shirozu, Ryohei; Yashiroda, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are vital and highly dynamic organelles that continuously fuse and divide to maintain mitochondrial quality. Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs cellular integrity and is known to be associated with various human diseases. However, the mechanism by which the quality of mitochondria is maintained remains largely unexplored. Here we show that impaired proteasome function recovers the growth of yeast cells lacking Fzo1, a pivotal protein for mitochondrial fusion. Decreased proteasome activity increased the mitochondrial oxidoreductase protein Mia40 and the ratio of the short isoform of mitochondrial intermembrane protein Mgm1 (s-Mgm1) to the long isoform (l-Mgm1). The increase in Mia40 restored mitochondrial membrane potential, while the increase in the s-Mgm1/l-Mgm1 ratio promoted mitochondrial fusion in an Fzo1-independent manner. Our findings demonstrate a new pathway for mitochondrial quality control that is induced by proteasome impairment. PMID:26552703

  18. Antitumor effects of traditional Chinese medicine targeting the cellular apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanli; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaohui; Xu, Pingxiang; Zhang, Keming; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented. PMID:26056434

  19. Ulinastatin promotes T lymphocyte apoptosis in rats with severe acute pancreatitis via mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, C L; Li, N; Ma, T; Zhang, P; You, S Y

    2015-05-25

    We explored the influence of ulinastatin on apoptosis of T lymphocytes in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the effect of ulinastatin on mitochondrial apoptosis pathways in spleen lymphocytes. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (N = 12): a sham operated group, a SAP group, and an ulinastatin-treated SAP group. The SAP model was established by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate into the intrapancreatobiliary duct. Study rats were sacrificed after 24 h, and splenic lymphocytes were then collected. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were labeled by direct immune fluorescence assays; the percentage of apoptotic cells, mitochondrial membrane potential levels, and mitochondria permeability transition pore opening levels were measured by flow cytometry. In the ulinastatin-treated SAP group, the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly higher than that in the SAP group, and the apoptosis percentage of CD4(+) T lymphocytes was significantly decreased. The percentage of lymphocytes with an abnormal opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and lymphocytes with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in the ulinastatin-treated SAP group were significantly lower than that in the SAP group. Ulinastatin can directly enhance immunological function and attenuate immune suppression in SAP rats through inhibiting the apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. These study findings demonstrate that therapeutic effects may occur through inhibiting the apoptosis induced by mitochondrial signaling pathways.

  20. Iron induces hepatocytes death via MAPK activation and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway: beneficial role of glycine.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Sil, Parames C

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the beneficial role of glycine in iron (FeSO₄) induced oxidative damage in murine hepatocytes. Exposure of hepatocytes to 20 μM FeSO₄ for 3 hours enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and induced alteration in biochemical parameters related to hepatic oxidative stress. Investigating cell signalling pathway, we observed that iron (FeSO₄) intoxication caused NF-κB activation as well as the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs. Iron (FeSO₄) administration also disrupted Bcl-2/Bad protein balance, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, released cytochrome c and induced the activation of caspases and cleavage of PARP protein. Flow cytometric analysis also confirmed that iron (FeSO₄) induced hepatocytes death is apoptotic in nature. Glycine (10 mM) supplementation, on the other hand, reduced all the iron (FeSO₄) induced apoptotic indices. Combining, results suggest that glycine could be a beneficial agent against iron mediated toxicity in hepatocytes. PMID:22817335

  1. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, p<0.001), breast (n=185, p<0.0008; n=61, p=0.04), colon (n=22, p<0.001) and endometrial (n=33, p<0.001) cancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, p<0.001). Higher pBAD protein levels were observed in the cancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, p<0.001). The increased pBAD protein levels after the depletion of PP2C conferred a growth advantage to the immortalized normal and cancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway

  2. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) pathogenic mutations induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic death in transmitochondrial cells incubated with galactose medium.

    PubMed

    Ghelli, Anna; Zanna, Claudia; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Schapira, Anthony H V; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Carelli, Valerio; Rugolo, Michela

    2003-02-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a maternally inherited form of central vision loss, is associated with mitochondrial DNA pathogenic point mutations affecting different subunits of complex I. We here report that osteosarcoma-derived cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrid) cell lines harboring one of the three most frequent LHON pathogenic mutations, at positions 11778/ND4, 3460/ND1, and 14484/ND6, undergo cell death when galactose replaces glucose in the medium, contrary to control cybrids that maintain some growth capabilities. This is a well known way to produce a metabolic stress, forcing the cells to rely on the mitochondrial respiratory chain to produce ATP. We demonstrate that LHON cybrid cell death is apoptotic, showing chromatin condensation and nuclear DNA laddering. Moreover, we also document the mitochondrial involvement in the activation of the apoptotic cascade, as shown by the increased release of cytochrome c into the cytosol in LHON cybrid cells as compared with controls. Cybrids bearing the 3460/ND1 and 14484/ND6 mutations seemed more readily prone to undergo apoptosis as compared with the 11778/ND4 mutation. In conclusion, LHON cybrid cells forced by the reduced rate of glycolytic flux to utilize oxidative metabolism are sensitized to an apoptotic death through a mechanism involving mitochondria.

  3. Synthesis of phenstatin/isocombretastatin-chalcone conjugates as potent tubulin polymerization inhibitors and mitochondrial apoptotic inducers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Kumar, G Bharath; Vishnuvardhan, M V P S; Shaik, Anver Basha; Reddy, Vangala Santhosh; Mahesh, Rasala; Sayeeda, Ibrahim Bin; Kapure, Jeevak Sopanrao

    2015-04-01

    A series of phenstatin/isocombretastatin–chalcones were synthesized and screened for their cytotoxic activity against various human cancer cell lines. Some representative compounds exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against a panel of sixty human cancer cell lines of the NCI, with GI50 values in the range of 0.11 to 19.0 μM. Three compounds (3b, 3c and 3e) showed a broad spectrum of antiproliferative efficacy on most of the cell lines in the sub-micromolar range. In addition, all the synthesized compounds (3a–l and 4a–l) displayed moderate to excellent cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells such as MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values in the range of 0.5 to 19.9 μM. Moreover, the tubulin polymerization assay and immunofluorescence analysis results suggest that some of these compounds like 3c and 3e exhibited significant inhibitory effect on the tubulin assembly with an IC50 value of 0.8 μM and 0.6 μM respectively. A competitive binding assay suggested that these compounds bind at the colchicine-binding site of tubulin. A cell cycle assay revealed that these compounds arrest at the G2/M phase and lead to apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, this was confirmed by Hoechst 33258 staining, activation of caspase 9, DNA fragmentation, Annexin V-FITC and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Molecular docking studies indicated that compounds like 3e occupy the colchicine binding site of tubulin.

  4. Resveratrol protects PC12 cells against OGD/ R-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhu, Xiangyang; Chen, Miao; Ge, Qinmin; Shen, Yong; Pan, Shuming

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective potential of resveratrol against oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced apoptotic damages in well-differentiated PC12 cells and the underlying mechanisms. Cells were incubated under normal condition or OGD/R in the presence or absence of 10 μM resveratrol. Cell viability was determined with methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Apoptotic ratio was determined with Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the mitochondrial superoxide, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was estimated by Fluo-3/AM. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was evaluated by 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1,3,3′-tetraethyl-benzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) was determined by the Calcein/Co2+-quenching technique. The protein levels of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that 10 μM resveratrol attenuated OGD/R-induced cell viability loss and cell apoptosis, which was associated with the decreases in the MDA content and the increases in the SOD and CAT activities. Furthermore, the accumulation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide, disturbance of [Ca2+]i homeostasis, reduction of MMP, opening of MPTP, and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c observed in OGD/R-injured cells, which indicated a switch on the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway, were all reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest that resveratrol administration may play a neuroprotective role via modulating the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway in OGD/R-induced PC12 cell injury. PMID:26960953

  5. Targeting the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in cancer: lessons learned and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazi, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a metazoan process of controlled cell elimination that plays critical roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis dysregulation contributes to several important diseases, including cancer. Two distinct yet interconnected signaling pathways control apoptosis by activating a core intracellular machinery of death proteases called caspases. The intrinsic apoptotic pathway engages caspases via members of the BCL-2 protein family and the mitochondria in reaction to severe cellular damage or stress. The extrinsic pathway activates caspases via cell-surface death receptors, which respond to cognate death ligands expressed on immune-effector cells. Tumor cells can acquire various apoptosis-evasion mechanisms; nevertheless, the transformed state of these cells makes them uniquely susceptible to apoptosis reactivation if resistance is circumvented. Molecular approaches to reengage the apoptotic pathways in cancer have been underway for over two decades. Gratifyingly, BCL-2 antagonists — which drive the intrinsic pathway — are beginning to bear clinical fruit. In contrast, clinical attempts to stimulate the extrinsic pathway with proapoptotic receptor agonists (PARAs) have been disappointing, despite compelling preclinical efficacy with this class of agents. Here, I discuss some of the possible reasons for this translational discrepancy and suggest strategies to overcome it with the next generation of PARAs. PMID:25642709

  6. Bcl-xS and Bax induce different apoptotic pathways in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lindenboim, L; Yuan, J; Stein, R

    2000-03-30

    Apoptosis is regulated by the action of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, which includes anti- and pro-apoptotic members such as Bcl-xS and Bax. These proteins may differ from each other in structure, mechanism of action and interactions with anti-apoptotic signaling. The mechanism whereby Bax induces cell death has been studied in some cellular systems, but the mechanism of Bcl-xS-induced apoptosis is largely unknown. In this study we investigated and compared the apoptotic effects of Bcl-xS and Bax in the pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12 (a useful model system for studying neuronal apoptosis), and the extent to which they are protected by the survival factor, nerve growth factor (NGF). PC12 cells express endogenous Bcl-xS, Bax and Bcl-xL proteins. Subcellular fractionation revealed that Bax is presented mainly in the cytosolic and the heavy membrane fractions, Bcl-xS is present only in the cytosol, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL is located mainly in the heavy membrane fraction. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of endogenous Bcl-xS, the exogenously overexpressed Bcl-xS is localized to the mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-xS or Bax induces cell death in the transfected cells. The cell death induced by overexpression of Bcl-xS was inhibited by coexpression of Bcl-xS with Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL, or by treatment with the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoro-methylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) or with NGF. The Bcl-2 mutants deltaC22, which lacks the transmembrane domain, and G145A (mI-3) were able to inhibit the death-inducing effect of Bcl-xS. These results therefore suggest that the apoptotic pathway induced by overexpression of Bcl-xS in PC12 cells can be controlled by Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is mediated by caspases, and can be inhibited by the NGF signaling pathway. The Bax-induced cell death was inhibited by co-expression of Bax with Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL, but was not inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK, NGF, or the Bcl-2 ml-3 or deltaC22 mutants. These

  7. The cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of phenylephrine on corneal stromal cells via a mitochondrion-dependent pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Qiu, Yue; Tian, Cheng-Lei; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Phenylephrine (PHE), a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, is often used as a decongestant for mydriasis prior to cataract surgery, and its abuse might be cytotoxic to the cornea and result in blurred vision. However, the cytotoxicity of PHE to the cornea and its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To provide references for secure medication and prospective therapeutic interventions of PHE, we investigated the cytotoxicity of PHE to corneal stroma and its possible mechanisms using an in vitro model of human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and an in vivo model of cat keratocytes. We found that PHE, above the concentration of 0.0781125% (1/128 of its clinical therapeutic dosage), had a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing morphological abnormality and viability decline, as well as S phase arrest. Moreover, PHE induced apoptosis of HCS cells by inducing plasma membrane permeability elevation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. Furthermore, PHE could induce activations of caspase-3 and -9, disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, along with upregulation of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. The cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of PHE were also proven by the induced apoptotic-like ultrastructural alterations of keratocytes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that PHE has a significant cytotoxicity to corneal stroma cells both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis, and the pro-apoptotic effect of PHE is achieved via a Bcl-2 family proteins-mediated mitochondrion-dependent pathway. PMID:27344612

  8. Oridonin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiyong; Tan, Huixin; Zhu, Nan; Gao, Haiyu; Lv, Chunyu; Gang, Jian; Ji, Yubin

    2016-06-01

    Oridonin is one of the most important antitumor active ingredients of Rabdosia rubescens. Recently published studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that oridonin was able to arrest human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells at G2/M phase. However, little is known about inducing apoptosis in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oridonin on antineoplastic capability of SGC-7901 cells and the detailed molecular mechanism of oridonin-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay while apoptosis induced by oridonin was determined by Hoechst 33342 staining assay and Annexin V/PI double staining assay. Early apoptotic rate was stained by Annexin V/PI and detected by flow cytometry. Apoptosis pathway was analyzed by western blot analysis of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 expression. The results showed that oridonin was able to inhibit the SGC-7901 cell proliferation, the 50% growth inhibition (IC50) was 22.74 µM. Oridonin could induce cell apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells and the early apoptotic rates induced by 0, 20, 40, 80 µmol/l oridonin were 1.53±0.67, 3.33±0.29, 84.80±0.82 and 96.43±0.51%, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that oridonin downregulated Bcl-2 protein (the anti-apoptotic factor) and upregulated Bax protein (pro-apoptotic factor), eventually leading to a reduction in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax proteins. Furthermore, oridonin induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and the activation of caspase-3. Taken together, the current study suggested that oridonin induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells via the mitochondrial signal pathway, which may represent one of the major mechanisms of oridonin-mediated apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. PMID:27082253

  9. Characterization of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in the basal chordate amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaochun; Liu, Huiling; Gu, Ming; Xu, Liqun; Huang, Shengfeng; Ren, Zhenhua; Xu, Anlong

    2010-01-01

    The death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis pathway is thought to be unique to vertebrates. However, the presence of DR-encoding genes in the sea urchin and the basal chordate amphioxus prompted us to reconsider, especially given that amphioxus contains 14 DR proteins and hundreds of death domain (DD)-containing adaptor proteins. To understand how the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was originally established and what the differences in signaling are between invertebrates and vertebrates, we performed functional studies of several genes that encode DDs in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (Bbt). First, we observed that the increased abundance of Bbt Fas-associated death domain 1 (BbtFADD1) in HeLa cells resulted in the formation of death effector filamentous structures in the cytoplasm and the activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway, whereas BbtFADD2 protein was restricted to the nucleus, although its death effector domain induced apoptosis when in the cytoplasm. We further demonstrated that formation of a FADD-caspase-8 complex recruited amphioxus DR1 (BbtDR1), which bound to the adaptor proteins CRADD or TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6) to convey distinct signals, ranging from apoptosis to gene activation. Thus, our study not only reveals the evolutionary origin of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in a basal chordate but also adds to our understanding of the similarities and differences between invertebrate and vertebrate FADD signaling.

  10. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins (GSPs) Inhibit the Growth of Cervical Cancer by Inducing Apoptosis Mediated by the Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), a biologically active component of grape seeds, have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological and biochemical properties. Recently, the inhibitory effects of GSPs on various cancers have been reported, but their effects on cervical cancer remain unclear. Here, we explored the effect of GSPs on cervical cancer using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, the treatment of HeLa and SiHa cells with GSPs resulted in a significant inhibition of cell viability. Further investigation indicated that GSPs led to the dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The underlying mechanism was associated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak-1, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of caspase-3, suggesting that GSPs induced cervical cancer cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the administration of GSPs (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, w/v) as a supplement in drinking water significantly inhibited the tumor growth of HeLa and SiHa cells in athymic nude mice, and the number of apoptotic cells in those tumors was also increased significantly. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that GSPs could inhibit the growth of cervical cancer by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, which provides evidence indicating that GSPs may be a potential chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent for cervical cancer. PMID:25187959

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction and transactivation of p53-dependent apoptotic genes in BaP-treated human fetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangtao; Jiang, Ying; Rao, Kaimin; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qian; Liu, Ailin; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2011-12-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) has been shown to be an inducer of apoptosis. However, mechanisms involved in BaP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction are not well-known. In this study, human fetal lung fibroblasts cells were treated with BaP (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 μM) for 4 and 12 h. Cell viability, intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) and cytochrome c release were determined. Changes in transcriptional levels of p53-dependent apoptotic genes (p53, APAF1, CASPASE3, CASPASE9, NOXA and PUMA) were measured. At time point of 4 h, BaP induced the intracellular ROS generation in 64 (p < .05) and 128 μM BaP groups (p < .01) but decreased the T-AOC activities in 32, 64 (p < .05 for both) and 128 μM BaP groups (p < .01). At time point of 12 h, ΔΨ(m) significantly decreased in ≥32 μM BaP groups (p < .05 for all). Amount of mitochondrial cytochrome c significantly increased in 128 μM BaP group (p < .01). Transcriptional levels of CASPASE3, CASPASE9, APAF1 and PUMA were up-regulated in all BaP groups (p < .05 for all) and in ≥32 μM groups for NOXA (p < .05). But only in 16 μM BaP group a relatively little expression of p53 mRNA was observed (p < .05). The results indicate that in the earlier period BaP promoted the generation of excessive ROS and subsequently the mitochondrial depolarization, whereas transactivations of the p53-dependent apoptotic genes were significantly induced at the later period.

  12. Arsenic trioxide induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which accounts for approximately 10% of all acute myloid leukemia cases. It is a blood cancer that is formed by chromosomal mutation. Each year in the United States, APL affects about 1,500 patients of all age groups and causes approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully for treatment of APL patients, and both induction and consolidated therapy have resulted in complete remission. Recently published studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that ATO pharmacology as an anti-leukemic drug is associated with cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in leukemia cells. Methods In the present study, we further investigated the detailed molecular mechanism of ATO-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis; using HL-60 cells as a test model. Oxidative stress was assessed by spectrophotometric measurements of MDA and GSH levels while genotoxicity was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). Apoptosis pathway was analyzed by Western blot analysis of Bax, Bcl2 and caspase 3 expression, as well as immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging of Bax and Cyt c translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. Results ATO significantly (p < 0.05) induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and caspase 3 activityin HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It also activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by significantly modulating (p < 0.05) the expression and translocation of apoptotic molecules and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential in leukemia cells. Conclusion Taken together, our research demonstrated that ATO induces mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. This apoptotic signaling is modulated via oxidative stress, DNA damage, and change in mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation and upregulation of apoptotic proteins leading programmed cell death. PMID:24887205

  13. TNFR1 and TNFR2 regulate the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in myeloma cells by multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rauert, H; Stühmer, T; Bargou, R; Wajant, H; Siegmund, D

    2011-01-01

    The huge majority of myeloma cell lines express TNFR2 while a substantial subset of them failed to show TNFR1 expression. Stimulation of TNFR1 in the TNFR1-expressing subset of MM cell lines had no or only a very mild effect on cellular viability. Surprisingly, however, TNF stimulation enhanced cell death induction by CD95L and attenuated the apoptotic effect of TRAIL. The contrasting regulation of TRAIL- and CD95L-induced cell death by TNF could be traced back to the concomitant NFκB-mediated upregulation of CD95 and the antiapoptotic FLIP protein. It appeared that CD95 induction, due to its strength, overcompensated a rather moderate upregulation of FLIP so that the net effect of TNF-induced NFκB activation in the context of CD95 signaling is pro-apoptotic. TRAIL-induced cell death, however, was antagonized in response to TNF because in this context only the induction of FLIP is relevant. Stimulation of TNFR2 in myeloma cells leads to TRAF2 depletion. In line with this, we observed cell death induction in TNFR1-TNFR2-costimulated JJN3 cells. Our studies revealed that the TNF-TNF receptor system adjusts the responsiveness of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in myeloma cells by multiple mechanisms that generate a highly context-dependent net effect on myeloma cell survival. PMID:21850048

  14. Evolution of mitochondrial cell death pathway: Proapoptotic role of HtrA2/Omi in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Igaki, Tatsushi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Tokushige, Naoko; Aonuma, Hiroka; Takahashi, Ryosuke . E-mail: ryosuket@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miura, Masayuki . E-mail: miura@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-05-18

    Despite the essential role of mitochondria in a variety of mammalian cell death processes, the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in Drosophila cell death has remained unclear. To address this, we cloned and characterized DmHtrA2, a Drosophila homolog of a mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi. We show that DmHtrA2 normally resides in mitochondria and is up-regulated by UV-irradiation. Upon receipt of apoptotic stimuli, DmHtrA2 is translocated to extramitochondrial compartment; however, unlike its mammalian counterpart, the extramitochondrial DmHtrA2 does not diffuse throughout the cytosol but stays near the mitochondria. RNAi-mediated knock-down of DmHtrA2 in larvae or adult flies results in a resistance to stress stimuli. DmHtrA2 specifically cleaves Drosophila inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), a cellular caspase inhibitor, and induces cell death both in vitro and in vivo as potent as other fly cell death proteins. Our observations suggest that DmHtrA2 promotes cell death through a cleavage of DIAP1 in the vicinity of mitochondria, which may represent a prototype of mitochondrial cell death pathway in evolution.

  15. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  16. Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathways Inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae Potentiates Activity of Posaconazole and Itraconazole via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  17. Arsenic induces apoptosis by the lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Jiang, Liping; Zhong, Laifu; Geng, Chengyan; Jia, Li; Liu, Shuang; Guan, Huai; Yang, Guang; Yao, Xiaofeng; Piao, Fengyuan; Sun, Xiance

    2016-02-01

    Recently, long term arsenic exposure was considered to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. While a relation of cause-and-effect between apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and arsenic exposure, the precise mechanisms of these events remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore arsenic-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and the mechanisms of through the possible link between lysosomal and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. After exposure to 10 μM of arsenic, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased at 12 h, while the mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced at 24 h and the lysosomal membrane integrity was disrupted at 48 h. A significant increase in protein expression for cytochrome c was also observed using Western blot analysis after exposure to arsenic for 48 h. To further demonstrate that arsenic reduced the lysosomal membrane integrity, cells pretreated with NH4 Cl and exposed to arsenic harbored a lower fluorescence increase than cells that were only exposed to arsenic. In addition, apoptosis was mesured using Hoechst 33342/PI dual staining by microscopy and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide dual staining by flow cytometry. The results show an increased uptake of the arsenic dose and the cells changed from dark blue to light blue, karyopyknosis, nuclear chromatin condensation, side set or fracture, and a correlation was found between the number of apoptotic cells and arsenic dose. The result of present study suggest that arsenic may induce pancreatic β-cell apoptosis through activation of the lysosome-mitochondrial pathway.

  18. Pomegranate peel extract polyphenols induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells by mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Bingbing; Li, Jia; Li, Jianke

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPPs) on the proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 cells (a kind of human hepatoma cells) and the related mechanism. The inverted fluorescence microscope and the flow cytometer (FCM) were used to test the changes of the cellular morphology, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm). The kit was used to measure the activities of caspase-3/9, and Western Blot was used to detect the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins including p53, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyt-c and PARP. The results showed that the cells cycle of HepG2 arrested at the S-phase by PPPs and the amount of the early apoptotic cells and ROS level were increased obviously, the level of Cyt-c and the activity of Caspase-3/9 markedly were also increased by PPPs, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the protein expressions of P53. It was concluded that PPPs could inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells by blocking the cell cycle and inducing the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27120393

  19. Genetic modulation of apoptotic pathways fails to alter disease course in tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi-Hye; Sleat, David E; Bernard, Ora; Lobel, Peter

    2009-03-27

    Late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a fatal, incurable neurodegenerative disease of children caused by the loss of the lysosomal protein tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 (TPP1). Previous studies have suggested that Bcl-2-dependent apoptotic pathways are involved in neuronal cell death in LINCL patients and, as a result, anti-apoptotic treatments that increase Bcl-2 activity have been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach. In this study, we have directly investigated whether targeting anti-apoptotic pathways may be of value in LINCL in a mouse model of this disease that lacks TPP1 and which recapitulates many aspect of the human disease, including a greatly shortened life-span. Our approach was to genetically modify apoptotic pathways and determine the effects of these changes on the severe neurodegenerative phenotype of the LINCL mouse. LINCL mice were generated that either lacked the pro-apoptotic p53 or had increased levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, changes that would exacerbate or ameliorate neuronal death, respectively, should pathways involving these proteins be important. Neither modification affected the shortened life-span of the LINCL mouse. These results suggest that either neuronal death in LINCL does not occur via apoptosis or that it occurs via apoptotic pathways not involving p53 or Bcl-2. Alternatively, pathways involving p53 and/or Bcl-2 may be involved in neuronal death under normal circumstances but may not be the only routes to this end. Importantly, our findings suggest that targeting pathways of cell death involving p53 or Bcl-2 do not represent useful directions for developing effective treatment. PMID:19429009

  20. Potential of apoptotic pathway-targeted cancer therapeutic research: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Baig, S; Seevasant, I; Mohamad, J; Mukheem, A; Huri, H Z; Kamarul, T

    2016-01-01

    Underneath the intricacy of every cancer lies mysterious events that impel the tumour cell and its posterity into abnormal growth and tissue invasion. Oncogenic mutations disturb the regulatory circuits responsible for the governance of versatile cellular functions, permitting tumour cells to endure deregulated proliferation, resist to proapoptotic insults, invade and erode normal tissues and above all escape apoptosis. This disruption of apoptosis has been highly implicated in various malignancies and has been exploited as an anticancer strategy. Owing to the fact that apoptosis causes minimal inflammation and damage to the tissue, apoptotic cell death-based therapy has been the centre of attraction for the development of anticancer drugs. Increased understanding of the molecular pathways underlying apoptosis has enabled scientists to establish unique approaches targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer therapeutics. In this review, we reconnoitre the two major pathways (intrinsic and extrinsic) targeted cancer therapeutics, steering toward chief modulators of these pathways, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 protein family members (pro- and antiapoptotic), inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, and the foremost thespian of extrinsic pathway regulator, tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing agent. Together, we also will have a look from clinical perspective to address the agents (drugs) and therapeutic strategies adopted to target these specific proteins/pathways that have entered clinical trials. PMID:26775709

  1. A novel pathway for phagosome maturation during engulfment of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Kinchen, Jason M.; Doukoumetzidis, Kimon; Almendinger, Johann; Stergiou, Lilli; Tosello-Trampont, Annie; Sifri, Costi D.; Hengartner, Michael O.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2010-01-01

    The efficient removal of apoptotic cells is critical for the physiological well-being of the organism1â4; defects in corpse removal have been linked to autoimmune disease4, 5. While several players regulating the early steps of corpse recognition and internalization have been characterized6, the molecules and mechanisms relevant to the subsequent processing of the internalized corpses are poorly understood. Here, we identify a novel pathway for the processing of internalized apoptotic cells in C. elegans and in mammals. First, we show that RAB-5 and RAB-7 are sequentially recruited to phagosomes containing apoptotic corpses as they mature within phagocytes, and that both proteins are required for efficient corpse clearance. We then used targeted genetic screens to identify players regulating the recruitment and/or retention of Rab5 and Rab7 to phagosomes. Seven members of the HOPS complex (a Rab7 activator/effector complex) were required for Rab7 localization or retention on phagosomes. In an effort to identify factors that regulate Rab5 recruitment, we undertook an unbiased reverse genetic screen and identified 61 genes potentially required for corpse removal. In-depth analysis of two candidate genes, vps-34 and dyn-1/dynamin, showed accumulation of internalized, but undegraded corpses within abnormal phagosomes that are defective in RAB-5 recruitment. Using a series of genetic and biochemical experiments in worms and mammalian cells, we ordered these proteins in a pathway, with DYN-1 functioning upstream of VPS-34, in the recruitment/retention of Rab5 to the nascent phagosome. Further, we identified a novel biochemical complex containing Vps34, dynamin and Rab5GDP, providing a mechanism for Rab5 recruitment to the nascent phagosome. PMID:18425118

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic pathway is involved in corpus luteum regression in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Pei, Xiuying; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2α. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6α, eIF2α, IRE1α, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1α/XBP1s and eIF2α was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway Is Involved in Corpus Luteum Regression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2α. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6α, eIF2α, IRE1α, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1α/XBP1s and eIF2α was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway. PMID:25332219

  4. Butin (7,3′,4′-Trihydroxydihydroflavone) Reduces Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of the Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Lee, In Kyung; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Kim, Areum Daseul; Kim, Hye Sun; Chae, Sungwook; Kim, Hee Sun; Hyun, Jin Won

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that butin (7,3′,4′-trihydroxydihydroflavone) protected cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis by: (1) scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating antioxidant enzymes such superoxide dismutase and catalase; (2) decreasing oxidative stress-induced 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels via activation of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, and (3), reducing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the cytoprotective effects of butin on oxidative stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, and possible mechanisms involved. Butin significantly reduced H2O2-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as determined by confocal image analysis and flow cytometry, alterations in Bcl-2 family proteins such as decrease in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax and phospho Bcl-2 expression, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of butin was exerted via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and activator protein-1 cascades induced by H2O2 treatment. Finally, butin exhibited protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by decreased apoptotic bodies, sub-G1 hypodiploid cells and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, the protective effects of butin against H2O2-induced apoptosis were exerted via blockade of membrane potential depolarization, inhibition of the JNK pathway and mitochondria-involved caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:21747713

  5. Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is ancestral in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Cheryl E.; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Tait, Stephen W. G.; Llambi, Fabien; McStay, Gavin P.; Tupper, Douglas O.; Pellettieri, Jason; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez; Salvesen, Guy S.; Green, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is the major mechanism of physiological cell death in vertebrates. In this pathway, proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family cause mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), allowing the release of cytochrome c, which interacts with Apaf-1 to trigger caspase activation and apoptosis. Despite conservation of Bcl-2, Apaf-1, and caspases in invertebrate phyla, the existence of the mitochondrial pathway in any invertebrate is, at best, controversial. Here we show that apoptosis in a lophotrochozoan, planaria (phylum Platyhelminthes), is associated with MOMP and that cytochrome c triggers caspase activation in cytosolic extracts from these animals. Further, planarian Bcl-2 family proteins can induce and/or regulate cell death in yeast and can replace Bcl-2 proteins in mammalian cells to regulate MOMP. These results suggest that the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in animals predates the emergence of the vertebrates but was lost in some lineages (e.g., nematodes). In further support of this hypothesis, we surveyed the ability of cytochrome c to trigger caspase activation in cytosolic extracts from a variety of organisms and found this effect in cytosolic extracts from invertebrate deuterostomes (phylum Echinodermata). PMID:22416118

  6. Biliverdin reductase/bilirubin mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of hypoxia in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Yao, Lan; Xing, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liao, Lin; Zhu, Daling

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis induced by hypoxia plays an important role in pulmonary arterial remodeling leading to aggravate hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the mechanisms of hypoxia acting on PASMC apoptosis remain exclusive. Biliverdin reductase (BVR) has many essential biologic roles in physiological and pathological processes. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the hypoxia-induced inhibition on PASMC apoptosis is mediated by BVR. In the present work, we found BVR majorly localized in PASMCs and was up-regulated in levels of protein and mRNA by hypoxia. Then we studied the contribution of BVR to anti-apoptotic response of hypoxia in PASMCs. Our results showed that siBVR, blocking generation of bilirubin, reversed the effect of hypoxia on enhancing cell survival and apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, procasepase-9, procasepase-3) expression, preventing nuclear shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization in starved PASMCs, which were recovered by exogenous bilirubin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of bilirubin on PASMC apoptosis under hypoxic condition was blocked by the inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that BVR contributes to the inhibitory process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis, which is mediated by bilirubin through ERK1/2 pathway. Highlights: • BVR expresses in PASMC and is up-regulated by hypoxia in protein and mRNA levels. • BVR/bilirubin contribute to the inhibitive process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis. • Bilirubin protects PASMC from apoptosis under hypoxia via ERK1/2 pathway.

  7. Tumor suppressor gene RBM5 delivered by attenuated Salmonella inhibits lung adenocarcinoma through diverse apoptotic signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma. Method We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot. Results We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of tumor xenografts was significantly retarded on the mice treated with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 carried by attenuated Salmonella compared to that on mice treated with pcDNA3.1. Overexpression of RBM5 enhanced the apoptosis in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly, while the expression of BAX, TNF-α, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP proteins was significantly increased in the pcDNA3.1-RBM5-treated mice as compared to that in the control mice. Conclusions In this study, we established a novel animal model to determine RBM5 function in vivo, and concluded that RBM5 inhibited tumor growth in mice by inducing apoptosis. The study suggests that although RBM5’s involvement in the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway is still to be investigated, RBM5-mediated growth suppression, at least in part, employs regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. PMID

  8. Cd-Induced Apoptosis through the Mitochondrial Pathway in the Hepatopancreas of the Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongmei; Yang, Jian; Li, Yingjun; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Cd is one of the most common pollutants in the environment that also induces the apoptosis. To explore the mechanism of apoptosis in the hepatopancreas, freshwater crab S. henanense were treated with 0, 3.56, 7.12, 14.25, 28.49 and 56.98 mg/L Cd for 72 h. Apoptosis was noticeable in every treatment group and necrosis was observed clearly in the high concentration Cd groups. Classical apoptotic bodies were found by transmission electronic microscopy, which revealed chromatin condensation under nuclear membrane and mitochondrial membrane rupture. An increasing number of autolysosomes, damaged rough endoplamic reticulum and Golgi complex were observed as the Cd concentration increase. Brown colored apoptotic cells were detected by the TUNEL test in all Cd-treatment groups. The apoptosis index increased following the elevation of Cd concentration and got 32.9% in the highest Cd group. Caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities increased in the lower Cd treatment groups but no changes in the higher Cd concentration groups (comparing to the control group). The activity of caspase-8 did not change significantly. No significant change in the content of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt c) in Cd exposed groups except the decrease in the 56.98 mg/L group. In crabs treated with 3.56, 7.12 and 14.25 mg/L Cd, hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) significantly increased. These results implied that apoptosis in the hepatopancreas induced by Cd occurrs through the mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathway. However, whether there are other apoptotic pathways needs to be studied further. PMID:23894343

  9. Apoptotic transition of senescent cells accompanied with mitochondrial hyper-function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danli; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fen; Sui, Weihao; Chen, Li; Zheng, Ran; Chen, Xiaowen; Wen, Feiqiu; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Ji, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Defined as stable cell-cycle arrest, cellular senescence plays an important role in diverse biological processes including tumorigenesis, organismal aging, and embryonic development. Although increasing evidence has documented the metabolic changes in senescent cells, mitochondrial function and its potential contribution to the fate of senescent cells remain largely unknown. Here, using two in vitro models of cellular senescence induced by doxorubicin treatment and prolonged passaging of neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts, we report that senescent cells exhibited high ROS level and augmented glucose metabolic rate concomitant with both morphological and quantitative changes of mitochondria. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarized at late stage of senescent cells which eventually led to apoptosis. Our study reveals that mitochondrial hyper-function contributes to the implementation of cellular senescence and we propose a model in which the mitochondrion acts as the key player in promoting fate-determination in senescent cells. PMID:27056883

  10. A new pathway for mitochondrial quality control: mitochondrial-derived vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Ayumu; McLelland, Gian-Luca; Fon, Edward A; McBride, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has been marked by tremendous progress in our understanding of the cell biology of mitochondria, with the identification of molecules and mechanisms that regulate their fusion, fission, motility, and the architectural transitions within the inner membrane. More importantly, the manipulation of these machineries in tissues has provided links between mitochondrial dynamics and physiology. Indeed, just as the proteins required for fusion and fission were identified, they were quickly linked to both rare and common human diseases. This highlighted the critical importance of this emerging field to medicine, with new hopes of finding drugable targets for numerous pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammation and cancer. In the midst of these exciting new discoveries, an unexpected new aspect of mitochondrial cell biology has been uncovered; the generation of small vesicular carriers that transport mitochondrial proteins and lipids to other intracellular organelles. These mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) were first found to transport a mitochondrial outer membrane protein MAPL to a subpopulation of peroxisomes. However, other MDVs did not target peroxisomes and instead fused with the late endosome, or multivesicular body. The Parkinson's disease-associated proteins Vps35, Parkin, and PINK1 are involved in the biogenesis of a subset of these MDVs, linking this novel trafficking pathway to human disease. In this review, we outline what has been learned about the mechanisms and functional importance of MDV transport and speculate on the greater impact of these pathways in cellular physiology. PMID:25107473

  11. Investigation of the effects of 2.1 GHz microwave radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), apoptotic activity and cell viability in human breast fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Seyhan, Nesrin; Kayhan, Handan; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Kurşun, Ayşe Canseven; Yağcı, Münci

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of 2.1 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated Microwave (MW) Radiation on cell survival and apoptotic activity of human breast fibroblast cells. The cell cultures were exposed to W-CDMA modulated MW at 2.1 GHz at a SAR level of 0.607 W/kg for 4 and 24 h. The cell viability was assessed by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The percentage of apoptotic cells was analyzed by Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. 5,5',6,6'-Tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) was used to measure Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (ΔΨm). sFasL and Fas/APO-1 protein levels were determined by ELISA method. 2.1 GHz MW radiation was shown to be able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human breast fibroblast cells. The cell viability of MW-exposed cells was decreased significantly. The percentages of Annexin V-FITC positive cells were higher in MW groups. ΔΨm was decreased significantly due to MW radiation exposure. However, neither sFas nor FasL level was significantly changed in MW-exposed fibroblast cells. The results of this study showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation-induced apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway.

  12. Sanguisorba officinalis L synergistically enhanced 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells by promoting a reactive oxygen species-mediated, mitochondria-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-ping; Liao, Min; Dai, Cong; Chen, Jie-feng; Yang, Chun-juan; Liu, Ming; Chen, Zuan-guang; Yao, Mei-cun

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorba officinalis L. radix is a widely used herb called DiYu (DY) in China and has an extensive range of bioactivities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. However, there is little evidence to support its anti-cancer effects against colorectal cancer (CRC). The first-line chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is used to treat CRC, but its efficiency is hampered by acquired drug resistance. This study found that a water extract of DY exerted anti-proliferative effects against two CRC cell lines (HCT-116 and RKO), and it sensitized CRC cells to 5-FU therapy by activating a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated, mitochondria-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Co-treatment of DY and 5-FU significantly elevated ROS levels, up-regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, followed by a release of cytochrome c and up-regulation of proteins such as cleaved-caspase-9/3 and cleaved-PARP. Additionally, the induction of autophagy may be involved in mediating synergism of DY in HCT-116 cells. Gallic acid (GA), catechinic acid (CA) and ellagic acid (EA) were identified as the potential chief constituents responsible for the synergistic effects of DY. In conclusion, co-treatment of DY, specifically GA, CA and EA, with 5-FU may be a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for CRC by enhancing an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:27671231

  13. The pivotal role of the mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 2 in protecting human cells against apoptotic effects of the base analog N6-hydroxylaminopurine.

    PubMed

    Plitzko, Birte; Havemeyer, Antje; Kunze, Thomas; Clement, Bernd

    2015-04-17

    N-Hydroxylated nucleobases and nucleosides as N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) or N-hydroxyadenosine (HAPR) may be generated endogenously in the course of cell metabolism by cytochrome P450, by oxidative stress or by a deviating nucleotide biosynthesis. These compounds have shown to be toxic and mutagenic for procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. For DNA replication fidelity it is therefore of great importance that organisms exhibit effective mechanisms to remove such non-canonical base analogs from DNA precursor pools. In vitro, the molybdoenzymes mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 and 2 (mARC1 and mARC2) have shown to be capable of reducing N-hydroxylated base analogs and nucleoside analogs to the corresponding canonical nucleobases and nucleosides upon reconstitution with the electron transport proteins cytochrome b5 and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. By RNAi-mediated down-regulation of mARC in human cell lines the mARC-dependent N-reductive detoxication of HAP in cell metabolism could be demonstrated. For HAPR, on the other hand, the reduction to adenosine seems to be of less significance in the detoxication pathway of human cells as HAPR is primarily metabolized to inosine by direct dehydroxylamination catalyzed by adenosine deaminase. Furthermore, the effect of mARC knockdown on sensitivity of human cells to HAP was examined by flow cytometric quantification of apoptotic cell death and detection of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. mARC2 was shown to protect HeLa cells against the apoptotic effects of the base analog, whereas the involvement of mARC1 in reductive detoxication of HAP does not seem to be pivotal. PMID:25713076

  14. The pivotal role of the mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 2 in protecting human cells against apoptotic effects of the base analog N6-hydroxylaminopurine.

    PubMed

    Plitzko, Birte; Havemeyer, Antje; Kunze, Thomas; Clement, Bernd

    2015-04-17

    N-Hydroxylated nucleobases and nucleosides as N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) or N-hydroxyadenosine (HAPR) may be generated endogenously in the course of cell metabolism by cytochrome P450, by oxidative stress or by a deviating nucleotide biosynthesis. These compounds have shown to be toxic and mutagenic for procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. For DNA replication fidelity it is therefore of great importance that organisms exhibit effective mechanisms to remove such non-canonical base analogs from DNA precursor pools. In vitro, the molybdoenzymes mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 and 2 (mARC1 and mARC2) have shown to be capable of reducing N-hydroxylated base analogs and nucleoside analogs to the corresponding canonical nucleobases and nucleosides upon reconstitution with the electron transport proteins cytochrome b5 and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. By RNAi-mediated down-regulation of mARC in human cell lines the mARC-dependent N-reductive detoxication of HAP in cell metabolism could be demonstrated. For HAPR, on the other hand, the reduction to adenosine seems to be of less significance in the detoxication pathway of human cells as HAPR is primarily metabolized to inosine by direct dehydroxylamination catalyzed by adenosine deaminase. Furthermore, the effect of mARC knockdown on sensitivity of human cells to HAP was examined by flow cytometric quantification of apoptotic cell death and detection of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. mARC2 was shown to protect HeLa cells against the apoptotic effects of the base analog, whereas the involvement of mARC1 in reductive detoxication of HAP does not seem to be pivotal.

  15. The Pivotal Role of the Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component 2 in Protecting Human Cells against Apoptotic Effects of the Base Analog N6-Hydroxylaminopurine*

    PubMed Central

    Plitzko, Birte; Havemeyer, Antje; Kunze, Thomas; Clement, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    N-Hydroxylated nucleobases and nucleosides as N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) or N-hydroxyadenosine (HAPR) may be generated endogenously in the course of cell metabolism by cytochrome P450, by oxidative stress or by a deviating nucleotide biosynthesis. These compounds have shown to be toxic and mutagenic for procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. For DNA replication fidelity it is therefore of great importance that organisms exhibit effective mechanisms to remove such non-canonical base analogs from DNA precursor pools. In vitro, the molybdoenzymes mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 and 2 (mARC1 and mARC2) have shown to be capable of reducing N-hydroxylated base analogs and nucleoside analogs to the corresponding canonical nucleobases and nucleosides upon reconstitution with the electron transport proteins cytochrome b5 and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. By RNAi-mediated down-regulation of mARC in human cell lines the mARC-dependent N-reductive detoxication of HAP in cell metabolism could be demonstrated. For HAPR, on the other hand, the reduction to adenosine seems to be of less significance in the detoxication pathway of human cells as HAPR is primarily metabolized to inosine by direct dehydroxylamination catalyzed by adenosine deaminase. Furthermore, the effect of mARC knockdown on sensitivity of human cells to HAP was examined by flow cytometric quantification of apoptotic cell death and detection of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. mARC2 was shown to protect HeLa cells against the apoptotic effects of the base analog, whereas the involvement of mARC1 in reductive detoxication of HAP does not seem to be pivotal. PMID:25713076

  16. In vitro analysis of the role of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in CSBE therapy against human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    JI, YU-BIN; YU, LEI

    2015-01-01

    The caper plant (Capparis spinosa L.) was a common Uyghur folk medicine, and is a member of the Capparidaceae family. In a previous study, the n-butanol extract of C. spinosa L. (CSBE) was demonstrated to exert anti-tumor activity; however, the underlying mechanism is currently not understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the CSBE-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, in order to investigate the anti-tumor effects of this plant extract. CSBE-induced apoptosis of the SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cell line was observed, and alterations in the expression levels and localization of initiators, markers, and executors of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were analyzed. Following treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CBSE, proliferation was inhibited and apoptosis was induced; and these effects were associated with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. CSBE may have induced SGC-7901 cell apoptosis by upregulating the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2)-associated X protein, and downregulating the expression of BCL-2. The results of the present study suggested that CSBE may induce SGC-7901 cell apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:26668648

  17. Rasagiline and selegiline suppress calcium efflux from mitochondria by PK11195-induced opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a novel anti-apoptotic function for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqiu; Kazumura, Kimiko; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Rasagiline and selegiline, inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), protect neurons from cell death in cellular and animal models. Suppression of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and subsequent activation of apoptosis cascade, and induction of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival genes are proposed to contribute the anti-apoptotic function. Rasagiline suppresses neurotoxin- and oxidative stress-induced membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, but the mechanism has been not fully clarified. In this paper, regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by rasagiline and selegiline was examined in apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of the outer membrane translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in SH-SY5Y cells. The pore opening was quantitatively measured using a simultaneous monitoring system for calcium (Ca(2+)) and superoxide (O2(-)) (Ishibashi et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:571-580, 2006). The association of the pore opening with Ca(2+) efflux and ROS increase was proved by the inhibition of Bcl-2 overexpression and cyclosporine A treatment. Potency to release Ca(2+) was correlated with the cytotoxicity of TSPO antagonists, PK11195, FGIN-1-27 and protoporphyrin IX, whereas a TSPO agonist, 4-chloro-diazepamine, did not significantly increase Ca(2+) or cause cell death. Rasagiline and selegiline inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore dose dependently. Ca(2+) efflux was confirmed as the initial signal in mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, and the suppression of Ca(2+) efflux may account for the neuroprotective function of rasagiline and selegiline. The quantitative measurement of Ca(2+) efflux can be applied to determine anti-apoptotic activity of neuroprotective compounds. The role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) release in neuronal death and also in neuroprotection by MAO-B inhibitors is discussed.

  18. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-induced apoptosis through the ATM- and p53-dependent intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Schweikl, Helmut; Petzel, Christine; Bolay, Carola; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Krifka, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Resin monomers of dental composites like 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) disturb cell functions including responses of the innate immune system, mineralization and differentiation of dental pulp-derived cells, or induce cell death via apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis is related to the availability of the antioxidant glutathione, although a detailed understanding of the signaling pathways is still unknown. The present study provides insight into the causal relationship between oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage, and the specific signaling pathway leading to HEMA-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. The differential expression of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in HEMA-exposed cells indicated oxidative stress, which was associated with the cleavage of pro-caspase 3 as a critical apoptosis executioner. A 2-fold increase in the amount of mitochondrial superoxide anions after a 24 h exposure to HEMA (6-8 mM) was paralleled by a considerable decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Additionally, expression of proteins critical for the signaling of apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway was detected. Transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms of p53-regulated apoptosis were activated, and p53 was translocated from the cytosol to mitochondria. HEMA-induced transcriptional activity of p53 was indicated by increased levels of PUMA localized to mitochondria as a potent inducer of apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-xL and Bax suggested that cells responded to stress caused by HEMA via the activation of a complicated and antagonistic machinery of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. A HEMA-induced and oxidative stress-sensitive delay of the cell cycle, indicating a DNA damage response, occurred independent of the influence of KU55399, a potent inhibitor of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) activity. However, ATM, a protein kinase which

  19. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-{kappa}B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-{kappa}B (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-{kappa}B and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-{kappa}B activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection

  20. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai; Shao, Jingjing; Zhou, Keyuan; Qiu, Haitao; Cao, Fengxiang; Li, Caihong; Dai, De

    2016-08-01

    Although modern radiotherapy offers excellent local control in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), current therapeutic decisions remain burdensome due to the frequency of local recurrence and treatment failure at distant sites. One potential and promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of cancers is the use of bioactive components of plant origin, including dietary plant products. Herein, we studied one class of these bioactive compounds, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), and explored their effect on NPC CNE-2 cells, as well as the primary mechanism underlying this effect. Our results revealed that treatment of human NPC CNE-2 cells with GSPs reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and moreover, markedly induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, leading to induction of apoptosis. In addition, we found that the underlying mechanism was associated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PRAP) protein, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (Δψm). Furthermore, GSPs upregulated the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins, Bim and Bad, in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data supported our hypothesis that, in human NPC CNE-2 cells, GSPs could induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and ultimately reduce cell viability. Collectively, the results discussed above provide substantive evidence for the potential of GSPs as an effective bioactive phytochemical for the treatment of NPC. PMID:27277418

  1. Curcumin induces apoptotic cell death of activated human CD4+ T cells via increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Zhang, Qinggao; Joe, Yeonsoo; Lee, Bong Hee; Ryu, Do Gon; Kwon, Kang Beom; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-03-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic antioxidant compound, exerts well-known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, the latter which can influence the activation of immune cells including T cells. Furthermore, curcumin can inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. The beneficial effects of curcumin in diseases such as arthritis, allergy, asthma, atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer may be due to its immunomodulatory properties. We studied the potential of curcumin to modulate CD4+ T cells-mediated autoimmune disease, by examining the effects of this compound on human CD4+ lymphocyte activation. Stimulation of human T cells with PHA or CD3/CD28 induced IL-2 mRNA expression and activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. The treatment of T cells with curcumin induced the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway, initiated by the phosphorylation of PERK and IRE1. Furthermore, curcumin increased the expression of the ER stress associated transcriptional factors XBP-1, cleaved p50ATF6α and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in human CD4+ and Jurkat T cells. In PHA-activated T cells, curcumin further enhanced PHA-induced CHOP expression and reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Finally, curcumin treatment induced apoptotic cell death in activated T cells via eliciting an excessive ER stress response, which was reversed by the ER-stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid or transfection with CHOP-specific siRNA. These results suggest that curcumin can impact both ER stress and mitochondria functional pathways, and thereby could be used as a promising therapy in the context of Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:23415873

  2. Laminarin induces apoptosis of human colon cancer LOVO cells through a mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu Bin; Ji, Chen Feng; Zhang, He

    2012-08-20

    Many scientific studies have shown that laminarin has anti-tumor effects, but the anti-tumor mechanism was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laminarin on the induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer LOVO cells and the molecular mechanism involved. LOVO cells were treated with different concentrations of laminarin at different times. Morphology observations were performed to determine the effects of laminarin on apoptosis of LOVO cells. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pH. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) was used to analyze intracellular calcium ion concentration, mitochondrion permeability transition pore (MPTP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blotd were performed to analyze the expressions of Cyt-C, Caspase-9 and -3. The results showed the apoptosis morphology, which showed cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasm and apoptotic bodies, was obvious after 72 h treatment. Laminarin treatment for 24 h increased the intracellular level of ROS and Ca²⁺; decreased pH value; activated intracellular MPTP and decreased MMP in dose-dependent manners. It also induced the release of Cyt-C and the activation of Caspase-9 and -3. In conclusion, laminarin induces LOVO cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that it could be a potent agent for cancer prevention and treatment.

  3. Src kinase modulates the apoptotic p53 pathway by altering HIPK2 localization

    PubMed Central

    Polonio-Vallon, Tilman; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Hofmann, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is a master regulator of cell proliferation. Hyperactive Src is a potent oncogene and a driver of cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a tumor suppressor mediating growth suppression and apoptosis upon genotoxic stress through phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46. Here we show that Src phosphorylates HIPK2 and changes its subcellular localization. Using mass spectrometry we identified 9 Src-mediated Tyr-phosphorylation sites within HIPK2, 5 of them positioned in the kinase domain. By means of a phosphorylation-specific antibody we confirm that Src mediates phosphorylation of HIPK2 at Tyr354. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of Src increases the half-life of HIPK2 by interfering with Siah-1-mediated HIPK2 degradation. Moreover, we find that hyperactive Src binds HIPK2 and redistributes HIPK2 from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm, where both kinases partially colocalize. Accordingly, we find that hyperactive Src decreases chemotherapeutic drug-induced p53 Ser46 phosphorylation and apoptosis activation. Together, our results suggest that Src kinase suppresses the apoptotic p53 pathway by phosphorylating HIPK2 and relocalizing the kinase to the cytoplasm. PMID:24196445

  4. Activation of p53-regulated pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in PrP-mediated myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingjing; Parchaliuk, Debra; Medina, Sarah; Sorensen, Garrett; Landry, Laura; Huang, Shenghai; Wang, Meiling; Kong, Qingzhong; Booth, Stephanie A

    2009-01-01

    Background We have reported that doxycycline-induced over-expression of wild type prion protein (PrP) in skeletal muscles of Tg(HQK) mice is sufficient to cause a primary myopathy with no signs of peripheral neuropathy. The preferential accumulation of the truncated PrP C1 fragment was closely correlated with these myopathic changes. In this study we use gene expression profiling to explore the temporal program of molecular changes underlying the PrP-mediated myopathy. Results We used DNA microarrays, and confirmatory real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to demonstrate deregulation of a large number of genes in the course of the progressive myopathy in the skeletal muscles of doxycycline-treated Tg(HQK) mice. These include the down-regulation of genes coding for the myofibrillar proteins and transcription factor MEF2c, and up-regulation of genes for lysosomal proteins that is concomitant with increased lysosomal activity in the skeletal muscles. Significantly, there was prominent up-regulation of p53 and p53-regulated genes involved in cell cycle arrest and promotion of apoptosis that paralleled the initiation and progression of the muscle pathology. Conclusion The data provides the first in vivo evidence that directly links p53 to a wild type PrP-mediated disease. It is evident that several mechanistic features contribute to the myopathy observed in PrP over-expressing mice and that p53-related apoptotic pathways appear to play a major role. PMID:19400950

  5. Mitochondrial pathways in sarcopenia of aging and disuse muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Adhihetty, Peter J.; Miccheli, Alfredo; Bossola, Maurizio; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Muscle loss during aging and disuse is a highly prevalent and disabling condition, but knowledge about cellular pathways mediating muscle atrophy is still limited. Given the postmitotic nature of skeletal myocytes, the maintenance of cellular homeostasis relies on the efficiency of cellular quality control mechanisms. In this scenario, alterations in mitochondrial function are considered a major factor underlying sarcopenia and muscle atrophy. Damaged mitochondria are not only less bioenergetically efficient, but also generate increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, interfere with cellular quality control mechanisms, and display a greater propensity to trigger apoptosis. Thus, mitochondria stand at the crossroad of signaling pathways that regulate skeletal myocyte function and viability. Studies on these pathways have sometimes provided unexpected and counterintuitive results, which suggests that they are organized into a complex, heterarchical network that is currently insufficiently understood. Untangling the complexity of such a network will likely provide clinicians with novel and highly effective therapeutics to counter the muscle loss associated with aging and disuse. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms whereby mitochondrial dysfunction intervenes in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and disuse atrophy, and highlight the prospect of targeting specific processes to treat these conditions. PMID:23154422

  6. Manumycin A induces apoptosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma through regulation of Sp1 and activation of the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ka Hwi; Chae, Jung-Il; Oh, Hana; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra-Ham; Yoon, Goo; Cho, Seung-Sik; Cho, Young-Sik; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Liu, Kangdong; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Manumycin A (Manu A) is a natural product isolated from Streptomyces parvulus and has been reported to have anti-carcinogenic and anti-biotic properties. However, neither its molecular mechanism nor its molecular targets are well understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the possibility that Manu A has cancer preventive and chemotherapeutic effects on malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) through regulation of Sp1 and induction of mitochondrial cell death pathway. Manu A inhibited the cell viability of MSTO-211H and H28 cells in a concentration‑dependent manner as determined by MTS assay. IC50 values were calculated as 8.3 and 4.3 µM in the MSTO-311H and H28 cells following 48 h incubation, respectively. Manu A induced a significant increase in apoptotic indices as shown by DAPI staining, Annexin V assay, multi-caspase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assay. The downregulation of Sp1 mRNA and protein expression by Manu A led to apoptosis by suppressing Sp1-regulated proteins (cyclin D1, Mcl-1 and survivin). Manu A decreased the protein levels of BID, Bcl-xL and PARP while it increased Bax levels. Manu A caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane with induction of CHOP, DR4 and DR5. Our results demonstrated that Manu A exerted anticancer effects by inducing apoptosis via inhibition of the Sp1-related signaling pathway in human MPM.

  7. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  8. BL-038, a Benzofuran Derivative, Induces Cell Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species/Mitochondrial Dysfunction and the Caspases Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Hsien-Te; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant cartilage-forming bone tumor that has the capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. Moreover, chondrosarcoma is intrinsically resistant to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The novel benzofuran derivative, BL-038 (2-amino-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzofuran-4-yl acetate), has been evaluated for its anticancer effects in human chondrosarcoma cells. BL-038 caused cell apoptosis in two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and SW1353, but not in primary chondrocytes. Treatment of chondrosarcoma with BL-038 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, BL-038 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and changed mitochondrial-related apoptosis, by downregulating the anti-apoptotic activity members (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) and upregulating pro-apoptotic members (Bax, Bak) of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins, key regulators of the apoptotic machinery in cells. These results demonstrate that in human chondrosarcoma cells, the apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of BL-038 are mediated by the intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which in turn causes the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), to elicit apoptosis response. Our results show that the benzofuran derivative BL-038 induces apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells. PMID:27618007

  9. BL-038, a Benzofuran Derivative, Induces Cell Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species/Mitochondrial Dysfunction and the Caspases Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Hsien-Te; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant cartilage-forming bone tumor that has the capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. Moreover, chondrosarcoma is intrinsically resistant to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The novel benzofuran derivative, BL-038 (2-amino-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzofuran-4-yl acetate), has been evaluated for its anticancer effects in human chondrosarcoma cells. BL-038 caused cell apoptosis in two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and SW1353, but not in primary chondrocytes. Treatment of chondrosarcoma with BL-038 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, BL-038 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and changed mitochondrial-related apoptosis, by downregulating the anti-apoptotic activity members (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) and upregulating pro-apoptotic members (Bax, Bak) of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins, key regulators of the apoptotic machinery in cells. These results demonstrate that in human chondrosarcoma cells, the apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of BL-038 are mediated by the intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which in turn causes the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), to elicit apoptosis response. Our results show that the benzofuran derivative BL-038 induces apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells. PMID:27618007

  10. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek; Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  11. Pivotal role of a DEVD-sensitive step in etoposide-induced and Fas-mediated apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Dubrez, L; Savoy, I; Hamman, A; Solary, E

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of proteases in the pathway that leads from specific DNA damage induced by etoposide (VP-16), a topoisomerase II inhibitor, to apoptotic DNA fragmentation in the U937 human leukemic cell line. In a reconstituted cell-free system, Triton-soluble extracts from VP-16-treated cells induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in nuclei from untreated cells. This effect was inhibited by the tetrapeptide Ac-DEVD-CHO, a competitive inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-related protease CPP32, but was not influenced by Ac-YVAD-CHO and Ac-YVAD-CMK, two specific inhibitors of ICE. The three tetrapeptides inhibited Fas-mediated apoptotic DNA fragmentation in the cell-free system. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, triggered by either VP-16 or an anti-Fas antibody, was associated with proteolytic cleavage of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), a decrease in the level of 32 kDa CPP32 proenzyme and the appearance of the CPP32 p17 active subunit. Conversely, the expression of Ich-1L, another ICE-like protease, remained stable in apoptotic U937 cells. Several cysteine and serine protease inhibitors prevented apoptotic DNA fragmentation by acting either upstream or downstream of the DEVD-sensitive protease(s) activation and PARP cleavage. We conclude that a DEVD-sensitive step, which could involve CPP32, plays a central role in the proteolytic pathway that mediates apoptotic DNA fragmentation in VP-16-treated leukemic cells at the crossing with Fas-mediated pathway. Images PMID:8896444

  12. Dodecyl gallate induces apoptosis by upregulating the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, CHUN-HSIANG; CHENG, YEN-PO; CHANG, ING-LIN; CHEN, HSIN-YAO; WU, CHIA-CHIEH; HSIEH, CHEN-PU

    2016-01-01

    Dodecyl gallate (DG) is a gallic acid ester that has been shown to inhibit tumor growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which DG induces antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. Dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of DG were determined using an MTT assay. The results showed that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DG in MG-63 cells was 31.15 µM at 24 h, 10.66 µM at 48 h, and 9.06 µM at 72 h. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that exposure to 20 and 40 µM DG resulted in an increase in the sub-G1 phase population and in S-phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, western blot analysis of apoptosis-related protein expression revealed an increase in the activation of caspases 8 and 3, cleavage of poly (ADPribose) polymerase (PARP), and disruption of mitochondrial membrane permeability was measured by flow cytometry. An increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and a decrease in the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family members, namely X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and survivin, were also observed following DG treatment. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms governing the ability of DG to induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. PMID:26707422

  13. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation.

  14. Lithospermic acid B protects beta-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis by alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Wan; Chun, Sung Wan; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yongho; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-04-01

    Lithospermic acid B (LAB) has been reported to protect OLETF rats, an established type 2 diabetic animal model, from the development of diabetes-related vascular complications. We investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) has a protective role under cytokine-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells in vitro and whether it slows the development of diabetes in OLETF rats in vivo. Pretreatment with 50 {mu}M LAB significantly reduced the 1000 U/mL INF-{gamma} and 100 U/mL IL-1{beta}-induced INS-1 cell death. LAB significantly alleviated cytokine-induced phosphorylations of p38 and JNK in accordance with a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 activity in beta-cells. LAB also protected against the cytokine-induced caspase-3 apoptotic pathway via significant activation of Nrf2-HO (heme-oxigenase)-1 and Sirt1 expression. OLETF rats treated with 40 mg/kg/day LAB showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance compared to untreated OLETF control rats in vivo. Our results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of LAB on pancreatic {beta}-cells are related with both alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1.

  15. Triggering Apoptotic Death of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes by Malic Acid: Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress- and Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Lai, Wan-Wen; Wu, Shi-Bei; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid (MA) has been commonly used in cosmetic products, but the safety reports in skin are sparse. To investigate the biological effects of MA in human skin keratinocytes, we investigated the potential cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of MA in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). The data showed that MA induced apoptosis based on the observations of DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, and sub-G1 phase in HaCaT cells and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Flow cytometric assays also showed that MA increased the production of mitochondrial superoxide (mito-SOX) but decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analysis of bioenergetics function with the XF 24 analyzer Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was significantly decreased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) was increased in MA-treated keratinocytes. The occurrence of apoptosis was proved by the increased expressions of FasL, Fas, Bax, Bid, caspases-3, -8, -9, cytochrome c, and the declined expressions of Bcl-2, PARP. MA also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress associated protein expression such as GRP78, GADD153, and ATF6α. We demonstrated that MA had anti-proliferative effect in HaCaT cell through the inhibition of cell cycle progression at G0/G1, and the induction of programmed cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. PMID:25584429

  16. A novel polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum exerts antitumor activity by activating mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway and boosting the immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenshen; Nie, Shaoping; Huang, Danfei; Feng, Yanling; Xie, Mingyong

    2014-02-19

    Ganoderma is a precious health-care edible medicinal fungus in China. A novel Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is the main bioactive component. We investigated the antitumor effect and molecular mechanisms of PSG-1. It exhibited no significant effect on cell proliferation directly. In contrast, administration of PSG-1 markedly suppressed tumor growth in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. It was observed that PSG-1 caused apoptosis in CT26 cells. Apoptosis was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhancement of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and intracellular ROS production, elevation of p53 and Bax expression, downregulation of Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Moreover, PSG-1 enhanced immune organ index and promoted lymphocyte proliferation as well as cytokine levels in serum. Taken together, our data indicate that PSG-1 has potential antitumor activity in vivo by inducing apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway and enhances host immune system function. Therefore, PSG-1 could be a safe and effective antitumor, bioactive agent or functional food.

  17. Novel combination of mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) and platinum agents produces synergistic pro-apoptotic effect in drug resistant tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei; Wang, Jingnan; Roginskaya, Vera; McDermott, Lee A; Edwards, Robert P; Stolz, Donna B; Llambi, Fabien; Green, Douglas R; Van Houten, Bennett

    2014-06-30

    Overcoming platinum drug resistance represents a major clinical challenge in cancer treatment. We discovered a novel drug combination using cisplatin and a class of thioquinazolinone derivatives including mdivi-1 (mitochondrial division inhibitor-1), that induces synergistic apoptosis in platinum resistant tumor cells, including those from cisplatin-refractory endstage ovarian cancer patients. However, through study of the combination effect on Drp1 (the reported target of mdivi-1) knockout MEF cells and the functional analysis of mdivi-1 analogs, we revealed that the synergism between mdivi-1 and cisplatin is Drp1-independent. Mdivi-1 impairs DNA replication and its combination with cisplatin induces a synergistic increase of replication stress and DNA damage, causing a preferential upregulation of a BH3-only protein Noxa. Mdivi-1 also represses mitochondrial respiration independent of Drp1, and the combination of mdivi-1 and cisplatin triggers substantial mitochondrial uncoupling and swelling. Upregulation of Noxa and simultaneous mitochondrial swelling causes synergistic induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), proceeding robust mitochondrial apoptotic signaling independent of Bax/Bak. Thus, the novel mode of MOMP induction by the combination through the "dual-targeting" potential of mdivi-1 on DNA replication and mitochondrial respiration suggests a novel class of compounds for platinum-based combination option in the treatment of platinum as well as multidrug resistant tumors.

  18. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P < 0.01). After transfecting with small interference RNA (siRNA) against TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels were remarkably depressed after siRNA transfection, while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels were elevated. TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26823779

  19. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P < 0.01). After transfecting with small interference RNA (siRNA) against TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels were remarkably depressed after siRNA transfection, while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels were elevated. TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  20. Overexpression of long non-coding RNA PVT1 in ovarian cancer cells promotes cisplatin resistance by regulating apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enling; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Yuxiu; Mi, Ruoran; Wang, Dehua

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Cisplatin is a very effective cancer chemotherapy drug, but cisplatin resistance is a crucial problem of therapy failure. Overexpression of PVT1 has been demonstrated in ovarian cancer. The mRNA level of PVT1 in ovarian cancer tissues of cisplatin-resistant patients and cisplatin-sensitive patients, cisplatin-resistant cells SKOV-3/DDP and A2780/DDP, cisplatin-sensitive cells SKOV-3 and A2780 were determined by qRT-PCR. The influence of the knockdown or overexpression of PVT1 on cisplatin resistance was measured by measuring the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and the apoptotic rate of ovarian cancer cells was detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The mRNA levels and protein expression of TGF-β1, Smad4, p-Smad4 and Caspase-3 in apoptotic pathways were determined. The mRNA level of PVT1 was significantly higher in ovarian cancer tissues of cisplatin-resistant patients and cisplatin-resistant cells. SKOV-3/DDP and A2780/DDP cell viability and the percentage of apoptotic cells after transfection with PVT-1 siRNA and treated with cisplatin was markedly lower and higher than the control, respectively. Moreover, the overexpression of PVT1 exhibited the anti-apoptotic property in SKOV-3 and A2780 cells after transfection with LV-PVT1-GFP and treated with cisplatin. The mRNA levels and protein expression of TGF-β1, p-Smad4 and Caspase-3 were much higher in cisplatin-resistant cells transfected with siPVT1. Overexpression of LncRNA PVT1 in ovarian cancer promotes cisplatin resistance by regulating apoptotic pathways. PMID:26884974

  1. Beginnings of a good apoptotic meal: the find-me and eat-me signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2011-10-28

    Prompt and efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is necessary to prevent secondary necrosis of dying cells and to avoid immune responses to autoantigens. Recent studies have shed light on how apoptotic cells through soluble "find-me" signals advertise their presence to phagocytes at the earliest stages of cell death. Phagocytes sense the find-me signal gradient, and in turn the presence of dying cells, and migrate to their vicinity. The apoptotic cells also expose specific "eat-me" signals on their surface that are recognized by phagocytes through specific engulfment receptors. This review covers the recent progress in the areas of find-me and eat-me signals and how these relate to prompt and immunologically silent clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:22035837

  2. Beginnings of a good apoptotic meal: the find-me and eat-me signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Prompt and efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is necessary to prevent secondary necrosis of dying cells, and to avoid immune responses to autoantigens. Recent studies have shed light on how apoptotic cells through soluble ‘find-me signals’ advertise their presence to phagocytes at the earliest stages of cell death. Phagocytes sense the find-me signal gradient, and in turn the presence of dying cells, and migrate to their vicinity. The apoptotic cells also expose specific eat-me signals on their surface that are recognized by phagocytes through specific engulfment receptors. This review covers the recent progress in the areas of find-me and eat-me signals, and how these relate to prompt and immunologically silent clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:22035837

  3. Microcystin-LR Induced Apoptosis in Rat Sertoli Cells via the Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Pathway: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Liu, Chuanrui; Fu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shenshen; Xin, Yongjuan; Li, Yang; Xue, Lijian; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). After exposure to various concentrations of MC-LR for 24 h, the growth of Sertoli cells was concentration-dependently decreased with an IC50 of ~32 μg/mL. Mitochondria-mediated apoptotic changes were observed in Sertoli cells exposed to 8, 16, and 32 μg/mL MC-LR including the increased expression of caspase pathway proteins, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and generation of ROS. Pretreatment with a global caspase inhibitor was found to depress the activation of caspases, and eventually increased the survival rate of Sertoli cells, implying that the mitochondrial caspases pathway is involved in MC-LR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, N-acetyl-l-cysteine attenuated the MC-LR-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and cytochrome c release, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Taken together, the observed results suggested that MC-LR induced apoptotic death of Sertoli cells by the activation of mitochondrial caspases cascade, while its effects on the ROS-mediated signaling pathway may contribute toward the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Microcystin-LR Induced Apoptosis in Rat Sertoli Cells via the Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Pathway: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Liu, Chuanrui; Fu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shenshen; Xin, Yongjuan; Li, Yang; Xue, Lijian; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). After exposure to various concentrations of MC-LR for 24 h, the growth of Sertoli cells was concentration-dependently decreased with an IC50 of ~32 μg/mL. Mitochondria-mediated apoptotic changes were observed in Sertoli cells exposed to 8, 16, and 32 μg/mL MC-LR including the increased expression of caspase pathway proteins, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and generation of ROS. Pretreatment with a global caspase inhibitor was found to depress the activation of caspases, and eventually increased the survival rate of Sertoli cells, implying that the mitochondrial caspases pathway is involved in MC-LR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, N-acetyl-l-cysteine attenuated the MC-LR-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and cytochrome c release, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Taken together, the observed results suggested that MC-LR induced apoptotic death of Sertoli cells by the activation of mitochondrial caspases cascade, while its effects on the ROS-mediated signaling pathway may contribute toward the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27667976

  5. Microcystin-LR Induced Apoptosis in Rat Sertoli Cells via the Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Pathway: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Liu, Chuanrui; Fu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shenshen; Xin, Yongjuan; Li, Yang; Xue, Lijian; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). After exposure to various concentrations of MC-LR for 24 h, the growth of Sertoli cells was concentration-dependently decreased with an IC50 of ~32 μg/mL. Mitochondria-mediated apoptotic changes were observed in Sertoli cells exposed to 8, 16, and 32 μg/mL MC-LR including the increased expression of caspase pathway proteins, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and generation of ROS. Pretreatment with a global caspase inhibitor was found to depress the activation of caspases, and eventually increased the survival rate of Sertoli cells, implying that the mitochondrial caspases pathway is involved in MC-LR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, N-acetyl-l-cysteine attenuated the MC-LR-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and cytochrome c release, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Taken together, the observed results suggested that MC-LR induced apoptotic death of Sertoli cells by the activation of mitochondrial caspases cascade, while its effects on the ROS-mediated signaling pathway may contribute toward the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27667976

  6. Inorganic mercury causes pancreatic beta-cell death via the oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and necrotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yawen; Huang Chunfa; Yang Chingyao; Yen Chengchieh; Tsai Kehsung; Liu Shinghwa

    2010-03-15

    Mercury is a well-known highly toxic metal. In this study, we characterize and investigate the cytotoxicity and its possible mechanisms of inorganic mercury in pancreatic beta-cells. Mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) dose-dependently decreased the function of insulin secretion and cell viability in pancreatic beta-cell-derived HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. HgCl{sub 2} significantly increased ROS formation in HIT-T15 cells. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine effectively reversed HgCl{sub 2}-induced insulin secretion dysfunction in HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Moreover, HgCl{sub 2} increased sub-G1 hypodiploids and annexin-V binding in HIT-T15 cells, indicating that HgCl{sub 2} possessed ability in apoptosis induction. HgCl{sub 2} also displayed several features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals including disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activations of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3. Exposure of HIT-T15 cells to HgCl{sub 2} could significantly increase both apoptotic and necrotic cell populations by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining. Meanwhile, HgCl{sub 2} could also trigger the depletion of intracellular ATP levels and increase the LDH release from HIT-T15 cells. These HgCl{sub 2}-induced cell death-related signals could be significantly reversed by N-acetylcysteine. The intracellular mercury levels were markedly elevated in HgCl{sub 2}-treated HIT-T15 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HgCl{sub 2}-induced oxidative stress causes pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity involved the co-existence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death.

  7. Mouse Cytotoxic T Cell-derived Granzyme B Activates the Mitochondrial Cell Death Pathway in a Bim-dependent Fashion*

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Elena; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Aguiló, Nacho; Simon, Markus M.; Froelich, Christopher J.; Pardo, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) use perforin and granzyme B (gzmB) to kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that human gzmB primarily induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway by either cleaving Bid or activating Bim leading to the activation of Bak/Bax and subsequent generation of active caspase-3. In contrast, mouse gzmB is thought to predominantly induce apoptosis by directly processing pro-caspase-3. However, in certain mouse cell types gzmB-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. To investigate whether Bim is involved under the latter conditions, we have now employed ex vivo virus-immune mouse Tc that selectively kill by using perforin and gzmB (gzmB+Tc) as effector cells and wild type as well as Bim- or Bak/Bax-deficient spontaneously (3T9) or virus-(SV40) transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as targets. We show that gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis (phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation) was severely reduced in 3T9 cells lacking either Bim or both Bak and Bax. This outcome was related to the ability of Tc cells to induce the degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, the anti-apoptotic counterparts of Bim. In contrast, gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis was not affected in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells lacking Bak/Bax. The data provide evidence that Bim participates in mouse gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis of certain targets by activating the mitochondrial pathway and suggest that the mode of cell death depends on the target cell. Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB+Tc-induced death pathways. PMID:25605735

  8. 4-methylcatechol-Induced Oxidative Stress Induces Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Florastina; Bose, Rumu; Alworth, William L; Kumar, Addanki P; Ghosh, Rita

    2011-01-01

    There has been a steady rise in fatalities associated with thick melanomas (>4mm). Although understanding of the biology of the disease has improved, effective treatment strategies for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma remain elusive. Therefore, more intensive testing of agents with therapeutic potential are needed to improve survival of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. We have tested the ability of 4-methylcatechol, a metabolite of quercetin; a naturally occurring compound that is commonly found in a variety of fruits for its potential as an anti-melanoma agent. Our results show that 4-methylcatechol inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells in culture while not affecting the growth of normal human epidermal melanocytes. Further, the ability of metastatic melanoma cells to form colonies on soft agar was also inhibited. 4-methylcatechol caused the accumulation of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. There was an increase in reactive oxygen species following treatment with 4-methylcatechol that led to apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Treatment also inhibited cell survival mediated by Akt, a key player in melanoma cell survival. Taken together our results suggest that 4-methylcatechol exhibits cytotoxicity towards metastatic malignant melanoma cells while sparing normal melanocytes and should be tested further as a potential drug candidate for malignant melanoma. PMID:21419106

  9. Investigating the protective effect of lithium against high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells: involvements of ROS, JNK and P38 MAPKs, and apoptotic mitochondria pathway.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, A; Dehpour, A R; Safa, M; Mirzamohammadi, S; Sharifi, A M

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycemia that occurs under the diabetic condition is a major cause of diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy, one of the most common diabetes-related complications. It is well known that hyperglycemia could result in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Over production of ROS recommended as an important mediator for apoptotic signaling pathway as well as a key early event in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Recently, many studies have indicated that lithium has robust neuroprotective effect in relation to several neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to examine effects of lithium on high glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity and to determine some of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this response in PC12 cells as a neuronal culture model for diabetic neuropathy. PC12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of lithium for 7 days, exposed to HG for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ROS and lipid peroxidation levels as well as superoxide dismutase activity were measured. In order to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, total and phosphorylated JNK and P38 MAPK were also analyzed by Western blotting. The present results indicated that pretreatment with 1 mM lithium has protected PC12 cells against HG-induced apoptotic cell death. It could reduce ROS generation, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-3 activation, and JNK and P38 MAPK phosphorylation. It may be concluded that in HG condition, lithium pretreatment could prevent mitochondrial apoptosis as well as JNK and P38 MAPK pathway in PC12 cells.

  10. Chimaphilin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Dong; Zou, Yong-Peng; Wang, Peng; Yao, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Yao; Duan, Ming-Hui; Fu, Yu-Jie; Yu, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Chimaphilin, 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is extracted from pyrola [Passiflora incarnata Fisch.]. In this study, the anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms of chimaphilin toward human breast cancer MCF-7 cells are firstly investigated. Chimaphilin could inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC50 value was 43.30μM for 24h. Chimaphilin markedly induced apoptosis through the investigation of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, nuclear DNA fragmentation, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Flow cytometry assay revealed that chimaphilin triggered a significant generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, western blotting assay showed that chimaphilin suppressed Bcl-2 level and enhanced Bad level, then activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and further activated the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), finally induced cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment test testified that chimaphilin could increase the generation of ROS, then induce cell apoptosis. In general, the present results demonstrated that chimaphilin induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24793375

  11. A polysaccharide from Glycyrrhiza inflata Licorice inhibits proliferation of human oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huan; Zeng, Guang; Sun, Bin; Cai, Xingwei; Bi, Lixia; Tang, Guo; Yang, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we isolated and characterized a water-soluble polysaccharide (GIP1) from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of GIP1 on the human oral cancer SCC-25 cell line and to explore the possible mechanism. Our experimental result showed that GIP1 (50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) specifically decreased cell viability of SCC-25 cells in a concentration-dependent manner via the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that exposure of SCC-25 cells to GIP1 led to down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, thus causing a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Moreover, we observed activation of the initiator caspaes-9, and the effector caspases-3, but not caspase-8. Concomitantly, GIP1-induced apoptosis can be blocked by caspase-3- or caspase-9-specific inhibitor, but not caspase-8 inhibitor. As well, the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, as a caspae-3 substrate, occurred in SCC-25 cells following GIP1 treatment at three concentrations. Collectively, our results showed that the GIP1 induced apoptosis in SCC-25 cells involving a caspase-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  12. A polysaccharide from Glycyrrhiza inflata Licorice inhibits proliferation of human oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huan; Zeng, Guang; Sun, Bin; Cai, Xingwei; Bi, Lixia; Tang, Guo; Yang, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we isolated and characterized a water-soluble polysaccharide (GIP1) from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of GIP1 on the human oral cancer SCC-25 cell line and to explore the possible mechanism. Our experimental result showed that GIP1 (50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) specifically decreased cell viability of SCC-25 cells in a concentration-dependent manner via the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that exposure of SCC-25 cells to GIP1 led to down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, thus causing a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Moreover, we observed activation of the initiator caspaes-9, and the effector caspases-3, but not caspase-8. Concomitantly, GIP1-induced apoptosis can be blocked by caspase-3- or caspase-9-specific inhibitor, but not caspase-8 inhibitor. As well, the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, as a caspae-3 substrate, occurred in SCC-25 cells following GIP1 treatment at three concentrations. Collectively, our results showed that the GIP1 induced apoptosis in SCC-25 cells involving a caspase-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway. PMID:25663459

  13. Molecular profiles of Quadriceps muscle in myostatin-null mice reveal PI3K and apoptotic pathways as myostatin targets

    PubMed Central

    Chelh, Ilham; Meunier, Bruno; Picard, Brigitte; Reecy, Mark James; Chevalier, Catherine; Hocquette, Jean-François; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the TGF-β superfamily, has been identified as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Inactivating mutations in the MSTN gene are responsible for the development of a hypermuscular phenotype. In this study, we performed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to detect altered expression/abundance of genes and proteins. These differentially expressed genes and proteins may represent new molecular targets of MSTN and could be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Results Transcriptomic analysis of the Quadriceps muscles of 5-week-old MSTN-null mice (n = 4) and their controls (n = 4) was carried out using microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences) of 6,473 genes expressed in muscle. Proteomic profiles were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Comparison of the transcriptomic profiles revealed 192 up- and 245 down- regulated genes. Genes involved in the PI3K pathway, insulin/IGF pathway, carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis regulation were up-regulated. Genes belonging to canonical Wnt, calcium signalling pathways and cytokine-receptor cytokine interaction were down-regulated. Comparison of the protein profiles revealed 20 up- and 18 down-regulated proteins spots. Knockout of the MSTN gene was associated with up-regulation of proteins involved in glycolytic shift of the muscles and down-regulation of proteins involved in oxidative energy metabolism. In addition, an increased abundance of survival/anti-apoptotic factors were observed. Conclusion All together, these results showed a differential expression of genes and proteins related to the muscle energy metabolism and cell survival/anti-apoptotic pathway (e.g. DJ-1, PINK1, 14-3-3ε protein, TCTP/GSK-3β). They revealed the PI3K and apoptotic pathways as MSTN targets and are in favour of a role of MSTN as a modulator of cell survival in vivo. PMID:19397818

  14. AS-2, a novel inhibitor of p53-dependent apoptosis, prevents apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction in a transcription-independent manner and protects mice from a lethal dose of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Akinori; Ariyasu, Shinya; Wang, Bing; Asanuma, Tetsuo; Onoda, Takayoshi; Sawa, Akiko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ippei; Togami, Shotaro; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Toshiya; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • A bidentate HQ derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis by DNA damage. • AS-2 does not significantly affect nuclear p53 response. • UV-excited blue emission of AS-2 clearly showed its extranuclear localization. • AS-2 prevents mitochondrial dysfunction despite the increase of mitochondrial p53. • AS-2 protects mice from a radiation dose that causes lethal hematopoietic syndrome. - Abstract: In a previous study, we reported that some tetradentate zinc(II) chelators inhibit p53 through the denaturation of its zinc-requiring structure but a chelator, Bispicen, a potent inhibitor of in vitro apoptosis, failed to show any efficient radioprotective effect against irradiated mice because the toxicity of the chelator to mice. The unsuitability of using tetradentate chelators as radioprotectors prompted us to undertake a more extensive search for p53-inhibiting agents that are weaker zinc(II) chelators and therefore less toxic. Here, we show that an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis through a transcription-independent mechanism. A mechanistic study using cells with different p53 characteristics revealed that the suppressive effect of AS-2 on apoptosis is specifically mediated through p53. In addition, AS-2 was less effective in preventing p53-mediated transcription-dependent events than pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Fluorescence visualization of the extranuclear distribution of AS-2 also supports that it is ineffective on the transcription-dependent pathway. Further investigations revealed that AS-2 suppressed mitochondrial apoptotic events, such as the mitochondrial release of intermembrane proteins and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, although AS-2 resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial translocation of p53 as opposed to the decrease of cytosolic p53, and did not affect the apoptotic interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. AS-2 also

  15. Circadian acetylome reveals regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Masri, Selma; Patel, Vishal R; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Peleg, Shahaf; Forne, Ignasi; Ladurner, Andreas G; Baldi, Pierre; Imhof, Axel; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-02-26

    The circadian clock is constituted by a complex molecular network that integrates a number of regulatory cues needed to maintain organismal homeostasis. To this effect, posttranslational modifications of clock proteins modulate circadian rhythms and are thought to convert physiological signals into changes in protein regulatory function. To explore reversible lysine acetylation that is dependent on the clock, we have characterized the circadian acetylome in WT and Clock-deficient (Clock(-/-)) mouse liver by quantitative mass spectrometry. Our analysis revealed that a number of mitochondrial proteins involved in metabolic pathways are heavily influenced by clock-driven acetylation. Pathways such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were found to be highly enriched hits. The significant number of metabolic pathways whose protein acetylation profile is altered in Clock(-/-) mice prompted us to link the acetylome to the circadian metabolome previously characterized in our laboratory. Changes in enzyme acetylation over the circadian cycle and the link to metabolite levels are discussed, revealing biological implications connecting the circadian clock to cellular metabolic state.

  16. Reversal of Cytosolic One-Carbon Flux Compensates for Loss of the Mitochondrial Folate Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ducker, Gregory S; Chen, Li; Morscher, Raphael J; Ghergurovich, Jonathan M; Esposito, Mark; Teng, Xin; Kang, Yibin; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2016-06-14

    One-carbon (1C) units for purine and thymidine synthesis can be generated from serine by cytosolic or mitochondrial folate metabolism. The mitochondrial 1C pathway is consistently overexpressed in cancer. Here, we show that most but not all proliferating mammalian cell lines use the mitochondrial pathway as the default for making 1C units. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated mitochondrial pathway knockout activates cytosolic 1C-unit production. This reversal in cytosolic flux is triggered by depletion of a single metabolite, 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate (10-formyl-THF), and enables rapid cell growth in nutrient-replete conditions. Loss of the mitochondrial pathway, however, renders cells dependent on extracellular serine to make 1C units and on extracellular glycine to make glutathione. HCT-116 colon cancer xenografts lacking mitochondrial 1C pathway activity generate the 1C units required for growth by cytosolic serine catabolism. Loss of both pathways precludes xenograft formation. Thus, either mitochondrial or cytosolic 1C metabolism can support tumorigenesis, with the mitochondrial pathway required in nutrient-poor conditions. PMID:27211901

  17. Stachyose-induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cells via the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guidong; Mao, Jian; Ji, Zhongwei; Ailati, Aisikaer

    2015-03-01

    Some studies have shown that stachyose, as prebiotics, can prevent indirectly colon cancer cell growth by promoting the proliferation of probiotics or producing beneficial materials in the intestine. However, its direct inhibitory effects on cancer cells are still unclear. Thus, this study aims to investigate the direct inhibitory effect of stachyose on human colon cancer cells and determine the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. The MTT assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of stachyose on Caco-2 cells. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) measurements were analyzed using flow cytometry. The activities and mRNA expressions of caspases 3 and 9 were determined using caspase assay kits and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The apoptotic protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome C (Cyt C) were detected through western blotting. Results showed that stachyose inhibits Caco-2 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. After pretreatment with 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg mL(-1) stachyose, cell inhibitory rates of 15.31% ± 3.20%, 28.45% ± 2.10%, 40.23% ± 5.70%, and 55.67% ± 4.50% were respectively obtained. Compared with the control, decreases in ΔΨm, increases in caspase 3 and 9 activities and mRNA expressions, down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression, up-regulation of the Bax protein and Cyt C release of Caco-2 cells were clearly observed upon exposure to different stachyose concentrations. The inhibitory mechanism of stachyose on Caco-2 cells involves the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:25578308

  18. Topical Administration of the Mitochondrial PTP Opening Inhibitor CoQ10 Prevents Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by UVC-Irradiation in Rat's Corneas and Rabbit's Retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Schiavone, Nicola; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lulli, Matteo; Lazzarano, Stefano; Simoncini, Madine; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated in vitro that ubiquitous free radical scavenger coenzyme Q10 prevents keratocyte apoptosis induced by excimer laser irradiation more efficiently than other antioxidants. We showed that its anti apoptotic property is independent of its free radical scavenging ability and is related to direct inhibition of PTP (permeability transition pore) opening and mitochondrial depolarization. Here, we demonstrate in vivo, that CoQ10 can efficiently protect rat's corneas and rabbit's retinas irradiated with UVC. Therefore, we propose application of CoQ10 as countermeasure to prevent micro radiation-induced eye damage during interplanetary space exploration.

  19. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptotic insults to mouse cerebral endothelial cells via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.-G.; Chen, T.-L.; Chang, H.-C.; Tai, Y.-T.; Cherng, Y.-G.; Chang, Y.-T.; Chen, R.-M. . E-mail: rmchen@tmu.edu.tw

    2007-02-15

    Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, ox

  20. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptotic insults to mouse cerebral endothelial cells via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tyng-Guey; Chen, Ta-Liang; Chang, Huai-Chia; Tai, Yu-Ting; Cherng, Yih-Giun; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2007-02-15

    Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, ox

  1. Fucoidan Derived from Undaria pinnatifida Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Wang, Peisheng; Wang, Huaxin; Li, Qiaomei; Teng, Hongming; Liu, Zhichao; Yang, Wenbo; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of the fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated. SMMC-7721 cells exposed to fucoidan displayed growth inhibition and several typical features of apoptotic cells, such as chromatin condensation and marginalization, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, and in mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation. Fucoidan-induced cell death was associated with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), accumulation of high intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and accompanied by damage to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) and caspase activation. Moreover, fucoidan led to altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, including downregulating Livin and XIAP mRNA, which are members of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein (IAP) family, and increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These findings suggest that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23752353

  2. 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide induces apoptosis on human gastric carcinoma cells through mitochondria-related apoptotic pathways: p38/JNK activation and PI3K/AKT suppression.

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-Chyuan; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Din, Zhong-Hao; Su, Jui-Hsin; Yang, Zih-Yan; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Robert Y L; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2014-10-01

    13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (13-AC), an active compound isolated from cultured Formosa soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule, was found to possess anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma cells) gastric carcinoma cells. The anti-tumor effects of 13-AC were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assessment, cell wound-healing assay, TUNEL/4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 13-AC inhibited the growth and migration of gastric carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced both early and late apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometer analysis. 13-AC-induced apoptosis was confirmed through observation of a change in ΔΨm, up-regulated expression levels of Bax and Bad proteins, down-regulated expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 proteins, and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, p38 and JNK. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 and JNK activity by pretreatment with SB03580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK-specific inhibitor) led to rescue of the cell cytotoxicity of 13-AC-treated AGS cells, indicating that the p38 and the JNK pathways are also involved in the 13-AC-induced cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that 13-AC induces cell apoptosis against gastric cancer cells through triggering of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway as well as activation of the p38 and JNK pathways. PMID:25342459

  3. Cinnamaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells involves the mitochondrial death pathway and is sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporin A and z-VAD-fmk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chang, Shun-Pang; Chen, Jin-Liang; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-12-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) has been shown to exert chemopreventive activity against several types of human cancer cells. We previously reported that CIN induced apoptosis of human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells and this effect was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and the MAPK cascade. To further clarify the underlying mechanism of CIN-induced apoptosis, we examined in this study its relationship with the mitochondrial death pathway using the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), and the general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. Results indicated that CIN-induced apoptosis involved enhanced ROS generation, disruption of mitochondrial potential, and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO into the cytosol, which in turn promoted caspase-3 to its active form and the subsequent cleavage of PARP. Treatment with CIN also downregulated protein levels of the anti-apoptotic factors XIAP and Bcl-2 with concomitant accumulation of the pro-apoptotic Bax in a timedependent manner. These mitochondria-related apoptotic effects induced by CIN were however blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk pretreatments, which prevented cells from undergoing programmed cell death triggered by CIN. Furthermore, the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 and XIAP protein expression due to CIN treatment were also reversely modulated by the two inhibitors. Taken together, these results suggested that CIN is an apoptotic inducer that acts on the mitochondrial death pathway in PLC/PRF/5 cells and its effect could be blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk.

  4. Involvement of caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway in ionic radiocontrast urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Cheng Tien; Weng, Te I.; Chen, Li Ping; Chiang, Chih Kang; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Contrast medium (CM) induces a direct toxic effect on renal tubular cells. This toxic effect subjects in the disorder of CM-induced nephropathy. Our previous work has demonstrated that CM shows to activate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related adaptive unfolding protein response (UPR) activators. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-related pathways play a protective role during the urografin (an ionic CM)-induced renal tubular injury. However, the involvement of ER stress-related apoptotic signals in the urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury remains unclear. Here, we examined by the in vivo and in vitro experiments to explore whether ER stress-regulated pro-apoptotic activators participate in urografin-induced renal injury. Urografin induced renal tubular dilation, tubular cells detachment, and necrosis in the kidneys of rats. The tubular apoptosis, ER stress-related pro-apoptotic transcriptional factors, and kidney injury marker-1 (kim-1) were also conspicuously up-regulated in urografin-treated rats. Furthermore, treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E tubular cells with urografin augmented the expressions of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Bax, caspase-12, JNK, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE) 1 signals. Urografin-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis was not reversed by the inhibitors of ATF-6, JNK signals or CHOP siRNA transfection, but it could be partially reversed by the inhibitor of caspase-12. Taken together, the present results and our previous findings suggest that exposure of CM/urografin activates the ER stress-regulated survival- and apoptosis-related signaling pathways in renal tubular cells. Caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway may be partially involved in the urografin-induced nephropathy. -- Highlights: ► Ionic contrast medium-urografin induces renal tubular cell apoptosis. ► Urografin induces the ER stress-regulated survival and apoptosis

  5. P21Cip1 Protects against Oxidative Stress by Suppressing ER Dependent Activation of Mitochondrial Death Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Peter F.; Wu, Yu-Chieh M.; Staversky, Rhonda J.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well established that the cell cycle inhibitor p21 protects against genotoxic stress by preventing the replication of damaged DNA, recent studies have shown cytoplasmic forms can also protect. It protects by delaying the loss of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL; however, the mechanism of regulation is unknown. Utilizing hyperoxia as a model of chronic oxidative stress and DNA damage, p21 was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm and cytoplasmic expression of p21 was sufficient for cytoprotection. P21 was enriched in a subcellular fraction containing mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that it may be coordinating ER and mitochondrial stress pathways. Consistent with this, p21 suppressed hyperoxic downregulation of BiP and subsequent activation ER stress signaling which effected Mcl-1, but not Bcl-XL; though both inhibited hyperoxic cell death. Taken together, these data show that p21 integrates the DNA damage response with ER stress signaling which then regulates mitochondrial death pathways during chronic genotoxic stress. PMID:18948188

  6. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, induced apoptosis via independent mitochondrial and death receptor pathway in retinoblastoma Y79 cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Su, Yong-Jing; Li, Jian-Ying; Yao, Xiang-Chao; Liang, Guang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is helpful in the treatment of certain cancers by inhibiting mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Here, rapamycin mediated apoptosis were investigated in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. The MTT assay showed that the IC50 value of rapamycin against Y79 cells was 0.136 ± 0.032 μmol/L. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the percentage of apoptotic cells was increased from 2.16 ± 0.41% to 12.24 ± 3.10%, 20.16 ± 4.22%, and 31.32 ± 5.78% after 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 μmol/L rapamycin or without rapamycin treatment for 48 hours. Flow cytometry analysis showed that rapamycin induced mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) collapse in Y79 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot assay showed that rapamycin led to release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial membranes to cytosol. Further Western blot assays showed that rapamycin induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-8 and the cleavage of caspase-3. Rapamycin induced cleavages of caspase-3 and apoptosis was inhibited by both Z-LETD-FMK and Z-IETD-FMK treatment. Together, all these results illustrated that rapamycin induced apoptosis in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. PMID:26379864

  7. Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles and Metabolic Pathways in the Amygdala Associated with Exaggerated Fear in an Animal Model of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Li, Xin; Smerin, Stanley E.; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Min; Xing, Guoqiang; Su, Yan A.; Wen, Jillian; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic mechanisms underlying the development of exaggerated fear in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well defined. In the present study, alteration in the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function in the amygdala of an animal model of PTSD was determined. Amygdala tissue samples were excised from 10 non-stressed control rats and 10 stressed rats, 14 days post-stress treatment. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined using a cDNA microarray. During the development of the exaggerated fear associated with PTSD, 48 genes were found to be significantly upregulated and 37 were significantly downregulated in the amygdala complex based on stringent criteria (p < 0.01). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed up- or downregulation in the amygdala complex of four signaling networks – one associated with inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, one with immune mediators and metabolism, one with transcriptional factors, and one with chromatin remodeling. Thus, informatics of a neuronal gene array allowed us to determine the expression profile of mitochondrial genes in the amygdala complex of an animal model of PTSD. The result is a further understanding of the metabolic and neuronal signaling mechanisms associated with delayed and exaggerated fear. PMID:25295026

  8. Synergistic effect of fisetin combined with sorafenib in human cervical cancer HeLa cells through activation of death receptor-5 mediated caspase-8/caspase-3 and the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Te; Lin, Chia-Liang; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chu-Liang; Wu, Chih-Chien; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Tsai, Jen-Pi

    2016-05-01

    Combining antitumor agents with bioactive compounds is a potential strategy for improving the effect of chemotherapy on cancer cells. The goal of this study was to elucidate the antitumor effect of the flavonoid, fisetin, combined with the multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib, against human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The combination of fisetin and sorafenib synergistically induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, which is accompanied by a marked increase in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Apoptosis induction was achieved by caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation which increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and caused the subsequent cleavage of PARP level while disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential in HeLa cells. Decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio level and mitochondrial membrane potential were also observed in siDR5-treated HeLa cells. In addition, in vivo studies revealed that the combined fisetin and sorafenib treatment was clearly superior to sorafenib treatment alone using a HeLa xenograft model. Our study showed that the combination of fisetin and sorafenib exerted better synergistic effects in vitro and in vivo than either agent used alone against human cervical cancer, and this synergism was based on apoptotic potential through a mitochondrial- and DR5-dependent caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling pathway. This combined fisetin and sorafenib treatment represents a novel therapeutic strategy for further clinical developments in advanced cervical cancer.

  9. The apoptotic protease-activating factor 1-mediated pathway of apoptosis is dispensable for negative selection of thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hiromitsu; Takeda, Atsunobu; Takeuchi, Michiyo; Wakeham, Andrew C; Itié, Annick; Sasaki, Masafumi; Mak, Tak W; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Nomoto, Kikuo; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2002-03-01

    Negative selection is a process to delete potentially autoreactive clones in developing thymocytes. Programmed cell death or apoptosis is thought to play an important role in this selection process. In this study, we investigated the role of apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf1), a mammalian homologue of CED-4, in programmed cell death during the negative selection in thymus. There was no developmental abnormality in thymocytes from newborn Apaf1(-/-) mice in terms of CD4 and CD8 expression pattern and thymocyte number. Clonal deletion by endogenous male H-Y Ag of Apaf1-deficient thymocytes with transgenic expression of H-Y Ag-specific TCRs (H-Y Tg/Apaf1(-/-) thymocytes) was normally observed in lethally irradiated wild-type mice reconstituted with fetal liver-derived hemopoietic stem cells. Clonal deletion induced in vitro by a bacterial superantigen was also normal in fetal thymic organ culture. Thus, Apaf1-mediated pathway of apoptosis is dispensable for the negative selection of thymocytes. However, H-Y Tg/Apaf1(-/-) thymocytes showed partial resistance to H-Y peptide-induced deletion in vitro as compared with H-Y Tg/Apaf1(+/-) thymocytes, implicating the Apaf1-mediated apoptotic pathway in the negative selection in a certain situation. In addition, the peptide-induced deletion was still observed in H-Y Tg/Apaf1(-/-) thymocytes in the presence of a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, suggesting the presence of caspase-independent cell death pathway playing roles during the negative selection. We assume that mechanisms for the negative selection are composed of several cell death pathways to avoid failure of elimination of autoreactive clones.

  10. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  11. Downregulation of PI3-K/Akt/PTEN pathway and activation of mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis by Diclofenac and Curcumin in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Rana, Chandan; Piplani, Honit; Vaish, Vivek; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, S N

    2015-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/PTEN/Akt signaling is over activated in various tumors including colon cancer. Activation of this pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as apoptosis, metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell growth that underlie the biology of a cancer cell. In the present study, the chemopreventive effects have been observed of Diclofenac, a preferential COX-2 inhibitory non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and Curcumin, a natural anti-inflammatory agent, in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride in rats. The tumor-promoting role of PI3-K/Akt/PTEN signal transduction pathway and its association with anti-apoptotic family of proteins are also observed. Both Diclofenac and Curcumin downregulated the PI3-K and Akt expression while promoting the apoptotic mechanism. Diclofenac and Curcumin administration significantly increased the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (Bad and Bax) while decreasing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. An up-regulation of cysteine protease family apoptosis executioner, such as caspase-3 and -9, is seen. Diclofenac and Curcumin inhibited the Bcl-2 protein by directly interacting at the active site by multiple hydrogen bonding, as also evident by negative glide score of Bcl-2. These drugs stimulated apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and simultaneously decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ M). Diclofenac and Curcumin showed anti-neoplastic effects by downregulating PI3-K/Akt/PTEN pathway, inducing apoptosis, increasing ROS generation, and decreasing ΔΨ M. The anti-neoplastic and apoptotic effects were found enhanced when both Diclofenac and Curcumin were administered together, rather than individually.

  12. Withania somnifera alleviates parkinsonian phenotypes by inhibiting apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Westfall, Susan; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-12-01

    Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) are environmental toxins that have been experimentally used to induce selective damage of dopaminergic neurons leading to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this selective neuronal toxicity in not fully understood, oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by Withania somnifera (Ws), a herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic root extract of Ws was co-treated with the MB-PQ induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue canonical indicators of PD including compromised locomotor activity, reduced dopamine in the substantia nigra and various aspects of oxidative damage. In particular, Ws reduced the expression of iNOS, a measure of oxidative stress. Ws also significantly improved the MB + PQ mediated induction of a pro-apoptotic state by reducing Bax and inducing Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Finally, Ws reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory marker of astrocyte activation, GFAP. Altogether, the present study suggests that Ws treatment provides nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB-PQ induced Parkinsonism by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery possibly accounting for the behavioural effects.

  13. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin.

  14. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin. PMID:24792648

  15. Activated Ras Induces Cytoplasmic Vacuolation and Non-Apoptotic Death in Glioblastoma Cells via Novel Effector Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Aparna; Overmeyer, Jean H.; Maltese, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of activated H-Ras induces a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death in human glioblastoma cells and other specific tumor cell lines. The major cytopathological features of this form of death are the accumulation of large phase-lucent, LAMP1-positive, cytoplasmic vacuoles and increased autophagic activity. In this study we sought to determine if induction of cytoplasmic vacuolation a) depends on Ras farnesylation, b) is specific to H-Ras, and c) is mediated by signaling through the major known Ras effector pathways. We find that the unusual effects of activated H-Ras depend on farnesylation and membrane association of the GTPase. Both H-Ras(G12V) and K-Ras4B(G12V) stimulate vacuolation, but activated forms of Cdc42 and RhoA do not. Amino acid substitutions in the Ras effector domain, which are known to selectively impair its interactions with Raf kinase, class-I phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), or Ral nucleotide exchange factors, initially pointed to Raf as a possible mediator of cell vacuolation. However, the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, did not block the induction of vacuoles, and constitutively active Raf-Caax did not mimic the effects of Ras(G12V). Introduction of normal PTEN together with H-Ras(G12V) into U251 glioblastoma cells reduced the PI3K-dependent activation of Akt, but had no effect on vacuolation. Finally, co-expression of H-Ras(G12V) with a dominant-negative form of RalA did not suppress vacuolation. Taken together, the observations indicate that Ras activates non-conventional and perhaps unique effector pathways to induce cytoplasmic vacuolation in glioblastoma cells. Identification of the relevant signaling pathways may uncover specific molecular targets that can be manipulated to activate non-apoptotic cell death in this type of cancer. PMID:17210246

  16. Hsp90 is involved in apoptosis of Candida albicans by regulating the calcineurin-caspase apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, BaoDi; Wang, Yan; Li, DeDong; Xu, Yi; Liang, RongMei; Zhao, LanXue; Cao, YongBing; Jia, JianHui; Jiang, YuanYing

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Recent evidence has revealed the occurrence of apoptosis in C. albicans that is inducible by environmental stresses such as hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and amphotericin B. Apoptosis is regulated by the calcineurin-caspase pathway in C. albicans, and calcineurin is under the control of Hsp90 in echinocandin resistance. However, the role of Hsp90 in apoptosis of C. albicans remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Hsp90 in apoptosis of C. albicans by using an Hsp90-compromised strain tetO-HSP90/hsp90 and found that upon apoptotic stimuli, including hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid or amphotericin B treatment, less apoptosis occurred, less ROS was produced, and more cells survived in the Hsp90-compromised strain compared with the Hsp90/Hsp90 wild-type strain. In addition, Hsp90-compromised cells were defective in up-regulating caspase-encoding gene CaMCA1 expression and activating caspase activity upon the apoptotic stimuli. Investigations on the relationship between Hsp90 and calcineurin revealed that activation of calcineurin could up-regulate apoptosis but could not further down-regulate apoptosis in Hsp90-compromised cells, indicating that calcineurin was downstream of Hsp90. Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GdA) could further decrease the apoptosis in calcineurin-pathway-defect strains, indicating that compromising Hsp90 function had a stronger effect than compromising calcineurin function on apoptosis. Collectively, this study demonstrated that compromised Hsp90 reduced apoptosis in C. albicans, partially through downregulating the calcineurin-caspase pathway. PMID:23028789

  17. Highly efficient synthetic iron-dependent nucleases activate both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic death pathways in leukemia cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Horn, Adolfo; Fernandes, Christiane; Parrilha, Gabrieli L; Kanashiro, Milton M; Borges, Franz V; de Melo, Edésio J T; Schenk, Gerhard; Terenzi, Hernán; Pich, Claus T

    2013-11-01

    The nuclease activity and the cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cancer cells of iron complexes, [Fe(HPClNOL)Cl2]NO3 (1), [Cl(HPClNOL)Fe(μ-O)Fe(HPClNOL)Cl]Cl2·2H2O (2), and [(SO4)(HPClNOL)Fe(μ-O)Fe(HPClNOL)(SO4)]·6H2O (3) (HPClNOL=1-(bis-pyridin-2-ylmethyl-amino)-3-chloropropan-2-ol), were investigated. Each complex was able to promote plasmid DNA cleavage and change the supercoiled form of the plasmid to circular and linear ones. Kinetic data revealed that (1), (2) and (3) increase the rate of DNA hydrolysis about 278, 192 and 339 million-fold, respectively. The activity of the complexes was inhibited by distamycin, indicating that they interact with the minor groove of the DNA. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes toward U937, HL-60, Jukart and THP-1 leukemia cancer cells was studied employing 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), fluorescence and electronic transmission microscopies, flow cytometry and a cytochrome C release assay. Compound (2) has the highest activity toward cancer cells and is the least toxic for normal ones (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)). In contrast, compound (1) is the least active toward cancer cells but displays the highest toxicity toward normal cells. Transmission electronic microscopy indicates that cell death shows features typical of apoptotic cells, which was confirmed using the annexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide) assay. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that at an early stage during the treatment with complex (2) mitochondria lose their transmembrane potential, resulting in cytochrome C release. A quantification of caspases 3, 9 (intrinsic apoptosis pathway) and caspase 8 (extrinsic apoptosis pathway) indicated that both the intrinsic (via mitochondria) and extrinsic (via death receptors) pathways are involved in the apoptotic stimuli. PMID:23933562

  18. E. adenophorum Induces Cell Cycle and Apoptosis of Renal Cells through Mitochondrial Pathway and Caspase Activation in Saanen Goat

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanchun; Luo, Biao; Wu, Lei; Qiao, Yan; Mo, Quan; Xu, Ruiguang; Zhou, Yancheng; Ren, Zhihua; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Peng, Guangneng; He, Wei; Wei, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxicity effects of E. adenophorum on cell cycle and apoptosis of renal cells in Saanen goat was evaluated by TUNEL, DAPI, AO/EB staining, DNA fragmentation assay, Caspase activity, Western-blot, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis. 16 saanen goats randomly divided into four groups were fed on 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% E. adenophorum diets. The Results showed that E. adenophorum induced typical apoptotic features of renal cells. E. adenophorum significantly suppressed renal cells viability, caused cell cycle activity arrest and induced typical apoptotic features in a dose-dependent manner. However, the protein levels of Fas/FasL, Bid and caspase-8 did not appear significant changes in the process of E. adenophorum-induced apoptosis. Moreover, E. adenophorum administration slightly decreased Bcl-2 expression, promoted Bax translocation to mitochondria, triggered the release of Cyt c from mitochondria into cytosol and activated caspase-9, -3, and cleaved PARP. The mitochondrial p53 translocation was significantly activated, accompanied by a significant increase in the loss of ΔΨm, Cyt c release and caspase-9 activation. Above all, these data suggest that E. adenophorum induces renal cells apoptosis via the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in renal cells. These findings may provide new insights to understand the mechanisms involved in E. adenophorum-caused cytotoxicity of renal cells. PMID:26382060

  19. METHOTREXATE AND MYOTREXATE INDUCE APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN MYOMA FIBROBLASTS (T hES CELL LINE) VIA MITOCHONDRIAL PATHWAY.

    PubMed

    Kastratović, Tatjana; Arsenijević, Slobodan; Matović, Zoran; Mitrović, Marina; Nikolić, Ivana; Milosavljević, Zoran; Protrka, Zoran; Šorak, Marija; Đurić, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common benign tumors in women of reproductive age. Although the local application of low doses of methotrexate (MTX) is used as an effective treatment of the myomas, myotrexate could be a promising new drug. This study investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of both MTX and myotrexate in human fibroblasts derived from the uterine fibroids (T hES cell line). The myotrexate adduct is an aqueous solution of MTX and L-arginine. Cells were treated with a graded concentrations of both MTX and myothrexate (0.1-16 µM) for 24 h. The cytotoxicity was assayed by MTT test, apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC assay and their possible role in apoptosis was determined by immnu- flourescence. Both MTX and myotrexate induced apoptosis in T hES cells in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.001). Myotrexate significantly increased the percentage of AnnexinV positive cells, BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and subsequent caspase-3 activation compared to the MTX treated cells (p < 0.05). Both MTX or myotrexate treatment showed a diffuse staining of cytochrome c indicating its release from mitochondria to the cytosol, suggesting that their mechanisms of action most likely involves the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:26642654

  20. Corosolic acid analogue, a natural triterpenoid saponin, induces apoptosis on human hepatocarcinoma cells through mitochondrial pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liping; Zhang, Huiqing; Yang, Yanlong; Yang, Geliang; Xin, Hailiang; Ling, Changquan

    2016-08-01

    Context 2a,-3a,-24-Trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (TEO, a corosolic acid analogue) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Actinidia valvata Dunn (Actinidiaceae), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Objective This study investigated the anti-proliferation and inducing apoptosis effects of TEO in three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Materials and methods Cytotoxic activity of TEO was determined by the MTT assay at various concentrations from 2.5 to 40 μg/mL in BEL-7402, BEL-7404 and SMMC-7721 cell lines. Cell morphology was assessed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining and fluorescence microscopy. Cell-cycle distribution and DNA damage were determined by flow cytometry and comet assay. Mitochondrial dysfunction was assessed by JC-1 staining and transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis changes were explored by Western blot, TNF-α and caspase-3, -8, -9 assays. Results TEO exhibited inhibition effects on BEL-7402, BEL-7404 and SMMC-7721 cells treated for 24 h, the IC50 values were 34.6, 30.8 and 30.5 μg/mL, respectively. TEO (40 μg/mL)-treated three cell lines increased by more than 21% in the G1 phase and presented the morphological change and DNA damage. TEO also declined the mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial ultra-structure. Furthermore, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and TNF-α were also activated. Mechanism investigation showed that TEO could decrease anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, increase proapoptotic Bax and Bid proteins expressions and increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that TEO inhibited growth of HCC cell lines and induced G1 phase arrest. Moreover, proapoptotic effects of TEO were mediated through the activation of TNF-α, caspases and mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26810384

  1. Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Cai-ping; Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    The degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis (OA) is closely associated with the death of chondrocytes in apoptosis fashion. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), higher expression following acute damage in OA patients, has been shown to be up-regulated during apoptosis in a bulk of experimental models. This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of H2O2-induced rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. Articular cartilage was biopsied from the joints of 6 weeks old New Zealand rabbits. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability. We used flow cytometry to assess the form of cell death with Annexin-V/PI double staining, and found that H2O2 treatment induced apoptosis in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Exposure of chondrocytes to 1.5 mM of H2O2 for 2 h induced a burst apoptosis that can be alleviated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) pretreatment, an anti-oxidant amino-acid derivative. Loss of mitochondria membrane potential (▵Ψm) was evaluated using confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry (FCM). H2O2 treatment induced a marked reduction of ▵Ψm, and the abrupt disappearance of ▵Ψm occurred within 5 minutes. These results indicate that H2O2 induces a rapid apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in rabbit chondrocytes.

  2. Regulation of apoptotic pathways by Stylophora pistillata (Anthozoa, Pocilloporidae) to survive thermal stress and bleaching.

    PubMed

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Zandbank, Keren; Tchernov, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal stress. These include caspase activity and the expression profiles of the S. pistillata caspase and Bcl-2 genes (StyCasp and StyBcl-2-like) cloned in this study. In corals exposed to thermal stress (32 or 34°C), caspase activity and the expression levels of the StyBcl-2-like gene increased over time (6-48 h) and declined to basal levels within 72 h of thermal stress. Distinct transcript levels were obtained for the StyCasp gene, with stimulated expression from 6 to 48 h of 34°C thermal stress, coinciding with the onset of bleaching. Increased cell death was detected in situ only between 6 to 48 h of stress and was limited to the gastroderm. The bleached corals survived up to one month at 32°C, and recovered back symbionts when placed at 24°C. These results point to a two-stage response in corals that withstand thermal stress: (i) the onset of apoptosis, accompanied by rapid activation of anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic mediators that block the progression of apoptosis to other cells and (ii) acclimatization of the coral to the chronic thermal stress alongside the completion of symbiosis breakdown. Accordingly, the coral's ability to rapidly curb apoptosis appears to be the most important trait affecting the coral's thermotolerance and survival.

  3. Inhibition of anti-apoptotic signals by Wortmannin induces apoptosis in the remote myocardium after LAD ligation: evidence for a protein kinase C-δ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Stephan; Wessela, Teresa; Schwarz, Kerstin; Joachim, Dirk; Jercke, Marcel; Strasser, Ruth H; Ebner, Bernd; Simonis, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that, in the remote myocardium after infarction (MI), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition reduces apoptosis both by blocking proapoptotic pathways and by activating antiapoptotic signals including the Akt pathway. However, it was open if vice versa, blockade of antiapoptotic pathways may influence proapoptotic signals. To clarify this, the present study tested the effects of the PI3-kinase blocker Wortmannin on proapoptotic signals and on apoptosis execution in the remote myocardium after infarction. Rats were subjected to MI by LAD ligation in situ. Some were pre-treated with Wortmannin alone or in combination with the PKC inhibitor Chelerythrine. After 24 h, pro- and anti-apoptotic signals (caspase-3, PKC isoforms, p38-MAPK, p42/44-MAPK, Akt, Bad), and marker of apoptosis execution (TUNEL) were quantified in the myocardium remote from the infarction. Wortmannin treatment increased apoptosis in the remote myocardium both at baseline and after MI, together with an activation of the PKC-δ/p38-MAPK-pathway. PKC-ε and p42/44-MAPK were unaffected. Combined treatment with Wortmannin and Chelerythrine fully reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of Wortmannin both at baseline and after MI. The PKC-δ-p38-MAPK-pathway as a strong signal for apoptosis in the non-infarcted myocardium can be influenced by targeting the anti-apoptotic PI3-kinase pathway. This gives evidence of a bi-directional crosstalk of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals after infarction.

  4. Targeting Cell Signaling and Apoptotic Pathways by Luteolin: Cardioprotective Role in Rat Cardiomyocytes Following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongda; Li, Dongye; Jiang, Dehua

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia often results in damaged heart structure and function, which can be restored through ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in most cases. However, I/R can exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Luteolin, a widely distributed flavonoid, a member of a group of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds found in many fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. In recent years, luteolin has been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotection of IRI. However, its role and mechanism in cardioprotection against IRI has not been clearly elucidated with respect to the apoptosis pathway. The purpose of this paper is to review luteolin’s anti-apoptotic role and mechanism following I/R in rats, and indicate luteolin as a potential candidate for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23235403

  5. Allicin sensitizes hepatocellular cancer cells to anti-tumor activity of 5-fluorouracil through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xuejing; Liang, Jiyun; Sun, Jingyuan; Hu, Xiaoyun; Lei, Ling; Wu, Dehua; Liu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistance and hepatic dysfunction are the two major factors that limit the application of chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that allicin has the hepatic protective effect and antitumor activity. Hence allicin may be an ideal enhancer to chemotherapy regimen of HCC. In the present study, we demonstrated that allicin enhanced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) inducing cytotoxicity in HCC cells. In vivo experiment, combined treatment group with allicin (5 mg/kg/d; every two days for 3 weeks) and 5-FU (20 mg/kg/d; 5 consecutive days) showed a dramatic inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC xenograft tumors in nude mice. The co-treatment group showed highly apoptotic level compared with 5-FU treated alone. Cells combined treatment with allicin and 5-FU increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), activated caspase-3 and PARP, and down-regulated Bcl-2 compared with DMSO, allicin and 5-FU treated alone. Moreover, the increase of activated caspase-3 and PARP was blocked by the ROS inhibitor antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that allicin sensitized HCC cells to 5-FU induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. These results provided evidences for the combination used of allicin and 5-FU as a novel chemotherapy regimen in HCC. PMID:27177453

  6. T cell-specific inhibition of multiple apoptotic pathways blocks negative selection and causes autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Megan L; Leung, Kenneth K; Bennett, Margaux J; Winoto, Astar

    2014-01-01

    T cell self-tolerance is thought to involve peripheral tolerance and negative selection, involving apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. However, evidence supporting an essential role for negative selection is limited. Loss of Bim, a Bcl-2 BH3-only protein essential for thymocyte apoptosis, rarely results in autoimmunity on the C57BL/6 background. Mice with T cell-specific over-expression of Bcl-2, that blocks multiple BH3-only proteins, are also largely normal. The nuclear receptor Nur77, also implicated in negative selection, might function redundantly to promote apoptosis by associating with Bcl-2 and exposing its potentially pro-apoptotic BH3 domain. Here, we report that T cell-specific expression of a Bcl2 BH3 mutant transgene results in enhanced rescue of thymocytes from negative selection. Concomitantly, Treg development is increased. However, aged BH3 mutant mice progressively accumulate activated, autoreactive T cells, culminating in development of multi-organ autoimmunity and lethality. These data provide strong evidence that negative selection is crucial for establishing T cell tolerance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03468.001 PMID:25182415

  7. Cardiac arrest triggers hippocampal neuronal death through autophagic and apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Derong; Shang, Hanbing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Wei; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of neuronal death induced by ischemic injury remains unknown. We investigated whether autophagy and p53 signaling played a role in the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, in a rat model of 8-min asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Increased autophagosome numbers, expression of lysosomal cathepsin B, cathepsin D, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) suggested autophagy in hippocampal cells. The expression of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and its target genes: Bax, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) were upregulated following CA. The p53-specific inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) significantly reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and PUMA) and autophagic proteins (LC3-II and DRAM) that generally increase following CA. PFT-α also reduced hippocampal neuronal damage following CA. Similarly, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which inhibits autophagy and bafilomycin A1 (BFA), which inhibits lysosomes, significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal damage after CA. These results indicate that CA affects both autophagy and apoptosis, partially mediated by p53. Autophagy plays a significant role in hippocampal neuronal death induced by cerebral I/R following asphyxial-CA. PMID:27273382

  8. Cardiac arrest triggers hippocampal neuronal death through autophagic and apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Derong; Shang, Hanbing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Wei; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of neuronal death induced by ischemic injury remains unknown. We investigated whether autophagy and p53 signaling played a role in the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, in a rat model of 8-min asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Increased autophagosome numbers, expression of lysosomal cathepsin B, cathepsin D, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) suggested autophagy in hippocampal cells. The expression of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and its target genes: Bax, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) were upregulated following CA. The p53-specific inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) significantly reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and PUMA) and autophagic proteins (LC3-II and DRAM) that generally increase following CA. PFT-α also reduced hippocampal neuronal damage following CA. Similarly, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which inhibits autophagy and bafilomycin A1 (BFA), which inhibits lysosomes, significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal damage after CA. These results indicate that CA affects both autophagy and apoptosis, partially mediated by p53. Autophagy plays a significant role in hippocampal neuronal death induced by cerebral I/R following asphyxial-CA. PMID:27273382

  9. Decreased Expression of SRSF2 Splicing Factor Inhibits Apoptotic Pathways in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kędzierska, Hanna; Popławski, Piotr; Hoser, Grażyna; Rybicka, Beata; Rodzik, Katarzyna; Sokół, Elżbieta; Bogusławska, Joanna; Tański, Zbigniew; Fogtman, Anna; Koblowska, Marta; Piekiełko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 2(SRSF2) belongs to the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of proteins that regulate alternative splicing. Previous studies suggested that SRSF2 can contribute to carcinogenic processes. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer, highly aggressive and difficult to treat, mainly due to resistance to apoptosis. In this study we hypothesized that SRSF2 contributes to the regulation of apoptosis in ccRCC. Using tissue samples obtained from ccRCC patients, as well as independent validation on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, we demonstrate for the first time that expression of SRSF2 is decreased in ccRCC tumours when compared to non-tumorous control tissues. Furthermore, by employing a panel of ccRCC-derived cell lines with silenced SRSF2 expression and qPCR arrays we show that SRSF2 contributes not only to splicing patterns but also to expression of multiple apoptotic genes, including new SRSF2 targets: DIABLO, BIRC5/survivin, TRAIL, BIM, MCL1, TNFRSF9, TNFRSF1B, CRADD, BCL2L2, BCL2A1, and TP53. We also identified a new splice variant of CFLAR, an inhibitor of caspase activity. These changes culminate in diminished caspase-9 activity and inhibition of apoptosis. In summary, we show for the first time that decreased expression of SRSF2 in ccRCC contributes to protection of cancer cells viability. PMID:27690003

  10. Dietary fat modifies mitochondrial and plasma membrane apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon Jay; de Cabo, Rafael; Burón, María Isabel; Villalba, José M

    2013-12-01

    Calorie restriction decreases skeletal muscle apoptosis, and this phenomenon has been mechanistically linked to its protective action against sarcopenia of aging. Alterations in lipid composition of membranes have been related with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. However, no study has been designed to date to elucidate if different dietary fat sources with calorie restriction modify apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle. We show that a 6-month calorie restriction decreased the activity of the plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, although caspase-8/10 activity was not altered, in young adult mice. Lipid hydroperoxides, Bax levels, and cytochrome c and AIF release/accumulation into the cytosol were also decreased, although caspase-9 activity was unchanged. No alterations in caspase-3 and apoptotic index (DNA fragmentation) were observed, but calorie restriction improved structural features of gastrocnemius fibers by increasing cross-sectional area and decreasing circularity of fibers in cross sections. Changing dietary fat with calorie restriction produced substantial alterations of apoptotic signaling. Fish oil augmented the protective effect of calorie restriction decreasing plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, Bax levels, caspase-8/10, and -9 activities, while increasing levels of the antioxidant coenzyme Q at the plasma membrane, and potentiating the increase of cross-sectional area and the decrease of fiber circularity in cross sections. Many of these changes were not found when we used lard. Our data support that dietary fish oil with calorie restriction produces a cellular anti-apoptotic environment in skeletal muscle with a downregulation of components involved in the initial stages of apoptosis engagement, both at the plasma membrane and the mitochondria.

  11. Constitutive p53 heightens mitochondrial apoptotic priming and favors cell death induction by BH3 mimetic inhibitors of BCL-xL

    PubMed Central

    Le Pen, J; Laurent, M; Sarosiek, K; Vuillier, C; Gautier, F; Montessuit, S; Martinou, J C; Letaï, A; Braun, F; Juin, P P

    2016-01-01

    Proapoptotic molecules directly targeting the BCL-2 family network are promising anticancer therapeutics, but an understanding of the cellular stress signals that render them effective is still elusive. We show here that the tumor suppressor p53, at least in part by transcription independent mechanisms, contributes to cell death induction and full activation of BAX by BH3 mimetic inhibitors of BCL-xL. In addition to mildly facilitating the ability of compounds to derepress BAX from BCL-xL, p53 also provides a death signal downstream of anti-apoptotic proteins inhibition. This death signal cooperates with BH3-induced activation of BAX and it is independent from PUMA, as enhanced p53 can substitute for PUMA to promote BAX activation in response to BH3 mimetics. The acute sensitivity of mitochondrial priming to p53 revealed here is likely to be critical for the clinical use of BH3 mimetics. PMID:26844698

  12. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  13. The mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter: regulation by auxiliary subunits and signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Bong Sook; Mishra, Jyotsna; Monaco, Sarah; Fu, Deming; Jiang, Wenmin; Sheu, Shey-Shing; O-Uchi, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis, the Ca(2+) influx-efflux balance, is responsible for the control of numerous cellular functions, including energy metabolism, generation of reactive oxygen species, spatiotemporal dynamics of Ca(2+) signaling, and cell growth and death. Recent discovery of the molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) provides new possibilities for application of genetic approaches to study the mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanism in various cell types and tissues. In addition, the subsequent discovery of various auxiliary subunits associated with MCU suggests that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is not solely regulated by a single protein (MCU), but likely by a macromolecular protein complex, referred to as the MCU-protein complex (mtCUC). Moreover, recent reports have shown the potential role of MCU posttranslational modifications in the regulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake through mtCUC. These observations indicate that mtCUCs form a local signaling complex at the inner mitochondrial membrane that could significantly regulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling, as well as numerous mitochondrial and cellular functions. In this review we discuss the current literature on mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms, with a particular focus on the structure and function of mtCUC, as well as its regulation by signal transduction pathways, highlighting current controversies and discrepancies.

  14. Inactivation of Akt by arsenic trioxide induces cell death via mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hao-Peng; Yang, Shu-Meng; Yang, Yue; Ma, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Yan-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been recognized as a potential chemotherapeutic agent, yet the details concerning its mechanism of action in solid cancers remain undetermined. The present study assessed the role of Akt in the cell death induced by As2O3. The MTT assay showed that As2O3 suppressed the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Characteristic apoptotic changes were observed in the As2O3‑treated cells by Hoechst 33342 staining, and FACS analysis showed that As2O3 caused dose-dependent apoptotic cell death. As2O3 activated caspase-3 and -9, and PARP cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Compromised mitochondrial membrane potential and an increased protein level of Bax indicated involvement of mitochondia. As2O3 decreased the levels of p-Akt (Ser473), p-Akt (Thr308) and p-GSK-3β (Ser9), suggesting that As2O3 inactivated Akt kinase. In addition, LY294002 (a PI3 kinase inhibitor) augmented the apoptosis induced by As2O3. These results demonstrated that inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling was involved in As2O3-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24482137

  15. Ochratoxin a inhibits mouse embryonic development by activating a mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Chan, Wen-Hsiung; Yu, Jau-Song

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin found in many foods worldwide, causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects exerted by OTA on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, on subsequent embryonic attachment, on outgrowth in vitro, and following in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated with or without OTA (1, 5, or 10 μM) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated using dual differential staining; apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay; and embryo implantation and post-implantation development were assessed by examination of in vitro growth and the outcome of in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 10 μM OTA displayed a significantly increased level of apoptosis and a reduction in total cell number. Interestingly, we observed no marked difference in implantation success rate between OTA-pretreated and control blastocysts either during in vitro embryonic development (following implantation in a fibronectin-coated culture dish) or after in vivo embryo transfer. However, in vitro treatment with 10 μM OTA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos by the mouse uterus, and decreased fetal weight upon embryo transfer. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to OTA triggers apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development after transfer of embryos to host mice. In addition, OTA induces apoptosis-mediated injury of mouse blastocysts, via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and promotes mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling processes that impair subsequent embryonic development. PMID:23296271

  16. LIGHT/IFN-γ triggers β cells apoptosis via NF-κB/Bcl2-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan-You; Cao, Zhao-Hui; Hu, Xiao-Bo; Li, Gui-Qing; Dong, Shi-Fang; Xu, Gui-Lian; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-10-01

    LIGHT recruits and activates naive T cells in the islets at the onset of diabetes. IFN-γ secreted by activated T lymphocytes is involved in beta cell apoptosis. However, whether LIGHT sensitizes IFNγ-induced beta cells destruction remains unclear. In this study, we used the murine beta cell line MIN6 and primary islet cells as models for investigating the underlying cellular mechanisms involved in LIGHT/IFNγ - induced pancreatic beta cell destruction. LIGHT and IFN-γ synergistically reduced MIN6 and primary islet cells viability; decreased cell viability was due to apoptosis, as demonstrated by a significant increase in Annexin V(+) cell percentage, detected by flow cytometry. In addition to marked increases in cytochrome c release and NF-κB activation, the combination of LIGHT and IFN-γ caused an obvious decrease in expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but an increase in expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax in MIN6 cells. Accordingly, LIGHT deficiency led to a decrease in NF-κB activation and Bak expression, and peri-insulitis in non-obese diabetes mice. Inhibition of NF-κB activation with the specific NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), reversed Bcl-xL down-regulation and Bax up-regulation, and led to a significant increase in LIGHT- and IFN-γ-treated cell viability. Moreover, cleaved caspase-9, -3, and PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) were observed after LIGHT and IFN-γ treatment. Pretreatment with caspase inhibitors remarkably attenuated LIGHT- and IFNγ-induced cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicate that LIGHT signalling pathway combined with IFN-γ induces beta cells apoptosis via an NF-κB/Bcl2-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  17. Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission via MiD49/51 is essential for apoptotic cristae remodeling.

    PubMed

    Otera, Hidenori; Miyata, Non; Kuge, Osamu; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2016-02-29

    Mitochondrial fission facilitates cytochrome c release from the intracristae space into the cytoplasm during intrinsic apoptosis, although how the mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 and its mitochondrial receptors Mff, MiD49, and MiD51 are involved in this reaction remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the functional division of these receptors with their knockout (KO) cell lines. In marked contrast to Mff-KO cells, MiD49/MiD51-KO and Drp1-KO cells completely resisted cristae remodeling and cytochrome c release during apoptosis. This phenotype in MiD49/51-KO cells, but not Drp1-KO cells, was completely abolished by treatments disrupting cristae structure such as OPA1 depletion. Unexpectedly, OPA1 oligomers generally thought to resist cytochrome c release by stabilizing the cristae structure were similarly disassembled in Drp1-KO and MiD49/51-KO cells, indicating that disassembly of OPA1 oligomers is not directly linked to cristae remodeling for cytochrome c release. Together, these results indicate that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission through MiD49/MiD51 regulates cristae remodeling during intrinsic apoptosis.

  18. Yeast as a tool to study signaling pathways in mitochondrial stress response and cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Zdralević, Maša; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Antonacci, Lucia; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cell homeostasis results from the balance between cell capability to adapt or succumb to environmental stress. Mitochondria, in addition to supplying cellular energy, are involved in a range of processes deciding about cellular life or death. The crucial role of mitochondria in cell death is well recognized. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the death process and the onset of numerous diseases. Yet, mitochondrial involvement in cellular adaptation to stress is still largely unexplored. Strong interest exists in pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial metabolism and signaling. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a valuable model organism in which several intracellular processes have been characterized in great detail, including the retrograde response to mitochondrial dysfunction and, more recently, programmed cell death. In this paper we review experimental evidences of mitochondrial involvement in cytoprotection and propose yeast as a model system to investigate the role of mitochondria in the cross-talk between prosurvival and prodeath pathways. PMID:22454613

  19. Yeast as a Tool to Study Signaling Pathways in Mitochondrial Stress Response and Cytoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Ždralević, Maša; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Antonacci, Lucia; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cell homeostasis results from the balance between cell capability to adapt or succumb to environmental stress. Mitochondria, in addition to supplying cellular energy, are involved in a range of processes deciding about cellular life or death. The crucial role of mitochondria in cell death is well recognized. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the death process and the onset of numerous diseases. Yet, mitochondrial involvement in cellular adaptation to stress is still largely unexplored. Strong interest exists in pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial metabolism and signaling. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a valuable model organism in which several intracellular processes have been characterized in great detail, including the retrograde response to mitochondrial dysfunction and, more recently, programmed cell death. In this paper we review experimental evidences of mitochondrial involvement in cytoprotection and propose yeast as a model system to investigate the role of mitochondria in the cross-talk between prosurvival and prodeath pathways. PMID:22454613

  20. Mammalian apoptotic signalling pathways: multiple targets of protozoan parasites to activate or deactivate host cell death.

    PubMed

    Graumann, Kristin; Hippe, Diana; Gross, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten G K

    2009-11-01

    Programmed cell death is an essential mechanism of the host to combat infectious agents and to regulate immunity during infection. Consequently, activation and deactivation of the hosts' cell death pathways by protozoan parasites play critical roles in parasite control, pathogenesis, immune evasion and parasite dissemination within the host. Here, we discuss advances in the understanding of these fascinating host-parasite interactions with special emphasis on how protozoa can modulate the cell death apparatus of its host.

  1. The miR-204-3p-targeted IGFBP2 pathway is involved in xanthohumol-induced glioma cell apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Hsu; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Shih, Chwen-Ming; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Ann-Jeng; Ho, Kuo-Hao; Chen, Ku-Chung

    2016-11-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone extracted from hop plant Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), has potential for cancer therapy, including gliomas. Micro (mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression. Several miRNAs have been identified to participate in regulating glioma development. However, no studies have demonstrated whether miRNA is involved in XN cytotoxicity resulting in glioma cell death. This study investigated the effects of XN-mediated miRNA expression in activating apoptotic pathways in glioblastoma U87 MG cells. First, we found that XN significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis via pro-caspase-3/8 cleavage and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation. We also identified that pro-caspase-9 cleavage, Bcl2 family expression changes, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intracellular ROS generation also participated in XN-induced glioma cell death. With a microarray analysis, miR-204-3p was identified as the most upregulated miRNA induced by XN cytotoxicity. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos pathway was validated to participate in XN-upregulated miR-204-3p expression. With a promoter assay and ChIP analysis, we found that c-Fos dose-dependently bound to the miR-204-3p gene promoter region. Furthermore, miR-204-3p levels decreased in several glioma cell lines compared to astrocytes. Overexpression of miR-204-3p enhanced glioma cell apoptosis. IGFBP2, an upregulated regulator of glioma proliferation, was validated by a TCGA analysis as a direct target gene of miR-204-3p. XN's inhibition of the IGFBP2/AKT/Bcl2 pathway via miR-204-3p targeting played a critical role in mediating glioma cell death. These results emphasized that the XN-mediated miR-204-3p network may provide novel therapeutic strategies for future glioblastoma therapy and drug development.

  2. The miR-204-3p-targeted IGFBP2 pathway is involved in xanthohumol-induced glioma cell apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Hsu; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Shih, Chwen-Ming; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Ann-Jeng; Ho, Kuo-Hao; Chen, Ku-Chung

    2016-11-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone extracted from hop plant Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), has potential for cancer therapy, including gliomas. Micro (mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression. Several miRNAs have been identified to participate in regulating glioma development. However, no studies have demonstrated whether miRNA is involved in XN cytotoxicity resulting in glioma cell death. This study investigated the effects of XN-mediated miRNA expression in activating apoptotic pathways in glioblastoma U87 MG cells. First, we found that XN significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis via pro-caspase-3/8 cleavage and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation. We also identified that pro-caspase-9 cleavage, Bcl2 family expression changes, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intracellular ROS generation also participated in XN-induced glioma cell death. With a microarray analysis, miR-204-3p was identified as the most upregulated miRNA induced by XN cytotoxicity. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos pathway was validated to participate in XN-upregulated miR-204-3p expression. With a promoter assay and ChIP analysis, we found that c-Fos dose-dependently bound to the miR-204-3p gene promoter region. Furthermore, miR-204-3p levels decreased in several glioma cell lines compared to astrocytes. Overexpression of miR-204-3p enhanced glioma cell apoptosis. IGFBP2, an upregulated regulator of glioma proliferation, was validated by a TCGA analysis as a direct target gene of miR-204-3p. XN's inhibition of the IGFBP2/AKT/Bcl2 pathway via miR-204-3p targeting played a critical role in mediating glioma cell death. These results emphasized that the XN-mediated miR-204-3p network may provide novel therapeutic strategies for future glioblastoma therapy and drug development. PMID:27487563

  3. Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types in a rat model of critical illness myopathy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Benjamin T; Confides, Amy L; Rich, Mark M; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2015-06-01

    Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40-60% of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and -8 activities, but not caspase-9 and -12, were elevated in TA and not in soleus muscle, while the caspase-independent proteins endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were not changed in abundance nor differentially localized in either muscle. Anti-apoptotic proteins HSP70, -27, and apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain (ARC) were elevated in soleus compared to TA muscle and ARC was significantly decreased with induction of DSIM in soleus. Results indicate that apoptosis is a significant process associated with DSIM in both soleus and TA muscles, and that apoptosis-associated processes are differentially regulated in muscles of different function and fiber type undergoing atrophy due to DSIM. We conclude that interventions combating apoptosis with CIM may need to be directed towards inhibiting caspase-dependent as well as -independent mechanisms to be able to affect muscles of all fiber types.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organic aciduria in five patients carrying mutations in the Ras-MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kleefstra, Tjitske; Wortmann, Saskia B; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Noordam, Cees; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Nillesen, Willy M; Hollody, Katalin; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabrielle; Lammens, Martin; Smeitink, Jan A M; van der Burgt, Ineke; Morava, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Various syndromes of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, including the Noonan, Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous, LEOPARD and Costello syndromes, share the common features of craniofacial dysmorphisms, heart defect and short stature. In a subgroup of patients, severe muscle hypotonia, central nervous system involvement and failure to thrive occur as well. In this study we report on five children diagnosed initially with classic metabolic and clinical symptoms of an oxidative phosphorylation disorder. Later in the course of the disease, the children presented with characteristic features of Ras-MAPK pathway-related syndromes, leading to the reevaluation of the initial diagnosis. In the five patients, in addition to the oxidative phosphorylation disorder, disease-causing mutations were detected in the Ras-MAPK pathway. Three of the patients also carried a second, mitochondrial genetic alteration, which was asymptomatically present in their healthy relatives. Did we miss the correct diagnosis in the first place or is mitochondrial dysfunction directly related to Ras-MAPK pathway defects? The Ras-MAPK pathway is known to have various targets, including proteins in the mitochondrial membrane influencing mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. Prospective screening of 18 patients with various Ras-MAPK pathway defects detected biochemical signs of disturbed oxidative phosphorylation in three additional children. We concluded that only a specific, metabolically vulnerable sub-population of patients with Ras-MAPK pathway mutations presents with mitochondrial dysfunction and a more severe, early-onset disease. We postulate that patients with Ras-MAPK mutations have an increased susceptibility, but a second metabolic hit is needed to cause the clinical manifestation of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21063443

  5. Mitochondrial Regulatory Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Adiele, Reginald C; Adiele, Chiedukam A

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative brain disorder with progressive cognitive decline that leads to terminal dementia and death. For decades, amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) aggregation hypotheses have dominated studies on the pathogenesis and identification of potential therapeutic targets in AD. Little attention has been paid to the mitochondrial molecular/biochemical pathways leading to AD. Mitochondria play a critical role in cell viability and death including neurons and neuroglia, not only because they regulate energy and oxygen metabolism but also because they regulate cell death pathways. Mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. Interestingly, current therapeutics provide symptomatic benefits to AD patients resulting in the use of preventive trials on presymptomatic subjects. This review article elucidates the pathophysiology of AD and emphasizes the need to explore the mitochondrial pathways to provide solutions to unanswered questions in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:27392851

  6. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM).

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel O; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated.

  7. Intracellular Acidosis Promotes Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway: Role of EMMPRIN Down-regulation via Specific Single-chain Fv Intrabody.

    PubMed

    Thammasit, Patcharin; Sangboonruang, Sirikwan; Suwanpairoj, Supattara; Khamaikawin, Wannisa; Intasai, Nutjeera; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a human leukocyte surface molecule that is enriched on the surface of many cancer cells, and it plays an important role in proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we utilized the chimeric adenoviral vector Ad5/F35 carrying gene encoding scFv against EMMPRIN (scFv-M6-1B9) to down-regulate EMMPRIN cell surface expression and investigated programmed cell death response in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell, Caco-2. The scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody exhibits robust activity in reducing EMMPRIN cell surface expression. This approach led to the inducing of apoptosis, which was relative to the increasing of apoptotic bodies in sub-G1 peak, phosphatidylserine externalization, as well as TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that apoptosis was enhanced through the mitochondrial pathway, a marked reduction of Bcl-2, leading to the translocation of cytochrome c and also the dramatic activation of caspase-3. Moreover, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a tumor marker for CRC, was found to have significantly diminished in both secreted protein and mRNA levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that EMMPRIN down-regulation by scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody has great potential in enhancing the efficacy of apoptosis induction through the mitochondrial pathway and in effecting a decline in the CEA level. Thus, its benefits could be applied to project the future prospects for targeted gene therapy and therapeutic application in monitoring colorectal cancer.

  8. Intracellular Acidosis Promotes Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway: Role of EMMPRIN Down-regulation via Specific Single-chain Fv Intrabody

    PubMed Central

    Thammasit, Patcharin; Sangboonruang, Sirikwan; Suwanpairoj, Supattara; Khamaikawin, Wannisa; Intasai, Nutjeera; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a human leukocyte surface molecule that is enriched on the surface of many cancer cells, and it plays an important role in proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we utilized the chimeric adenoviral vector Ad5/F35 carrying gene encoding scFv against EMMPRIN (scFv-M6-1B9) to down-regulate EMMPRIN cell surface expression and investigated programmed cell death response in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell, Caco-2. The scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody exhibits robust activity in reducing EMMPRIN cell surface expression. This approach led to the inducing of apoptosis, which was relative to the increasing of apoptotic bodies in sub-G1 peak, phosphatidylserine externalization, as well as TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that apoptosis was enhanced through the mitochondrial pathway, a marked reduction of Bcl-2, leading to the translocation of cytochrome c and also the dramatic activation of caspase-3. Moreover, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a tumor marker for CRC, was found to have significantly diminished in both secreted protein and mRNA levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that EMMPRIN down-regulation by scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody has great potential in enhancing the efficacy of apoptosis induction through the mitochondrial pathway and in effecting a decline in the CEA level. Thus, its benefits could be applied to project the future prospects for targeted gene therapy and therapeutic application in monitoring colorectal cancer. PMID:25663946

  9. The anti-apoptotic form of tyrosine kinase Lyn that is generated by proteolysis is degraded by the N-end rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Eldeeb, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of apoptotic pathways results in the caspase cleavage of the Lyn tyrosine kinase to generate the N-terminal truncated LynΔN. This LynΔN fragment has been demonstrated to exert negative feedback on imatinib induced apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells. Our investigations focus on LynΔN stability and how reduced stability reduces imatinib resistance. As the proteolytical generated LynΔN has a leucine as an N-terminal amino acid, we hypothesized that LynΔN would be degraded by the N-end rule pathway. We demonstrated that LynΔN is unstable and that its stability is dependent on the identity of its N-terminus. Additionally we established that LynΔN degradation could be inhibited by either inhibiting the proteasome or knocking down the UBR1 and UBR2 ubiquitin E3 ligases. Importantly, we also demonstrate that LynΔN degradation by the N-end rule counters the imatinib resistance of K562 cells provided by LynΔN expression. Together our data suggest a possible mechanism for the N-end rule pathway having a link to imatinib resistance in CML. With LynΔN being an N-end rule substrate, it provides the first example that this pathway can also provide a pro-apoptotic function as previous reports have currently only demonstrated anti-apoptotic roles for the N-end rule pathway. PMID:24798867

  10. The anti-apoptotic form of tyrosine kinase Lyn that is generated by proteolysis is degraded by the N-end rule pathway.

    PubMed

    Eldeeb, Mohamed A; Fahlman, Richard P

    2014-05-15

    The activation of apoptotic pathways results in the caspase cleavage of the Lyn tyrosine kinase to generate the N-terminal truncated LynΔN. This LynΔN fragment has been demonstrated to exert negative feedback on imatinib induced apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells. Our investigations focus on LynΔN stability and how reduced stability reduces imatinib resistance. As the proteolytical generated LynΔN has a leucine as an N-terminal amino acid, we hypothesized that LynΔN would be degraded by the N-end rule pathway. We demonstrated that LynΔN is unstable and that its stability is dependent on the identity of its N-terminus. Additionally we established that LynΔN degradation could be inhibited by inhibiting either the proteasome or knocking down the UBR1 and UBR2 ubiquitin E3 ligases. Importantly, we also demonstrate that LynΔN degradation by the N-end rule counters the imatinib resistance of K562 cells provided by LynΔN expression. Together our data suggest a possible mechanism for the N-end rule pathway having a link to imatinib resistance in CML. With LynΔN being an N-end rule substrate, it provides the first example that this pathway can also provide a pro-apoptotic function as previous reports have currently only demonstrated anti-apoptotic roles for the N-end rule pathway.

  11. Increased longevity of some C. elegans mitochondrial mutants explained by activation of an alternative energy-producing pathway.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Marco; Park, Donha; Riddle, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans misc-1 gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier with a role in oxidative stress response. The knock-out mutant has no lifespan phenotype and fails to upregulate the gei-7-mediated glyoxylate shunt, an extra-mitochondrial pathway of energy production. We show that gei-7 is required for the longevity of the mitochondrial mutant clk-1. Our data suggest that only mitochondrial mutants that upregulate gei-7 can achieve longevity.

  12. Cytotoxicity Mediated by the Fas Ligand (FasL)-activated Apoptotic Pathway in Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mazar, Julia; Thomas, Molly; Bezrukov, Ludmila; Chanturia, Alexander; Pekkurnaz, Gulcin; Yin, Shurong; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Robey, Pamela G.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Whereas it is now clear that human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can be immunosuppressive and escape cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro and in vivo, the mechanisms of this phenomenon remain controversial. Here, we test the hypothesis that BMSCs suppress immune responses by Fas-mediated apoptosis of activated lymphocytes and find both Fas and FasL expression by primary BMSCs. Jurkat cells or activated lymphocytes were each killed by BMSCs after 72 h of co-incubation. In comparison, the cytotoxic effect of BMSCs on non-activated lymphocytes and on caspase-8(−/−) Jurkat cells was extremely low. Fas/Fc fusion protein strongly inhibited BMSC-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. Although we detected a high level of Fas expression in BMSCs, stimulation of Fas with anti-Fas antibody did not result in the expected BMSC apoptosis, regardless of concentration, suggesting a disruption of the Fas activation pathway. Thus BMSCs may have an endogenous mechanism to evade Fas-mediated apoptosis. Cumulatively, these data provide a parallel between adult stem/progenitor cells and cancer cells, consistent with the idea that stem/progenitor cells can use FasL to prevent lymphocyte attack by inducing lymphocyte apoptosis during the regeneration of injured tissues. PMID:19531476

  13. A yeast BH3-only protein mediates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Sabrina; Ruli, Doris; Vögtle, F-Nora; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Moitzi, Barbara; Eisenberg, Tobias; Kepp, Oliver; Habernig, Lukas; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Laun, Peter; Breitenbach, Michael; Khoury, Chamel; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Rechberger, Gerald; Meisinger, Chris; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization is a watershed event in the process of apoptosis, which is tightly regulated by a series of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins belonging to the BCL-2 family, each characteristically possessing a BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3). Here, we identify a yeast protein (Ybh3p) that interacts with BCL-XL and harbours a functional BH3 domain. Upon lethal insult, Ybh3p translocates to mitochondria and triggers BH3 domain-dependent apoptosis. Ybh3p induces cell death and disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential via the mitochondrial phosphate carrier Mir1p. Deletion of Mir1p and depletion of its human orthologue (SLC25A3/PHC) abolish stress-induced mitochondrial targeting of Ybh3p in yeast and that of BAX in human cells, respectively. Yeast cells lacking YBH3 display prolonged chronological and replicative lifespans and resistance to apoptosis induction. Thus, the yeast genome encodes a functional BH3 domain that induces cell death through phylogenetically conserved mechanisms. PMID:21673659

  14. Apoptotic effect of gambogic acid in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells via suppression of the NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEN-YUE; WU, XU; LIAO, CHENG-QUAN; SHEN, JIE; LI, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive investigations of therapeutic improvements for surgical techniques, chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, and the prognosis for patients with advanced ESCC remains poor. Therefore, effective therapies are urgently required in order to improve the prognosis of patients with ESCC. TE-1 cells were treated with gambogic acid (GA), and then subjected to western blot analysis, TUNEL assay and caspase activity analysis. GA significantly induced apoptosis in ESCC TE-1 cells. In addition, the antitumor activity of GA was accompanied by the decreased expression of phosphorylated-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB). The inhibition of protein kinase B (AKT) and NF-κB activation by chemical inhibitors augmented the apoptotic effect responses to GA in the TE-1 cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk (zVAD) decreased GA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, zVAD attenuated GA-induced growth inhibition in TE-1 cells. GA induced apoptosis in ESCC TE-1 via suppression of NF-κB pathway. The findings of the present study may provide a novel insight into ESCC treatment. PMID:27284372

  15. Oxaliplatin-chitosan nanoparticles induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway: a "smart" drug delivery system to breast cancer cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Raju; Thangam, Ramar; Nipunbabu, Varukattu; Ponraj, Thondhi; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-04-01

    This study was to investigate "smart" pH-responsive drug delivery system (DDS) based on chitosan nano-carrier for its potential intelligent controlled release and enhancing chemotherapeutic efficiency of Oxalipaltin. Oxaliplatin was loaded onto chitosan by forming complexes with degradable to construct nano-carrier as a DDS. Oxaliplatin was released from the DDS much more rapidly at pH 4.5 than at pH 7.4, which is a desirable characteristic for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Furthermore, the possible intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway was explored by Western blot. It was found that expression of Bax, Bik, cytochrome C, caspase-9 and -3 was significantly up-regulated while the Bcl-2 and Survivin were inhibited in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. For instance, nanoparticles inducing apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner indicate that chitosan nanoparticles could act as an efficient DDS importing Oxalipaltin to target cancer cells. These approaches suggest that "smart" Oxaliplatin delivery strategy is a promising approach to cancer therapy.

  16. Resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury by inhibiting death receptor‑mediated apoptotic pathways in a cisplatin‑induced rat model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiufa; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhen, Junhui; Feng, Jinbo; Song, Chun; Jiang, Bei; Hu, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of renal function and acute tubular necrosis. Resveratrol exerts a wide range of pharmacological effects based on its anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. The present study aimed to evaluate whether resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury in a cisplatin‑induced rat model and to investigate the potential mechanisms involved. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control, cisplatin, resveratrol, and cisplatin plus resveratrol. Rats exposed to cisplatin displayed acute kidney injury, identified by analysis of renal function and histopathological observation. Resveratrol significantly ameliorated the increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal index and histopathological damage induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, compared with untreated control animals, cisplatin lead to significantly increased expression of Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), caspase‑8 and Bcl‑2 associated protein X apoptosis regulator (Bax), and decreased expression of anti‑apoptosis regulators, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) and B cell lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2). Administration of resveratrol significantly reversed the cisplatin‑induced alteration in these apoptosis‑associated proteins. In conclusion, these findings suggest that resveratrol attenuates cisplatin‑induced acute kidney injury through inactivation of the death receptor‑mediated apoptotic pathway, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the process of acute kidney injury. PMID:27600998

  17. Resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury by inhibiting death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways in a cisplatin-induced rat model

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qiufa; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhen, Junhui; Feng, Jinbo; Song, Chun; Jiang, Bei; Hu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of renal function and acute tubular necrosis. Resveratrol exerts a wide range of pharmacological effects based on its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. The present study aimed to evaluate whether resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury in a cisplatin-induced rat model and to investigate the potential mechanisms involved. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: Control, cisplatin, resveratrol, and cisplatin plus resveratrol. Rats exposed to cisplatin displayed acute kidney injury, identified by analysis of renal function and histopathological observation. Resveratrol significantly ameliorated the increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal index and histopathological damage induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, compared with untreated control animals, cisplatin lead to significantly increased expression of Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase-8 and Bcl-2 associated protein X apoptosis regulator (Bax), and decreased expression of anti-apoptosis regulators, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) and B cell lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl-2). Administration of resveratrol significantly reversed the cisplatin-induced alteration in these apoptosis-associated proteins. In conclusion, these findings suggest that resveratrol attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury through inactivation of the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the process of acute kidney injury. PMID:27600998

  18. Raf/MAPK and rapamycin-sensitive pathways mediate the anti-apoptotic function of p21Ras in IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, T; Shirouzu, M; Kamiya, A; Hashimoto, K; Yokoyama, S; Miyajima, A

    1997-08-01

    The Ras signal transduction pathway is activated by a number of hematopoietic cytokines and is implicated in the prevention of apoptotic death in hematopoietic cells. Recent studies have provided evidence that the downstream of Ras is highly divergent and several independent pathways appear to mediate distinct biological functions of Ras. In the present study, we investigated the downstream pathway(s) of Ras responsible for the maintenance of hematopoietic cell survival by using various mutants of signaling molecules. Activation of the Raf/MAPK pathway in interleukin (IL) 3-dependent cells by expression of an oncogenic Raf or a Ras mutant (G12V/T35S) prevented apoptosis following IL-3 deprivation. In contrast, another Ras mutant (G12V/V45E), which is apparently incapable of activating MAPK, efficiently blocked apoptosis as well. It is therefore likely that the activation of the Raf/MAPK pathway is not an absolute requirement for the prevention of apoptosis, and there appears to be a Raf/MAPK-independent pathway that contributes to hematopoietic cell survival. Since Ras(G12V/V45E) was able to cause the phosphorylation of p70/S6 kinase, we inhibited the S6 kinase pathway by rapamycin and by wortmannin, and found that the anti-apoptotic function of Ras(G12V/V45E), but not of Ras(G12V), was critically influenced by both inhibitors. These results indicate that the Raf/MAPK and a rapamycin/wortmannin-sensitive pathways mediate Ras function to prevent apoptotic death in hematopoietic cells.

  19. PI3K inhibitors prime neuroblastoma cells for chemotherapy by shifting the balance towards pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and enhanced mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bender, A; Opel, D; Naumann, I; Kappler, R; Friedman, L; von Schweinitz, D; Debatin, K-M; Fulda, S

    2011-01-27

    We recently identified activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt as a novel predictor of poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the effect of small-molecule PI3K inhibitors on chemosensitivity. We provide first evidence that PI3K inhibitors, for example PI103, synergize with various chemotherapeutics (Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Topotecan, Cisplatin, Vincristine and Taxol) to trigger apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells (combination index: high synergy). Mechanistic studies reveal that PI103 cooperates with Doxorubicin to reduce Mcl-1 expression and Bim(EL) phosphorylation and to upregulate Noxa and Bim(EL) levels. This shifted ratio of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins results in increased Bax/Bak conformational change, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase activation and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Although Mcl-1 knockdown enhances Doxorubicin- and PI103-induced apoptosis, silencing of Noxa, Bax/Bak or p53 reduces apoptosis, underscoring the functional relevance of the Doxorubicin- and PI103-mediated modulation of these proteins for chemosensitization. Bcl-2 overexpression inhibits Bax activation, mitochondrial perturbations, cleavage of caspases and Bid, and apoptosis, confirming the central role of the mitochondrial pathway for chemosensitization. Interestingly, the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk does not interfere with Bax activation or mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, whereas it blocks caspase activation and apoptosis, thus placing mitochondrial events upstream of caspase activation. Importantly, PI103 and Doxorubicin cooperate to induce apoptosis and to suppress tumor growth in patients' derived primary neuroblastoma cells and in an in vivo neuroblastoma model, underlining the clinical relevance of the results. Thus, targeting PI3K presents a novel and promising strategy to sensitize neuroblastoma cells for chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, which has important implications for the

  20. Helium-based cold atmospheric plasma-induced reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic pathway attenuated by platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Paras; Rehman, Mati Ur; Zhao, Qing Li; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Plasma is generated by ionizing gas molecules. Helium (He)-based cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was generated using a high-voltage power supply with low-frequency excitation (60 Hz at 7 kV) and He flow at 2 l/min. Platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) are potent antioxidants due to their unique ability to scavenge superoxides and peroxides. These features make them useful for the protection against oxidative stress-associated pathologies. Here, the effects of Pt-NPs on He-CAP-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanism were examined in human lymphoma U937 cells. Apoptosis was measured after cells were exposed to He-CAP in the presence or absence of Pt-NPs. The effects of combined treatment were determined by observing the changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and both mitochondrial and Fas dependent pathway. The results indicate that Pt-NPs substantially scavenge He-CAP-induced superoxides and peroxides and inhibit all the pathways involved in apoptosis execution. This might be because of the SOD/catalase mimetic effects of Pt-NPs. These results showed that the Pt-NPs can induce He-CAP desensitization in human lymphoma U937 cells.

  1. Helium-based cold atmospheric plasma-induced reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic pathway attenuated by platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Paras; Rehman, Mati Ur; Zhao, Qing Li; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Plasma is generated by ionizing gas molecules. Helium (He)-based cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was generated using a high-voltage power supply with low-frequency excitation (60 Hz at 7 kV) and He flow at 2 l/min. Platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) are potent antioxidants due to their unique ability to scavenge superoxides and peroxides. These features make them useful for the protection against oxidative stress-associated pathologies. Here, the effects of Pt-NPs on He-CAP-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanism were examined in human lymphoma U937 cells. Apoptosis was measured after cells were exposed to He-CAP in the presence or absence of Pt-NPs. The effects of combined treatment were determined by observing the changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and both mitochondrial and Fas dependent pathway. The results indicate that Pt-NPs substantially scavenge He-CAP-induced superoxides and peroxides and inhibit all the pathways involved in apoptosis execution. This might be because of the SOD/catalase mimetic effects of Pt-NPs. These results showed that the Pt-NPs can induce He-CAP desensitization in human lymphoma U937 cells. PMID:27256594

  2. Photodynamic therapy activated STAT3 associated pathways: Targeting intrinsic apoptotic pathways to increase PDT efficacy in human squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Xu, Chengshan; Li, Qiang; Mei, Zhusong; Li, Xinji; Cai, Hong; Liu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    5-Aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) has been used for part of squamous cell carcinoma (premalignant conditions or in situ cutaneous SCC-Bowen disease). However, mechanism of ALA-PDT is not fully understood yet on the cell apoptosis pathway. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effect and mechanism of 5-ALA-PDT on human squamous carcinoma A431cells. Apoptosis and cell viability after PDT were evaluated using Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit and MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data showed that 5-ALA-PDT significantly inhibited cell proliferation (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference when the photosensitizer reached to 4.8mM. The inhibition in cell proliferation after 5-ALA-PDT treatment was correlated to more cells being arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle (p<0.01). Immunocytochemical observations using anti-active caspase-3 antibodies showed active caspase-3 was translocated from cytoplasm to nuclear during apoptosis. STAT3 and its downstream gene Bax and BCL-2 were changed after 5-ALA-PDT treatment for the mRNA and protein expression. Our studies confirmed that 5-ALA-PDT might be an effective treatment for human squamous carcinoma by inhibiting the tumor cell A431growth and for the first time demonstrated that the expression of STAT3 was significantly reduced at 24h after 5-ALA-PDT treatment. PMID:26607555

  3. Cotreatment with Smac mimetics and demethylating agents induces both apoptotic and necroptotic cell death pathways in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Gerges, Steve; Rohde, Katharina; Fulda, Simone

    2016-05-28

    Treatment resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is often caused by defects in programmed cell death, e.g. by overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Here, we report that small-molecule Smac mimetics (i.e. BV6, LCL161, birinapant) that neutralize x-linked IAP (XIAP), cellular IAP (cIAP)1 and cIAP2 cooperate with demethylating agents (i.e. 5-azacytidine (5AC) or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC)) to induce cell death in ALL cells. Molecular studies reveal that induction of cell death is preceded by BV6-mediated depletion of cIAP1 protein and involves tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α autocrine/paracrine signaling, since the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel significantly reduces BV6/5AC-induced cell death. While BV6/5AC cotreatment induces caspase-3 activation, the broad-range caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) only partly rescues ALL cells from BV6/5AC-induced cell death. This indicates that BV6/5AC cotreatment engages non-apoptotic cell death upon caspase inhibition. Indeed, genetic silencing of key components of necroptosis such as Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP)3 or mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) in parallel with administration of zVAD.fmk provides a significantly better protection against BV6/5AC-induced cell death compared to the use of zVAD.fmk alone. Similarly, concomitant administration of pharmacological inhibitors of necroptosis (i.e. necrostatin-1s, GSK'872, dabrafenib, NSA) together with zVAD.fmk is superior in rescuing cells from BV6/5AC-induced cell death compared to the use of zVAD.fmk alone. These findings demonstrate that in ALL cells BV6/5AC-induced cell death is mediated via both apoptotic and necroptotic pathways. Importantly, BV6/5AC cotreatment triggers necroptosis in ALL cells that are resistant to apoptosis due to caspase inhibition. This opens new perspectives to overcome apoptosis resistance with important implications for the development of new treatment strategies

  4. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Gui-Fen; Chen, Shi-Yao; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng; Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing; Song, Dong-Li

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis

  5. Isoledene from Mesua ferrea oleo-gum resin induces apoptosis in HCT 116 cells through ROS-mediated modulation of multiple proteins in the apoptotic pathways: A mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Shafaei, Armaghan; Jafari, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Mohamed, Shazmin Kithur; Ezzat, Mohammed Oday; Abdul Majid, Aman Shah; Oon, Chern Ein; Petersen, Sven H; Kono, Koji; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah

    2016-08-22

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human malignant tumors worldwide. Arising from the transformation of epithelial cells in the colon and/or rectum into malignant cells, the foundation of CRC pathogenesis lies in the progressive accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, such as KRAS and APC. Resistance to apoptosis is one of the key mechanisms in the development of CRC as it is for any other kind of cancer. Natural products have been shown to induce the expression of apoptosis regulators that are blocked in cancer cells. In the present study, a series of in vitro assays were employed to study the apoptosis-inducing attributes of Isoledene rich sub-fraction (IR-SF) collected from the oleo-gum resin of M. ferrea. Data obtained, showed that IR-SF inhibited cell proliferation and induced typical apoptotic changes in the overall morphology of all the CRC cell lines tested. Fluorescent staining assays revealed characteristic nuclear condensation, and marked decrease in mitochondrial outer membrane potential in the treated cells. In addition, an increment in the levels of ROS, caspase-8, -9 and -3 was observed. Proteomic analysis revealed that IR-SF up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, i.e., Bid, Bim and cytochrome c. Cytochrome c in turn activated caspases cascade resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, IR-SF significantly down-regulated Bcl-2, Bcl-w, survivin, xIAP and HSPs pro-survival proteins and induced DNA fragmentation and G0/G1-phase arrest in HCT 116 cells. Chemical characterization of IR-SF by GC-MS and HPLC methods identified Isoledene as one of the major compounds. Altogether, results of the present study demonstrate that IR-SF may induce apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells through activation of ROS-mediated apoptotic pathways. PMID:27268964

  6. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario

    PubMed Central

    Arrázola, Macarena S.; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as “mitochondrial dynamics” is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:25999816

  7. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as "mitochondrial dynamics" is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

  8. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as "mitochondrial dynamics" is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:25999816

  9. Gambogic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits colorectal tumor growth via mitochondrial pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guang-Ming; Sun, Yu; Ge, Xin; Wan, Xin; Li, Chun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    of pro-caspase-8, -9 and -3 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 for all). Furthermore, GA significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 tumors in a mouse xenograft model (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GA inhibits HT-29 proliferation via induction of apoptosis. The anti-cancer effects are likely mediated by death receptor (extrinsic) and mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathways. PMID:26034354

  10. The Infertility of Repeat-Breeder Cows During Summer Is Associated with Decreased Mitochondrial DNA and Increased Expression of Mitochondrial and Apoptotic Genes in Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto; Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-03-01

    Oocyte quality is known to be a major cause of infertility in repeat-breeder (RB) and heat-stressed dairy cows. However, the mechanisms by which RB oocytes become less capable of supporting embryo development remain largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the decreased oocyte competence of RB cows (RBs) during summer is associated with an altered gene expression profile and a decrease in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. Therefore, oocytes collected from heifers, non-RBs in peak lactation (PLs), and RBs were used to evaluate mtDNA amounts as well as the expression levels of genes associated with the mitochondria (MT-CO1, NRF1, POLG, POLG2, PPARGC1A, and TFAM), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2, and ITM2B), and oocyte maturation (BMP15, FGF8, FGF10, FGF16, FGF17, and GDF9). The oocytes retrieved from RBs during winter contained over eight times more mtDNA than those retrieved from RBs during summer. They also contained significantly less mtDNA than oocytes retrieved from heifers and PLs during summer. Moreover, the expression of mitochondria- (NRF1, POLG, POLG2, PPARGC1A, and TFAM) and apoptosis-related (BAX and ITM2B) genes, as well as of GDF9, in RB oocytes collected during summer was significantly greater than that in oocytes collected from heifers and PLs during the same season. In oocytes from heifers and PLs, the expression levels of these genes were lower in those collected during summer compared with winter, but this difference was not observed in oocytes collected from RBs. Altogether, these data provide evidence of altered gene expression and reduced mtDNA copy number in the oocytes collected from RBs during summer. This indicates a loss of fertility in RBs during summer, which might be caused by a possible mitochondrial dysfunction associated with a greater chance of oocytes to undergo apoptosis.

  11. The Infertility of Repeat-Breeder Cows During Summer Is Associated with Decreased Mitochondrial DNA and Increased Expression of Mitochondrial and Apoptotic Genes in Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto; Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-03-01

    Oocyte quality is known to be a major cause of infertility in repeat-breeder (RB) and heat-stressed dairy cows. However, the mechanisms by which RB oocytes become less capable of supporting embryo development remain largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the decreased oocyte competence of RB cows (RBs) during summer is associated with an altered gene expression profile and a decrease in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. Therefore, oocytes collected from heifers, non-RBs in peak lactation (PLs), and RBs were used to evaluate mtDNA amounts as well as the expression levels of genes associated with the mitochondria (MT-CO1, NRF1, POLG, POLG2, PPARGC1A, and TFAM), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2, and ITM2B), and oocyte maturation (BMP15, FGF8, FGF10, FGF16, FGF17, and GDF9). The oocytes retrieved from RBs during winter contained over eight times more mtDNA than those retrieved from RBs during summer. They also contained significantly less mtDNA than oocytes retrieved from heifers and PLs during summer. Moreover, the expression of mitochondria- (NRF1, POLG, POLG2, PPARGC1A, and TFAM) and apoptosis-related (BAX and ITM2B) genes, as well as of GDF9, in RB oocytes collected during summer was significantly greater than that in oocytes collected from heifers and PLs during the same season. In oocytes from heifers and PLs, the expression levels of these genes were lower in those collected during summer compared with winter, but this difference was not observed in oocytes collected from RBs. Altogether, these data provide evidence of altered gene expression and reduced mtDNA copy number in the oocytes collected from RBs during summer. This indicates a loss of fertility in RBs during summer, which might be caused by a possible mitochondrial dysfunction associated with a greater chance of oocytes to undergo apoptosis. PMID:26843447

  12. Tl(I) and Tl(III) activate both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanzel, Cecilia Eliana; Verstraeten, Sandra Viviana

    2009-04-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic metal though yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells exposure to thallous (Tl(I)) or thallic (Tl(III)) cations leads to mitochondrial damage and reduced cell viability. In the present work we comparatively characterized the possible pathways involved in Tl(I)- and Tl(III)- (10-100 {mu}M) mediated decrease in PC12 cells viability. We observed that these cations do not cause cell necrosis but significantly increased the number of cells with apoptotic features. Both cations lead to Bax oligomerization and caused apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (Endo G), and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, but they did not activate caspase dependent DNAse (CAD). Tl(I)- and Tl(III)-dependent caspases 9 and 3 activation followed similar kinetics, with maximal effects at 18 h of incubation. In addition, Tl(I) promoted phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Tl(III) induced 2- and 18-fold increase in Fas content and caspase 8 activity, respectively. Together, experimental results show that Tl(I) and Tl(III) induce PC12 cells apoptosis, although differential pathways are involved. While Tl(I)-mediated cell apoptosis was mainly associated with mitochondrial damage, Tl(III) showed a mixed effect triggering both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying Tl-induced loss of cell viability in PC12 cells.

  13. TSPO: functions and applications of a mitochondrial stress response pathway.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Michelangelo; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane protein TSPO (translocator protein) lies in a privileged position at the interface between mitochondrion and cytosol. Since the initially discovery, nearly forty years ago, it has generated major interest among various disciplines of modern experimental and applied biomedicine. The focused meeting we have organized aimed at summarizing the state of the art knowledge on TSPO and the discipline-based segregated concepts that have made this an exciting and active field of science. The scientists who have generously contributed the event have agreed to generate a special issue here published--stemmed from the discussion of the vent. This consists in a series of contributions via which the know-how is shared aiming to inspire current and future endeavours to validate and accelerate the impact of TSPO science in human pathophysiology and clinical applications.

  14. Emodin induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer hela cells via intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from the Rheum palmatum L. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of emodin on the apoptosis of the human cervical cancer line HeLa and to identify the mechanisms involved. Methods Relative cell viability was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with emodin. Cell apoptosis was detected with TUNEL, Hoechst 33342 staining and quantified with flow cytometry using annexin FITC-PI staining. Results The percentage of apoptotic cells was 0.8, 8.2, 22.1, and 43.7%, respectively. The mRNA levels of Caspase-9, -8 and −3 detected by Real-time PCR after treatment with emodin were significantly increased. Emodin increased the protein levels of Cytochome c, Apaf-1, Fas, FasL, and FADD but decreased the protein levels of Pro-caspase-9, Pro-caspase-8 and Pro-caspase-3. Conclusion We conclude that the emodin inhibited HeLa proliferation by inducing apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways. PMID:23866157

  15. E. adenophorum induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Splenocytes through the Mitochondrial Pathway and Caspase Activation in Saanen Goats

    PubMed Central

    He, Yajun; Mo, Quan; Hu, Yanchun; Chen, Weihong; Luo, Biao; Wu, Lei; Qiao, Yan; Xu, Ruiguang; Zhou, Yancheng; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; He, Wei; Wei, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    The precise cytotoxicity of E. Adenophorum in relation to the cell cycle and apoptosis of splenocytes in Saanen goats remains unclear. In the present study, 16 Saanen goats were randomly divided into four groups, which were fed on 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% E. adenophorum diets. The results of TUNEL, DAPI and AO/EB staining, flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation assays showed that E. adenophorum induced typical apoptotic features in splenocytes, suppressed splenocyte viability, and caused cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. However, westernblot, ELISA, qRT-PCR and caspase activity analyses showed that E. adenophoruminhibited Bcl-2 expression, promoted Bax translocation to the mitochondria, triggered the release of Cytc from the mitochondria into the cytosol, and activated caspase-9 and -3 and the subsequent cleavage of PARP. Moreover, in E. adenophorum-induced apoptosis, the protein levels of Fas, Bid, FasL and caspase-8 showed no significant changes. E. adenophorum treatment induced the collapse of ΔΨm. Moreover, these data suggested that E. adenophorum induces splenocyte apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in splenocytes. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of E. adenophorum cytotoxicity on splenocytes. PMID:26527166

  16. Perfluorooctanoic acid induces apoptosis through the p53-dependent mitochondrial pathway in human hepatic cells: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Zhang, Jie; Martin, Francis L; Peng, Siyuan; Tian, Meiping; Mu, Xiaoli; Shen, Heqing

    2013-11-25

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of the most commonly used perfluorinated compounds, and exposure to it has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in PFOA toxicity are still not well characterized. In the present study, flow cytometry analysis revealed that PFOA induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human non-tumor hepatic cells (L-02). Furthermore, we investigated the alterations in protein profile within L-02 cells exposed to PFOA, aiming to explore the mechanisms underlying PFOA hepatotoxicity on the proteome level. Of the 28 proteins showing significant differential expression in response to PFOA, 24 were down-regulated and 4 were up-regulated. This proteomic study proposed that the inhibition of some proteins, including GRP78, HSP27, CTSD and hnRNPC may be involved in the activation of p53, which consequently triggered the apoptotic process in L-02 cells. Induction of apoptosis via the p53-dependent mitochondrial pathway is further suggested as one of the key toxicological events occurring in L-02 cells under PFOA stress. We hope these data will shed new light on the molecular mechanisms responsible for PFOA-mediated toxicity in human liver cells, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of PFOA exposure could be developed.

  17. Deep hypothermia-enhanced autophagy protects PC12 cells against oxygen glucose deprivation via a mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dang; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yongjun; Pu, Jun; Long, Jiang; Xu, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Deep hypothermia is known for its organ-preservation properties, which is introduced into surgical operations on the brain and heart, providing both safety in stopping circulation as well as an attractive bloodless operative field. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been clearly identified. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of deep hypothermia on neural apoptosis and the potential mechanism of these effects in PC12 cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation. Deep hypothermia (18°C) was given to PC12 cells while the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induction for 1h. After 24h of reperfusion, the results showed that deep hypothermia decreased the neural apoptosis, and significantly suppressed overexpression of Bax, CytC, Caspase 3, Caspase 9 and cleaved PARP-1, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. While deep hypothermia increased the LC3II/LC3I and Beclin 1, an autophagy marker, which can be inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), indicating that deep hypothermia-enhanced autophagy ameliorated apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells subjected to OGD. Based on these findings we propose that deep hypothermia protects against neural apoptosis after the induction of OGD by attenuating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, moreover, the mechanism of these antiapoptosis effects is related to the enhancement of autophagy, which autophagy might provide a means of neuroprotection against OGD.

  18. A mitochondrial pathway for biosynthesis of lipid mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Jiang, Jianfei; Anthonymuthu, Tamil Selvan; Kapralova, Valentina I.; Vikulina, Anna S.; Jung, Mi-Yeon; Epperly, Michael W.; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Jackson, Travis C.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Vladimirov, Yury A.; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2014-06-01

    The central role of mitochondria in metabolic pathways and in cell-death mechanisms requires sophisticated signalling systems. Essential in this signalling process is an array of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the molecular machinery for the production of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids is localized in the cytosol and their biosynthesis has not been identified in mitochondria. Here we report that a range of diversified polyunsaturated molecular species derived from a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), is oxidized by the intermembrane-space haemoprotein, cytochrome c. We show that a number of oxygenated CL species undergo phospholipase A2-catalysed hydrolysis and thus generate multiple oxygenated fatty acids, including well-known lipid mediators. This represents a new biosynthetic pathway for lipid mediators. We demonstrate that this pathway, which includes the oxidation of polyunsaturated CLs and accumulation of their hydrolysis products (oxygenated linoleic, arachidonic acids and monolysocardiolipins), is activated in vivo after acute tissue injury.

  19. Translational Targeted Proteomics Profiling of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolic Pathways in Mouse and Human Samples.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Justina C; Ciapaite, Jolita; van Eunen, Karen; Niezen-Koning, Klary E; Matton, Alix; Porte, Robert J; Horvatovich, Peter; Bakker, Barbara M; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P

    2016-09-01

    Absolute measurements of protein abundance are important in the understanding of biological processes and the precise computational modeling of biological pathways. We developed targeted LC-MS/MS assays in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to quantify over 50 mitochondrial proteins in a single run. The targeted proteins cover the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Assays used isotopically labeled concatemers as internal standards designed to target murine mitochondrial proteins and their human orthologues. Most assays were also suitable to quantify the corresponding protein orthologues in rats. After exclusion of peptides that did not pass the selection criteria, we arrived at SRM assays for 55 mouse, 52 human, and 51 rat proteins. These assays were optimized in isolated mitochondrial fractions from mouse and rat liver and cultured human fibroblasts and in total liver extracts from mouse, rat, and human. The developed proteomics approach is suitable for the quantification of proteins in the mitochondrial energy metabolic pathways in mice, rats, and humans as a basis for translational research. Initial data show that the assays have great potential for elucidating the adaptive response of human patients to mutations in mitochondrial proteins in a clinical setting.

  20. Apoptotic Signaling in Mouse Odontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members. PMID:22204278

  1. Apoptotic signaling in mouse odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matalova, Eva; Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members.

  2. Downstream modulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's dementia in rats: Erythropoietin versus curcumin.

    PubMed

    Samy, Doaa M; Ismail, Cherine A; Nassra, Rasha A; Zeitoun, Teshreen M; Nomair, Azhar M

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietin and curcumin showed promising neuroprotective effects in various models of Alzheimer's dementia. This study was designed to compare the beneficial effects of erythropoietin and/or curcumin in intracerebro-ventricular (ICV) streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's like disease in rats. Rats received ICV injection of either saline (control, n=8 rats), or streptozotocin. Three weeks following surgery, streptozotocin-injected rats were assigned into 4 groups (8 rats each); vehicle, curcumin (80mg/kg/day, orally), erythropoietin (500 IU/kg every other day, intraperitoneally) and combined (curcumin and erythropoietin)-treated groups. After 3 months of treatment, rats were subjected to neurobehavioral testing, and then killed for biochemical and histological assessment of hippocampus. Fas ligand protein and caspase-8 activity as mediators of extrinsic apoptotic pathway, oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione) and β-amyloid (1-40 and 1-42) peptides were measured. The results showed that administration of erythropoietin suppressed extrinsic apoptosis better than curcumin, while curcumin was more effective in combating oxidative stress in ICV-streptozotocin injected rats. Both erythropoietin and curcumin treatments (individually or combined) equally reduced the hippocampal β-amyloid accumulation and improved cognitive impairment in Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks. The combined treatment was the most effective in ameliorating apoptosis and oxidative stress rather than behavioral responses or β-amyloid burden. In conclusion, ICV-streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's dementia activates hippocampal Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis, which could be reduced by erythropoietin and/or curcumin treatment. Curcumin supplementation alone could ameliorate cognitive deficits and reverse biochemical alterations in ICV-streptozotocin Alzheimer's rat model without the hazardous polycythemic effect of long-term erythropoietin injection.

  3. Molecular and Computational Studies on Apoptotic Pathway Regulator, Bcl-2 Gene from Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pragya; Khan, M J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a dreadful disease constituting abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant cells in the body. Next to lung cancer, breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women. The apoptotic pathway regulators, B cell lymphoma family of protein, play a key role in various malignancies defining cancer and their constitutive expression plays an integral role in breast cancer chemotherapy. The research work discusses the identification and molecular cloning of a B cell lymphoma like gene from human breast cancer cell line. The open reading frame of the gene consisted of 965 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 380 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 42.5 kilodalton. The predicted physiochemical properties of the gene were as follows: Isoelectric point - 9.49, molecular formula - C1893H3004N534O548S16, total number of negatively charged residues, (Aspartate+Glutamate) - 26, total number of positively charged residues, (Arginine+Lysine)-39, instability index-42.08 (unstable protein) and grand average of hydropathicity is -0.202. Additionally, phobius prediction suggested non-cytoplasmic localization of the putative protein. The presence of secondary structure in the protein was determined by Memsat program. A 3 dimensional protein homology model was generated using threading based method of protein modeling for structural and functional annotation of the putative protein. Future prospects accounts for the biochemical characterization of the enzyme including in vitro assays on breast cancer cell line would establish the functional characteristics of the protein and its physiological mechanisms in breast cancer development and its therapeutic-target role in future. PMID:27168686

  4. Nuclear export and mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum localization of IGF-binding protein 3 regulate its apoptotic properties

    PubMed Central

    Paharkova-Vatchkova, Vladislava; Lee, Kuk-Wha

    2011-01-01

    Tumor suppression by IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) may occur in an IGF-independent manner, in addition to its role as a regulator of IGF bioavailability. After secretion, IGFBP3 is internalized, rapidly localized to the nucleus, and is later detected in the cytoplasm. We identified a putative nuclear export sequence (NES) in IGFBP3 between amino acids 217 and 228, analogous to the leucine-rich NES sequence of p53 and HIV Rev. Mutation of the NES prevents nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of IGFBP3 and blocks its ability to induce apoptosis. Targeting of IGFBP3 to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was confirmed by co-localization with organelle markers using fluorescence confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation. Mitochondrial targeting was also demonstrated in vivo in IGFBP3-treated prostate cancer xenografts. These results show that IGFBP3 shuttles from the nucleus to the mitochondria and ER, and that nuclear export is essential for its effects on prostate cancer apoptosis. PMID:20228135

  5. c9,t11-Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates steatosis by modulating mitochondrial uncoupling and Nrf2 pathway[S

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Maria Pina; Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Cocca, Ennio; Gaita, Marcello; Della-Gatta, Antonio; Marano, Angela; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of cis9,trans11 (9,11-CLA) and trans10,cis12 (10,12-CLA) isomers enhanced the antioxidant/detoxifying mechanism via the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and improved mitochondrial function, but less is known about the actions of specific isomers. The differential ability of individual CLA isomers to modulate these pathways was explored in Wistar rats fed for 4 weeks with a lard-based high-fat diet (L) or with control diet (CD), and, within each dietary treatment, two subgroups were daily administered with 9,11-CLA or 10,12-CLA (30 mg/day). The 9,11-CLA, but not 10,12-CLA, supplementation to CD rats improves the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, mitochondrial functions, and Nrf2 activity. Histological examination reveals a reduction of steatosis in L-fed rats supplemented with both CLA isomers, but 9,11-CLA downregulated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory markers, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress markers in liver more efficiently than in 10,12-CLA treatment. The present study demonstrates the higher protective effect of 9,11-CLA against diet-induced pro-oxidant and proinflammatory signs and suggests that these effects are determined, at least in part, by its ability to activate the Nrf2 pathway and to improve the mitochondrial functioning and biogenesis. PMID:24634500

  6. A cardiac mitochondrial cAMP signaling pathway regulates calcium accumulation, permeability transition and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Liu, D; Varin, A; Nicolas, V; Courilleau, D; Mateo, P; Caubere, C; Rouet, P; Gomez, A-M; Vandecasteele, G; Fischmeister, R; Brenner, C

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac cytosolic cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulates multiple processes, such as beating, contractility, metabolism and apoptosis, little is known yet on the role of this second messenger within cardiac mitochondria. Using cellular and subcellular approaches, we demonstrate here the local expression of several actors of cAMP signaling within cardiac mitochondria, namely a truncated form of soluble AC (sACt) and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1), and show a protective role for sACt against cell death, apoptosis as well as necrosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Upon stimulation with bicarbonate (HCO3−) and Ca2+, sACt produces cAMP, which in turn stimulates oxygen consumption, increases the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP production. cAMP is rate limiting for matrix Ca2+ entry via Epac1 and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and, as a consequence, prevents mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The mitochondrial cAMP effects involve neither protein kinase A, Epac2 nor the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. In addition, in mitochondria isolated from failing rat hearts, stimulation of the mitochondrial cAMP pathway by HCO3− rescued the sensitization of mitochondria to Ca2+-induced MPT. Thus, our study identifies a link between mitochondrial cAMP, mitochondrial metabolism and cell death in the heart, which is independent of cytosolic cAMP signaling. Our results might have implications for therapeutic prevention of cell death in cardiac pathologies. PMID:27100892

  7. Testosterone induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells via extrinsic apoptotic pathway with mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species involvement.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rheure Alves Moreira; Neves, Karla Bianca; Pestana, Cezar Rangel; Queiroz, André Lima; Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto; Chignalia, Andréia Z; Valim, Yara Maria; Silveira, Leonardo R; Curti, Carlos; Tostes, Rita C

    2014-06-01

    Testosterone exerts both beneficial and harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Considering that testosterone induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ROS activate cell death signaling pathways, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via mitochondria-dependent ROS generation. Potential mechanisms were addressed. Cultured VSMCs were stimulated with testosterone (10(-7) mol/l) or vehicle (2-12 h) in the presence of flutamide (10(-5) mol/l), CCCP (10(-6) mol/l), mimetic manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP; 3 × 10(-5) mol/l), Z-Ile-Glu(O-ME)-Thr-Asp(O-Me) fluoromethyl ketone (Z-IETD-FMK; 10(-5) mol/l), or vehicle. ROS were determined with lucigenin and dichlorodihydrofluorescein; apoptosis, with annexin V and calcein; O2 consumption, with a Clark-type electrode, and procaspases, caspases, cytochrome c, Bax, and Bcl-2 levels by immunoblotting. Testosterone induced ROS generation (relative light units/mg protein, 2 h; 162.6 ± 16 vs. 100) and procaspase-3 activation [arbitrary units, (AU), 6 h; 166.2 ± 19 vs. 100]. CCCP, MnTMPyP, and flutamide abolished these effects. Testosterone increased annexin-V fluorescence (AU, 197.6 ± 21.5 vs. 100) and decreased calcein fluorescence (AU, 34.4 ± 6.4 vs. 100), and O2 consumption (nmol O2/min, 18.6 ± 2.0 vs. 34.4 ± 3.9). Testosterone also reduced Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio but not cytochrome-c release from mitochondria. Moreover, testosterone (6 h) induced cleavage of procaspase 8 (AU, 161.1 ± 13.5 vs. 100) and increased gene expression of Fas ligand (2(ΔΔCt), 3.6 ± 1.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.5), and TNF-α (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1). CCCP, MnTMPyP, and flutamide abolished these effects. These data indicate that testosterone induces apoptosis in VSMCs via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway with the involvement of androgen receptor activation and mitochondria-generated ROS.

  8. Antihepatocellular Carcinoma Potential of Tetramethylpyrazine Induces Cell Cycle Modulation and Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptosis: Regulation of p53 Signaling Pathway in HepG2 Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lei; Yan, Xiaojing; Chen, Weiping; Gao, Jing; Qian, Lei; Qiu, Shuang

    2016-06-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was originally isolated from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Ligusticum chuanxiong In the present study, TMP exhibits potent antitumor activities in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. Hence, this study aims to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of TMP on HepG2 and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Analyses using Cell Counting Kit-8 and real-time cell analyzer indicated that TMP significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation. We also observed that TMP induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint and apoptosis, using flow cytometry and high-content screening. Furthermore, our results predicted that TMP could directly decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), increase the release of cytochrome c, and increase caspase activation, indicating that mitochondrial pathway apoptosis could be the mechanism for TMP within HepG2 cells. Moreover, TMP altered expression of p53 and the Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio, which revealed that TMP induced cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in HepG2 cells in vitro. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the antitumor properties of TMP, which may be explored as a potential option for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27179035

  9. Insulin Stimulates Mitochondrial Fusion and Function in Cardiomyocytes via the Akt-mTOR-NFκB-Opa-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo E.; Iglewski, Myriam; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Jones, Deborah; Zhu, Yi; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Pennanen, Christian; Lopez‑Crisosto, Camila; Jaña, Fabián; Ferreira, Jorge; Noguera, Eduard; Chiong, Mario; Bernlohr, David A.; Klip, Amira; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Abel, Evan Dale; Zorzano, Antonio; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Insulin regulates heart metabolism through the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Studies have indicated that insulin can also regulate mitochondrial function. Relevant to this idea, mitochondrial function is impaired in diabetic individuals. Furthermore, the expression of Opa-1 and mitofusins, proteins of the mitochondrial fusion machinery, is dramatically altered in obese and insulin-resistant patients. Given the role of insulin in the control of cardiac energetics, the goal of this study was to investigate whether insulin affects mitochondrial dynamics in cardiomyocytes. Confocal microscopy and the mitochondrial dye MitoTracker Green were used to obtain three-dimensional images of the mitochondrial network in cardiomyocytes and L6 skeletal muscle cells in culture. Three hours of insulin treatment increased Opa-1 protein levels, promoted mitochondrial fusion, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and elevated both intracellular ATP levels and oxygen consumption in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, the silencing of Opa-1 or Mfn2 prevented all the metabolic effects triggered by insulin. We also provide evidence indicating that insulin increases mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes through the Akt-mTOR-NFκB signaling pathway. These data demonstrate for the first time in our knowledge that insulin acutely regulates mitochondrial metabolism in cardiomyocytes through a mechanism that depends on increased mitochondrial fusion, Opa-1, and the Akt-mTOR-NFκB pathway. PMID:24009260

  10. Fucoidan inhibits proliferation of the SKM-1 acute myeloid leukaemia cell line via the activation of apoptotic pathways and production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chunmei; Xiao, Qing; Kuang, Xingyi; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Zesong; Wang, Li

    2015-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias and a high risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Fucoidan, a complex sulphated polysaccharide isolated from the cell wall of brown seaweeds, has recently attracted attention for its multiple biological activities and its potential as a novel candidate for cancer therapy. In the present study, the anti‑cancer activity of fucoidan was investigated in the MDS/AML cell line SKM‑1. Fucoidan inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and caused G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle in SKM‑1 cells as determined by a cell counting kit 8 assay and flow cytometry. Furthermore, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses indicated that treatment with fucoidan (100 µg/ml for 48 h) activated Fas and caspase‑8 in SKM‑1 cells, which are critical for the extrinsic apoptotic pathway; furthermore, caspase‑9 was activated via decreases in phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling as indicated by reduced levels of phosphorylated Akt, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, fucoidan treatment of SKM‑1 cells resulted in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by staining with dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate. These results suggested that the mechanisms of the anti‑cancer effects of fucoidan in SKM‑1 are closely associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death, which partly attributed to the activation of apoptotic pathways and accumulation of intracellular ROS. Our results demonstrated that Fucoidan inhibits proliferation and induces the apoptosis of SKM‑1 cells, which provides substantial therapeutic potential for MDS treatment.

  11. The mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway is capable of mediating nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk through the PPAR system of transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Parl, Angelika; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Clay, Hayley B.; Reiss, Sara; Li, Zhen; Murdock, Deborah G.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The function of the mitochondria fatty acid synthesis pathway is partially unknown. •Overexpression of the pathway causes transcriptional activation through PPARs. •Knock down of the pathway attenuates that activation. •The last enzyme in the pathway regulates its own transcription. •Products of the mtFASII pathway are able to drive nuclear transcription. -- Abstract: Mammalian cells contain two fatty acid synthesis pathways, the cytosolic FASI pathway, and the mitochondrial FASII pathway. The selection behind the conservation of the mitochondrial pathway is not completely understood, given the presence of the cytosolic FAS pathway. In this study, we show through heterologous gene reporter systems and PCR-based arrays that overexpression of MECR, the last step in the mtFASII pathway, causes modulation of gene expression through the PPAR pathway. Electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate that overexpression of MECR causes increased binding of PPARs to DNA, while cell fractionation and imaging studies show that MECR remains localized to the mitochondria. Interestingly, knock down of the mtFASII pathway lessens the effect of MECR on this transcriptional modulation. Our data are most consistent with MECR-mediated transcriptional activation through products of the mtFASII pathway, although we cannot rule out MECR acting as a coactivator. Further investigation into the physiological relevance of this communication will be necessary to better understand some of the phenotypic consequences of deficits in this pathway observed in animal models and human disease.

  12. The mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in the thymocytes apoptosis induced by aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiaofeng; Li, Xiaochong; Jiang, Min; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in endotherms, which can be related to the up-regulated apoptosis of immune organs. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in Aflatoxin B1 induced thymocytes apoptosis. Chickens were fed an aflatoxin B1 containing diet (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) for 3 weeks. Our results showed that (1) AFB1 diet induced the decrease of T-cell subsets, morphological changes, and excessive apoptosis of thymus. (2) The excessive apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (up-regulation of Bax, Bak, cytC and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and death receptor pathway (up-regulation of FasL, Fas and FADD). (3) Oxidative stress, an apoptosis inducer, was confirmed in the thymus. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in AFB1 induced thymocytes apoptosis in broilers. PMID:26933817

  13. Mechanism of juglone-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y B; Xin, G S; Qu, Z Y; Zou, X; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and mechanism of juglone-induced apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The inhibitory effect of juglone on MCF-7 cell growth was evaluated by the dimethylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Morphological apoptotic changes were characterized using an inverted microscope, Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, and Giemsa staining. The rate of cell apoptosis, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected using flow cytometry. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations were detected using laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Expression of the proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome C was assessed by western blotting. Caspase-3 activity was quantified using a caspase-3 activity kit. Juglone inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 of 11.99 μM. The rates of MCF-7 cell apoptosis at 24 h after exposure to 5, 10, and 20 μM juglone were 9.29, 20.67, and 28.39%, respectively; compared to unexposed cells, juglone-exposed cells exhibited significant elevation in intracellular ROS level, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Juglone upregulated the expression of Bax, and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, promoting the release of cytochrome C, thereby upregulating the activity of caspase-3. The results suggest that the mechanism of juglone-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is characterized by elevated ROS levels, reduced Bcl-2 expression, increased Bax expression, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, outer mitochondrial-membrane rupture, cytochrome C release, and caspase-3 activation. PMID:27525860

  14. Dracorhodin Perchlorate Induced Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing-hua; Zheng, Gui-bin; Liu, Chun-yu; Zhang, Li-ying; Gao, Hong-mei; Zhang, Ya-hong; Dai, Chun-yan; Huang, Lin; Meng, Xian-ying; Zhang, Wen-yan; Yu, Xiao-fang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dracorhodin perchlorate (DP) was a synthetic analogue of the antimicrobial anthocyanin red pigment dracorhodin. It was reported that DP could induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer, human gastric tumor cells and human melanoma, but the cytotoxic effect of DP on human breast cancer was not investigated. This study would investigate whether DP was a candidate chemical of anti-human breast cancer. Methods: The MTT assay reflected the number of viable cells through measuring the activity of cellular enzymes. Phase contrast microscopy visualized cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy detected nuclear fragmentation after Hoechst 33258 staining. Flowcytometric analysis of Annexin V-PI staining and Rodamine 123 staining was used to detect cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Real time PCR detected mRNA level. Western blot examined protein expression. Results: DP dose and time-dependently inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells. DP inhibited MCF-7 cell growth through apoptosis. DP regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were mitochondrial pathway proteins, to decrease MMP, and DP promoted the transcription of Bax and inhibited Bcl-2. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c which localized in mitochondrial in physiological condition were released into cytoplasm when MMP was decreased. DP activated caspase-9, which was the downstream of mitochondrial pathway. Therefore DP decreased MMP to release AIF and cytochrome c into cytoplasm, further activating caspase 9, lastly led to apoptosis. Conclusion: Therefore DP was a candidate for anti-breast cancer, DP induced apoptosis of MCF-7 through mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23869191

  15. Coexpression within Integrated Mitochondrial Pathways Reveals Different Networks in Normal and Chemically Treated Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Han, Xiao; Feng, Zhihui; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jiankang

    2014-01-01

    As energy producers, mitochondria play a pivotal role in multiple cellular processes. Although several lines of evidence suggest that differential expression of mitochondrial respiratory complexes (MRCs) has a significant impact on mitochondrial function, the role of integrated MRCs in the whole coexpression network has yet to be revealed. In this study, we construct coexpression networks based on microarray datasets from different tissues and chemical treatments to explore the role of integrated MRCs in the coexpression network and the effects of different chemicals on the mitochondrial network. By grouping MRCs as one seed target, the hypergeometric distribution allowed us to identify genes that are significantly coexpress with whole MRCs. Coexpression among 46 MRC genes (approximately 78% of MRC genes tested) was significant in the normal tissue transcriptome dataset. These MRC genes are coexpressed with genes involved in the categories “muscle system process,” “metabolic process,” and “neurodegenerative disease pathways,” whereas, in the chemically treated tissues, coexpression of these genes mostly disappeared. These results indicate that chemical stimuli alter the normal coexpression network of MRC genes. Taken together, the datasets obtained from the different coexpression networks are informative about mitochondrial biogenesis and should contribute to understanding the side effects of drugs on mitochondrial function. PMID:25089262

  16. Divergence of Erv1-Associated Mitochondrial Import and Export Pathways in Trypanosomes and Anaerobic Protists

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Somsuvro; Leonard, Joanne C.; Desai, Nishal; Mavridou, Despoina A. I.; Tang, Kong Ho; Goddard, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and animals, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 functions with Mia40 in the import and oxidative folding of numerous cysteine-rich proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). Erv1 is also required for Fe-S cluster assembly in the cytosol, which uses at least one mitochondrially derived precursor. Here, we characterize an essential Erv1 orthologue from the protist Trypanosoma brucei (TbERV1), which naturally lacks a Mia40 homolog. We report kinetic parameters for physiologically relevant oxidants cytochrome c and O2, unexpectedly find O2 and cytochrome c are reduced simultaneously, and demonstrate that efficient reduction of O2 by TbERV1 is not dependent upon a simple O2 channel defined by conserved histidine and tyrosine residues. Massive mitochondrial swelling following TbERV1 RNA interference (RNAi) provides evidence that trypanosome Erv1 functions in IMS protein import despite the natural absence of the key player in the yeast and animal import pathways, Mia40. This suggests significant evolutionary divergence from a recently established paradigm in mitochondrial cell biology. Phylogenomic profiling of genes also points to a conserved role for TbERV1 in cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly. Conversely, loss of genes implicated in precursor delivery for cytosolic Fe-S assembly in Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Giardia suggests fundamental differences in intracellular trafficking pathways for activated iron or sulfur species in anaerobic versus aerobic eukaryotes. PMID:23264646

  17. Divergence of Erv1-associated mitochondrial import and export pathways in trypanosomes and anaerobic protists.

    PubMed

    Basu, Somsuvro; Leonard, Joanne C; Desai, Nishal; Mavridou, Despoina A I; Tang, Kong Ho; Goddard, Alan D; Ginger, Michael L; Lukeš, Julius; Allen, James W A

    2013-02-01

    In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and animals, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 functions with Mia40 in the import and oxidative folding of numerous cysteine-rich proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). Erv1 is also required for Fe-S cluster assembly in the cytosol, which uses at least one mitochondrially derived precursor. Here, we characterize an essential Erv1 orthologue from the protist Trypanosoma brucei (TbERV1), which naturally lacks a Mia40 homolog. We report kinetic parameters for physiologically relevant oxidants cytochrome c and O(2), unexpectedly find O(2) and cytochrome c are reduced simultaneously, and demonstrate that efficient reduction of O(2) by TbERV1 is not dependent upon a simple O(2) channel defined by conserved histidine and tyrosine residues. Massive mitochondrial swelling following TbERV1 RNA interference (RNAi) provides evidence that trypanosome Erv1 functions in IMS protein import despite the natural absence of the key player in the yeast and animal import pathways, Mia40. This suggests significant evolutionary divergence from a recently established paradigm in mitochondrial cell biology. Phylogenomic profiling of genes also points to a conserved role for TbERV1 in cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly. Conversely, loss of genes implicated in precursor delivery for cytosolic Fe-S assembly in Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Giardia suggests fundamental differences in intracellular trafficking pathways for activated iron or sulfur species in anaerobic versus aerobic eukaryotes.

  18. Putting the pieces together: How is the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis regulated in cancer and chemotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve a jigsaw puzzle, one must first have the complete picture to logically connect the pieces. However, in cancer biology, we are still gaining an understanding of all the signaling pathways that promote tumorigenesis and how these pathways can be pharmacologically manipulated by conventional and targeted therapies. Despite not having complete knowledge of the mechanisms that cause cancer, the signaling networks responsible for cancer are becoming clearer, and this information is serving as a solid foundation for the development of rationally designed therapies. One goal of chemotherapy is to induce cancer cell death through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Within this review, we present the pathways that govern the cellular decision to undergo apoptosis as three distinct, yet connected puzzle pieces: (1) How do oncogene and tumor suppressor pathways regulate apoptosis upstream of mitochondria? (2) How does the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family influence tumorigenesis and chemotherapeutic responses? (3) How is post-mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) regulation of cell death relevant in cancer? When these pieces are united, it is possible to appreciate how cancer signaling directly impacts upon the fundamental cellular mechanisms of apoptosis and potentially reveals novel pharmacological targets within these pathways that may enhance chemotherapeutic success. PMID:25621172

  19. The presequence pathway is involved in protein sorting to the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Opaliński, Lukasz; Schuler, Max-Hinderk; Ellenrieder, Lars; Ieva, Raffaele; Böttinger, Lena; Qiu, Jian; van der Laan, Martin; Wiedemann, Nils; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains integral α-helical and β-barrel proteins that are imported from the cytosol. The machineries importing β-barrel proteins have been identified, however, different views exist on the import of α-helical proteins. It has been reported that the biogenesis of Om45, the most abundant signal-anchored protein, does not depend on proteinaceous components, but involves direct insertion into the outer membrane. We show that import of Om45 occurs via the translocase of the outer membrane and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane. Assembly of Om45 in the outer membrane involves the MIM machinery. Om45 thus follows a new mitochondrial biogenesis pathway that uses elements of the presequence import pathway to direct a protein to the outer membrane.

  20. Yeast as a tool to study mitochondrial retrograde pathway en route to cell stress response.

    PubMed

    Ždralević, Maša; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial retrograde signaling is a mitochondria-to-nucleus communication pathway, conserved from yeast to humans, by which dysfunctional mitochondria relay signals that lead to cell stress adaptation in physiopathological conditions by changes in nuclear gene expression. The best comprehension of components and regulation of retrograde signaling have been obtained in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where retrograde target gene expression is regulated by RTG genes. In this chapter, we describe the methods to measure mitochondrial retrograde pathway activation in yeast cells by monitoring the mRNA levels of RTG target genes, such as those encoding for peroxisomal citrate synthase, aconitase, and NAD(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase subunit 1, as well as the phosphorylation status of Rtg1/3p transcriptional factor which controls RTG target gene transcription. PMID:25634284

  1. Effect of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells on Inflammatory and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in the Presence of High Osmotic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Weifang; Lin, Anjuan; Sheng, Minjie

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that high osmotic pressure (HOP) of lacrimal fluid is the core mechanism causing ocular inflammation and injury. However, the association between HOP and the regulation of cell inflammatory response and apoptotic pathways remains unclear. In the present study, we used HOP to interfere with in vitro cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and found that HOP increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and increased ROS in turn induced the activation of JNK inflammatory signaling pathway, which further promoted the expression of pro-inflammatory factor NF-κβ and induced the generation of inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, HOP-induced ROS in rabbit corneal epithelial cells regulated the CD95/CD95L-mediated cell apoptotic signaling pathway by activating JNK inflammatory signaling pathway. These findings may serve as new theoretical basis and a new way of thinking about the treatment of ocular diseases, especially dry eye. PMID:23977369

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids trigger apoptosis of colon cancer cells through a mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Yu, Haining; Shen, Yuzhen; Ni, Xiaofeng; Das, Undurti N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is common in developed countries. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to possess tumoricidal action, but the exact mechanism of their action is not clear. Material and methods In the present study, we studied the effect of various n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on the survival of the colon cancer cells LoVo and RKO and evaluated the possible involvement of a mitochondrial pathway in their ability to induce apoptosis. Results It was observed that n-3 α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (ALA, EPA and DHA respectively) and n-6 linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid (LA, GLA and AA respectively) induced apoptosis of the colon cancer cells LoVo and RKO at concentrations above 120 μM (p < 0.01 compared to control). The semi-differentiated colon cancer cell line RKO was more sensitive to the cytotoxic action of PUFAs compared to the undifferentiated colon cancer cell line LoVo. PUFA-treated cells showed an increased number of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. PUFA-induced apoptosis of LoVo and RKO cells is mediated through a mitochondria-mediated pathway as evidenced by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of ROS, accumulation of intracellular Ca2+, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, decreased ATP level and increase in the Bax/Bcl2 expression ratio. Conclusions PUFAs induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells through a mitochondrial dependent pathway. PMID:26528354

  3. Attenuation of Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced parallel autophagic and apoptotic cell death by gypenoside XVII through the estrogen receptor-dependent activation of Nrf2/ARE pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiangbao; Wang, Min; Sun, Guibo; Ye, Jingxue; Zhou, Yanhui; Dong, Xi; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Shan; Sun, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) has a pivotal function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To investigate Aβ neurotoxicity, we used an in vitro model that involves Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced cell death in the nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} (20 μM) treatment for 24 h caused apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by significant cell viability reduction, LDH release, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment led to autophagic cell death, as evidenced by augmented GFP-LC3 puncta, conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, and increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by intracellular ROS accumulation and increased production of mitochondrial superoxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-OHdG. Phytoestrogens have been proved to be protective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and regarded as relatively safe targets for AD drug development. Gypenoside XVII (GP-17) is a novel phytoestrogen isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum or Panax notoginseng. Pretreatment with GP-17 (10 μM) for 12 h increased estrogen response element reporter activity, activated PI3K/Akt pathways, inhibited GSK-3β, induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, augmented antioxidant responsive element enhancer activity, upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and activity, and provided protective effects against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. In conclusion, GP-17 conferred protection against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity through estrogen receptor-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt pathways, inactivation of GSK-3β and activation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways. This finding might provide novel insights into understanding the mechanism for neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogens or

  4. Hesperetin induces the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via mitochondrial pathway mediated by the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, ATP and calcium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jia; Wu, Dandan; Wang, Jing; Dong, Weiguo

    2015-04-01

    Hesperetin, a flavonoid from citrus fruits, has been proved to possess biological activity on various types of human cancers. However, few related studies on hepatocellular carcinoma are available. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of hesperetin on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo and clarify its potentially specific mechanism. Compared with the control group, the proliferations of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in hesperetin groups were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05), and a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. When pretreated with H2O2 (1 mM) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (5 mM), the inhibition of cell viability by hesperetin was enhanced or reduced, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, the levels of intracellular ROS, ATP and Ca(2+) changed in different groups (P < 0.05). The results of Hoechst 33258 staining showed that the percentages of apoptotic cells in hesperetin groups are remarkably higher than that in control group (P < 0.05). And the results of Western blot showed that hesperetin caused an increase in the levels of cytosolic AIF, cytosolic Apaf-1, cytosolic Cyt C, caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax and a decrease in that of Bcl-2, mitochondrial AIF, mitochondrial Apaf-1 and mitochondrial Cyt C (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, hesperetin significantly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors. Our study suggests that hesperetin could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via triggering the activation of the mitochondrial pathway by increasing the levels of intracellular ROS, ATP and Ca(2+).

  5. A role for transforming growth factor-{beta} apoptotic signaling pathway in liver injury induced by ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Rafael, A.I.; Almeida, A.; Santos, P.; Parreira, I.; Madeira, V.M.S.; Alves, R.; Cabrita, A.M.S.; Alpoim, M.C.

    2007-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] exposure is commonly associated with lung cancer. Although other adverse health effects have been reported, some authors, on assuming that orally ingested Cr(VI) is efficiently detoxified upon reduction by body fluids, believe that Cr(VI) do not target cells other than respiratory tract cells. In rodents, ingested Cr(VI)-contaminated water was reported to induce, in the liver, increases in TGF-{beta} transcripts. As TGF-{beta} dependent signaling pathways are closely associated with hepatic injury, the present study was undertaken addressing two specific issues: the effects of ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI) in rat liver structure and function; and the role of the TGF-{beta} pathway in Cr(VI)-induced liver injury. Examination of Wistar rats exposed to 20 ppm Cr(VI)-contaminated water for 10 weeks showed increased serum glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Liver histological examination revealed hepatocellular apoptosis, further confirmed by immunohystochemical study of Caspase 3 expression. Liver gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of Smad2/Smad4 and Dapk, suggesting the involvement of the TGF-{beta} pathway in the apoptotic process. Since no changes in Smad3 expression were observed it appears apoptosis is using a Smad3-independent pathway. Increased expression of both Caspase 8 and Daxx genes suggests also the involvement of the Fas pathway. Gene expression analysis also revealed that a p160{sup ROCK}-Rho-independent pathway operates, leading to cell contraction and membrane blebbing, characteristic apoptotic features. These findings suggest that either the amount of Cr(VI) ingested overwhelmed the body fluids reductive capacity or some Cr(VI) escapes the reductive protection barrier, thus targeting the liver and inducing apoptosis.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important link in the apoptotic pathway induced by hyperglycemia in Y79 retinoblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Masha'our, R. Shehadeh; Heinrich, R.; Garzozi, H. J.; Perlman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression was found to be induced in the mammalian CNS, including the retina, by different types of stress leading to cellular apoptosis. Here, we tested possible involvement of AChE in hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis in a retinal cell line. Y79 retinoblastoma cells were incubated in starvation media (1% FBS and 1 mg/ml glucose) for 16–24 h, and then exposed to hyperglycemic environment by raising extracellular glucose concentrations to a final level of 3.5 mg/ml or 6 mg/ml. Similar levels of mannitol were used as control for hyperosmolarity. Cells were harvested at different time intervals for analysis of apoptosis and AChE protein expression. Apoptosis was detected by the cleavage of Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) using western blot, and by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. AChE protein expression and activity was detected by western blot and by the Karnovsky and Roots method, respectively. MissionTM shRNA for AChE was used to inhibit AChE protein expression. Treating Y79 cells with 3.5 mg/ml of glucose, but not with 3.5 mg/ml mannitol, induced apoptosis which was confirmed by TUNEL assay and by cleavage of PARP. A part of the signaling pathway accompanying the apoptotic process involved up-regulation of the AChE-R variant and an N-extended AChE variant as verified at the mRNA and protein level. Inhibition of AChE protein expression by shRNA protected Y79 cell from entering the apoptotic pathway. Our data suggest that expression of an N-extended AChE variant, most probably an R isoform, is involved in the apoptotic pathway caused by hyperglycemia in Y79 cells. PMID:22685426

  7. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important link in the apoptotic pathway induced by hyperglycemia in Y79 retinoblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Masha'our, R Shehadeh; Heinrich, R; Garzozi, H J; Perlman, I

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression was found to be induced in the mammalian CNS, including the retina, by different types of stress leading to cellular apoptosis. Here, we tested possible involvement of AChE in hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis in a retinal cell line. Y79 retinoblastoma cells were incubated in starvation media (1% FBS and 1 mg/ml glucose) for 16-24 h, and then exposed to hyperglycemic environment by raising extracellular glucose concentrations to a final level of 3.5 mg/ml or 6 mg/ml. Similar levels of mannitol were used as control for hyperosmolarity. Cells were harvested at different time intervals for analysis of apoptosis and AChE protein expression. Apoptosis was detected by the cleavage of Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) using western blot, and by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. AChE protein expression and activity was detected by western blot and by the Karnovsky and Roots method, respectively. Mission(TM) shRNA for AChE was used to inhibit AChE protein expression. Treating Y79 cells with 3.5 mg/ml of glucose, but not with 3.5 mg/ml mannitol, induced apoptosis which was confirmed by TUNEL assay and by cleavage of PARP. A part of the signaling pathway accompanying the apoptotic process involved up-regulation of the AChE-R variant and an N-extended AChE variant as verified at the mRNA and protein level. Inhibition of AChE protein expression by shRNA protected Y79 cell from entering the apoptotic pathway. Our data suggest that expression of an N-extended AChE variant, most probably an R isoform, is involved in the apoptotic pathway caused by hyperglycemia in Y79 cells. PMID:22685426

  8. The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway protects the photosynthetic apparatus against photodamage in Rumex K-1 leaves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known that excess reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH in chloroplasts can be transported via shuttle machineries, such as the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle, into the mitochondria, where they are efficiently oxidised by the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) respiratory pathway. Therefore, it has been speculated that the AOX pathway may protect plants from photoinhibition, but the mechanism by which this protection occurs remains to be elucidated. Results The observation that the malate-OAA shuttle activity and the AOX pathway capacity increased markedly after intense light treatment in Rumex K-1 leaves indicates that excess NADPH was transported from the chloroplasts and oxidised by the AOX pathway. The inhibition of the AOX pathway by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) caused the over-reduction of the photosystem I (PSI) acceptor side, as indicated by the increases in the extent of reduction of P700+. Furthermore, the photosynthetic linear electron flow was restricted, which was indicated by the decreases in the PSII electron transport rate (ETR) and the photosynthetic O2 evolution rate. The restriction of the photosynthetic linear electron flow, which generates the thylakoid ΔpH, inevitably decreased the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle (ΔPRI). Therefore, the induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was suppressed when the AOX pathway was inhibited. The effect of the inhibition of the AOX pathway on NPQ induction was less at 20 mM NaHCO3 than at 1 mM NaHCO3. The suppression of NPQ induction by the inhibition of the AOX pathway was also observed during the induction phase of photosynthesis. In addition, the inhibition of the AOX pathway increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), suggesting that the AOX pathway functions as an antioxidant mechanism. Conclusions The inhibition of the AOX pathway resulted in the rapid accumulation of NADPH in the chloroplasts, which caused the over-reduction of the PSI acceptor

  9. Methyl jasmonate induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy via the ROS pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mutian; Su, Ling; Xiao, Zhenna; Liu, Xianfang; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a botanical hormone that serves as a signal transduction intermediate and regulates cell death in stressed plants. MJ induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death selectively in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MJ-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism through which MJ induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that MJ triggered apoptosis via the DDIT3-TNFRSF10B-CASP axis. MJ treatment significantly decreased the expression of CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator, an inhibitor of CASP8) in NSCLC cells, and ectopic expression of CFLAR partly protected cells from MJ-induced apoptosis. MJ also induced pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells. Importantly, inhibition of ROS suppressed both MJ-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Taken together, MJ induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells through the ROS pathway. Thus, MJ and its derivative treatment may serve as a novel chemotherapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27186395

  10. Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Noraziah; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahman, Mashitoh Abd; Hassan, Zalila; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression

  11. Noscapine Increases the Sensitivity of Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cell Line SKOV3/DDP to Cisplatin by Regulating Cell Cycle and Activating Apoptotic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Liang, Bingfeng; Yin, Jie; Li, Xiurong; Cheng, Jianxin

    2015-05-01

    Cisplatin is a first-line chemotherapy drug against ovarian cancer. However, its strong toxic side effects and the development of cisplatin resistance in human cancer cells seriously influence the effects of chemotherapy and quality of life in patients. Noscapine (Nos), a non-toxic benzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from opium, has been recently reported to have anti-cancer activity, but the mechanism of that effect has not been clearly established. In the present study, we investigated cytotoxicity of Nos in combination with cisplatin (DDP) in drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3/DDP in vitro and in vivo null mice xenograft model. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis, protein expression of several apoptotic factors was investigated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical method, and their mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR. In vitro experiments showed that Nos significantly inhibited proliferation of SKOV3/DDP cells. DDP/Nos-combined treatment notably enhanced DDP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and increased the pro-apoptotic effect of DDP in SKOV3/DDP cells. DDP/Nos administration increased the proportion of G2/M cells, reduced both protein and mRNA expression of anti-apoptotic factors XIAP, surviving and NF-kB, and augmented protein and mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic caspase-3. In vivo experiments revealed that Nos/DDP treatment increased the apoptotic rate of xenograft tumors in null mice. Tumor volume decreased from 1.733 ± 0.155 g in mice treated with DDP alone to 1.191 ± 0.106 g in animals treated with Nos/DDP. These observations suggest that Nos increases the anti-cancer activity of DDP against the drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3/DDP by modulating the cell cycle and activating apoptotic pathways. The study provides a new chemotherapy strategy for the treatment of DDP-resistant human ovarian cancer. PMID:25510462

  12. Colistin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice Involves the Mitochondrial, Death Receptor, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Jichang; Tang, Shusheng

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the dose-limiting factor for colistin, but the exact mechanism is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Mice were intravenously administered 7.5 or 15 mg of colistin/kg of body weight/day (via a 3-min infusion and divided into two doses) for 7 days. Renal function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were measured. Representative biomarkers involved in the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways were investigated, and the key markers involved in apoptosis and autophagy were examined. After 7-day colistin treatment, significant increase was observed with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and malondialdehyde, while activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased in the kidneys. Acute tubular necrosis and mitochondrial dysfunction were detected, and colistin-induced apoptosis was characterized by DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), increase of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and activation of caspases (caspase-8, -9, and -3). It was evident that colistin-induced apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of cytochrome C [cytC] and Bax), death receptor pathway (upregulation of Fas, FasL, and Fas-associated death domain [FADD]), and endoplasmic reticulum pathway (upregulation of Grp78/Bip, ATF6, GADD153/CHOP, and caspase-12). In the 15-mg/kg/day colistin group, expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) significantly increased (P < 0.05), while in the 7.5-mg/kg/day colistin group, a large number of autophagolysosomes and classic autophagy were observed. Western blot results of Beclin-1 and LC3B indicated that autophagy may play a protective role in colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that all three major apoptosis pathways

  13. Evidence of an alternative oxidase pathway for mitochondrial respiration in the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Leiro, José Manuel

    2013-11-01

    The presence of an alternative oxidase (AOX) in the mitochondria of the scuticociliate P. dicentrarchi was investigated. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured in the presence of KCN, an inhibitor of cytochrome pathway (CP) respiration and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a specific inhibitor of alternative pathway (AP) respiration. AOX expression was monitored by western blotting with an AOX polyclonal antibody. The results showed that P. dicentrarchi possesses a branched mitochondrial electron transport chain with both cyanide-sensitive and -insensitive oxygen consumption. Mitochondrial respiration was partially inhibited by cyanide and completely inhibited by the combination of cyanide and SHAM, which is direct evidence for the existence of an AP in this ciliate. SHAM significantly inhibited in vitro growth of trophozoites both under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. AOX is a 42kD monomeric protein inducible by hypoxic conditions in experimental infections and by CP inhibitors such as cyanide and antimycin A, or by AP inhibitors such as SHAM. CP respiration was greatly stimulated during the exponential growth phase, while AP respiration increased during the stationary phase, in which AOX expression is induced. As the host does not possess AOX, and because during infection P. dicentrarchi respires via AP, it may be possible to develop inhibitors targeting the AP as a novel anti-scuticociliate therapy. PMID:24211656

  14. Evidence of an alternative oxidase pathway for mitochondrial respiration in the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Leiro, José Manuel

    2013-11-01

    The presence of an alternative oxidase (AOX) in the mitochondria of the scuticociliate P. dicentrarchi was investigated. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured in the presence of KCN, an inhibitor of cytochrome pathway (CP) respiration and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a specific inhibitor of alternative pathway (AP) respiration. AOX expression was monitored by western blotting with an AOX polyclonal antibody. The results showed that P. dicentrarchi possesses a branched mitochondrial electron transport chain with both cyanide-sensitive and -insensitive oxygen consumption. Mitochondrial respiration was partially inhibited by cyanide and completely inhibited by the combination of cyanide and SHAM, which is direct evidence for the existence of an AP in this ciliate. SHAM significantly inhibited in vitro growth of trophozoites both under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. AOX is a 42kD monomeric protein inducible by hypoxic conditions in experimental infections and by CP inhibitors such as cyanide and antimycin A, or by AP inhibitors such as SHAM. CP respiration was greatly stimulated during the exponential growth phase, while AP respiration increased during the stationary phase, in which AOX expression is induced. As the host does not possess AOX, and because during infection P. dicentrarchi respires via AP, it may be possible to develop inhibitors targeting the AP as a novel anti-scuticociliate therapy.

  15. Ethanolic extract of fermented Thunb induces human leukemic HL-60 and Molt-4 cell apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a medicinal plant of the Saururaceae family which features antimutagenic and antiviral properties. For extraction, the whole plants were fermented or non-fermented with yeast and ethanol then the whole plants were dried, ground and extracted with 95% ethanol or water. The aims of this study were to compare cytotoxic effects, apoptosis induction, and mechanism(s) with the ethanolic and water extracts of fermented and non-fermented HCT. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT assay in human leukemic HL-60, Molt-4 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Apoptotic death was characterized by staining with propidium iodide and examined under a fluorescence microscope. Peroxide radical production and reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were determined using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of caspase-9 was identified by immunoblotting. The ethanolic extract of fermented HCT was cytotoxic to HL-60 >Molt- 4 > PBMCs, to a greater extent than the non-fermented preparation and the number of apoptotic cells was higher. The alcoholic (fermented) extract produced more radicals than the non-fermented in HL-60 cells but the converse was observed in Molt-4 cells. Reduction of MTP was found in HL-60 and Molt-4 cells treated with the alcoholic (fermented) extract and caspase-9 was cleaved dose-dependently in both cells. In conclusion, the alcoholic extract of fermented HCT was more toxic to human leukemic cells than the non-fermented and both cell lines underwent apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:22393956

  16. Hesperetin induces apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells via mitochondrial pathway mediated by the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dandan; Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiao; Liao, Fei; Dong, Weiguo

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is of high prevalence and poor prognosis. Hesperetin has been reported to exert antitumor ability by inducing apoptosis in many cancers in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxicity. However, there is no study concerning about the effect of hesperetin on esophageal cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether hesperetin could induce apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells and explore its potential mechanism. We found that hesperetin induced esophageal cancer cells apoptosis in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner compared with the untreated cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis showed more apoptotic cells in the hesperetin-treated group (p < 0.05, respectively). The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly, and glutathione (GSH) was depleted. The loss of △Ψ m was more tremendous in the hesperetin-treated cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced the proapoptotic ability of hesperetin, while DL-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) enhanced the anticancer effect. Western blotting showed that the expression levels of cytochrome C (Cyt C) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) decreased in mitochondria and increased in cytoplasm (p < 0.05). The levels of intracellular cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Apaf-1, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and suppressor of fused (SuFu) increased, while B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Survivin decreased. What is more, in xenograft tumor model, hesperetin inhibited the tumor growth significantly via induction of cell apoptosis which was detected by TUNEL assay (p < 0.05). Taken together, our study demonstrated that hesperetin could induce cell apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells via mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway by accumulation of ROS.

  17. Cdk1, PKCδ and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathway contributes to mitochondrial fission-induced cardiomyocyte death

    SciTech Connect

    Zaja, Ivan; Bai, Xiaowen; Liu, Yanan; Kikuchi, Chika; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Yan, Yasheng; Canfield, Scott G.; Bosnjak, Zeljko J.

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Drp1-mediated increased mitochondrial fission but not fusion is involved the cardiomyocyte death during anoxia-reoxygenation injury. • Reactive oxygen species are upstream initiators of mitochondrial fission. • Increased mitochondrial fission is resulted from Cdk1-, PKCδ-, and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathways. - Abstract: Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to be involved in cardiomyocyte death. However, molecular machinery involved in mitochondrial fission during I/R injury has not yet been completely understood. In this study we aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms of controlling activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, a key protein in mitochondrial fission) during anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) injury of HL1 cardiomyocytes. A/R injury induced cardiomyocyte death accompanied by the increases of mitochondrial fission, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated Drp1 (pSer616 Drp1), and decrease of inactivated Drp1 (pSer637 Drp1) while mitochondrial fusion protein levels were not significantly changed. Blocking Drp1 activity with mitochondrial division inhibitor mdivi1 attenuated cell death, mitochondrial fission, and Drp1 activation after A/R. Trolox, a ROS scavenger, decreased pSer616 Drp1 level and mitochondrial fission after A/R. Immunoprecipitation assay further indicates that cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and protein kinase C isoform delta (PKCδ) bind Drp1, thus increasing mitochondrial fission. Inhibiting Cdk1 and PKCδ attenuated the increases in pSer616 Drp1, mitochondrial fission, and cardiomyocyte death. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, blocked the decrease in expression of inactivated pSer637 Drp1 and mitochondrial fission. Our findings reveal the following novel molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial fission during A/R injury of cardiomyocytes: (1) ROS are upstream initiators of

  18. Platycodin D induced apoptosis and autophagy in PC-12 cells through mitochondrial dysfunction pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Zhang, Cheng; Yao, Jun-Hua; Lai, Shang-Hai; Han, Bing-Jie; Li, Wei; Tang, Bing; Wan, Dan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the in vitro cytotoxicity of platycodin D was evaluated in human PC-12, SGC-7901, BEL-7402, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines. PC-12 cells were sensitive to platycodin D treatment, with an IC50 value of 13.5 ± 1.2 μM. Morphological and comet assays showed that platycodin D effectively induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Platycodin D increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Platycodin D induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the PC-12 cell line. Platycodin D can induce autophagy. In addition, platycodin D can down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, and up-regulate the levels of Bid protein in the PC-12 cells. The results demonstrated that platycodin D induced PC-12 cell apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  19. Scutellaria barbate extract induces apoptosis of hepatoma H22 cells via the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Xi-Jing; Li, Zong-Fang; Ji, Zong-Zheng; Ren, Hong-Tao; Tang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Xu; Kang, Hua-Feng; Guan, Hai-Tao; Song, Ling-Qin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Scutellaria barbata D.Don (S. barbata) and to determine the underlying mechanism of its antitumor activity in mouse liver cancer cell line H22. METHODS: Proliferation of H22 cells was examined by MTT assay. Cellular morphology of PC-2 cells was observed under fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope (EM). Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined under laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) with rhodamine 123 staining. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle of H22 cells with propidium iodide staining. Protein level of cytochrome C and caspase-3 was measured by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was measured by spectrofluorometry. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that extracts from S. barbata (ESB) could inhibit the proliferation of H22 cells in a time-dependent manner. Among the various phases of cell cycle, the percentage of cells in S phase was significantly decreased, while the percentage of cells in G1 phase was increased. Flow cytometry assay also showed that ESB had a positive effect on apoptosis. Typical apoptotic morphologies such as condensation and fragmentation of nuclei and blebbing membrane of apoptotic cells could be observed under transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. To further investige the molecular mechanism behind ESB-induced apoptosis, ESB-treated cells rapidly lost their mitochondrial transmembrane potential, released mitochondrial cytochrome C into cytosol, and induced caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: ESB can effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of H22 cells involving loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C, and activation of caspase-3. PMID:19109865

  20. Apoptotic effects of extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson by adenosine monosphosphate-activated protein kinase-independent pathway in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Guen Tae; Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Young Min

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer, a common malignancy, can occur due to poor eating habits and increasing age. Consequently, careful regulation of eating habits may serve as a possible method for preventing the occurrence or progression of colon cancer. Extracts of the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson are well‑known as an effective herbal medicine for the treatment of pain in female genitalia and carbuncle. However, there have been no studies on the apoptotic effects of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson (CME). Adenosine monophosphate‑activated protein kinase (AMPK), the major regulator of energy metabolism, is activated by metabolic stress, including hypoxia and glucose deprivation. Activation of AMPK inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through the inhibition of phosphorylated (p)‑Akt and control of B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) family members. The pro‑apoptotic proteins Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl‑2‑homologous antagonist killer (Bak), are activated by their translocation to mitochondria from the cytosol. Translocation of Bax/Bak induces outer membrane permeabilization and is likely to lead to apoptosis through cytochrome C release and caspase activity. In the present study, the apoptotic effects and influence on mitochondria‑mediated apoptotic proteins of CME in HCT116 cells were assessed. We hypothesized that CME may have an effect on the inhibition of p‑Akt in an AMPK‑independent pathway. The present study demonstrated that CME induced the release of LDH and apoptosis through its inhibition of p‑Akt to control Bcl‑2 and activate Bax and Bak. Co‑treatment with CME and AMPK inhibitors showed that CME‑induced apoptosis does not occurr through a AMPK‑dependent pathway. Therefore, the present study determined, for the first time, that CME induced apoptosis as a result of causing metabolic stresses due to directly regulation of the de‑phosphorylation of Akt, whereas it did not control the AMPK-dependent pathway in HCT116

  1. Cordyceps militaris induces tumor cell death via the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    SONG, JINGJING; WANG, YINGWU; TENG, MEIYU; ZHANG, SHIQIANG; YIN, MENGYA; LU, JIAHUI; LIU, YAN; LEE, ROBERT J; WANG, DI; TENG, LESHENG

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM), an entomopathogenic fungus belonging to the class ascomycetes, possesses various pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic effects, on various types of human tumor cells. The present study investigated the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti-breast cancer effects of CM in in vitro and in vivo models. CM aqueous extract reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation, inhibited cell migration ability, caused the over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced apoptotic rates in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. The expression levels of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase-3, biomarkers of apoptosis, were increased following treatment with CM aqueous extract for 24 h. Furthermore, in the MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, enhanced levels of B cell-associated X protein and cleaved caspase-8 were observed in the CM-treated cells. Finally, the antitumor activities of CM in HCC and breast cancer were also confirmed in MCF-7- and HepG2-xengraft nude mice models. Collectively, the data obtained in the present study suggested that the cytotoxic effects of CM aqueous extract on HCC and breast cancer are associated with the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27109250

  2. Cordyceps militaris induces tumor cell death via the caspase‑dependent mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 and MCF‑7 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Zhang, Shiqiang; Yin, Mengya; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-06-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM), an entomopathogenic fungus belonging to the class ascomycetes, possesses various pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic effects, on various types of human tumor cells. The present study investigated the anti‑hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti‑breast cancer effects of CM in in vitro and in vivo models. CM aqueous extract reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation, inhibited cell migration ability, caused the over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced apoptotic rates in MCF‑7 and HepG2 cells. The expression levels of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase‑3, biomarkers of apoptosis, were increased following treatment with CM aqueous extract for 24 h. Furthermore, in the MCF‑7 and HepG2 cells, enhanced levels of B cell‑associated X protein and cleaved caspase‑8 were observed in the CM‑treated cells. Finally, the antitumor activities of CM in HCC and breast cancer were also confirmed in MCF‑7‑ and HepG2‑xengraft nude mice models. Collectively, the data obtained in the present study suggested that the cytotoxic effects of CM aqueous extract on HCC and breast cancer are associated with the caspase‑dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27109250

  3. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether combined with He–Ne laser irradiation-induced apoptosis in canine breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huatao; Tong, Jinjin; Bao, Jun; Tang, Damu; Tian, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) combined with He-Ne laser irradiation is a novel and promising photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced apoptosis that can be applied in vitro on canine breast cancer cells. However, the exact pathway responsible for HMME-PDT in canine breast cancer cells remains unknown. CHMm cells morphology and apoptosis were analyzed using optical microscope, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling fluorescein staining and DNA ladder assays. Apoptotic pathway was further confirmed by Real-time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting assays. Our results showed that HMME-PDT induced significant changes in cell morphology, such as formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles and the gradual rounding of cells coupled with decreased size and detachment. DNA fragmentation and cell death was shown to occur in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, HMME-PDT increased the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and released cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. HMME-PDT also significantly increased both mRNA and protein levels of Bax and decreased P53 gene expression in a time-dependent manner, while the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 were repressed. These alterations suggest that HMME-PDT induced CHMm cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and had anti-canine breast cancer effects in vitro. PMID:26645330

  4. Targeting RING domains of Mdm2-MdmX E3 complex activates apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Xu, C; Ling, X; Fan, C; Buckley, B P; Chernov, M V; Ellis, L; Li, F; Muñoz, I G; Wang, X

    2015-12-31

    Reactivation of tumor-suppressor p53 for targeted cancer therapy is an attractive strategy for cancers bearing wild-type (WT) p53. Targeting the Mdm2-p53 interface or MdmX ((MDM4), mouse double minute 4)-p53 interface or both has been a focus in the field. However, targeting the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2-MdmX really interesting new gene (RING)-RING interaction as a novel anticancer strategy has never been explored. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors targeting Mdm2-MdmX RING-RING interaction as a new class of E3 ligase inhibitors. With a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based E3 activity assay in high-throughput screening of a chemical library, we identified inhibitors (designated as MMRis (Mdm2-MdmX RING domain inhibitors)) that specifically inhibit Mdm2-MdmX E3 ligase activity toward Mdm2 and p53 substrates. MMRi6 and its analog MMRi64 are capable of disrupting Mdm2-MdmX interactions in vitro and activating p53 in cells. In leukemia cells, MMRi64 potently induces downregulation of Mdm2 and MdmX. In contrast to Nutlin3a, MMRi64 only induces the expression of pro-apoptotic gene PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) with minimal induction of growth-arresting gene p21. Consequently, MMRi64 selectively induces the apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells. Owing to the distinct mechanisms of action of MMRi64 and Nutlin3a, their combination synergistically induces p53 and apoptosis. Taken together, this study reveals that Mdm2-MdmX has a critical role in apoptotic response of the p53 pathway and MMRi64 may serve as a new pharmacological tool for p53 studies and a platform for cancer drug development.

  5. Mitochondrial control of nuclear apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Anucleate cells can be induced to undergo programmed cell death (PCD), indicating the existence of a cytoplasmic PCD pathway that functions independently from the nucleus. Cytoplasmic structures including mitochondria have been shown to participate in the control of apoptotic nuclear disintegration. Before cells exhibit common signs of nuclear apoptosis (chromatin condensation and endonuclease-mediated DNA fragmentation), they undergo a reduction of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta psi m) that may be due to the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pores. Here, we present direct evidence indicating that mitochondrial PT constitutes a critical early event of the apoptotic process. In a cell-free system combining purified mitochondria and nuclei, mitochondria undergoing PT suffice to induce chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Induction of PT by pharmacological agents augments the apoptosis-inducing potential of mitochondria. In contrast, prevention of PT by pharmacological agents impedes nuclear apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondria from hepatocytes or lymphoid cells undergoing apoptosis, but not those from normal cells, induce disintegration of isolated Hela nuclei. A specific ligand of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), bongkreik acid, inhibits PT and reduces apoptosis induction by mitochondria in a cell-free system. Moreover, it inhibits the induction of apoptosis in intact cells. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the proto-oncogene product Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial PT. First, to inhibit nuclear apoptosis, Bcl-2 must be localized in mitochondrial but not nuclear membranes. Second, transfection-enforced hyperexpression of Bcl-2 directly abolishes the induction of mitochondrial PT in response to a protonophore, a pro- oxidant, as well as to the ANT ligand atractyloside, correlating with its apoptosis-inhibitory effect. In conclusion, mitochondrial PT appears

  6. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and apoptotic pathways by betaine attenuates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, P; Liu, J; Mai, S; Yuan, Y; Wang, Y; Dai, G

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of betaine on acute myocardial ischemia induced experimentally in rats focusing on regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and apoptotic pathways as the potential mechanism underlying the drug effect. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with betaine (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) orally for 40 days. Acute myocardial ischemic injury was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg), for two consecutive days. Serum cardiac marker enzyme, histopathological variables and expression of protein levels were analyzed. Oral administration of betaine (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the level of cardiac marker enzyme in the serum and prevented left ventricular remodeling. Western blot analysis showed that isoproterenol-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 was maintained or further enhanced by betaine treatment in myocardium. Furthermore, betaine (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment increased the ventricular expression of Bcl-2 and reduced the level of Bax, therefore causing a significant increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The protective role of betaine on myocardial damage was further confirmed by histopathological examination. In summary, our results showed that betaine pretreatment attenuated isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial ischemia via the regulation of STAT3 and apoptotic pathways.

  7. Estrogen receptor-β in mitochondria: implications for mitochondrial bioenergetics and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tien-Ling; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Yu, Chao-Lan; Wang, Yi-Pei; Kao, Shu-Huei

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen enhances mitochondrial function by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and sustaining mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity. Shifts in mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis have been hypothesized to be involved in estrogen-induced tumorigenesis. Studies have shown that mitochondria are an important target of estrogen. Estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) has been shown to localize to mitochondria in a ligand-dependent or -independent manner and can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics and anti-apoptotic signaling. However, the functional role of mitochondrial ERβ in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Clinical studies of ERβ-related tumorigenesis have shown that ERβ stimulates mitochondrial metabolism to meet the high energy demands of processes such as cell proliferation, cell survival, and transformation. Thus, in elucidating the precise role of mitochondrial ERβ in cell transformation and tumorigenesis, it will be particularly valuable to explore new approaches for the development of medical treatments targeting mitochondrial ERβ-mediated mitochondrial function and preventing apoptosis.

  8. Anthraquinone G503 Induces Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cells through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Duan, Junting; Ye, Fang; Li, Hanxiang; She, Zhigang; Gao, Guoquan; Yang, Xia

    2014-01-01

    G503 is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the secondary metabolites of a mangrove endophytic fungus from the South China Sea. The present study elucidates the anti-tumor activity and the underlying mechanism of G503. Cell viability assay performed in nine cancer cell lines and two normal cell lines demonstrated that the gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 is the most G503-sensitive cancer cells. G503 induced SGC7901 cell death via apoptosis. G503 exposure activated caspases-3, -8 and -9. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, but not caspase-8 inbibitor Z-IETD-FMK, attenuated the effect of G503. These results suggested that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, rather than the extrinsic pathway, was involved in G503-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, G503 increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in the mitochondria and decreased the ratio in the cytosol. G503 treatment resulted in mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release and the subsequent cleavage of caspase -9 and -3. Moreover, it is reported that the endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway may also be activated by G503 by inducing capase-4 cleavage. In consideration of the lower 50% inhibitory concentration for gastric cancer cells, G503 may serve as a promising candidate for gastric cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25268882

  9. Anthraquinone G503 induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lijun; Zhang, Ting; Li, Shuai; Duan, Junting; Ye, Fang; Li, Hanxiang; She, Zhigang; Gao, Guoquan; Yang, Xia

    2014-01-01

    G503 is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the secondary metabolites of a mangrove endophytic fungus from the South China Sea. The present study elucidates the anti-tumor activity and the underlying mechanism of G503. Cell viability assay performed in nine cancer cell lines and two normal cell lines demonstrated that the gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 is the most G503-sensitive cancer cells. G503 induced SGC7901 cell death via apoptosis. G503 exposure activated caspases-3, -8 and -9. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, but not caspase-8 inbibitor Z-IETD-FMK, attenuated the effect of G503. These results suggested that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, rather than the extrinsic pathway, was involved in G503-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, G503 increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in the mitochondria and decreased the ratio in the cytosol. G503 treatment resulted in mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release and the subsequent cleavage of caspase -9 and -3. Moreover, it is reported that the endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway may also be activated by G503 by inducing capase-4 cleavage. In consideration of the lower 50% inhibitory concentration for gastric cancer cells, G503 may serve as a promising candidate for gastric cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Lycopene protects human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced death via inhibition of oxidative stress and mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    FENG, CHUNSHENG; LUO, TIANFEI; ZHANG, SHUYAN; LIU, KAI; ZHANG, YANHONG; LUO, YINAN; GE, PENGFEI

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a common pathway that results in neuronal injury or death due to various types of pathological stress. Although lycopene has been identified as a potent antioxidant, its effect on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage remains unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with lycopene was observed to protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced death via inhibition of apoptosis resulting from activation of caspase-3 and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus. Furthermore, the over-produced ROS, as well as the reduced activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were demonstrated to be alleviated by lycopene. Additionally, lycopene counteracted H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, which was evidenced by suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, attenuation of the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibition of the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 levels within the mitochondria. The release of cytochrome c and AIF from the mitochondria was also reduced. These results indicate that lycopene is a potent neuroprotectant against apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and could be administered to prevent neuronal injury or death. PMID:27035331

  11. Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Chaetominine in a Human Leukemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jingyun; Jiao, Ruihua; Liu, Changqing; Zhang, Yupeng; Yu, Wanguo; Lu, Yanhua; Tan, Renxiang

    2016-01-01

    Chaetominine is a quinazoline alkaloid originating from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CY018. In this study, we showed evidence that chaetominine has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human leukemia K562 cells and investigated the pathway involved in chaetominine-induced apoptosis in detail. Chaetominine inhibited K562 cell growth, with an IC50 value of 35 nM, but showed little inhibitory effect on the growth of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The high apoptosis rates, morphological apoptotic features, and DNA fragmentation caused by chaetominine indicated that the cytotoxicity was partially caused by its pro-apoptotic effect. Under chaetominine treatment, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was upregulated (from 0.3 to 8), which was followed by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and stimulation of Apaf-1. Furthermore, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which are the main executers of the apoptotic process, was observed. These results demonstrated that chaetominine induced cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Chaetominine inhibited K562 cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death through the intrinsic pathway, which suggests that chaetominine might be a promising therapeutic for leukemia. PMID:26902083

  12. [Role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Long; Zhang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Taking Rumex K-1 leaves as test materials, this paper studied the role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection under different light intensities. Under low light intensity (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), and after treated with salicylhydroxamic acid to inhibit the AOX pathway, the leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, linear electron transport rate of photosynthesis, and photosynthetic O2 evolution rate all decreased significantly while the non-Q(B) reducing reaction center had a significant increase, indicating that under low light, the photoinhibition was aggravated while the scavenging enzymes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased, which avoided the over-accumulation of ROS and partially alleviated the photoinhibition of Rumex K-1 leaves. Under high light intensity (800 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), the inhibition of AOX pathway caused more severe photoinhibition, and the increased activities of ROS scavenging enzymes were insufficient to prevent the over-accumulation of ROS. This study demonstrated that AOX pathway played an important role in the photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves under both high and low light intensities, and the role of AOX pathway in photoprotection under high light could be irreplaceable by the other photoprotection pathways in chloroplast.

  13. Transcriptome analysis reveals link between proteasomal and mitochondrial pathways in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Duke, D C; Moran, L B; Kalaitzakis, M E; Deprez, M; Dexter, D T; Pearce, R K B; Graeber, M B

    2006-07-01

    There is growing evidence that dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and failure of the cellular protein degradation machinery, specifically the ubiquitin-proteasome system, play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. We now show that the corresponding pathways of these two systems are linked at the transcriptomic level in Parkinsonian substantia nigra. We examined gene expression in medial and lateral substantia nigra (SN) as well as in frontal cortex using whole genome DNA oligonucleotide microarrays. In this study, we use a hypothesis-driven approach in analysing microarray data to describe the expression of mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) genes in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although a number of genes showed up-regulation, we found an overall decrease in expression affecting the majority of mitochondrial and UPS sequences. The down-regulated genes include genes that encode subunits of complex I and the Parkinson's-disease-linked UCHL1. The observed changes in expression were very similar for both medial and lateral SN and also affected the PD cerebral cortex. As revealed by "gene shaving" clustering analysis, there was a very significant correlation between the transcriptomic profiles of both systems including in control brains. Therefore, the mitochondria and the proteasome form a higher-order gene regulatory network that is severely perturbed in Parkinson's disease. Our quantitative results also suggest that Parkinson's disease is a disease of more than one cell class, i.e. that it goes beyond the catecholaminergic neuron and involves glia as well.

  14. [Soluble, nuclear and mitochondrial forms of dehydrogenases, pentose-phosphate pathway transferases and nucleases in chicken liver].

    PubMed

    Kudriavtseua, G V; Goilo, T A; Petske, K Iu; Kolotilova, A I

    1976-02-01

    The sub-cellular topography of oxidative and non-oxidative enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway of carbohydrates metabolism and enzymes of the nucleic exchange (acid and alkaline deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases) in chicken liver is studied. Nuclear and mitochondrial forms of the enzymes are discovered. The activity of the enzymes studied of carbohydrates metabolism is shown to correlate with that of the enzymes of nucleic metabolism in cytosol, nucleic and mitochondrial liver fractions.

  15. Transaldolase deficiency influences the pentose phosphate pathway, mitochondrial homoeostasis and apoptosis signal processing.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yueming; Banerjee, Sanjay; Grossman, Craig E; Amidon, Wendy; Nagy, Gyorgy; Barcza, Maureen; Niland, Brian; Karp, David R; Middleton, Frank A; Banki, Katalin; Perl, Andras

    2008-10-01

    TAL (transaldolase) was originally described in the yeast as an enzyme of the PPP (pentose phosphate pathway). However, certain organisms and mammalian tissues lack TAL, and the overall reason for its existence is unclear. Recently, deletion of Ser(171) (TALDeltaS171) was found in five patients causing inactivation, proteasome-mediated degradation and complete deficiency of TAL. In the present study, microarray and follow-up Western-blot, enzyme-activity and metabolic studies of TALDeltaS171 TD (TAL-deficient) lymphoblasts revealed co-ordinated changes in the expression of genes involved in the PPP, mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative stress, and Ca(2+) fluxing. Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate was accumulated, whereas G6P (glucose 6-phosphate) was depleted, indicating a failure to recycle G6P for the oxidative branch of the PPP. Nucleotide analysis showed depletion of NADPH and NAD(+) and accumulation of ADP-ribose. TD cells have diminished Deltapsi(m) (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and increased mitochondrial mass associated with increased production of nitric oxide and ATP. TAL deficiency resulted in enhanced spontaneous and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. TD lymphoblasts showed increased expression of CD38, which hydrolyses NAD(+) into ADP-ribose, a trigger of Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum that, in turn, facilitated CD20-induced apoptosis. By contrast, TD cells were resistant to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis, owing to a dependence of caspase activity on redox-sensitive cysteine residues. Normalization of TAL activity by adeno-associated-virus-mediated gene transfer reversed the elevated CD38 expression, ATP and Ca(2+) levels, suppressed H(2)O(2)- and CD20-induced apoptosis and enhanced Fas-induced cell death. The present study identified the TAL deficiency as a modulator of mitochondrial homoeostasis, Ca(2+) fluxing and apoptosis.

  16. Diversity in mitochondrial metabolic pathways in parasitic protists Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Tatsushi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2010-09-01

    Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites and occupy diverse niches. They have remodeled mitochondrial carbon and energy metabolism through reductive evolution. Plasmodium lacks mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase and H(+)-translocating NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I, NDH1). The mitochondorion contains a minimal mtDNA ( approximately 6kb) and carries out oxidative phosphorylation in the insect vector stages, by using 2-oxoglutarate as an alternative means of entry into the TCA cycle and a single-subunit flavoprotein as an alternative NADH dehydrogenase (NDH2). In the blood stages of mammalian hosts, mitochondrial enzymes are down-regulated and parasite energy metabolism relies mainly on glycolysis. Mitosomes of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (human intestine parasites) lack mtDNA, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA cycle enzymes except malate-quinone oxidoreductase (MQO), and ATP synthase subunits except alpha and beta. In contrast, mitosomes of Cryptosporidium muris (a rodent gastric parasite) retain all TCA cycle enzymes and functional ATP synthase and carry out oxidative phosphorylation with pyruvate-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (PNO) and a simple and unique respiratory chain consisting of NDH2 and alternative oxidase (AOX). Cryptosporidium and Perkinsus are early branching groups of chromoalveolates (apicomplexa and dinoflagellates, respectively), and both Cryptosporidium mitosome and Perkinsus mitochondrion use PNO, MQO, and AOX. All apicomplexan parasites and dinoflagellates share MQO, which has been acquired from epsilon-proteobacteria via lateral gene transfer. By genome data mining on Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Perkinsus, here we summarized their mitochondrial metabolic pathways, which are varied largely from those of mammalian hosts. We hope that our findings will help in understanding the apicomplexan metabolism and development of new chemotherapeutics with novel targets.

  17. Mimulone-induced autophagy through p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway increases caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  18. Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  19. Response of mitochondrial antioxidant system and respiratory pathways to reactive nitrogen species in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Martí, María C; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Camejo, Daymi; Pallol, Beatriz; Ortiz, Ana; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Jiménez, Ana; Sevilla, Francisca

    2013-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important signaling molecule in plants, but little is known about the effects of reactive nitrogen species in plant mitochondria. In this study, the effects of DETA-NONOate, a pure NO slow generator, and of SIN-1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine), a peroxynitrite producer, on the activities of respiratory pathways, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants have been investigated in isolated mitochondria from pea leaves. No significant changes in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation or in ascorbate and glutathione redox state were observed after DETA-NONOate treatments whereas cytochrome pathway (CP) respiration was reversibly inhibited and alternative pathway (AP) respiration showed little inhibition. On the other hand, NO did not affect neither activities of Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) nor enzymes involved in the ascorbate and glutathione regeneration in mitochondria except for ascorbate peroxidase (APX), which was reversely inhibited depending on ascorbate concentration. Finally, SIN-1 treatment of mitochondria produced a decrease in CP respiration, an increase in protein oxidation and strongly inhibited APX activity (90%), with glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) being moderately inhibited (30 and 20%, respectively). This treatment did not affect monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and Mn-SOD activities. Results showed that mitochondrial nitrosative stress was not necessarily accompanied by oxidative stress. We suggest that NO-resistant AP and mitochondrial APX may be important components of the H(2) O(2) -signaling pathways under nitrosative stress induced by NO in this organelle. Also, MDHAR and DHAR, via ascorbate regeneration, could constitute an essential antioxidant defense together with Mn-SOD, against NO and ONOO(-) stress in plant mitochondria.

  20. Redox Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Handy, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redox-dependent processes influence most cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are at the center of these processes, as mitochondria both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive redox-sensitive events and respond to ROS-mediated changes in the cellular redox state. In this review, we examine the regulation of cellular ROS, their modes of production and removal, and the redox-sensitive targets that are modified by their flux. In particular, we focus on the actions of redox-sensitive targets that alter mitochondrial function and the role of these redox modifications on metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, receptor-mediated signaling, and apoptotic pathways. We also consider the role of mitochondria in modulating these pathways, and discuss how redox-dependent events may contribute to pathobiology by altering mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1323–1367. PMID:22146081

  1. Panax notoginseng saponins attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinwen; Huang, Zhenguang; Zou, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yufang; Qiu, Yue; Wen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this experiment was to investigate the protective effect and the molecular mechanism of Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The rats underwent intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of cisplatin, a subset of rats were also intraperitoneally injected with 31.35 mg/kg PNS once a day for 8 days. At day 1, 4 and 8 after exposure to cisplatin, the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase (NAG) were determined using commercial kits. The pathological change of renal tissue were examined using H & E staining and transmission electron microscopy. The rate of apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 in rat renal tissue were detected by using TUNEL staining and Western bloting, respectively. And the expressions of Bax and caspases 9 were detected by immunnohistochemistry. The results showed that PNS significantly protected against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by the decrease in concentration of blood BUN, Scr and urinary NAG, as well as the attenuation of renal histopathological damage. Furthermore, PNS reduced the rate of apoptosis, and the mechanism studies showed that PNS inhibited the expression of Bax and caspase 9, while increased the expression of Bcl-2. This study first demonstrated that PNS can protect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and reduce renal tissue apoptosis via inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:25674203

  2. Curcumin attenuates Mancozeb-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes through mitochondrial survival pathway.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Voja; Cekic, Snezana; Ciric, Milan; Krtinic, Dane; Jovanovic, Jelena

    2016-02-01

    The widely used fungicide Mancozeb (Man) has been shown to cause genotoxic effects in rodents and toxicological manifestations in different cells, mainly by altering the antioxidant defense in cells. On the other hand, curcumin (Cur), a natural phenolic compound, is thought to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Here, we investigated the possible protective role of Cur on Man-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes and potential mechanism involved. Rat thymocytes were treated with Man(0.01 μg/ml) and/or increasing Cur(0.3, 1, 3 μM) concentrations and levels of cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP),Bcl-2, Bax protein expression, caspase-3 and -9 activity and p38 MAPK signaling involvement were examined. Cells treated with Man displayed increased cell toxicity, hypodiploid cells, caspase-3 and -9 activity, Bax protein expression, followed with decreased MMP and Bcl-2 protein expression. Inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway markedly reduced apoptosis rate and caspase-3 activity in thymocytes exposed to Man. Application of increasing Cur (1, 3 μM) concentrations resulted with significantly reduced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, caspase-3, -9 activity, Bax protein expression, together with increased MMP and Bcl-2 protein expression in rat thymocytes. These result suggest that certain Cur concentrations may mediate Man-induced rat thymocytes toxicity through mitochondrial survival pathway, which may be useful in preventing possible secondary immunological consequences induced by Man. PMID:26763609

  3. Shikonin induces apoptosis of HaCaT cells via the mitochondrial, Erk and Akt pathways

    PubMed Central

    JING, HUILING; SUN, WENYAN; FAN, JINGHUA; ZHANG, YANMIN; YANG, JIAO; JIA, JINJING; LI, JICHANG; GUO, JIAQI; LUO, SUJU; ZHENG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin, which is a major ingredient of the traditional Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, possesses various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of shikonin on HaCaT cell apoptosis. Treatment with shikonin significantly inhibited the viability of HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and promoted cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. In addition, shikonin treatment reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced reactive oxygen species generation. The results of a western blot analysis demonstrated that shikonin significantly activated caspase 3 expression, downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, and upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer expression in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, shikonin decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and Akt phosphorylation. These results indicated that shikonin may exert its anti-proliferative effects by inducing apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway and inactivation of the Akt and Erk pathways in HaCaT cells. Therefore, the present study suggested that shikonin may have potential as a component of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:26935874

  4. Mitochondrial protein import pathways are functionally conserved among eukaryotes despite compositional diversity of the import machineries.

    PubMed

    Eckers, Elisabeth; Cyrklaff, Marek; Simpson, Larry; Deponte, Marcel

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial protein import (MPI) is essential for the biogenesis of mitochondria in all eukaryotes. Current models of MPI are predominantly based on experiments with one group of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. Although fascinating genome database-driven hypotheses on the evolution of the MPI machineries have been published, previous experimental research on non-opisthokonts usually focused on the analysis of single pathways or components in, for example, plants and parasites. In this study, we have established the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania tarentolae as a model organism for the comprehensive analysis of non-opisthokont MPI into all four mitochondrial compartments. We found that opisthokont marker proteins are efficiently imported into isolated L. tarentolae mitochondria. Vice versa, L. tarentolae marker proteins of all compartments are also imported into mitochondria from yeast. The results are remarkable because only a few of the more than 25 classical components of the opisthokont MPI machineries are found in parasite genome databases. Our results demonstrate that different MPI pathways are functionally conserved among eukaryotes despite significant compositional differences of the MPI machineries. Moreover, our model system could lead to the identification of significantly altered or even novel MPI components in non-opisthokonts. Such differences might serve as starting points for drug development against parasitic protists.

  5. May "mitochondrial eve" and mitochondrial haplogroups play a role in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Ienco, Elena Caldarazzo; Simoncini, Costanza; Orsucci, Daniele; Petrucci, Loredana; Filosto, Massimiliano; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2011-02-22

    Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, play a critical role in several metabolic processes and apoptotic pathways. Multiple evidences suggest that mitochondria may be crucial in ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, mitochondrial haplogroups have been linked to multiple area of medicine, from normal ageing to diseases, including neurodegeneration. Polymorphisms within the mitochondrial genome might lead to impaired energy generation and to increased amount of reactive oxygen species, having either susceptibility or protective role in several diseases. Here, we highlight the role of the mitochondrial haplogroups in the pathogenetic cascade leading to diseases, with special attention to Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Investigation of anticancer mechanism of oleuropein via cell cycle and apoptotic pathways in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seçme, Mücahit; Eroğlu, Canan; Dodurga, Yavuz; Bağcı, Gülseren

    2016-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common types of pediatric tumors that can spread quickly in neuronal tissues. Oleuropein which is active compound of olive leaves, belongs to polyphenols group and has antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and anti-carcinogenic effects. The aim of the study is to determine the therapeutic effects of oleuropein on cell proliferation, invasion, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptotic mechanisms in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line under in vitro conditions. The effect of oleuropein on cell viability was determined by XTT method. 84 cell cycle control and 84 apoptosis related genes were evaluated by RT-PCR. Effects of oleuropein on apoptosis were researched by TUNEL assay. Protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. Effects of oleuropein on cell invasion, colony formation and migration were detected by matrigel-chamber, colony formation assay and wound-healing assay, respectively. IC50 value of oleuropein in SH-SY5Y cells was detected as 350 μM at 48th hours. It is determined that oleuropein causes cell cycle arrest by down-regulating of CylinD1,CylinD2,CyclinD3,CDK4,CDK6 and up-regulating of p53 and CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN1A gene expressions. Oleuropein also induces apoptosis by inhibiting of Bcl-2 and activating of Bax,caspase-9 and caspase-3 gene expressions. Apoptotic cell ratio was found 36.4 ± 3.27% in oleuropein dose group. Oleuropein decreased invasion in SH-SY5Y cells and suppressed colony numbers in ratio of 53.6 ± 4.71%.Our results demonstrated that oleuropein can be a therapeutic agent in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  7. Identification of regulatory pathways controlling gene expression of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lois H M; Giraud, Estelle; Uggalla, Vindya; Lister, Ryan; Clifton, Rachel; Glen, Angela; Thirkettle-Watts, Dave; Van Aken, Olivier; Whelan, James

    2008-08-01

    In this study we analyzed transcript abundance and promoters of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins to identify signaling pathways that regulate stress-induced gene expression. We used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) alternative oxidase AOX1a, external NADP H-dehydrogenase NDB2, and two additional highly stress-responsive genes, At2g21640 and BCS1. As a starting point, the promoter region of AOX1a was analyzed and functional analysis identified 10 cis-acting regulatory elements (CAREs), which played a role in response to treatment with H(2)O(2), rotenone, or both. Six of these elements were also functional in the NDB2 promoter. The promoter region of At2g21640, previously defined as a hallmark of oxidative stress, shared two functional CAREs with AOX1a and was responsive to treatment with H(2)O(2) but not rotenone. Microarray analysis further supported that signaling pathways induced by H(2)O(2) and rotenone are not identical. The promoter of BCS1 was not responsive to H(2)O(2) or rotenone, but highly responsive to salicylic acid (SA), whereas the promoters of AOX1a and NDB2 were unresponsive to SA. Analysis of transcript abundance of these genes in a variety of defense signaling mutants confirmed that BCS1 expression is regulated in a different manner compared to AOX1a, NDB2, and At2g21640. These mutants also revealed a pathway associated with programmed cell death that regulated AOX1a in a manner distinct from the other genes. Thus, at least three distinctive pathways regulate mitochondrial stress response at a transcriptional level, an SA-dependent pathway represented by BCS1, a second pathway that represents a convergence point for signals generated by H(2)O(2) and rotenone on multiple CAREs, some of which are shared between responsive genes, and a third pathway that acts via EDS1 and PAD4 regulating only AOX1a. Furthermore, posttranscriptional regulation accounts for changes in transcript abundance by SA treatment for some genes.

  8. The Shaggy Ink Cap Medicinal Mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extract Induces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells via Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Fares, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus was found to reduce viability of human ovarian cancer cells. The objective of the current research was to clarify the mechanism of action of this extract. Ovarian cancer cells (ES-2) were subjected to ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus for different concentrations or exposure times. Cell cycle analysis and annexin V staining were performed using an automated flow cytometer. DNA fragmentation was detected using the TUNEL assay. Western blot analysis was performed for the assessment of activation of caspases -3, -8, and -9. Results revealed that treatment of ES-2 cells with ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus (100 μg/ml medium), for 48 h or for 72 h resulted in an increased number of cells at the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. These treatments also resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells (positively stained by annexin and positively labeled by TUNEL), in comparison to the control. Reduced levels of procaspases -3, -8, and-9 were also detected in treated cells. In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells (ES-2), via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Meanwhile, more investigations are needed to demonstrate weather the apoptotic effect on ovarian cancer cells is accomplished by one active compound, or combined activities of different compounds that exist in the extract.

  9. The Shaggy Ink Cap Medicinal Mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extract Induces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells via Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Fares, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus was found to reduce viability of human ovarian cancer cells. The objective of the current research was to clarify the mechanism of action of this extract. Ovarian cancer cells (ES-2) were subjected to ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus for different concentrations or exposure times. Cell cycle analysis and annexin V staining were performed using an automated flow cytometer. DNA fragmentation was detected using the TUNEL assay. Western blot analysis was performed for the assessment of activation of caspases -3, -8, and -9. Results revealed that treatment of ES-2 cells with ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus (100 μg/ml medium), for 48 h or for 72 h resulted in an increased number of cells at the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. These treatments also resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells (positively stained by annexin and positively labeled by TUNEL), in comparison to the control. Reduced levels of procaspases -3, -8, and-9 were also detected in treated cells. In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells (ES-2), via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Meanwhile, more investigations are needed to demonstrate weather the apoptotic effect on ovarian cancer cells is accomplished by one active compound, or combined activities of different compounds that exist in the extract. PMID:26854099

  10. Maslinic Acid, a Natural Triterpene, Induces a Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptotic Mechanism in Caco-2 p53-Deficient Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; García-Salguero, Leticia; Peragón, Juan; Medina, Pedro P.; Parra, Andrés; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene present in high concentrations in the waxy skin of olives. We have previously reported that MA induces apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HT29 colon cancer cells. Here, we show that MA induces apoptosis in Caco-2 colon cancer cells via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dose-dependent manner. MA triggered a series of effects associated with apoptosis, including the cleavage of caspases -8 and -3, and increased the levels of t-Bid within a few hours of its addition to the culture medium. MA had no effect on the expression of the Bax protein, release of cytochrome-c or on the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggests that MA triggered the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in this cell type, as opposed to the intrinsic pathway found in the HT29 colon-cancer cell line. Our results suggest that the apoptotic mechanism induced in Caco-2 may be different from that found in HT29 colon-cancer cells, and that in Caco-2 cells MA seems to work independently of p53. Natural antitumoral agents capable of activating both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways could be of great use in treating colon-cancer of whatever origin. PMID:26751572

  11. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Maha A.E.

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  12. Late activation of apoptotic pathways plays a negligible role in mediating the cytotoxic effects of discodermolide and epothilone B in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Linda E; Huisman, Cynthia; Ferreira, Carlos G; Rodriguez, José A; Kruyt, Frank A E; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2002-07-15

    Discodermolide and epothilone B are promising novel chemotherapeutic agentsthat induce cell death through potent stabilization of microtubules. In this study, we investigated the cellular and molecular events underlying the cytotoxicity of these drugs in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, focusing on apoptotic characteristics. IC80 concentrations of either drug effectively disrupted the microtubule cytoskeleton of H460 cells and induced cell cycle disturbances with early accumulation in the G2-M phase and development of a hypodiploid cell population in both H460 and SW1573 cells. These events were followed by abnormal chromosome segregation during mitosis and subsequent appearance of multinucleated cells. At later time points, the cells displayed several apoptotic features, such as nuclear condensation and fragmentation as well as Annexin V staining, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and the activation of caspases. To examine the contribution of apoptotic pathways to the cytotoxic effects of these agents, the involvement of the mitochondria and death receptor routes was studied. At 48 h after treatment, both agents disrupted mitochondria of H460 cells, as indicated by cytochrome c release. Nonetheless, H460 cells stably overexpressing antiapoptotic Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL did not show any protective effect from cell death induced by either drug. Possible death receptor dependency was investigated in H460 cells stably overexpressing dominant-negative FADD, which failed to reduce the cytotoxic effects of discodermolide and epothilone B. To study the role of caspases more directly, the effect of stable overexpression of the caspase-8 inhibitor cytokine response modifier A was studied in H460 cells. Furthermore, the effect of the pancaspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone was investigated in a panel of lung carcinoma cell lines. Interestingly, caspase inhibition did not rescue cells from discodermolide or epothilone B-induced cell death. In

  13. Beta-asarone induces LoVo colon cancer cell apoptosis by up-regulation of caspases through a mitochondrial pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi; Liu, Shen-Lin; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Wu, Jian; Ling, Bo-Fan; Wang, Rui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Beta-asarone is one of the main bioactive constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Acorus calamu. Previous studies have shown that it has antifungal and anthelmintic activities. However, little is known about its anticancer effects. This study aimed to determine inhibitory effects on LoVo colon cancer cell proliferation and to clarify the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Dose-response and time-course anti-proliferation effects were examined by MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that LoVo cell viability showed dose- and time-dependence on β-asarone. We further assessed anti-proliferation effects as β-asarone-induced apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay using a flow cytometer and observed characteristic nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation of apoptosis by microscopy. Moreover, we found the apoptosis to be induced through the mitochondrial/caspase pathway by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reducing the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, in addition to activating the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascades. Additionally, the apoptosis could be inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor, carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK). When nude mice bearing LoVo tumor xenografts were treated with β-asarone, tumor volumes were reduced and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of excised tissue also demonstrated apoptotic changes. Taken together, these findings for the first time provide evidence that β-asarone can suppress the growth of colon cancer and the induced apoptosis is possibly mediated through mitochondria/caspase pathways.

  14. BCL-2 Antagonism to Target the Intrinsic Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Christopher J; Davids, Matthew S

    2015-11-15

    Despite significant improvements in treatment, cure rates for many cancers remain suboptimal. The rise of cytotoxic chemotherapy has led to curative therapy for a subset of cancers, though intrinsic treatment resistance is difficult to predict for individual patients. The recent wave of molecularly targeted therapies has focused on druggable-activating mutations, and is thus limited to specific subsets of patients. The lessons learned from these two disparate approaches suggest the need for therapies that borrow aspects of both, targeting biologic properties of cancer that are at once distinct from normal cells and yet common enough to make the drugs widely applicable across a range of cancer subtypes. The intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis represents one such promising target for new therapies, and successfully targeting this pathway has the potential to alter the therapeutic landscape of therapy for a variety of cancers. Here, we discuss the biology of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, an assay known as BH3 profiling that can interrogate this pathway, early attempts to target BCL-2 clinically, and the recent promising results with the BCL-2 antagonist venetoclax (ABT-199) in clinical trials in hematologic malignancies. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy." PMID:26567361

  15. Association of Genes, Pathways, and Haplogroups of the Mitochondrial Genome with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqing; Beckman, Kenneth B; Caberto, Christian; Kazma, Remi; Lum-Jones, Annette; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Stram, Daniel O; Saxena, Richa; Cheng, Iona

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome encodes for the synthesis of 13 proteins that are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process, and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. To investigate the role of the OXPHOS pathway and mitochondrial genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we tested 185 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs), located in 13 genes that comprise four complexes of the OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,453 colorectal cancer cases and 11,930 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Using the sequence kernel association test, we examined the collective set of 185 mtSNPs, as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial pathways, complexes, and genes, adjusting for age, sex, principal components of global ancestry, and self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. We also tested for haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with CRC risk (P = 0.04). In mtSNP-subset analysis, the NADH dehydrogenase 2 (MT-ND2) gene in Complex I was associated with CRC risk at a P-value of 0.001 (q = 0.015). In addition, haplogroup T was associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.19-2.33, P = 0.003). No significant mitochondrial pathway and gene associations were observed in the remaining four racial/ethnic groups--African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In summary, our findings suggest that variations in the mitochondrial genome and particularly in the MT-ND2 gene may play a role in CRC risk among European Americans, but not in other maternal racial/ethnic groups. Further replication is warranted and future studies

  16. Association of Genes, Pathways, and Haplogroups of the Mitochondrial Genome with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuqing; Beckman, Kenneth B.; Caberto, Christian; Kazma, Remi; Lum-Jones, Annette; Haiman, Christopher A.; Marchand, Loïc Le; Stram, Daniel O.; Saxena, Richa; Cheng, Iona

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome encodes for the synthesis of 13 proteins that are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process, and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. To investigate the role of the OXPHOS pathway and mitochondrial genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we tested 185 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs), located in 13 genes that comprise four complexes of the OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,453 colorectal cancer cases and 11,930 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Using the sequence kernel association test, we examined the collective set of 185 mtSNPs, as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial pathways, complexes, and genes, adjusting for age, sex, principal components of global ancestry, and self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. We also tested for haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with CRC risk (P = 0.04). In mtSNP-subset analysis, the NADH dehydrogenase 2 (MT-ND2) gene in Complex I was associated with CRC risk at a P-value of 0.001 (q = 0.015). In addition, haplogroup T was associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.19–2.33, P = 0.003). No significant mitochondrial pathway and gene associations were observed in the remaining four racial/ethnic groups—African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In summary, our findings suggest that variations in the mitochondrial genome and particularly in the MT-ND2 gene may play a role in CRC risk among European Americans, but not in other maternal racial/ethnic groups. Further replication is warranted and future

  17. Association of Genes, Pathways, and Haplogroups of the Mitochondrial Genome with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqing; Beckman, Kenneth B; Caberto, Christian; Kazma, Remi; Lum-Jones, Annette; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Stram, Daniel O; Saxena, Richa; Cheng, Iona

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome encodes for the synthesis of 13 proteins that are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process, and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. To investigate the role of the OXPHOS pathway and mitochondrial genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we tested 185 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs), located in 13 genes that comprise four complexes of the OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,453 colorectal cancer cases and 11,930 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Using the sequence kernel association test, we examined the collective set of 185 mtSNPs, as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial pathways, complexes, and genes, adjusting for age, sex, principal components of global ancestry, and self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. We also tested for haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with CRC risk (P = 0.04). In mtSNP-subset analysis, the NADH dehydrogenase 2 (MT-ND2) gene in Complex I was associated with CRC risk at a P-value of 0.001 (q = 0.015). In addition, haplogroup T was associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.19-2.33, P = 0.003). No significant mitochondrial pathway and gene associations were observed in the remaining four racial/ethnic groups--African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In summary, our findings suggest that variations in the mitochondrial genome and particularly in the MT-ND2 gene may play a role in CRC risk among European Americans, but not in other maternal racial/ethnic groups. Further replication is warranted and future studies

  18. Carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotube attenuated the cytotoxicity by limiting the oxidative stress initiated cell membrane integrity damage, cell cycle arrestment, and death receptor mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenbao; Liu, Yanfei; Peng, Dongming

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effects of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) on human normal liver cell line L02 was compared with that of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs). It was shown that compared with MWCNTs-COOH, p-MWCNTs induced apoptosis, reduced the level of intracellular antioxidant glutathione more significantly, and caused severer cell membrane damage as demonstrated by lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Cell cycles were arrested by both MWCNTs, while p-MWCNTs induced higher ratio of G0/G1 phase arrestment as compared with MWCNTs-COOH. Caspase-8 was also activated after both MWCNTs exposure, indicating extrinsic apoptotic pathway was involved in the apoptosis induced by MWCNTs exposure, more importantly, MWCNTs-COOH significantly reduced the activation of caspase-8 as compared with p-MWCNTs. All these results suggested that MWCNTs-COOH might be safer for in vivo application as compared with p-MWCNTs.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency disrupts endocytosis, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial protein pathways in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    English, Jane A.; Harauma, Akiko; Föcking, Melanie; Wynne, Kieran; Scaife, Caitriona; Cagney, Gerard; Moriguchi, Toru; Cotter, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) deficiency is an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, yet characterization of the consequences of deficiency at the protein level in the brain is limited. We aimed to identify the protein pathways disrupted as a consequence of chronic n-3 deficiency in the hippocampus of mice. Fatty acid analysis of the hippocampus following chronic dietary deficiency revealed a 3-fold decrease (p < 0.001) in n-3 FA levels. Label free LC-MS/MS analysis identified and profiled 1008 proteins, of which 114 were observed to be differentially expressed between n-3 deficient and control groups (n = 8 per group). The cellular processes that were most implicated were neuritogenesis, endocytosis, and exocytosis, while specific protein pathways that were most significantly dysregulated were mitochondrial dysfunction and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). In order to characterize whether these processes and pathways are ones influenced by antipsychotic medication, we used LC-MS/MS to test the differential expression of these 114 proteins in the hippocampus of mice chronically treated with the antipsychotic agent haloperidol. We observed 23 of the 114 proteins to be differentially expressed, 17 of which were altered in the opposite direction to that observed following n-3 deficiency. Overall, our findings point to disturbed synaptic function, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial function as a consequence of dietary deficiency in n-3 FA. This study greatly aids our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which n-3 deficiency impairs normal brain function, and provides clues as to how n-3 FA exert their therapeutic effect in early psychosis. PMID:24194745

  20. Death upon a kiss: mitochondrial outer membrane composition and organelle communication govern sensitivity to BAK/BAX-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Thibaud T.; Chipuk, Jerry E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In order for stressed cells to induce the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, a cohort of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins must collaborate with the outer mitochondrial membrane to permeabilize it. BAK and BAX are the two pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members that are required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. While biochemical and structural insights of BAK/BAX function have expanded in the recent years, very little is known about the role of the outer mitochondrial membrane in regulating BAK/BAX activity. In this review, we will highlight the impact of mitochondrial composition (both protein and lipid), and mitochondrial interactions with cellular organelles, on BAK/BAX function and cellular commitment to apoptosis. A better understanding of how BAK/BAX and mitochondrial biology are mechanistically linked will likely reveal novel insights into homeostatic and pathological mechanisms associated with apoptosis. PMID:24269152

  1. RNAi-based glyconanoparticles trigger apoptotic pathways for in vitro and in vivo enhanced cancer-cell killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, João; Tian, Furong; Hernandez, Yulan; Bao, Chenchen; Baptista, Pedro V.; Cui, Daxiang; Stoeger, Tobias; de La Fuente, Jesus M.

    2015-05-01

    Gold glyconanoparticles (GlycoNPs) are full of promise in areas like biomedicine, biotechnology and materials science due to their amazing physical, chemical and biological properties. Here, siRNA GlycoNPs (AuNP@PEG@Glucose@siRNA) in comparison with PEGylated GlycoNPs (AuNP@PEG@Glucose) were applied in vitro to a luciferase-CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cancer cell line and in vivo via intratracheal instillation directly into the lungs of B6 albino mice grafted with luciferase-CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cells. siRNA GlycoNPs but not PEGylated GlycoNPs induced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Fas/CD95 and caspases 3 and 9 in CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cells in a dose dependent manner, independent of the inflammatory response, evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage cell counting. Moreover, in vivo pulmonary delivered siRNA GlycoNPs were capable of targeting c-Myc gene expression (a crucial regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis) via in vivo RNAi in tumour tissue, leading to an ~80% reduction in tumour size without associated inflammation.Gold glyconanoparticles (GlycoNPs) are full of promise in areas like biomedicine, biotechnology and materials science due to their amazing physical, chemical and biological properties. Here, siRNA GlycoNPs (AuNP@PEG@Glucose@siRNA) in comparison with PEGylated GlycoNPs (AuNP@PEG@Glucose) were applied in vitro to a luciferase-CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cancer cell line and in vivo via intratracheal instillation directly into the lungs of B6 albino mice grafted with luciferase-CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cells. siRNA GlycoNPs but not PEGylated GlycoNPs induced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Fas/CD95 and caspases 3 and 9 in CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cells in a dose dependent manner, independent of the inflammatory response, evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage cell counting. Moreover, in vivo pulmonary delivered siRNA GlycoNPs were capable of targeting c-Myc gene expression (a crucial regulator of cell proliferation and

  2. Matrine inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via BID-mediated mitochondrial pathway in esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao; Du, Haoxin; Geng, Guojun; Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-05-01

    Matrine, as a member of Sophora family, is an alkaloid found in plants, and produces plethora pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. This study is conducted to investigate the anti-cancer mechanisms of matrine in human esophageal cancer in vitro and in vivo. In human esophageal cancer cell Eca-109, matrine significantly decreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and induced apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by up-regulation of P53 and P21. The expression of several apoptosis-related proteins in cells and tumor tissues were evaluated by Western blot analysis. We found that matrine induced cell apoptosis by down-regulation of the ratio of BCL-2/BID and increasing activation of caspase-9. Further studies indicated that matrine induced apoptosis of Eca-109 was through the mitochondria-mediated internal pathway, but not by death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by the fact that Bid translocated from the nucleus to mitochondria during the process of the apoptosis induced by matrine. In vivo study found that matrine effectively inhibited the tumor formation of Eca-109 cells in nude mice. Our study suggests that matrine could serve as a potential novel agent from natural products to treat esophageal cancer.

  3. Cardioprotection against doxorubicin by metallothionein Is associated with preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis involving PGC-1α pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiabin; Guo, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Tingfen; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuangqing

    2014-08-15

    Metallothionein (MT) has been shown to inhibit cardiac oxidative stress and protect against the cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin (DOX), a potent and widely used chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanism of MT׳s protective action against DOX still remains obscure. Mitochondrial biogenesis impairment has been implicated to play an important role in the etiology and progression of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Increasing evidence indicates an intimate link between MT-mediated cardioprotection and mitochondrial biogenesis. This study was aimed to explore the possible contribution of mitochondrial biogenesis in MT׳s cardioprotective action against DOX. Adult male MT-I/II-null (MT(-/-)) and wild-type (MT(+/+)) mice were given a single dose of DOX intraperitoneally. Our results revealed that MT deficiency significantly sensitized mice to DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction, ultrastructural alterations, and mortality. DOX disrupted cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis indicated by mitochondrial DNA copy number and decreased mitochondrial number, and these effects were greater in MT(-/-) mice. Basal MT effectively protected against DOX-induced inhibition on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and its downstream factors including mitochondrial transcription factor A. Moreover, MT was found to preserve the protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase, a transcriptional target of PGC-1α. in vitro study showed that MT absence augmented DOX-induced increase of mitochondrial superoxide production in primary cultured cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that MT׳s cardioprotection against DOX is mediated, at least in part, by preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis involving PGC-1α pathway. PMID:24858368

  4. RNAi-based glyconanoparticles trigger apoptotic pathways for in vitro and in vivo enhanced cancer-cell killing.

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Tian, Furong; Hernandez, Yulan; Bao, Chenchen; Baptista, Pedro V; Cui, Daxiang; Stoeger, Tobias; de la Fuente, Jesus M

    2015-05-21

    Gold glyconanoparticles (GlycoNPs) are full of promise in areas like biomedicine, biotechnology and materials science due to their amazing physical, chemical and biological properties. Here, siRNA GlycoNPs (AuNP@PEG@Glucose@siRNA) in comparison with PEGylated GlycoNPs (AuNP@PEG@Glucose) were applied in vitro to a luciferase-CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cancer cell line and in vivo via intratracheal instillation directly into the lungs of B6 albino mice grafted with luciferase-CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cells. siRNA GlycoNPs but not PEGylated GlycoNPs induced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Fas/CD95 and caspases 3 and 9 in CMT/167 adenocarcinoma cells in a dose dependent manner, independent of the inflammatory response, evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage cell counting. Moreover, in vivo pulmonary delivered siRNA GlycoNPs were capable of targeting c-Myc gene expression (a crucial regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis) via in vivo RNAi in tumour tissue, leading to an ∼80% reduction in tumour size without associated inflammation. PMID:25924183

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells from rat bone marrow down regulate Caspase-3 mediated apoptotic pathway after spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Spomar, Daniel G.; Cady, Craig; Gujrati, Meena; Rao, Jasti S.; Dinh, Dzung H.

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been intensively studied for their potential use in reparative strategies for neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries. We used mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC) from rat bone marrow to evaluate the therapeutic potential after spinal cord injury (SCI). Immunohistochemistry confirmed a large number of apoptotic neurons and oligodendrocytes in caudal segments 2mm away from the lesion site. Expression of caspase-3 on both neurons and oligodendrocytes after SCI was significantly downregulated by rMSC. Caspase-3 downregulation by rMSC involves increased expression of FLIP and XIAP in the cytosol and inhibition of PARP cleavage in the nucleus. Animals treated with rMSC had higher BBB scores and better recovery of hind limb sensitivity. Treatment with rMSC had a positive effect on behavioral outcome and histopathological assessment after SCI. The ability of rMSC to incorporate into the spinal cord, differentiate and to improve locomotor recovery hold promise for a potential cure after SCI. PMID:17564836

  6. Protective efficacy of vitamins C and E on p,p'-DDT-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and NF-κB/FasL pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoting; Song, Li; Liu, Xiangyuan; Chen, Meilan; Li, Zhuoyu; Cheng, Long; Ren, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenoxytrichloroethane (DDT) is a known persistent organic pollutant and liver damage toxicant. However, there has been little emphasis on the mechanism underlying liver damage toxicity of DDT and the relevant effective inhibitors. Hence, the present study was conducted to explore the protective effects of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) on the cytotoxicity of DDT in HL-7702 cells and elaborate the specific molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that p,p'-DDT exposure at over 10 µM depleted cell viability of HL-7702 cells and led to cell apoptotic. p,p'-DDT treatment elevated the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced mitochondrial membrane potential, and released cytochrome c into the cytosol, with subsequent elevations of Bax and p53, along with suppression of Bcl-2. In addition, the activations of caspase-3 and -8 were triggered. Furthermore, p,p'-DDT promoted the expressions of NF-κB and FasL. When the cells were exposed to the NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC), the up-regulated expression of FasL was attenuated. Strikingly, these alterations caused by DDT treatment were prevented or reversed by the addition of VC or VE, and the protective effects of co-treatment with VC and VE were higher than the single supplement with p,p'-DDT. Taken together, these findings provide novel experimental evidences supporting that VC or/and VE could reduce p,p'-DDT-induced cytotoxicity of HL-7702 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and NF-κB/FasL pathway. PMID:25464339

  7. Mitochondrial Ca2+ and membrane potential, an alternative pathway for Interleukin 6 to regulate CD4 cell effector function

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Lirussi, Dario; Thornton, Tina M; Jelley-Gibbs, Dawn M; Diehl, Sean A; Case, Laure K; Madesh, Muniswamy; Taatjes, Douglas J; Teuscher, Cory; Haynes, Laura; Rincón, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    IL-6 plays an important role in determining the fate of effector CD4 cells and the cytokines that these cells produce. Here we identify a novel molecular mechanism by which IL-6 regulates CD4 cell effector function. We show that IL-6-dependent signal facilitates the formation of mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes to sustain high mitochondrial membrane potential late during activation of CD4 cells. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization caused by IL-6 is uncoupled from the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. However, it is a mechanism to raise the levels of mitochondrial Ca2+ late during activation of CD4 cells. Increased levels of mitochondrial Ca2+ in the presence of IL-6 are used to prolong Il4 and Il21 expression in effector CD4 cells. Thus, the effect of IL-6 on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial Ca2+ is an alternative pathway by which IL-6 regulates effector function of CD4 cells and it could contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06376.001 PMID:25974216

  8. Flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in AGS cells by modulation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Park, Hyeon Soo; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-09-01

    Citrus platymamma hort. ex Tanaka (Rutaceae family) has been widely used in Korean folk medicine for its wide range of medicinal benefits including an anticancer effect. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of the anticancer effects of flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma (FCP) on AGS cells. FCP treatment significantly inhibited AGS cell growth in a dose‑dependent manner. Furthermore, FCP significantly increased the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic cell population), and apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V double staining. Chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies were also noted in the FCP-treated AGS cells. Moreover, immunoblotting results showed that FCP treatment significantly decreased the expression of procaspase-3, -6, -8 and -9, and PARP and increased cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP and the Bax/Bcl-xL ratio in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the phosphorylation of AKT was significantly decreased, whereas extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were significantly increased in the FCP-treated AGS cells. Taken together, the cell death of AGS cells in response to FCP was mitochondrial-dependent via modulation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. These findings provide new insight for understanding the mechanism of the anticancer effects of FCP. Thus, FCP may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26165353

  9. Flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in AGS cells by modulation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Park, Hyeon Soo; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-09-01

    Citrus platymamma hort. ex Tanaka (Rutaceae family) has been widely used in Korean folk medicine for its wide range of medicinal benefits including an anticancer effect. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of the anticancer effects of flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma (FCP) on AGS cells. FCP treatment significantly inhibited AGS cell growth in a dose‑dependent manner. Furthermore, FCP significantly increased the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic cell population), and apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V double staining. Chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies were also noted in the FCP-treated AGS cells. Moreover, immunoblotting results showed that FCP treatment significantly decreased the expression of procaspase-3, -6, -8 and -9, and PARP and increased cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP and the Bax/Bcl-xL ratio in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the phosphorylation of AKT was significantly decreased, whereas extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were significantly increased in the FCP-treated AGS cells. Taken together, the cell death of AGS cells in response to FCP was mitochondrial-dependent via modulation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. These findings provide new insight for understanding the mechanism of the anticancer effects of FCP. Thus, FCP may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  10. Luffa echinata Roxb. Induced Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cell (SW-480) in the Caspase-dependent Manner and Through a Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Li-Hua; Yu, Yan; Che, De-Hai; Pan, Bo; Jin, Shi; Zou, Xiao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Background: Luffa echinata Roxb. (LER) (Cucurbitaceae) showed tremendous medicinal importance and are being used for the treatment of different ailments. Objective: In this study, the antiproliferative properties and cell death mechanism induced by the extract of the fruits of LER were investigated. Materials and Methods: MTT and LDH assay were used to test the antiproliferative and cytotoxicity of LER extract, respectively. The intracellular ROS were measured by a fluorometric assay. The expression of several apoptotic-related proteins in SW-480 cells treated by LER was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: The methanolic extract of LER fruits inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (SW-480) in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The LER-treated cells showed obvious characteristics of cell apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, destruction of the monolayer, and condensed chromatin. In addition, treatments of various concentrations of LER extracts caused the release of lactate dehydrogenase as a dose-dependent manner via stimulation of the intracellular metabolic system. LER induced apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and cellular ROS accumulation in SW-480 cells. Treatment of LER on SW-480 cells promoted the expression of caspases, Bax, Bad, and p53 proteins and decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Conclusions: These results indicated that treatment with LER-induced cell death in mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by regulating pro-apoptotic proteins via the up regulation of the p53 protein. These findings highlight the potentials of LER in the treatment of human colon cancer. SUMMARY LER induced apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and cellular ROS accumulation in SW-480 cells. Treatment of LER on SW-480 cells promoted the expression of caspases, Bax, Bad, and p53 proteins and decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. PMID:27019558

  11. Fipronil induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathways in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoyan; Xu, Zhiping; Zhang, Yixi; Shao, Xusheng; Xu, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Jiaogao; Li, Zhong

    2015-03-01

    Fipronil is the first phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in controlling pests, including pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. It is generally accepted that fipronil elicits neurotoxicity via interactions with GABA and glutamate receptors, although alternative mechanisms have recently been proposed. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of fipronil and its likely mode of action in Drosophila S2 cells, as an in vitro model. Fipronil administrated the concentration- and time-dependent S2 cell proliferation. Intracellular biochemical assays showed that fipronil-induced S2 cell apoptosis coincided with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase reactive oxygen species generation, a significant decrease of Bcl-2 and DIAP1, and a marked augmentation of Cyt c and caspase-3. Because caspase-3 is the major executioner caspase downstream of caspase-9 in Drosophila, enzyme activity assays were used to determine the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Our results indicated that fipronil effectively induced apoptosis in Drosophila S2 cells through caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathways.

  12. Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of B vitamins on the one-carbon transfer pathways.

    PubMed

    Depeint, Flore; Bruce, W Robert; Shangari, Nandita; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J

    2006-10-27

    The B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins that are required as coenzymes for reactions essential for cellular function. This review focuses on the essential role of vitamins in maintaining the one-carbon transfer cycles. Folate and choline are believed to be central methyl donors required for mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis through their active forms, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and betaine, respectively. Cobalamin (B12) may assist methyltetrahydrofolate in the synthesis of methionine, a cysteine source for glutathione biosynthesis. Pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine (B6) seem to be involved in the regeneration of tetrahydrofolate into the active methyl-bearing form and in glutathione biosynthesis from homocysteine. Other roles of these vitamins that are relevant to mitochondrial functions will also be discussed. However these roles for B vitamins in cell function are mostly theoretically based and still require verification at the cellular level. For instance it is still not known what B vitamins are depleted by xenobiotic toxins or which cellular targets, metabolic pathways or molecular toxic mechanisms are prevented by B vitamins. This review covers the current state of knowledge and suggests where this research field is heading so as to better understand the role vitamin Bs play in cellular function and intermediary metabolism as well as molecular, cellular and clinical consequences of vitamin deficiency. The current experimental and clinical evidence that supplementation alleviates deficiency symptoms as well as the effectiveness of vitamins as antioxidants will also be reviewed.

  13. Oxaloacetate activates brain mitochondrial biogenesis, enhances the insulin pathway, reduces inflammation and stimulates neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Harris, Janna L; Carl, Steven M; E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Eva Selfridge, J; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Koppel, Scott; Morris, Jill; Burns, Jeffrey M; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K; Brooks, William M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-12-15

    Brain bioenergetic function declines in some neurodegenerative diseases, this may influence other pathologies and administering bioenergetic intermediates could have therapeutic value. To test how one intermediate, oxaloacetate (OAA) affects brain bioenergetics, insulin signaling, inflammation and neurogenesis, we administered intraperitoneal OAA, 1-2 g/kg once per day for 1-2 weeks, to C57Bl/6 mice. OAA altered levels, distributions or post-translational modifications of mRNA and proteins (proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α, PGC1 related co-activator, nuclear respiratory factor 1, transcription factor A of the mitochondria, cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, cAMP-response element binding, p38 MAPK and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) in ways that should promote mitochondrial biogenesis. OAA increased Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and P70S6K phosphorylation. OAA lowered nuclear factor κB nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and CCL11 mRNA. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA, doublecortin mRNA, doublecortin protein, doublecortin-positive neuron counts and neurite length increased in OAA-treated mice. (1)H-MRS showed OAA increased brain lactate, GABA and glutathione thereby demonstrating metabolic changes are detectable in vivo. In mice, OAA promotes brain mitochondrial biogenesis, activates the insulin signaling pathway, reduces neuroinflammation and activates hippocampal neurogenesis.

  14. Flavonol and imidazole derivatives block HPV16 E6 activities and reactivate apoptotic pathways in HPV⁺ cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C-H; Filippova, M; Krstenansky, J L; Duerksen-Hughes, P J

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) cause nearly all cases of cervical cancer, as well as approximately 30% of head and neck cancers. HPV 16 E6, one of two major viral oncogenes, protects cells from apoptosis by binding to and accelerating the degradation of several proteins important in apoptotic signaling, including caspase 8 and p53. We proposed that blocking the interactions between HPV E6 and its partners using small molecules had the potential to re-sensitize HPV(+) cells to apoptosis. To test this idea, we screened libraries of small molecules for candidates that could block E6/caspase 8 binding and identified several candidates from different chemical classes. We tested hits for dose-dependency and specificity in vitro and for toxicity in a cell-based assay and then used this information to select the two best candidates for further testing: myricetin, a flavonol, and spinacine, an imidazole amino-acid derivative of histidine. Both compounds clearly inhibited the ability of E6 to bind in vitro to both caspase 8 and E6AP, the protein that mediates p53 degradation. In addition, both compounds were able to increase the level of caspase 8 and p53 in SiHa cervical cancer cells, resulting in an increase of caspase 3/7 activity. Finally, both myricetin and spinacine sensitized HPV(+) cervical and oral cancer cells, but not HPV(-) cervical and oral cancer cells, to apoptosis induced by the cancer-specific ligand TRAIL, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and cisplatin. New therapies based on this work may improve treatment for HPV(+) cancer patients. PMID:26794656

  15. Antiapoptotic and Antioxidant Properties of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Cat's Whiskers): Intervention in the Bcl-2-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Mohamed Elhassan, Manal; Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil; Mariod, Abdelbasit Adam; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Alkharfy, Khalid M.

    2011-01-01

    Antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities of aqueous-methanolic extract (CAME) of Orthosiphonstamineus Benth(OS), and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), n-butanol (NBF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water (WF) fractions were investigated. Antioxidant properties were evaluated using the assays of Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminiumtrichloride, β-carotene bleaching and DPPH. The role of OS against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis on MDA-M231 epithelial cells was examined using MTT assay, phase contrast microscope, colorimetric assay of caspase-3, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EAF showed the highest total phenolic content followed by CAME, NBF, WF, CF and HF, respectively. Flavonoid content was in the order of the CF > EAF > HF > CAME > NBF > WF. The IC50 values on DPPH assay for different extract/fractions were 126.2 ± 23, 31.25 ± 1.2, 15.25 ± 2.3, 13.56 ± 1.9, 23.0 ± 3.2, and 16.66 ± 1.5 μg/ml for HF, CF, EAF, NBF, WF and CAME, respectively. OSreduced the oxidation of β-carotene by hydroperoxides. Cell death was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreatment with OS. Caspase-3 and distinct morphological features suggest the anti-apoptotic activities of OS. This plant not only increased the expression of Bcl-2, but also decreased Bax expression, and ultimately reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis. The current results showed that phenolics may provide health and nutritional benefits. PMID:21234328

  16. Mechanisms of cell death pathway activation following drug-induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Naoki; Kwang Lee, Kang; Zhang, Carmen; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory complex I inhibition by drugs and other chemicals has been implicated as a frequent mode of mitochondria-mediated cell injury. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the activation of cell death pathways are incompletely understood. This study was designed to explore the relative contributions to cell injury of three distinct consequences of complex I inhibition, i.e., impairment of ATP biosynthesis, increased formation of superoxide and, hence, peroxynitrite, and inhibition of the mitochondrial protein deacetylase, Sirt3, due to imbalance of the NADH/NAD+ ratio. We used the antiviral drug efavirenz (EFV) to model drug-induced complex I inhibition. Exposure of cultured mouse hepatocytes to EFV resulted in a rapid onset of cell injury, featuring a no-effect level at 30 µM EFV and submaximal effects at 50 µM EFV. EFV caused a concentration-dependent decrease in cellular ATP levels. Furthermore, EFV resulted in increased formation of peroxynitrite and oxidation of mitochondrial protein thiols, including cyclophilin D (CypD). This was prevented by the superoxide scavenger, Fe-TCP, or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, Fe-TMPyP. Both ferroporphyrins completely protected from EFV-induced cell injury, suggesting that peroxynitrite contributed to the cell injury. Finally, EFV increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio, inhibited Sirt3 activity, and led to hyperacetylated lysine residues, including those in CypD. However, hepatocytes isolated from Sirt3-null mice were protected against 40 µM EFV as compared to their wild-type controls. In conclusion, these data are compatible with the concept that chemical inhibition of complex I activates multiple pathways leading to cell injury; among these, peroxynitrite formation may be the most critical. PMID:25625582

  17. Ofloxacin induces apoptosis in microencapsulated juvenile rabbit chondrocytes by caspase-8-dependent mitochondrial pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Zhiguo; Cao Xiaojuan; Peng Shuangqing Wang Changyong; Li Qianqian; Wang Yimei; Liu Mifeng

    2008-01-15

    Quinolones (QNs)-induced arthropathy is an important toxic effect in immature animals leading to restriction of their therapeutic use in pediatrics. However, the exact mechanism still remains unclear. Recently, we have demonstrated that ofloxacin, a typical QN, induces apoptosis of alginate microencapsulated juvenile rabbit joint chondrocytes by disturbing the {beta}{sub 1} integrin functions and inactivating the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we extend our initial observations to further elucidate the mechanism(s) of ofloxacin-induced apoptosis by utilizing specific caspase inhibitors. Pretreatment with both caspase-9-specific inhibitor zLEHD-fmk and caspase-8 inhibitor zIETD-fmk attenuated ofloxacin-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3 of chondrocyte in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by fluorescent dye staining, enzyme activity assay and immunoblotting. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3 stimulated by ofloxacin was significantly inhibited in the presence of zIETD-fmk while pretreatment with zLEHD-fmk only blocked the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Ofloxacin also stimulated a concentration-dependent translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and a decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, which was completely inhibited by zIETD-fmk. In addition, ofloxacin was found to increase the level of Bax, tBid, p53 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, The current results indicate that the caspase-8-dependent mitochondrial pathway is primarily involved in the ofloxacin-induced apoptosis of microencapsulated juvenile rabbit joint chondrocytes.

  18. Apoptotic Effects of Cordycepin Through the Extrinsic Pathway and p38 MAPK Activation in Human Glioblastoma U87MG Cells.

    PubMed

    Baik, Ji-Sue; Mun, Seo-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Park, Shin-Ji; Yoon, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-02-01

    We first demonstrated that cordycepin inhibited cell growth and triggered apoptosis in U87MG cells with wild-type p53, but not in T98G cells with mutant-type p53. Western blot data revealed that the levels of procaspase-8, -3, and Bcl-2 were downregulated in cordycepintreated U87MG cells, whereas the levels of Fas, FasL, Bak, cleaved caspase-3, -8, and cleaved PARP were upregulated, indicating that cordycepin induces apoptosis by activating the death receptor-mediated pathway in U87MG cells. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis could be suppressed by only SB203580, a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor. These results suggest that cordycepin triggered apoptosis in U87MG cells through p38 MAPK activation and inhibition of the Akt survival pathway. PMID:26597532

  19. Chamaecypanone C, a novel skeleton microtubule inhibitor, with anticancer activity by trigger caspase 8-Fas/FasL dependent apoptotic pathway in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chen, Li-Tzong; Cheung, Chun-Hei Antonio; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Lin, Chi-Hung; Pan, Wen-Yu; Chang, Chi-Yen; Chien, Shih-Chang; Chen, Tung-Wei; Lung, Chia-Chi; Chang, Jang-Yang

    2010-05-01

    Microtubule is a popular target for anticancer drugs. Chamaecypanone C, is a natural occurring novel skeleton compound isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The present study demonstrates that chamaecypanone C induced mitotic arrest through binding to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin, thus preventing tubulin polymerization. In addition, cytotoxic activity of chamaecypanone C in a variety of human tumor cell lines has been ascertained, with IC(50) values in nanomolar ranges. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that chamaecypanone C treated human KB cancer cells were arrested in G(2)-M phases in a time-dependent manner before cell death occurred. Additional studies indicated that the effect of Chamaecypanone C on cell cycle arrest was associated with an increase in cyclin B1 levels and a mobility shift of Cdc2/Cdc25C. The changes in Cdc2 and Cdc25C coincided with the appearance of phosphoepitopes recognized by a marker of mitosis, MPM-2. Interestingly, this compound induced apoptotic cell death through caspase 8-Fas/FasL dependent pathway, instead of mitochondria/caspase 9-dependent pathway. Notably, several KB-derived multidrug resistant cancer cell lines overexpressing P-gp170/MDR and MRP were sensitive to Chamaecypanone C. Taken together, these findings indicated that Chamaecypanone C is a promising anticancer compound that has potential for management of various malignancies, particularly for patients with drug resistance. PMID:20034474

  20. Shiga Toxins Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway To Promote Both Production of the Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-1β and Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moo-Seung; Kwon, Haenaem; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Tesh, Vernon L.; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-mediated immune responses, including the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), may exacerbate vascular damage and accelerate lethality. However, the immune signaling pathway activated in response to Stx is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that enzymatically active Stx, which leads to ribotoxic stress, triggers NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in differentiated macrophage-like THP-1 (D-THP-1) cells. The treatment of cells with a chemical inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, which suppresses the expression of the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide and subsequent endocytosis of the toxin, substantially blocked activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and processing of caspase-1 and IL-1β. Processing and release of both caspase-1 and IL-1β were significantly reduced or abolished in Stx-intoxicated D-THP-1 cells in which the expression of NLRP3 or ASC was stably knocked down. Furthermore, Stx mediated the activation of caspases involved in apoptosis in an NLRP3- or ASC-dependent manner. In Stx-intoxicated cells, the NLRP3 inflammasome triggered the activation of caspase-8/3, leading to the initiation of apoptosis, in addition to caspase-1-dependent pyroptotic cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Stxs trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway to release proinflammatory IL-1β as well as to promote apoptotic cell death. PMID:26502906

  1. Convergence of multiple signaling pathways is required to coordinately up-regulate mtDNA and mitochondrial biogenesis during T cell activation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Anthony D; Parikh, Neal; Kaech, Susan M; Shadel, Gerald S

    2007-12-01

    The quantity and activity of mitochondria vary dramatically in tissues and are modulated in response to changing cellular energy demands and environmental factors. The amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes required for cellular ATP production, is also tightly regulated, but by largely unknown mechanisms. Using murine T cells as a model system, we have addressed how specific signaling pathways influence mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA copy number. T cell receptor (TCR) activation results in a large increase in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential and a corresponding amplification of mtDNA, consistent with a vital role for mitochondrial function for growth and proliferation of these cells. Independent activation of protein kinase C (via PMA) or calcium-related pathways (via ionomycin) had differential and sub-maximal effects on these mitochondrial parameters, as did activation of naïve T cells with proliferative cytokines. Thus, the robust mitochondrial biogenesis response observed upon TCR activation requires synergy of multiple downstream signaling pathways. One such pathway involves AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which we show has an unprecedented role in negatively regulating mitochondrial biogenesis that is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent. That is, inhibition of AMPK after TCR signaling commences results in excessive, but uncoordinated mitochondrial proliferation. Thus mitochondrial biogenesis is not under control of a single master regulatory circuit, but rather requires the convergence of multiple signaling pathways with distinct downstream consequences on the organelle's structure, composition, and function.

  2. Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yali; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Weidong; Hu, Mingxing; Wang, Juanxiu; Ma, Sisi; Deng, Yuanle; Luo, Yi; Ye, Tinghong; Yin, Wenya

    2016-05-01

    Most conventional treatments on non-small cell lung carcinoma always accompany with awful side effects, and the incidence and mortality rates of this cancer are increasing rapidly worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the anticancer effects of extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract (PLE) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, H1299 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cell line LL/2 in vitro, and explore its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that PLE inhibited cell proliferation in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry (FCM) assay showed that PLE affected H1299 cell survival by arresting cell cycle progression in G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, PLE could also decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm), indicating that PLE may induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, PLE blocked H1299 cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed in vitro. These results suggested that PLE could be an effective and safe chemotherapeutic agent in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and impairing cell migration and invasion. PMID:27133061

  3. Apoptotic pathways in ovarian surface epithelium of human embryos during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis: close relationship of developmental plasticity and neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Caric, Ana; Poljicanin, Ana; Tomic, Snjezana; Vilovic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Vukojevic, Katarina

    2014-03-01

    Cell differentiation and different pathways of cell death were immunohistochemically analyzed in ovaries of six human embryos, 20 serous borderline tumors (SBT) and ovarian serous carcinomas (OSC) using markers for apoptosis (caspase-3, AIF, TUNEL) and stemness (Oct-4). In the 5-8-week ovaries, caspase-3 was absent in the ovarian surface epithelium (ose) and mildly positive in the ovarian stroma (os), AIF was expressed moderately, while Oct-4 expression gradually decreased during that period. Some ovarian cells expressed only caspase-3 or AIF together with TUNEL, while both caspase-3 and AIF were co-expressed in other ovarian cells. Mild expression of Oct-4 and caspase-3 characterized some cells of SBT, while their expression varied from mild to strong in OSC. AIF displayed mild to strong expression in ose of SBT and moderate to strong expression in OSC, while no expression of AIF was observed in os of both tumors. In the ose of both SBT and OSC, caspase-3 and AIF were co-expressed only occasionally, while AIF and Oct-4 were co-expressed strongly. Our study showed the presence of stemness cells and different pathways of cell death (caspase-3 and AIF-mediated) in the ovarian tissue during development and carcinogenesis, indicating the correlation between developmental plasticity in human embryonic ovaries and OSC.

  4. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arbon, Kate S.; Christensen, Cody M.; Harvey, Wendy A.; Heggland, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10 μM CdCl2 for 2–72 hours. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl2 exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl2. Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. PMID:22019892

  5. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks. PMID:27708647

  6. Aeromonas spp. induce apoptosis of epithelial cells through an oxidant-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Krzyminska, Sylwia; Tanska, Anna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2011-07-01

    We investigated interactions of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from faecal specimens of humans with gastroenteritis, with HT29 intestinal epithelial cells. All strains were found to be cytotoxic to the cells. Bacterial infection caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide radical (NO(·)). The maximal levels of ROS and NO(·) were 14 and 35 times, respectively, greater in cells infected with Aeromonas spp. than in those incubated with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. The cells incubated with cytolytic enterotoxin isolated from A. veronii biotype sobria induced the highest level of ROS and caused the highest cytotoxicity. We observed that increased accumulation of intracellular ROS leads to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)). Analyses of cellular morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed characteristic features of cells undergoing apoptosis. The process was dependent on the activation of caspases, and was completely blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Treatment of infected HT29 cells with three distinct antioxidants prevented intracellular ROS production, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. The Pearson linear test revealed positive correlations between apoptotic index at 24 h and percentage cytotoxicity, ROS production, NO(·) production and loss of ΔΨ(m). This study has provided new insights into the mechanisms contributing to the development of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. The results indicate that bacteria-induced apoptosis of epithelial cells results from mitochondrial depolarization due to oxidative stress.

  7. High CerS5 expression levels associate with reduced patient survival and transition from apoptotic to autophagy signalling pathways in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Seán; Sheehan, Katherine M; Espina, Virginia; O'Grady, Anthony; Cummins, Robert; Kenny, Dermot; Liotta, Lance; O'Kennedy, Richard; Kay, Elaine W

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ceramide synthase 5 is involved in the de novo synthesis of ceramide, a sphingolipid involved in cell death and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the role of ceramide synthase 5 in colorectal cancer by examining ceramide synthase 5 expression, clinico‐pathological parameters and association with survival/death signalling pathways in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of CerS5 was performed on 102 colorectal cancer samples using tissue microarrays constructed from formalin‐fixed and paraffin‐embedded tissues. We found strong membranous ceramide synthase 5 staining in 57 of 102 (56%) colorectal cancers. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of ceramide synthase 5 expression adjusted for disease stage, differentiation and lymphovascular invasion revealed reduced 5‐year overall survival (p = 0.001) and 5‐year recurrence‐free survival (p = 0.002), with hazard ratios of 4.712 and 4.322, respectively. The effect of ceramide synthase 5 expression on tumourigenic processes was further characterised by reverse phase protein array analysis. Reverse phase protein arrays were generated from laser capture microdissection‐enriched carcinoma cells from 19 fresh‐frozen colorectal cancer tissues. Measurements of phosphorylation and total levels of signalling proteins involved in apoptosis, autophagy and other cancer‐related pathways revealed two distinct signalling networks; weak membranous ceramide synthase 5 intensity was associated with a proteomic network dominated by signalling proteins linked to apoptosis, whereas strong ceramide synthase 5 intensity was associated with a proteomic sub‐network mostly composed of proteins linked to autophagy. In conclusion, high ceramide synthase 5 expression was found in colorectal cancer tissue and was associated with poorer patient outcomes. Our findings suggest that this may be mediated by a transition from apoptotic to autophagy signalling pathways in ceramide synthase 5 High expressing

  8. Neutrophilic differentiation modulates the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Vrba, J; Dolezel, P; Ulrichova, J

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells may result in less sensitivity to various apoptotic stimuli. We examined whether human leukemia HL-60 cells differentiating by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) acquired resistance to the apoptogenic activity of two histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, butyrate and valproate. In undifferentiated cells, the cytotoxicity of both butyrate and valproate was associated with activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway since we observed dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities, appearance of sub-G1 DNA and loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and/or integrity. Both HDAC inhibitors were also able to induce accumulation of undifferentiated cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. ATRA was found to enhance the apoptotic effect of both butyrate and valproate in undifferentiated cells. This aside, ATRA appeared to synergize with butyrate in the induction of the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In cells pretreated for 72 h with ATRA, butyrate and valproate in combination with ATRA induced lower dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and weaker apoptotic and/or necrotic changes in plasma membrane, whereas DNA fragmentation was not diminished compared to undifferentiated cells. Similar results were also obtained when butyrate or valproate were combined with another neutrophilic differentiation inducer, dimethyl sulfoxide. We conclude that neutrophilic differentiation modulates but does not abrogate the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to butyrate and valproate, and nuclei are preferentially affected during apoptosis in differentiated cells.

  9. [Studies of interaction of intracellular signalling and metabolic pathways under inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase with fluoroacetate].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, V P; Goncharov, N V; Teplova, V V; Kasymov, V A; Petrova, O I; Berezhnov, A V; Senchenkov, E V; Mindukshev, I V; Jenkins, R O; Radilov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial aconitase has been shown to be inactivated by a spectrum of substances or critical states. Fluoroacetate (FA) is the most known toxic agent inhibiting aconitase. The biochemistry of toxic action of FA is rather well understood, though no effective therapy has been proposed for the past six decades. In order to reveal novel approaches for possible antidotes to be developed, experiments were performed with rat liver mitochondria, Ehrlich ascite tumor cells and cardiomyocytes, exposed to FA or fluorocitrate in vitro. The effect of FA developed at much higher concentrations in comparison with fluorocitrate and was dependent upon respiratory substrates in experiments with mitochondria: with pyruvate, FA induced a slow oxidation and/or leak of pyridine nucleotides and inhibition of respiration. Oxidation of pyridine nucleotides was prevented by incubation of mitochondria with cyclosporin A. Studies of the pyridine nucleotides level and calcium response generated in Ehrlich ascite tumor cells under activation with ATP also revealed a loss of pyridine nucleotides from mitochondria resulting in a shift in the balance of mitochondrial and cytosolic NAD(P)H under exposure to FA. An increase of cytosolic [Ca2+] was observed in the cell lines exposed to FA and is explained by activation of plasma membrane calcium channels; this mechanism, could have an impact on amplitude and rate of Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes. Highlighting the reciprocal relationship between intracellular pyridine nucleotides and calcium balance, we discuss metabolic pathway modulation in the context of probable development of an effective therapy for FA poisoning and other inhibitors of aconitase. PMID:18318221

  10. Goniothalamin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in H400 human oral squamous cell carcinoma: A caspase-dependent mitochondrial-mediated pathway with downregulation of NF-κβ.

    PubMed

    Li, Lim K; Rola, Ali-Saeed; Kaid, Fahme A; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Alabsi, Aied M

    2016-04-01

    Goniothalamin is a natural occurring styryl-lactone compound isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus. It had been demonstrated to process promising anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. However, little study has been carried out on oral cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of goniothalamin against H400 oral cancer cells and its underlying molecular pathways. Results from MTT assay demonstrated that goniothalamin exhibited selective cytotoxicity as well as inhibited cells growth of H400 in dose and time-dependent manner. This was achieved primarily via apoptosis where apoptotic bodies and membrane blebbing were observed using AO/PI and DAPI/Annexin V-FITC fluorescence double staining. In order to understand the apoptosis mechanisms induced by goniothalamin, apoptosis assessment based on mitochondrial membrane potential assay and cytochrome c enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were carried out. Results demonstrated that the depolarization of mitochondrial transmembrane potential facilitated the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytosol. Caspases assays revealed the activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3/7 in dose-dependent manners. This form of apoptosis was closely associated with the regulation on Bcl-2 family proteins, cell cycle arrest at S phase and inhibition of NF-κβ translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Conclusion, goniothalamin has the potential to act as an anticancer agent against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (H400 cells). PMID:26752226

  11. Molecular interactions of prodiginines with the BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ali; Espona-Fiedler, Margarita; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Quesada, Roberto; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Guallar, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Prodigiosin and obatoclax, members of the prodiginines family, are small molecules with anti-cancer properties that are currently under preclinical and clinical trials. The molecular target(s) of these agents, however, is an open question. Combining experimental and computational techniques we find that prodigiosin binds to the BH3 domain in some BCL-2 protein families, which play an important role in the apoptotic programmed cell death. In particular, our results indicate a large affinity of prodigiosin for MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family. In melanoma cells, we demonstrate that prodigiosin activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by disrupting MCL-1/BAK complexes. Computer simulations with the PELE software allow the description of the induced fit process, obtaining a detailed atomic view of the molecular interactions. These results provide new data to understand the mechanism of action of these molecules, and assist in the development of more specific inhibitors of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins.

  12. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Induces Anti-Proliferative Effects in Prostate Cancer Cells by Redox and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Martin; Gümbel, Denis; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Robert; Gelbrich, Nadine; Zimmermann, Uwe; Walther, Reinhard; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Sckell, Axel; Kramer, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Lillig, Christopher H; Stope, Matthias B

    2015-01-01

    One of the promising possibilities of the clinical application of cold plasma, so-called cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), is its application on malignant cells and cancer tissue using its anti-neoplastic effects, primarily through the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS). In this study, we investigated the impact of CAP on cellular proliferation and consecutive molecular response mechanisms in established prostate cancer (PC) cell lines. PC cells showed a significantly reduced cell growth following CAP treatment as a result of both an immediate increase of intracellular peroxide levels and through the induction of apoptosis indicated by annexin V assay, TUNEL assay, and the evaluation of changes in nuclear morphology. Notably, co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely neutralized CAP effects by NAC uptake and rapid conversion to glutathione (GSH). Vitamin C could not counteract the CAP induced effects on cell growth. In summary, relatively short treatments with CAP of 10 seconds were sufficient to induce a significant inhibition of cancer proliferation, as observed for the first time in urogenital cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mode of CAP related cell death and clarify and optimize CAP as cancer therapy. Increased levels of peroxides can alter redox-regulated signaling pathways and can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. We assume that the general intracellular redox homeostasis, especially the levels of cellular GSH and peroxidases such as peroxiredoxins affect the outcome of the CAP treatment. PMID:26132846

  13. Suppression of CSN5 promotes the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through regulating p53-related apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Sang, Miao-Miao; Du, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Rui-Yan; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Pei, Dong-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    As one of the COP9 signalosome complex, CSN5 (also known as Jab1) has been confirmed overexpression in many human cancers and affected multiple pathways associating with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Correlation of CSN5 overexpression with poor prognosis for cancer provides evidence that it is involved in the tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the functional role and the underlying mechanism of CSN5 in gastric cancer progression. In the current study, the effect of CSN5 siRNA (small-interfering RNA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells (AGS and MKN45) were examined. Our results showed that knockdown of CSN5 could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Additionally, suppression of CSN5 expression contributed to the increased expression levels of p53 and Bax. In conclusion, CSN5 overexpression is significantly correlated with gastric cancer progression, and CSN5 could be a novel target in gastric cancer therapy. PMID:26048783

  14. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Induces Anti-Proliferative Effects in Prostate Cancer Cells by Redox and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Martin; Gümbel, Denis; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Robert; Gelbrich, Nadine; Zimmermann, Uwe; Walther, Reinhard; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Sckell, Axel; Kramer, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Lillig, Christopher H; Stope, Matthias B

    2015-01-01

    One of the promising possibilities of the clinical application of cold plasma, so-called cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), is its application on malignant cells and cancer tissue using its anti-neoplastic effects, primarily through the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS). In this study, we investigated the impact of CAP on cellular proliferation and consecutive molecular response mechanisms in established prostate cancer (PC) cell lines. PC cells showed a significantly reduced cell growth following CAP treatment as a result of both an immediate increase of intracellular peroxide levels and through the induction of apoptosis indicated by annexin V assay, TUNEL assay, and the evaluation of changes in nuclear morphology. Notably, co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely neutralized CAP effects by NAC uptake and rapid conversion to glutathione (GSH). Vitamin C could not counteract the CAP induced effects on cell growth. In summary, relatively short treatments with CAP of 10 seconds were sufficient to induce a significant inhibition of cancer proliferation, as observed for the first time in urogenital cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mode of CAP related cell death and clarify and optimize CAP as cancer therapy. Increased levels of peroxides can alter redox-regulated signaling pathways and can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. We assume that the general intracellular redox homeostasis, especially the levels of cellular GSH and peroxidases such as peroxiredoxins affect the outcome of the CAP treatment.

  15. North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Malcolm A; Scott, Bradley E; Deziel, Bob A; Nunnelley, Melissa C; Liberty, Anne M; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Neto, Catherine C; Hurta, Robert A R

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to improve patient prognosis in a variety of cancers, a benefit partly derived from phytochemicals, many of which target cell death pathways in tumor cells. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a phytochemical-rich fruit containing a variety of polyphenolic compounds. As flavonoids have been shown to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells, this study investigated the hypothesis that cranberry-mediated cytotoxicity in DU145 human prostate adenocarcinoma cells involves apoptosis. The results showed that induction of apoptosis in these cells occurred in response to treatment with whole cranberry extract and occurred through caspase-8 mediated cleavage of Bid protein to truncated Bid resulting in cytochrome-C release from the mitochondria. Subsequent activation of caspase-9 ultimately resulted in cell death as characterized by DNA fragmentation. Increased Par-4 protein expression was observed, and this is suggested to be at least partly responsible for caspase-8 activation. Proanthocyanidin-enriched and flavonol-enriched fractions of cranberry also increased caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity, suggesting that these compounds play a possible role in apoptosis induction. These findings indicate that cranberry phytochemicals can induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro, and these findings further establish the potential value of cranberry phytochemicals as possible agents against prostate cancer.

  16. Lutein inhibits the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells via cytosolic and mitochondrial Akt pathways (lutein inhibits RPE cells migration).

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-Chieh; Chan, Chi-Ming; Chen, Han-Min; Wu, Chia-Chun; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Lee, Pei-Lan; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2014-08-08

    During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation.

  17. Nitric oxide mediates coral bleaching through an apoptotic-like cell death pathway: evidence from a model sea anemone-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Bradley, Benjamin J; Davy, Simon K

    2013-12-01

    Coral bleaching (involving the loss of symbiotic algae from the cnidarian host) is a major threat to coral reefs and appears to be mediated at the cellular level by nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we examined the specific role of NO in bleaching using the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, a model system for the study of corals. Exposure of A. pulchella to high-temperature shock (26-33°C over <1 h) or an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione) resulted in significant increases in host caspase-like enzyme activity. These responses were reflected in the intensities of bleaching, which were significantly higher in heat- or NO-treated specimens than in controls maintained in seawater at 26°C. Notably, the inhibition of caspase-like activity prevented bleaching even in the presence of an NO donor or at elevated temperature. The additional use of an NO scavenger controlled for effects mediated by agents other than NO. We also exposed A. pulchella to a more ecologically relevant treatment (an increase from 26 to 33°C over 6-7 d). Again, host NO synthesis correlated with the activation of caspase-like enzyme activity. Therefore, we conclude that NO's involvement in cnidarian bleaching arises through the regulation of host apoptotic pathways. PMID:23934282

  18. Bufalin Inhibits HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells and Its Orthotopic Xenograft Tumor in Mice Model through Genes Related to Apoptotic and PTEN/AKT Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shiying; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Peihao; Gao, Zhongxiang; Xu, Jie; Feng, Dianxu; Zuo, Qinsong; Zhao, Ronghua; Chen, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the anticolorectal cancer (CRC) effects of Bufalin, a bioactive polyhydroxysteroid from Venenum Bufonis, using HCT116 human CRC cell and an established orthotopic xenograft model in mice, and to explore the mechanisms of action. Material and Methods. Cultured HCT116 cells or BALB/c mice with orthotopic tumor were treated by Bufalin (positive control: 5-FU). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cycling were determined by MTT, Annexin V/PI staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. In mice, tumor inhibition rate and animal survival were calculated. The expressions of PTEN/phosphate-PTEN, AKT/phosphate-AKT, Bad, Bcl-xl, Bax, or Caspase-3 in cells and/or tumors were determined by Western blot or immunohistochemical staining. Results. Bufalin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in a dose/time-dependent manner. In the animal model, Bufalin treatment resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival. In the Bufalin-treated cultured cells and/or xenograft tumors, the expressions of PTEN, Bad, Bax, and Caspase-3 were significantly increased, while p-AKT and Bcl-xL significantly decreased. Conclusions. Our results indicate that Bufalin inhibit cell proliferation and orthotopic tumor growth by inducing cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is of pivotal significance in the identification of an anticancer drug that may synergize with Bufalin. PMID:26770191

  19. Nitric oxide mediates coral bleaching through an apoptotic-like cell death pathway: evidence from a model sea anemone-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Bradley, Benjamin J; Davy, Simon K

    2013-12-01

    Coral bleaching (involving the loss of symbiotic algae from the cnidarian host) is a major threat to coral reefs and appears to be mediated at the cellular level by nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we examined the specific role of NO in bleaching using the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, a model system for the study of corals. Exposure of A. pulchella to high-temperature shock (26-33°C over <1 h) or an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione) resulted in significant increases in host caspase-like enzyme activity. These responses were reflected in the intensities of bleaching, which were significantly higher in heat- or NO-treated specimens than in controls maintained in seawater at 26°C. Notably, the inhibition of caspase-like activity prevented bleaching even in the presence of an NO donor or at elevated temperature. The additional use of an NO scavenger controlled for effects mediated by agents other than NO. We also exposed A. pulchella to a more ecologically relevant treatment (an increase from 26 to 33°C over 6-7 d). Again, host NO synthesis correlated with the activation of caspase-like enzyme activity. Therefore, we conclude that NO's involvement in cnidarian bleaching arises through the regulation of host apoptotic pathways.

  20. The Apoptotic Effect of Ursolic Acid on SK-Hep-1 Cells is Regulated by the PI3K/Akt, p38 and JNK MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wan-Ling; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid that is present in a wide variety of medicinal herbs and edible plants. This study investigated the effect of UA on apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. After treatment of SK-Hep-1 cells with different concentrations of UA, we observed that cell viability was reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 and G2/M phases, with cells treated with 60 μM showing the highest percentages of cells in those phases. UA-induced chromatin condensation of nuclei was observed by using DAPI staining. The western blot results revealed that exposure to UA was associated with decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and TCTP and increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins TNF-α, Fas, FADD, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that treatment with UA resulted in increased expression of caspase-3. Moreover, exposure to UA resulted in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that UA inhibits the proliferation of SK-Hep-1 cells and induces apoptosis.

  1. ESCRT-0 dysfunction compromises autophagic degradation of protein aggregates and facilitates ER stress-mediated neurodegeneration via apoptotic and necroptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Tamai, Keiichi; Sugeno, Naoto; Yoshida, Shun; Kobayashi, Junpei; Kikuchi, Akio; Baba, Toru; Futatsugi, Akira; Sato, Ikuro; Satoh, Kennichi; Takeda, Atsushi; Aoki, Masashi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal sorting required for transport (ESCRT) complexes orchestrate endo-lysosomal sorting of ubiquitinated proteins, multivesicular body formation and autophagic degradation. Defects in the ESCRT pathway have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms that link them to neurodegeneration remain unknown. In this study, we showed that forebrain-specific ablation of ESCRT-0/Hrs induced marked hippocampal neuronal cell loss accompanied by the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, including α-synuclein, TDP-43 and huntingtin as well as the autophagic substrate SQSTM1/p62. Consistent with this, silencing of Hrs in cultured cells not only led to α-synuclein and TDP-43 accumulation in addition to impaired autophagic flux but also suppressed cell viability through the induction of ER stress followed by the activation of JNK and RIPK1, a key regulator of necroptosis. Moreover, necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of RIPK1, and pan-caspase inhibitors partially reduced the neurotoxicity in the Hrs-silenced cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that the disruption of ESCRT-0/Hrs in the nervous system compromises autophagic/lysosomal degradation of neurodegenerative disease-related proteins, which thereby triggers ER stress-mediated apoptotic and necroptotic cell death. PMID:27112194

  2. Altered of apoptotic markers of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways induced by hepatitis C virus infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has emerged as a leading cause of cirrhosis in the U.S. and across the world. To understand the role of apoptotic pathways in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied the mRNA and protein expression patterns of apoptosis-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from patients with HCV infection. Methods The present study included 50 subjects which plasma samples were positive for HCV, but negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV). These cases were divided into four groups according to METAVIR, a score-based analysis which helps to interpret a liver biopsy according to the degree of inflammation and fibrosis. mRNA expression of the studied genes were analyzed by reverse transcription of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and protein levels, analyzed by ELISA, was also conducted. HCV genotyping was also determined. Results HCV infection increased mRNA expression and protein synthesis of caspase 8 in group 1 by 3 fold and 4 fold, respectively (p < 0.05). In group 4 HCV infection increased mRNA expression and protein synthesis of caspase 9 by 2 fold and 1,5 fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Also, caspase 3 mRNA expression and protein synthesis had level augumented by HCV infection in group 1 by 4 fold and 5 fold, respectively, and in group 4 by 6 fold and 7 fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions HCV induces alteration at both genomic and protein levels of apoptosis markers involved with extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. PMID:23256595

  3. DRP1-dependent apoptotic mitochondrial fission occurs independently of BAX, BAK and APAF1 to amplify cell death by BID and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oettinghaus, Björn; D'Alonzo, Donato; Barbieri, Elisa; Restelli, Lisa Michelle; Savoia, Claudia; Licci, Maria; Tolnay, Markus; Frank, Stephan; Scorrano, Luca

    2016-08-01

    During apoptosis mitochondria undergo cristae remodeling and fragmentation, but how the latter relates to outer membrane permeabilization and downstream caspase activation is unclear. Here we show that the mitochondrial fission protein Dynamin Related Protein (Drp) 1 participates in cytochrome c release by selected intrinsic death stimuli. While Bax, Bak double deficient (DKO) and Apaf1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were less susceptible to apoptosis by Bcl-2 family member BID, H(2)O(2), staurosporine and thapsigargin, Drp1(-/-) MEFs were protected only from BID and H(2)O(2). Resistance to cell death of Drp1(-/-) and DKO MEFs correlated with blunted cytochrome c release, whereas mitochondrial fragmentation occurred in all cell lines in response to all tested stimuli, indicating that other mechanisms accounted for the reduced cytochrome c release. Indeed, cristae remodeling was reduced in Drp1(-/-) cells, potentially explaining their resistance to apoptosis. Our results indicate that caspase-independent mitochondrial fission and Drp1-dependent cristae remodeling amplify apoptosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  4. Enhanced fatty acid accumulation in Isochrysis galbana by inhibition of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway under nitrogen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Litao; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the interrelation between the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway and fatty acid accumulation in marine microalga Isochrysis galbana. Under normal conditions, the activity of the AOX pathway was maintained at a low level in I. galbana. Compared with the normal condition, nitrogen deprivation significantly increased the AOX pathway activity and fatty acid accumulation. Under nitrogen deprivation, the inhibition of the AOX pathway by salicylhydroxamic acid caused the accumulation of reducing equivalents and the over-reduction of chloroplasts in I. galbana cells, leading to a decrease in the photosynthetic O2 evolution rate. The over-production of reducing equivalents due to the inhibition of the AOX pathway under nitrogen deprivation further enhanced the accumulation of fatty acids in I. galbana cells.

  5. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation Induces Neuronal Apoptosis by Noradrenaline Acting on Alpha1 Adrenoceptor and by Triggering Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Somarajan, Bindu I.; Khanday, Mudasir A.; Mallick, Birendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) loss; however, the mechanism was unknown. As REMS loss elevates noradrenaline (NA) level in the brain as well as induces neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, in this study, we have delineated the intracellular molecular pathway involved in REMS deprivation (REMSD)-associated NA-induced neuronal apoptosis. Rats were REMS deprived for 6 days by the classical flower pot method; suitable controls were conducted and the effects on apoptosis markers evaluated. Further, the role of NA was studied by one, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of NA-ergic alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (PRZ) and two, by downregulation of NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons by local microinjection of tyrosine hydroxylase siRNA (TH-siRNA). Immunoblot estimates showed that the expressions of proapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl2-associated death promoter protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), cytochrome c, caspase9, caspase3 were elevated in the REMS-deprived rat brains, while caspase8 level remained unaffected; PRZ treatment did not allow elevation of these proapoptotic factors. Further, REMSD increased cytochrome c expression, which was prevented if the NA synthesis from the LC neurons was blocked by microinjection of TH-siRNA in vivo into the LC during REMSD in freely moving normal rats. Mitochondrial damage was re-confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which showed distinctly swollen mitochondria with disintegrated cristae, chromosomal condensation, and clumping along the nuclear membrane, and all these changes were prevented in PRZ-treated rats. Combining findings of this study along with earlier reports, we propose that upon REMSD NA level increases in the brain as the LC, NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons do not cease firing and TH is upregulated in those neurons. This elevated NA acting on alpha1 adrenoceptors damages mitochondria causing release of cytochrome c to activate

  6. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation Induces Neuronal Apoptosis by Noradrenaline Acting on Alpha1 Adrenoceptor and by Triggering Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Somarajan, Bindu I; Khanday, Mudasir A; Mallick, Birendra N

    2016-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) loss; however, the mechanism was unknown. As REMS loss elevates noradrenaline (NA) level in the brain as well as induces neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, in this study, we have delineated the intracellular molecular pathway involved in REMS deprivation (REMSD)-associated NA-induced neuronal apoptosis. Rats were REMS deprived for 6 days by the classical flower pot method; suitable controls were conducted and the effects on apoptosis markers evaluated. Further, the role of NA was studied by one, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of NA-ergic alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (PRZ) and two, by downregulation of NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons by local microinjection of tyrosine hydroxylase siRNA (TH-siRNA). Immunoblot estimates showed that the expressions of proapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl2-associated death promoter protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), cytochrome c, caspase9, caspase3 were elevated in the REMS-deprived rat brains, while caspase8 level remained unaffected; PRZ treatment did not allow elevation of these proapoptotic factors. Further, REMSD increased cytochrome c expression, which was prevented if the NA synthesis from the LC neurons was blocked by microinjection of TH-siRNA in vivo into the LC during REMSD in freely moving normal rats. Mitochondrial damage was re-confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which showed distinctly swollen mitochondria with disintegrated cristae, chromosomal condensation, and clumping along the nuclear membrane, and all these changes were prevented in PRZ-treated rats. Combining findings of this study along with earlier reports, we propose that upon REMSD NA level increases in the brain as the LC, NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons do not cease firing and TH is upregulated in those neurons. This elevated NA acting on alpha1 adrenoceptors damages mitochondria causing release of cytochrome c to activate

  7. Amyloid β oligomers elicit mitochondrial transport defects and fragmentation in a time-dependent and pathway-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yanfang; Zheng, James Q

    2016-01-01

    Small oligomeric forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) are believed to be the culprit for declined brain functions in AD in part through their impairment of neuronal trafficking and synaptic functions. However, the precise cellular actions of Aβ oligomers and underlying mechanisms in neurons remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have identified mitochondria as a major target of Aβ toxicity contributing to early cognitive decline and memory loss in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we report that Aβ oligomers acutely elicit distinct effects on the transport and integrity of mitochondria. We found that acute exposure of hippocampal neurons to Aβ oligomers from either synthetic peptides or AD brain homogenates selectively impaired fast transport of mitochondria without affecting the movement of late endosomes and lysosomes. Extended exposure of hipoocampal neurons to Aβ oligomers was found to result in mitochondrial fragmentation. While both mitochondrial effects induced by Aβ oligomers can be abolished by the inhibition of GSK3β, they appear to be independent from each other. Aβ oligomers impaired mitochondrial transport through HDAC6 activation whereas the fragmentation involved the GTPase Drp-1. These results show that Aβ oligomers can acutely disrupt mitochondrial transport and integrity in a time-dependent and pathway-specific manner. These findings thus provide new insights into Aβ-induced mitochondrial defects that may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and AD pathogenesis. PMID:27535553

  8. Synergism between PGC-1α and estrogen in the survival of endometrial cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Yang, Rui; Liu, Hao; Ren, Zhongqian; Kong, Fanfei; Li, Da; Ma, Xiaoxin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is involved in the progression of hormone-related cancers, and there may exist an association between estrogen and PGC-1α. Notably, emerging evidence has led to considerable interest in the role of PGC-1α in endometrial cancer development. However, whether the synergism exists between PGC-1α and estrogen for regulating mitochondrial function to promote the development of endometrial cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we show that: 1) knockdown of PGC-1α attenuates the survival of endometrial cancer cells by inducing cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway; 2) estrogen remedies the PGC-1α efficiency-induced decline of endometrial cancer cell viability; and 3) estrogen modulates the mitochondrial function to inhibit the PGC-1α deficiency-induced apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the synergism between PGC-1α and estrogen was required for the survival of endometrial cancer cells, which was dependent on the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27418839

  9. Selective removal of mitochondria via mitophagy: distinct pathways for different mitochondrial stresses.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huifang; Liu, Lei; Chen, Quan

    2015-10-01

    The efficient and selective elimination of damaged or excessive mitochondria in response to bioenergetic and environmental cues is critical for maintaining a healthy and appropriate population of mitochondria. Mitophagy is considered to be the central mechanism of mitochondrial quality and quantity control. Atg32, a mitophagy receptor in yeast, recruits mitochondria targeted for degradation into the isolation membrane via both direct and indirect interactions with Atg8. In mammals, different mitophagy effectors, including the mitophagy receptors NIX, BNIP3 and FUDNC1 and the PINK1/Parkin pathway, have been identified to participate in the selective clearance of mitochondria. One common feature of mitophagy receptors is that they harbor an LC3-interacting region (LIR) that interacts with LC3, thus promoting the sequestration of mitochondria into the isolation membrane. Additionally, both receptor- and Parkin/PINK1-mediated mitophagy have been found to be regulated by reversible phosphorylation. Here, we review the recent progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in selective mitophagy at multiple levels. We also discuss different mitophagy receptors from an evolutionary perspective and highlight the specific functions of and possible cooperation between distinct mechanisms of mitophagy.

  10. Resveratrol induces apoptosis in K562 cells via the regulation of mitochondrial signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binghua; Liu, Jiao; Gong, Zhanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, an edible polyphenolic phytoalexin obtained primarily from root extracts of the oriental plant, Polygonum cuspidatum and from grapes and red wine, has been reported as an anticancer compound against several types of cancer, the accurate molecular mechanisms of by which it induces apoptosis are limited. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol on human leukemia K562 cells apoptosis was examined. Our results showed that resveratrol significantly decreased cell viability and triggered cell apoptosis in K562 cells. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the activation of caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP was also observed in K562 cells treated with resveratrol. Thus, we considered that the resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells might be mediated through the mitochondria pathway, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of resveratrol as a potential cancer therapeutic compound. PMID:26629245

  11. Apoptosis Cell Death Effect of Scrophularia Variegata on Breast Cancer Cells via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baradaran, Behzad; Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae) is an Iranian medicinal plant which is used for various inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer and cytotoxic effects of the Scrophularia variegata (S. variegata) ethanolic extract on the human breast cancer cell line. Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of the extract on MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, Caspase activity, DNA ladder and Cell death were evaluated by ELISA, gel electrophoresis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract showed significant effect cytotoxicity on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with the extract induced apoptosis on the breast cancer cells by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. The results indicated that cytotoxicity activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation as well as an increase of the amount of caspase 3 and caspase 9. In addition, the phytochemical assay showed that the extract had antioxidant capacity and also flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the extract. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that S. variegata extract induced apoptosis via mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on breast cancer by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and an increase of caspase 3 and caspase 9. However future studies are needed. PMID:26504768

  12. Resveratrol induces apoptosis in K562 cells via the regulation of mitochondrial signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Binghua; Liu, Jiao; Gong, Zhanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, an edible polyphenolic phytoalexin obtained primarily from root extracts of the oriental plant, Polygonum cuspidatum and from grapes and red wine, has been reported as an anticancer compound against several types of cancer, the accurate molecular mechanisms of by which it induces apoptosis are limited. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol on human leukemia K562 cells apoptosis was examined. Our results showed that resveratrol significantly decreased cell viability and triggered cell apoptosis in K562 cells. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the activation of caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP was also observed in K562 cells treated with resveratrol. Thus, we considered that the resveratrol-induced apoptosis of K562 cells might be mediated through the mitochondria pathway, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of resveratrol as a potential cancer therapeutic compound. PMID:26629245

  13. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide evokes antitumor activity via cAMP-PKA mediated apoptotic pathway and down-regulation of Ca(2+)/PKC signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenshen; Nie, Shaoping; Huang, Danfei; Huang, Jianqin; Feng, Yanling; Xie, Mingyong

    2014-06-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) has been commonly suggested as a candidate for prevention and therapy of cancer. We investigated the antitumor effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSG-1. The results showed that PSG-1 inhibited tumor growth and resulted in tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. Here, the data revealed that PSG-1 caused a markedly increase in cAMP and PKA activities, rather than cGMP and PKC. Moreover, the treatment of PSG-1 induced a dramatic increase in the protein level of PKA. In contrast, the expression of PKC and intracellular [Ca(2+)]i were inhibited. Our study also revealed that treatment with PSG-1 increased the spleen and thymus weights, lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytic activity in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, we conclude that PSG-1 could inhibit the tumor growth, possibly in part by enhancing the induction of apoptosis through cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and down-regulation of Ca(2+)/PKC signal pathway, activating host immune function in S180-bearing mice.

  14. [6]-Gingerol induces reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondrial cell death pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Nidhi; Bhui, Kulpreet; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-14

    Since skin cancer incidence and prevalence is constantly rising up the charts despite all efforts, search for newer, better agents for protection and treatment is required. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a monocotyledonous herb, is widely used as a herbal medicine, given the presence of homologous phenolic ketones, of which [6]-gingerol is the major one. The quantity of [6]-gingerol in the fresh ginger rhizome was found to be 104-965 microg/g in common varieties of ginger available in Indian market. Herein, [6]-gingerol was assessed for its anti-apoptotic effects in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. [6]-Gingerol treatment exhibited considerable cytotoxicity as indicated by growth inhibition of A431 cells mediated via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increase in ROS led to decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and subsequent induction of apoptosis. Results revealed that perturbations in mitochondrial membrane are associated with deregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at gene transcriptional level as well as protein level, where treatment with [6]-gingerol leads to up-regulation of Cytochrome-c and Apaf-1 subsequently culminating in triggering of Caspase cascade. These firmly suggest that [6]-gingerol can be effectively used for the treatment of skin cancer. PMID:19481070

  15. Activation of IGF-1 and insulin signaling pathways ameliorate mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in Huntington's Disease human lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Naia, Luana; Ferreira, I Luísa; Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa; Duarte, Ana I; Ribeiro, Márcio; Rosenstock, Tatiana R; Laço, Mário N; Ribeiro, Maria J; Oliveira, Catarina R; Saudou, Frédéric; Humbert, Sandrine; Rego, A Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with energy failure plays an important role in this untreated pathology. In the present work, we used lymphoblasts obtained from HD patients or unaffected parentally related individuals to study the protective role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) versus insulin (at low nM) on signaling and metabolic and mitochondrial functions. Deregulation of intracellular signaling pathways linked to activation of insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR,IGF-1R), Akt, and ERK was largely restored by IGF-1 and, at a less extent, by insulin in HD human lymphoblasts. Importantly, both neurotrophic factors stimulated huntingtin phosphorylation at Ser421 in HD cells. IGF-1 and insulin also rescued energy levels in HD peripheral cells, as evaluated by increased ATP and phosphocreatine, and decreased lactate levels. Moreover, IGF-1 effectively ameliorated O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in HD lymphoblasts, which occurred concomitantly with increased levels of cytochrome c. Indeed, constitutive phosphorylation of huntingtin was able to restore the Δψm in lymphoblasts expressing an abnormal expansion of polyglutamines. HD lymphoblasts further exhibited increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels before and after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, being the later recovered by IGF-1 and insulin in HD lymphoblasts pre-exposed to H2O2. In summary, the data support an important role for IR/IGF-1R mediated activation of signaling pathways and improved mitochondrial and metabolic function in HD human lymphoblasts.

  16. FAM3A attenuates ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis via CHOP-Wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Gou, Wen-Li; Zhang, Rong

    2016-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked to several neurological disorders, and neuronal injury cascades initiated by excessive ER stress are mediated, in part, via mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we identified FAM3A as an important regulator of ER stress-induced cell death in neuronal HT22 cells. The ER stress inductor tunicamycin (TM) significantly decreased the expression of FAM3A at both mRNA and protein levels, which was shown to be dependent on the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overexpression of FAM3A attenuated TM-induced apoptosis and activation of ER stress factors, but had no effect on ER calcium metabolism in HT22 cells. We also found decreased mitochondrial ROS generation, inhibited cytochrome c release and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in FAM3A overexpressed cells. In addition, the experiments using isolated mitochondria showed that overexpression of FAM3A attenuated mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering capacity after TM exposure. By using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown the expression of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), we found that FAM3A-induced protection and inhibition of ER stress was mediated by inverting TM-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of FAM3A in protecting against TM-induced cytotoxicity via regulating CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of FAM3A overexpression against ER stress-associated neuronal injury. PMID:26939760

  17. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 confers resistance to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer by regulating reactive oxygen species and caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiqi; Zhang, Chang; Wang, Hao; Xing, Junjie; Gong, Haifeng; Yu, Enda; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Cao, Guangwen; Fu, Chuangang

    2014-10-28

    This study aimed to clarify the role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) in resistance to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and long-term prognosis of advanced rectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure MRP3 expression in biopsy specimens of 144 stage II-III rectal cancer patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The effect of MRP3 expression on short-term pathological response and postoperative long-term prognosis were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Short interfering RNAs targeting MRP3 were synthesized and used to transfect human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The effect of MRP3 down-regulation on cell proliferation and apoptosis in response to 5-fluorouracil and/or irradiation were examined in vitro and in xenograft mouse models, respectively. The content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the activity of caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to irradiation were further evaluated. High expression (immunoreactive score > 6) of MRP3 significantly predicted poor pathological response to chemoradiotherapy (tumor regression grade ≤ 2 vs. ≥3, p = 0.002) in univariate analysis and unfavorable long-term prognosis (5-year overall survival: HR = 1.612, 95% CI, 1.094-2.375, p = 0.016; 5-year disease-free survival: HR = 1.513, 95% CI, 1.041-2.200, p = 0.030) in multivariate Cox analysis. MRP3 down-regulation significantly increased 5-fluorouracil or irradiation-induced cell apoptosis and attenuated tumor growth following irradiation in animal models. MRP3 inhibition significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species exporting from cells following irradiation, and increased expression of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase and caspase-3. Aberrant expression of MRP3 in rectal cancer confers chemo-radioresistance. MRP3 might be a predictive factor and an attractive target in treating advanced rectal cancer.

  18. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    PubMed

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis.

  19. Curcumin induces the apoptotic intrinsic pathway via upregulation of reactive oxygen species and JNKs in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zikaki, Kyriaki; Aggeli, Ioanna-Katerina; Gaitanaki, Catherine; Beis, Isidoros

    2014-06-01

    Curcumin derived from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), is a well known coloring culinary agent, that has therapeutic properties against diverse pathologies such as cancer, atherosclerosis and heart failure. Given the salutary potential of curcumin, deciphering its mode of action particularly in cardiac cells, is of outstanding value. Accumulating evidence implicates curcumin in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways leading to cell survival or apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms triggered by curcumin in H9c2 cells. Curcumin was found to activate p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) as well as c-jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNKs), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed curcumin to impair cell survival by promoting apoptosis, evidenced by chromatin condensation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage, as well as Bax translocation and cytochrome c release into the cytosol. Curcumin-induced apoptosis was ascribed to JNKs, since hindering their activity abolished PARP fragmentation. Furthermore, we identified curcumin to exert a pro-oxidative activity, with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining revealing up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and anti-oxidants found to abrogate PARP cleavage. In conclusion, curcumin was found to stimulate the apoptotic cell death of H9c2 cells by upregulating ROS generation and triggering activation of JNKs. With reports underscoring the capacity of curcumin to perturb the cellular redox balance ensuring survival or enhancing apoptosis, determination of its mode of action appears to be critical. Future studies should assess the appropriate administration conditions of curcumin, so as to optimize its therapeutic potential against cardiovascular pathologies.

  20. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    PubMed

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23754197

  1. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  2. Mitochondrial fission is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy mediated by a Ca2+-calcineurin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E; Del Campo, Andrea; Gutierrez, Tomás; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Chiong, Mario; Zorzano, Antonio; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-06-15

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has been associated with diminished mitochondrial metabolism. Mitochondria are crucial organelles for the production of ATP, and their morphology and function are regulated by the dynamic processes of fusion and fission. The relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still poorly understood. Here, we show that treatment of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine promotes mitochondrial fission (characterized by a decrease in mitochondrial mean volume and an increase in the relative number of mitochondria per cell) and a decrease in mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that norepinephrine acts through α1-adrenergic receptors to increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+), activating calcineurin and promoting migration of the fission protein Drp1 (encoded by Dnml1) to mitochondria. Dominant-negative Drp1 (K38A) not only prevented mitochondrial fission, it also blocked hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine. Remarkably, an antisense adenovirus against the fusion protein Mfn2 (AsMfn2) was sufficient to increase mitochondrial fission and stimulate a hypertrophic response without agonist treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling.

  3. Mitochondrial fission is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy mediated by a Ca2+-calcineurin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E.; del Campo, Andrea; Gutierrez, Tomás; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Chiong, Mario; Zorzano, Antonio; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has been associated with diminished mitochondrial metabolism. Mitochondria are crucial organelles for the production of ATP, and their morphology and function are regulated by the dynamic processes of fusion and fission. The relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still poorly understood. Here, we show that treatment of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine promotes mitochondrial fission (characterized by a decrease in mitochondrial mean volume and an increase in the relative number of mitochondria per cell) and a decrease in mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that norepinephrine acts through α1-adrenergic receptors to increase cytoplasmic Ca2+, activating calcineurin and promoting migration of the fission protein Drp1 (encoded by Dnml1) to mitochondria. Dominant-negative Drp1 (K38A) not only prevented mitochondrial fission, it also blocked hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine. Remarkably, an antisense adenovirus against the fusion protein Mfn2 (AsMfn2) was sufficient to increase mitochondrial fission and stimulate a hypertrophic response without agonist treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling. PMID:24777478

  4. Mitochondrial fission is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy mediated by a Ca2+-calcineurin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E; Del Campo, Andrea; Gutierrez, Tomás; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Chiong, Mario; Zorzano, Antonio; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-06-15

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has been associated with diminished mitochondrial metabolism. Mitochondria are crucial organelles for the production of ATP, and their morphology and function are regulated by the dynamic processes of fusion and fission. The relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still poorly understood. Here, we show that treatment of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine promotes mitochondrial fission (characterized by a decrease in mitochondrial mean volume and an increase in the relative number of mitochondria per cell) and a decrease in mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that norepinephrine acts through α1-adrenergic receptors to increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+), activating calcineurin and promoting migration of the fission protein Drp1 (encoded by Dnml1) to mitochondria. Dominant-negative Drp1 (K38A) not only prevented mitochondrial fission, it also blocked hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine. Remarkably, an antisense adenovirus against the fusion protein Mfn2 (AsMfn2) was sufficient to increase mitochondrial fission and stimulate a hypertrophic response without agonist treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling. PMID:24777478

  5. Estrogen amelioration of Aβ-induced defects in mitochondria is mediated by mitochondrial signaling pathway involving ERβ, AKAP and Drp1.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Saumyendra; Jun, Sujung; Simpkins, James W

    2015-08-01

    Perturbations in dynamic properties of mitochondria including fission, fusion, and movement lead to disruption of energy supply to synapses contributing to neuropathology and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). The molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are still unclear. Previously, we have shown that ERβ is localized in the mitochondria and ERβ knock down disrupts mitochondrial functions. Because a selective ERβ modulator (DPN) can activate PKA, and localized PKA signaling in the mitochondrial membrane regulates mitochondrial structure and functions, we reasoned that ERβ signaling in the mitochondrial membrane rescues many of the mitochondrial defects caused by soluble Aβ oligomer. We now report that DPN treatment in primary hippocampal neurons attenuates soluble Aβ-oligomer induced dendritic mitochondrial fission and reduced mobility. Additionally, Aβ treatment reduced the respiratory reserve capacity of hippocampal neuron and inhibited phosphorylation of Drp1 at its PKA site, which induces excessive mitochondrial fission, and DPN treatment ameliorates these inhibitions. Finally, we discovered a direct interaction of ERβ with a mitochondrial resident protein AKAP1, which induces the PKA-mediated local signaling pathway involved in increased oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of mitochondrial fission. Taken together, our findings highlight the possibility that ERβ signaling pathway may be a useful mitochondria-directed therapeutic target for AD.

  6. Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly

  7. Bid binding to negatively charged phospholipids may not be required for its pro-apoptotic activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Anna; Lindsay, Jennefer; Marchioretto, Marta; Astegno, Alessandra; Gilmore, Andrew P.; Esposti, Mauro Degli; Crimi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Bid is a ubiquitous pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that has been involved in a variety of pathways of cell death. Unique among pro-apoptotic proteins, Bid is activated after cleavage by the apical caspases of the extrinsic pathway; subsequently it moves to mitochondria, where it promotes the release of apoptogenic proteins in concert with other Bcl-2 family proteins like Bak. Diverse factors appear to modulate the pro-apoptotic action of Bid, from its avid binding to mitochondrial lipids (in particular, cardiolipin) to multiple phosphorylations at sites that can modulate its caspase cleavage. This work addresses the question of how the lipid interactions of Bid that are evident in vitro actually impact on its pro-apoptotic action within cells. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified mutations that reduced mouse Bid lipid binding in vitro. Mutation of the conserved residue Lys157 specifically decreased the binding to negatively charged lipids related to cardiolipin and additionally affected the rate of caspase cleavage. However, this lipid-binding mutant had no discernable effect on Bid pro-apoptotic function in vivo. The results are interpreted in relation to an underlying interaction of Bid with lysophosphatidylcholine, which is not disrupted in any mutant retaining pro-apoptotic function both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19463967

  8. LHON and other optic nerve atrophies: the mitochondrial connection.

    PubMed

    Howell, Neil

    2003-01-01

    The clinical, biochemical and genetic features of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) are reviewed. The etiology of LHON is complex, but the primary risk factor is a mutation in one of the seven mitochondrial genes that encode subunits of respiratory chain complex I. The pathogenesis of LHON is not yet understood, but one plausible model is that increased or altered mitochondrial ROS production renders the retinal ganglion cells vulnerable to apoptotic cell death. In addition to LHON, there are a large number of other optic nerve degenerative disorders including autosomal dominant optic atrophy, the toxic/nutritional optic neuropathies and glaucoma. A review of the recent scientific literature suggests that these disorders also involve mitochondrial dysfunction or altered mitochondrial signaling pathways in their pathogenesis. This mitochondrial link provides new avenues of experimental investigation to these major causes of loss of vision.

  9. β-adrenoceptor pathway enhances mitochondrial function in human neural stem cells via rotary cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Lin, Heng; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Yen, Chia-Hui; Huang, Rong-Nan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-06-15

    The structure and function of the human nervous system are altered in space when compared with their state on earth. To investigate directly the influence of simulated microgravity conditions which may be beneficial for cultivation and proliferation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs), the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was used. RCCS allows the creation of a unique microgravity environment of low shear force, high-mass transfer and enables three-dimensional (3D) cell culture of dissimilar cell types. The results show that simulated microgravity using an RCCS would induce β-adrenoceptor, upregulate cAMP formation and activate both PKA and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) pathways. The expression of intracellular mitochondrial genes, including PGC1α (PPAR coactivator 1α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF1 and NRF2) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), regulated by CREB, were all significantly increased at 72 h after the onset of microgravity. Accordingly and importantly, the ATP level and amount of mitochondrial mass were also increased. These results suggest that exposure to simulated microgravity using an RCCS would induce cellular proliferation in hNSCs via an increased mitochondrial function. In addition, the RCCS bioreactor would support hNSCs growth, which may have the potential for cell replacement therapy in neurological disorders. PMID:22524992

  10. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 μM) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ► Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ► Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  11. Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells

    PubMed Central

    Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn2+ (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72 h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy. PMID:25118929

  12. Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells.

    PubMed

    Oropesa-Ávila, M; Andrade-Talavera, Y; Garrido-Maraver, J; Cordero, M D; de la Mata, M; Cotán, D; Paz, M V; Pavón, A D; Alcocer-Gómez, E; de Lavera, I; Lema, R; Zaderenko, A P; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Sánchez-Alcázar, J A

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by degradation of cell components but plasma membrane remains intact. Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis forming a cortical structure beneath plasma membrane that maintains plasma membrane integrity. Apoptotic cells are also characterized by high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that can be potentially harmful for the cell. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows stabilizing apoptotic cells for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. By using a cocktail composed of taxol (a microtubule stabilizer), Zn(2+) (a caspase inhibitor) and coenzyme Q10 (a lipid antioxidant), we were able to stabilize H460 apoptotic cells in cell cultures for at least 72 h, preventing secondary necrosis. Stabilized apoptotic cells maintain many apoptotic cell characteristics such as the presence of apoptotic microtubules, plasma membrane integrity, low intracellular calcium levels and mitochondrial polarization. Apoptotic cell stabilization may open new avenues in apoptosis detection and therapy. PMID:25118929

  13. Interaction of MDM33 with mitochondrial inner membrane homeostasis pathways in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Klecker, Till; Wemmer, Megan; Haag, Mathias; Weig, Alfons; Böckler, Stefan; Langer, Thomas; Nunnari, Jodi; Westermann, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Membrane homeostasis affects mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, and function. Here we report genetic and proteomic data that reveal multiple interactions of Mdm33, a protein essential for normal mitochondrial structure, with components of phospholipid metabolism and mitochondrial inner membrane homeostasis. We screened for suppressors of MDM33 overexpression-induced growth arrest and isolated binding partners by immunoprecipitation of cross-linked cell extracts. These approaches revealed genetic and proteomic interactions of Mdm33 with prohibitins, Phb1 and Phb2, which are key components of mitochondrial inner membrane homeostasis. Lipid profiling by mass spectrometry of mitochondria isolated from Mdm33-overexpressing cells revealed that high levels of Mdm33 affect the levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin, the two key inner membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, we show that cells lacking Mdm33 show strongly decreased mitochondrial fission activity indicating that Mdm33 is critical for mitochondrial membrane dynamics. Our data suggest that MDM33 functionally interacts with components important for inner membrane homeostasis and thereby supports mitochondrial division. PMID:26669658

  14. Carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells through both of the mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Juan; Shi, Xiaojie; Ouyang, Li; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been recently demonstrated to possess anti-tumor activity. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of carnosine on the cell viability and proliferation of the cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Carnosine treatment did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis, but reduced the proliferative capacity of SGC-7901 cells. Seahorse analysis showed SGC-7901 cells cultured with pyruvate have active mitochondria, and depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis pathway for generation of ATP. Carnosine markedly decreased the absolute value of mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration, and reduced the maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which may reduce mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. Simultaneously, carnosine also reduced the extracellular acidification rate and glycolysis of SGC-7901 cells. Our results suggested that carnosine is a potential regulator of energy metabolism of SGC-7901 cells both in the anaerobic and aerobic pathways, and provided a clue for preclinical and clinical evaluation of carnosine for gastric cancer therapy.

  15. Activation of ERK1/2 pathway mediates oxidant-induced decreases in mitochondrial function in renal cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Grazyna; Clifton, Ginger L; Godwin, Malinda L; Bakajsova, Diana

    2006-10-01

    Previously, we showed that oxidant exposure in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) induces mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by PKC-epsilon. This study examined the role of ERK1/2 in mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidant injury and whether PKC-epsilon mediates its effects on mitochondrial function through the Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway. Sublethal injury produced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) resulted in three- to fivefold increase in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK. This was followed by decreases in basal and uncoupled respirations (41%), state 3 respiration and ATP production coupled to complex I (46%), and complex I activity (42%). Oxidant exposure decreased aconitase activity 30% but not pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and malate dehydrogenase activities. Inhibition of ERK1/2 restored basal and state 3 respirations, DeltaPsi(m), ATP production, and complex I activity but not aconitase activity. In contrast, activation of ERK1/2 by expression of constitutively active MEK1 suppressed basal, uncoupled, and state 3 respirations in noninjured RPTC to the levels observed in TBHP-injured RPTC. MEK1/2 inhibition did not change Akt or p38 phosphorylation, demonstrating that the protective effect of MEK1/2 inhibitor was not due to activation of Akt or inhibition of p38 pathway. Inhibition of PKC-epsilon did not block TBHP-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in whole RPTC or in mitochondria. We conclude that 1) oxidant-induced activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 or JNK reduces mitochondrial respiration and ATP production by decreasing complex I activity and substrate oxidation through complex I, 2) citric acid cycle dehydrogenases are not under control of the ERK1/2 pathway in oxidant-injured RPTC, 3) the protective effects of ERK1/2 inhibition are not due to activation of Akt, and 4) ERK1/2 and PKC-epsilon mediate oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction through independent pathways.

  16. Altering the Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis (mtFASII) Pathway Modulates Cellular Metabolic States and Bioactive Lipid Profiles as Revealed by Metabolomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Hayley B.; Parl, Angelika K.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Singh, Larry; Bell, Lauren N.; Murdock, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the presence of a cytosolic fatty acid synthesis pathway, mitochondria have retained their own means of creating fatty acids via the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway. The reason for its conservation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, to better understand the role of mtFASII in the cell, we used thin layer chromatography to characterize the contribution of the mtFASII pathway to the fatty acid composition of selected mitochondrial lipids. Next, we performed metabolomic analysis on HeLa cells in which the mtFASII pathway was either hypofunctional (through knockdown of mitochondrial acyl carrier protein, ACP) or hyperfunctional (through overexpression of mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase, MECR). Our results indicate that the mtFASII pathway contributes little to the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial lipid species examined. Additionally, loss of mtFASII function results in changes in biochemical pathways suggesting alterations in glucose utilization and redox state. Interestingly, levels of bioactive lipids, including lysophospholipids and sphingolipids, directly correlate with mtFASII function, indicating that mtFASII may be involved in the regulation of bioactive lipid levels. Regulation of bioactive lipid levels by mtFASII implicates the pathway as a mediator of intracellular signaling. PMID:26963735

  17. Convergence of multiple signaling pathways is required to coordinately up-regulate mtDNA and mitochondrial biogenesis during T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Anthony D.; Parikh, Neal; Kaech, Susan M.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    The quantity and activity of mitochondria vary dramatically in tissues and are modulated in response to changing cellular energy demands and environmental factors. The amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes required for cellular ATP production, is also tightly regulated, but by largely unknown mechanisms. Using murine T cells as a model system, we have addressed how specific signaling pathways influence mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA levels. T cell receptor (TCR) activation results in a large increase in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential and a corresponding increase of mtDNA copy number, indicating the vital role for mitochondrial function for the growth and proliferation of these cells. Independent activation of protein kinase C (via PMA) or calcium-related pathways (via ionomycin) had differential and sub-maximal effects on these mitochondrial parameters, as did activation of naïve T cells with proliferative cytokines. Thus, the robust mitochondrial biogenesis response observed upon TCR activation requires synergy of multiple downstream signaling pathways. One such pathway involves AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which we show has an unprecedented role in negatively regulating mitochondrial biogenesis that is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent. That is, inhibition of AMPK after TCR signaling commences results in excessive, but uncoordinated mitochondrial proliferation. We propose that mitochondrial biogenesis is not under control of a master regulatory circuit, but rather requires the convergence of multiple signaling pathways with distinct downstream consequences on the organelle’s structure, composition, and function. PMID:17890163

  18. Aqueous Extract of Shi-Liu-Wei-Liu-Qi-Yin Induces G2/M Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells via Fas and Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hung, Guang-Uei; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2011-01-01

    Shi-Liu-Wei-Liu-Qi-Yin (SLWLQY) was traditionally used to treat cancers. However, scientific evidence of the anticancer effects still remains undefined. In this study, we aimed to clarify the possible mechanisms of SLWLQY in treating cancer. We evaluated the effects of SLWLQY on apoptosis-related experiments inducing in TSGH-8301 cells by (i) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-zyl)-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide (MTT) for cytotoxicity; (ii) cell-cycle analysis and (iii) western blot analysis of the G2/M-phase and apoptosis regulatory proteins. Human bladder carcinoma TSGH-8301 cells were transplanted into BALB/c nude mice as a tumor model for evaluating the antitumor effect of SLWLQY. Treatment of SLWLQY resulted in the G2/M phase arrest and apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinases (cdc2) and cyclins (cyclin B1). SLWLQY stimulated increases in the protein expression of Fas and FasL, and induced the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8. The ratio of Bax/Bcl2 was increased by SLWLQY treatment. SLWLQY markedly reduced tumor size in TSGH-8301 cells-xenografted tumor tissues. In the tissue specimen, SLWLQY up-regulated the expression of Fas, FasL and Bax proteins, and down-regulated Bcl2 as well as in in vitro assay. Our results showed that SLWLQY reduced tumor growth, caused cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in TSGH-8301 cells via the Fas and mitochondrial pathway. PMID:19383839

  19. Subcellular localization of PUMA regulates its pro-apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma B cells.

    PubMed

    Ambroise, Gorbatchev; Portier, Alain; Roders, Nathalie; Arnoult, Damien; Vazquez, Aimé

    2015-11-10

    The BH3-only protein PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a major regulator of apoptosis. It belongs to the Bcl-2 family of proteins responsible for maintaining mitochondrial outer membrane integrity by controlling the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. We describe here a new pathway regulating PUMA activation through the control of its subcellular distribution. Surprisingly, neither PUMA upregulation in normal activated human B lymphocytes nor high levels of PUMA in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were associated with cell death. We show that PUMA is localized to the cytosol in these cells. By contrast, various apoptosis-triggering signals were found to promote the translocation of PUMA to the mitochondria in these cells, leading to their death by apoptosis. This apoptosis was associated with the binding of mitochondrial PUMA to anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. This translocation was caspase-independent but was prevented by inhibiting or knocking down the expression of the MAPK kinase p38. Our data suggest that the accumulation of PUMA in the cytosol may be important for the participation of this protein in apoptosis without the need for prior transcription. This regulatory pathway may be an important feature of differentiation and tumorigenic processes.

  20. Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-06-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate. PMID:23417763

  1. Anthracenedione derivative 1403P-3 induces apoptosis in KB and KBv200 cells via reactive oxygen species-independent mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-ye; Wu, Hai-ying; Xia, Xue-kui; Liang, Yong-ju; Yan, Yan-yan; She, Zhi-gang; Lin, Yong-cheng; Fu, Li-wu

    2007-09-01

    Anthracenedione derivatives are potent cytotoxic agents to tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activities of anthracenedione derivative 1403P-3 separated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus No. 1403. Our results demonstrated that 1403P-3 showed potent cytotoxicity not only to human epidermoid carcinoma drug-sensitive parental KB cells but also to multidrug resistant (MDR) KBv200 cells and the IC50 values were 19.66 and 19.27 muM, respectively. Further research indicated that 1403P-3 induced apoptosis in KB cells and KBv200 cells confirmed by Hoechst 33258 staining, detection of DNA fragmentation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, apoptosis triggered by 1403P-3 was characterized by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), release of cytochrome c, cleavage of Bid, and activation of caspases-2, -3, -7, -8 and -9. Z-IETD-FMK, caspase-8 inhibitor could inhibit the activation of caspase-2 and cleavage of Bid induced by 1403P-3. However, activation of caspase-9 and cleavage of PARP caused by 1403P-3 were not inhibited by Z-IETD-FMK. Additionally, 1403P-3 did not influence the expression level of Bcl-2 and Bax. It is noteworthy that 1403P-3 decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in KB cells and KBv200 cells. DNA binding assay exhibited that apoptosis induced by 1403P-3 was not involved in intercalating to DNA. In summary, 1403P-3 induced apoptosis of KB cells and KBv200 cells through mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial pathway was independent of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspase-8. PMID:17786034

  2. The Mitochondrial Uncoupler DNP Triggers Brain Cell mTOR Signaling Network Reprogramming and CREB Pathway Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R.; Cutler, Roy G.; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mTOR and insulin – PI3K – MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and BDNF, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26010875

  3. S-benzyl-cysteine-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade through the p53 pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Jun; Meng, Lin-Yi; Shen, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Liu, Hong-Rui

    2013-01-01

    S-benzyl-cysteine (SBC) is a structural analog of S-allylcysteine (SAC), which is one of the major water- soluble compounds in aged garlic extract. In this study, anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of SBC action were investigated and compared these with those of SAC using human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. SBC significantly suppressed the survival rate of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activities of SBC were stronger than those of SAC. Flow cytometry revealed that SBC induced G2-phase arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. SBC-treatment dramatically induced the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 whilst hardly affecting caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, Western blotting indicated that SBC-induced apoptosis was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of p53, Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, this study suggested that SBC exerts cytotoxic activity involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24377536

  4. DNA Hypermethylation of CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 Associated with the Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Pathway in Human BEAS-2B Cells Exposure to Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yang; Li, Qiuling; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Caixia; Li, Yanbo; Yu, Yang; Li, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    The toxic effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are raising concerns due to its widely applications in biomedicine. However, current information about the epigenetic toxicity of SiNPs is insufficient. In this study, the epigenetic regulation of low-dose exposure to SiNPs was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells over 30 passages. Cell viability was decreased in a dose- and passage-dependent manner. The apoptotic rate, the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, were significantly increased induced by SiNPs. HumanMethylation450 BeadChip analysis identified that the PI3K/Akt as the primary apoptosis-related pathway among the 25 significant altered processes. The differentially methylated sites of PI3K/Akt pathway involved 32 differential genes promoters, in which the CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 were significant hypermethylated. The methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza, further verified that the DNA hypermethylation status of CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 were associated with downregulation of their mRNA levels. In addition, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis was triggered by SiNPs via the downregulation of PI3K/Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that long-term low-dose exposure to SiNPs could lead to epigenetic alterations. PMID:27362941

  5. A Homogeneous Polysaccharide from Fructus Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis through the Hsp90/AKT Signalling Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonglin; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Huijun; Li, Ning; Su, Juan; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-06-28

    According to the potential anti-hepatoma therapeutic effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides presented in previous studies, a bioactive constituent, homogeneous Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide-0-1 (SCP-0-1), molecular weight (MW) circa 69.980 kDa, was isolated and purified. We assessed the efficacy of SCP-0-1 against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to investigate the effects of its antitumour activity and molecular mechanisms. Anticancer activity was evaluated using microscopy, 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, acridine orange (AO) staining, flow cytometry (FCM), and cell-cycle analysis. SCP-0-1 inhibited the HepG2 cells' growth via inducing apoptosis and second gap/mitosis (G2/M) arrest dose-dependently, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 479.63 µg/mL. Western blotting of key proteins revealed the apoptotic and autophagic potential of SCP-0-1. Besides, SCP-0-1 upregulated Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and downregulated B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the HepG2 cells. The expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); cytochrome c (Cyt C); tumor protein 53 (p53); survivin; sequestosome 1 (p62); microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38); extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); protein kinase B (AKT); and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) were evaluated using Western blotting. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which SCP-0-1 exerts its antiproliferative activity and induces mitochondrial apoptosis rather than autophagy. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was attributed to the inhibition of the Hsp90/AKT signalling pathway in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. The results also provide initial evidence on a molecular basis that SCP-0-1 can be used as an anti

  6. A Homogeneous Polysaccharide from Fructus Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis through the Hsp90/AKT Signalling Pathway in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonglin; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Huijun; Li, Ning; Su, Juan; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-01-01

    According to the potential anti-hepatoma therapeutic effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides presented in previous studies, a bioactive constituent, homogeneous Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide-0-1 (SCP-0-1), molecular weight (MW) circa 69.980 kDa, was isolated and purified. We assessed the efficacy of SCP-0-1 against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to investigate the effects of its antitumour activity and molecular mechanisms. Anticancer activity was evaluated using microscopy, 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, acridine orange (AO) staining, flow cytometry (FCM), and cell-cycle analysis. SCP-0-1 inhibited the HepG2 cells’ growth via inducing apoptosis and second gap/mitosis (G2/M) arrest dose-dependently, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 479.63 µg/mL. Western blotting of key proteins revealed the apoptotic and autophagic potential of SCP-0-1. Besides, SCP-0-1 upregulated Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and downregulated B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the HepG2 cells. The expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); cytochrome c (Cyt C); tumor protein 53 (p53); survivin; sequestosome 1 (p62); microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38); extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); protein kinase B (AKT); and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) were evaluated using Western blotting. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which SCP-0-1 exerts its antiproliferative activity and induces mitochondrial apoptosis rather than autophagy. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was attributed to the inhibition of the Hsp90/AKT signalling pathway in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. The results also provide initial evidence on a molecular basis that SCP-0-1 can be used as an anti

  7. Interaction between plastid and mitochondrial retrograde signalling pathways during changes to plastid redox status

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Nicolás E.; Guinea-Díaz, Manuel; Whelan, James; Strand, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts depend upon each other; photosynthesis provides substrates for mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial metabolism is essential for sustaining photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In addition, mitochondrial respiration protects photosynthesis against photoinhibition by dissipating excess redox equivalents from the chloroplasts. Genetic defects in mitochondrial function result in an excessive reduction and energization of the chloroplast. Thus, it is clear that the activities of mitochondria and plastids need to be coordinated, but the manner by which the organelles communicate to coordinate their activities is unknown. The regulator of alternative oxidase (rao1) mutant was isolated as a mutant unable to induce AOX1a expression in response to the inhibitor of the mitochondrial cytochrome c reductase (complex III), antimycin A. RAO1 encodes the nuclear localized cyclin-dependent kinase E1 (CDKE1). Interestingly, the rao1 mutant demonstrates a genome uncoupled phenotype also in response to redox changes in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Thus, CDKE1 was shown to regulate both LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEX B (LHCB) and ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE 1 (AOX1a) expression in response to retrograde signals. Our results suggest that CDKE1 is a central nuclear component integrating mitochondrial and plastid retrograde signals and plays a role in regulating energy metabolism during the response to stress. PMID:24591717

  8. Mechanism of Alternariol monomethyl ether-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bensassi, Fatma; Gallerne, Cindy; el Dein, Ossama Sharaf; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Bacha, Hassen; Lemaire, Christophe

    2011-12-18

    Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) is a major mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria and a common contaminant of food products such as fruits and cereals worldwide. AME can cause serious health problems for animals as well as for humans. In this study, human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116) were used to explore the mechanisms of cell death induced by AME. Exposure of HCT116 cells to AME resulted in significant cytotoxicity manifested by a loss in cell viability mainly mediated by activation of apoptotic process. AME activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway evidenced by the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) downstream generation of O(2)(-), cytochrome c release and caspase 9 and 3 activation. Experiments conducted on isolated organelles indicated that AME does not directly target mitochondria to induce PTP-dependent permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes. Moreover, no difference was observed in Bax-KO cells in comparison to parental cells, suggesting that the pro-apoptotic protein Bax is not involved in AME-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that AME induces cell death in human colon carcinoma cells by activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

  9. Membrane Transfer from Mononuclear Cells to Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Transduces Cell Survival and Activation Signals in the Recipient Cells via Anti-Extrinsic Apoptotic and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ko-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Han; Shen, Chieh-Yu; Kuo, Yu-Min; Yu, Chia-Li; Hsieh, Song-Chou

    2016-01-01

    The biological significance of membrane transfer (trogocytosis) between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) remains unclear. We investigated the biological/immunological effects and molecular basis of trogocytosis among various immune cells in healthy individuals and patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). By flow cytometry, we determined that molecules in the immunological synapse, including HLA class-I and-II, CD11b and LFA-1, along with CXCR1, are exchanged among autologous PMNs, CD4+ T cells, and U937 cells (monocytes) after cell-cell contact. Small interfering RNA knockdown of the integrin adhesion molecule CD11a in U937 unexpectedly enhanced the level of total membrane transfer from U937 to PMN cells. Functionally, phagocytosis and IL-8 production by PMNs were enhanced after co-culture with T cells. Total membrane transfer from CD4+ T to PMNs delayed PMN apoptosis by suppressing the extrinsic apoptotic molecules, BAX, MYC and caspase 8. This enhancement of activities of PMNs by T cells was found to be mediated via p38- and P44/42-Akt-MAP kinase pathways and inhibited by the actin-polymerization inhibitor, latrunculin B, the clathrin inhibitor, Pitstop-2, and human immunoglobulin G, but not by the caveolin inhibitor, methyl-β-cyclodextrin. In addition, membrane transfer from PMNs enhanced IL-2 production by recipient anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activated MNCs, and this was suppressed by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (PD98059) and protein kinase C (Rottlerin). Of clinical significance, decreased total membrane transfer from PMNs to MNCs in patients with active SLE suppressed mononuclear IL-2 production. In conclusion, membrane transfer from MNCs to PMNs, mainly at the immunological synapse, transduces survival and activation signals to enhance PMN functions and is dependent on actin polymerization, clathrin activation, and Fcγ receptors, while membrane transfer from PMNs to MNCs depends on MAP kinase and

  10. Mitochondrial cytopathies and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Dominic, Elizabeth A; Ramezani, Ali; Anker, Stefan D; Verma, Mukesh; Mehta, Nehal; Rao, Madhumathi

    2014-04-01

    The global epidemic of cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA and across the world. Functional and structural integrity of mitochondria are essential for the physiological function of the cardiovascular system. The met