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Sample records for mitochondrial coi sequence

  1. Phylogenetic relationship between Dermanyssus gallinae populations in European countries based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Marangi, M; de Luna, C J; Cafiero, M A; Camarda, A; le Bouquin, S; Huonnic, D; Giangaspero, A; Sparagano, O A E

    2009-06-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of Dermanyssus gallinae mites originating from UK, France and Italy was performed using partial amplification of the mitochondrial COI gene. Results showed that UK samples reveal the greatest variation and diversity and are linked to one of the French populations highlighting North-South genetic transitions in European red mite populations. Intra-farm variations between mite samples highlighted the diversity between national populations and possibly its origin from the different chemical strategies used in each country.

  2. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo, Elisabeth; Zhu, Yong; Carpenter, James M; Strassmann, Joan E

    2004-01-01

    Background Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have generally been conducted within species, because a resolved phylogeny among species is lacking. We used nuclear DNA microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters to generate a phylogeny for the Polistinae (Hymenoptera) using 69 species. Results Our phylogeny is largely concordant with previous phylogenies at higher levels, and is more resolved at the species level. Our results support the monophyly of the New World subgenera of Polistini, while the Old World subgenera are a paraphyletic group. All genera for which we had more than one exemplar were supported as monophyletic except Polybia which is not resolved, and may be paraphyletic. Conclusion The combination of DNA sequences from flanks of microsatellite repeats with mtCOI sequences and morphological characters proved to be useful characters establishing relationships among the different subgenera and species of the Polistini. This is the first detailed hypothesis for the species of this important group. PMID:15070433

  3. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the acanthocephalan Prosthenorchis elegans in Colombia based on cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence

    PubMed Central

    Falla, Ana Carolina; Brieva, Claudia; Bloor, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Prosthenorchis elegans is a member of the Phylum Acanthocephala and is an important parasite affecting New World Primates in the wild in South America and in captivity around the world. It is of significant management concern due to its pathogenicity and mode of transmission through intermediate hosts. Current diagnosis of P. elegans is based on the detection of eggs by coprological examination. However, this technique lacks both specificity and sensitivity, since eggs of most members of the genus are morphologically indistinguishable and shed intermittently, making differential diagnosis difficult, and coprological examinations are often negative in animals severely infected at death. We examined sequence variation in 633 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence in 37 isolates of P. elegans from New World monkeys (Saguinus leucopus and Cebus albifrons) in Colombia held in rescue centers and from the wild. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 1.6% and was comparable with corresponding values within other species of acanthocephalans. Furthermore, comparisons of patterns of sequence divergence within the Acanthocephala suggest that Prosthenorchis represents a separate genus within the Oligacanthorhynchida. Six distinct haplotypes were identified within P. elegans which grouped into one of two well-supported mtDNA haplogroups. No association between haplogroup/haplotype, holding facility and species was found. This information will help pave the way to the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools for the detection of P. elegans as well as furthering research into the life cycle, intermediate hosts and epidemiological aspects of the species. PMID:26759793

  5. Identification of Fasciola species isolated from Egypt based on sequence analysis of genomic (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (NDI and COI) gene markers.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Dar, Yasser; Ichikawa, Madoka; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Tada, Chika; Itagaki, Tadashi; Nakai, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Fascioliasis has a negative impact on the farming industry in both developed and developing countries, rather than a public health challenge. This study was performed to identify Fasciola sp. from different definitive hosts (buffalo, cattle, and sheep) based on the molecular parameters and spermatogenesis. Ninety-one adult flukes were collected from livers of slaughtered animals at abattoirs in different prefectures in Egypt. Microscopic examination of the analyzed flukes showed many normal spermatozoa in the seminal vesicles (spermic), suggesting that they have the ability of spermatogenesis. This study showed that no parthenogenic Fasciola species occurred in Egypt. Molecular analysis was performed utilizing genomic (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (NDI and COI) gene markers. Whereas 16 animals proved to have infection with a single Fasciola species, 2 were infected with both F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The results indicated that sheep were prone to F. hepatica (8 out of 10 animals) more than F. gigantica infection. Sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 ribosomal region indicated that the flukes were categorized into 3 groups F. hepatica-type (47), F. gigantica-type (42) and 2 flukes possessed sequences of both types indicating an existence of different alleles at the same loci. Unique overlapping of T/C bases were detected in both ITS1 (Position 96) and ITS2 (Position 416). Based on results of mitochondrial gene markers (NDI and COI), flukes were classified into F. hepatica-type and F. gigantica-type. Extensive intra-sequence polymorphism was detected at both markers. NDI and COI sequences of Egyptian strain of F. gigantica showed pronounced diversity compared with relevant sequences at database.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Eleutheronema rhadinum in the East and South China Seas revealed in mitochondrial COI sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xinxu; Xu, Dongdong; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Tao; Xin, Jian; Guo, Yaoshi; Ma, Shilei

    2013-11-01

    Eleutheronema rhadinum is a potential commercial fisheries species and is subject to intense exploitation in China. Knowledge on the population structure of E. rhadinum in Chinese coastal waters, which is important for sustainable exploitation and proper resource management, is lacking. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of E. rhadinum were evaluated using a 564-base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 76 specimens were collected from three localities around the East (Qidong and Zhoushan) and South China Seas (Zhuhai). Among these individuals, nine polymorphic sites were detected and 11 distinct haplotypes were defined. High levels of haplotype diversity ( h =0.759±0.035) and low levels of nucleotide diversity ( π= 0.001 98±0.003 26) were observed in these populations. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 96.72% of the genetic variation occurred within the populations, whereas 3.28% occurred among populations. No significant genealogical branches or clusters were recognized on the neighbor-joining tree. Intra-group variation among populations was significant ( φ st=0.032 85, P<0.01). These results suggest that E. rhadinum populations in the East and South China Seas have developed divergent genetic structures. Tests of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution suggest that E. rhadinum may have experienced a population expansion. The present study provides basic information for the conservation and sustainable exploitation of this species.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of a cosmopolitan group of woodpeckers (genus Picoides) gased on COI and cyt b mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Amy C; Moore, William S

    2002-01-01

    Picoides is the largest genus of woodpeckers and member species are found on most major land masses. Current systematic arrangement of this group, based on morphological, behavioral, and plumage characters, suggests that New World species evolved from a single invasion by a Eurasian common ancestor and that all New World species form a monophyletic group. No clear link has ever been established between the relationships of Old World and New World species other than to infer that the most primitive species is Eurasian. This study employs DNA sequences for two protein-coding mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b, to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among all New World species and several Eurasian representatives of the genus Picoides. A well-resolved mitochondrial gene tree is in direct conflict with proposed species relationships based on nongenetic characters; monophyly among New World species is rejected, the evolution of New World species likely resulted from as many as three independent Eurasian invasions, and Picoides is paraphyletic with two other woodpecker genera, Veniliornis and Dendropicos. These results strongly suggest that this large, cosmopolitan genus is in need of systematic revision in order to reflect evolutionary history.

  8. Population genetic structure of the parasitic nematode Camallanus cotti inferred from DNA sequences of ITS1 rDNA and the mitochondrial COI gene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan G; Wang, Gui T; Xi, Bing W; Xiong, Fan; Liu, Tao; Nie, Pin

    2009-10-14

    The population genetic structure of fish parasitic nematode, Camallanus cotti, collected from the Yangtze River, Pearl River and Minjiang River in China was investigated. From these parasites, the approximately 730 bp of the first internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS1 rDNA) and the 428bp of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were sequenced. For the ITS1 rDNA data set, highly significant Fst values and low rates of migration were detected between the Pearl River group and both the Yangtze River (Fst=0.70, P<0.00001; Nm=0.21) and Minjiang River (Fst=0.73, P<0.00001; Nm=0.18) groups, while low Fst value (Fst=0.018, P>0.05) and high rate of migration (Nm=28.42) were found between the Minjiang and the Yangtze rivers. When different host/locality populations (subpopulations) within each river were considered, subpopulations between the Yangtze River and Minjiang River had low Fst values (3.72), while Pearl River subpopulations were significantly different from the Yangtze River and Minjiang River subpopulations (Fst>or=0.59; Nm<1). The COI gene data set revealed a similar genetic structure. Both phylogenetic analyses and a statistical parsimony network grouped the Pearl River haplotypes into one phylogroup, while the Yangtze River and Minjiang River haplotypes formed a second group. These results suggested that the Yangtze River and Minjiang River subpopulations constituted a single reproductive pool that was distinct from the Pearl River subpopulations. In addition, the present study did not find host-related genetic differentiation occurring in the same drainage.

  9. New putative cryptic species detection and genetic network analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) in China based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Zhilin; Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhan; Zhang, Zhongkai

    2017-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions. To understand the B. tabaci cryptic species diversity in China more comprehensively, in the year 2014 and 2016, a large-scale sampling was conducted from the famous biodiversity hotspot of China, Yunnan province. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences were used to identify new putative cryptic species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian methods to evaluate the position of new cryptic species in the context of the B. tabaci diversity in Asia. Two new cryptic species, China 5 and Asia V were identified. In total, 19 B. tabaci cryptic species are present in China, two invasive (MED and MEAM1) and 17 indigenous. A new sibling species of B. tabaci was first defined and reported. Based on the mtCOI sequences and haplotype network analyses, the genetic diversity of MED was far higher than MEAM1. We confirmed the exotic MED was originated from the western Mediterranean regions and first invaded into Yunnan, China. The genetic structures of other four indigenous species (Asia I, Asia II 1, Asia II 6, and China 1) with relatively wide distribution ranges in China were also discussed.

  10. Morphological and molecular identification of marine copepod Dioithona rigida Giesbrecht, 1896 (Crustacea:Cyclopoida) based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences, from Lakshadweep sea, India.

    PubMed

    Radhika, R; Bijoy Nandan, S; Harikrishnan, M

    2016-08-23

    Morphological identification of the marine cyclopoid copepod Dioithona rigida in combination with sequencing a 645 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (mtCOI) gene, collected from offshore waters of Kavarathi Island, Lakshadweep Sea, is presented in this study. Kiefer in 1935 classified Dioithona as a separate genus from Oithona. The main distinguishing characters observed in the collected samples, such as the presence of well-developed P5 with 2 setae, 5 segmented urosome, 12 segmented antennule, compact dagger-like setae on the inner margin of proximal segment of exopod ramus in P1-P4 and engorged portion of P1-bearing a spine, confirmed their morphology to D. rigida. A comparison of setal formulae of the exopod and endopod of D. rigida with those recorded previously by various authors are also presented here. Maximum likelihood Tree analysis exhibited the clustering of D. rigida sequences into a single clade (accession numbers KP972540.1-KR528588.1), which in contrast was 37-42% divergent from other Oithona species. Further intra-specific divergence values of 0-2% also confirmed the genetic identity of D. rigida species. Paracyclopina nana was selected as an out group displayed a diverged array. The present results distinctly differentiated D. rigida from other Oithona species.

  11. A molecular phylogeny of the marine mussel genus Perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) based on nuclear (ITS1&2) and mitochondrial (COI) DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ann R; Apte, Smita; MacAvoy, Elizabeth S; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2007-08-01

    A molecular phylogeny is presented for marine mussels of the genus Perna, based on nuclear (ITS1,ITS2) and mitochondrial (COI) DNA sequence data. The three generally recognised species (Perna viridis, Perna perna and Perna canaliculus) and one putative species (Perna picta) were each sampled from several locations within their known geographic distributions. A range of phylogenetic analyses was used to investigate the current taxonomic assignments, evolutionary relationships and the biogeographical history of the genus. The different analyses produced similar, well supported topologies and verified the monophyly of the genus with respect to five mytilid outgroup species. P. perna (Atlantic), P. viridis (Indo-West Pacific), and P. canaliculus (New Zealand) each formed distinct clades, confirming their specific status. Putative P. picta from North Africa clustered within the P. perna clade and is not regarded as a separate species. P. perna and P. canaliculus were the most closely related of the three species. Possible biogeographic explanations for the present species distributions are evaluated.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Sepia officinalis from the Tunisian cost revealed by mitochondrial COI sequences.

    PubMed

    Meriam, Tir; Wafa, Tombari; Khawla, Telahigue; Tarek, Hajji; Abdeljelil, Ghram; Mhamed, Elcafsi

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure of Sepia officinalis sampled along the Tunisian coastline was studied. We have scored the genetic variation of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1. A total of 20 specimens from four sampling sites were analysed and revealed 12 different haplotypes. Haplotype diversity showed a decreasing north to south gradient which may be explained by the hydrogeography of the study area. The overall estimate of genetic divergence (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation between the pair-wise population comparisons supported by the AMOVA analysis which reveals significant genetic divergence. Finally, populations showed an excess of rare haplotypes. The mismatch distribution and several population genetic statistics indicate that the excess of rare variants is due to a recent expansion for Djerba and Kelibia populations. For Rades and Bizerte populations a constant population size was detected. These findings are important for fisheries management to preserve this marine resource for long-term utilization.

  13. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  14. [Molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.) based on partial sequencing of mitochondrial 16S rDNA and COI].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Zhen, Yu; Wang, Guo-shan; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2013-03-01

    Taking the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. commonly found in our coastal sea areas as test object, its genome DNA was extracted, the partial sequences of mt-16S rDNA (650 bp) and mt-COI (709 bp) were PCR-amplified, and, after purification, cloning, and sequencing, the sequences obtained were BLASTn-analyzed. The sequences of greater difference with those of the other jellyfish were chosen, and eight specific primers for the mt-16S rDNA and mt-COI of Aurelia sp. were designed, respectively. The specificity test indicated that the primer AS3 for the mt-16S rDNA and the primer AC3 for the mt-COI were excellent in rapidly detecting the target jellyfish from Rhopilema esculentum, Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii, Acromitus sp., and Aurelia sp., and thus, the techniques for the molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish were preliminarily established, which could get rid of the limitations in classical morphological identification of Aurelia sp. , being able to find the Aurelia sp. in the samples more quickly and accurately.

  15. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  16. Recovery of the mitochondrial COI barcode region in diverse Hexapoda through tRNA-based primers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding uses a 650 bp segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as the basis for an identification system for members of the animal kingdom and some other groups of eukaryotes. PCR amplification of the barcode region is a key step in the analytical chain, but it sometimes fails because of a lack of homology between the standard primer sets and target DNA. Results Two forward PCR primers were developed following analysis of all known arthropod mitochondrial genome arrangements and sequence alignment of the tRNA-W gene which was usually located within 200 bp upstream of the COI gene. These two primers were combined with a standard reverse primer (LepR1) to produce a cocktail which generated a barcode amplicon from 125 of 141 species that included representatives of 121 different families of Hexapoda. High quality sequences were recovered from 79% of the species including groups, such as scale insects, that invariably fail to amplify with standard primers. Conclusions A cocktail of two tRNA-W forward primers coupled with a standard reverse primer amplifies COI for most hexapods, allowing characterization of the standard barcode primer binding region in COI 5' as well as the barcode segment. The current results show that primers designed to bind to highly conserved gene regions upstream of COI will aid the amplification of this gene region in species where standard primers fail and provide valuable information to design a primer for problem groups. PMID:20615258

  17. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  18. Large-scale mitochondrial COI gene sequence variability reflects the complex colonization history of the invasive soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria (L.) (Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasota, Rafal; Pierscieniak, Karolina; Garcia, Pascale; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Wolowicz, Maciej

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine genetic diversity in the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria on a wide geographical scale using mtDNA COI gene sequences. Low levels of genetic diversity was found, which can most likely be explained by a bottleneck effect during Pleistocene glaciations and/or selection. The geographical genetic structuring of the studied populations was also very low. The star-like phylogeny of the haplotypes indicates a relatively recent, rapid population expansion following the glaciation period and repeated expansion following the founder effect(s) after the initial introduction of the soft-shell clam to Europe. North American populations are characterized by the largest number of haplotypes, including rare ones, as expected for native populations. Because of the founder effect connected with initial and repeated expansion events, European populations have significantly lower numbers of haplotypes in comparison with those of North America. We also observed subtle differentiations among populations from the North and Baltic seas. The recently founded soft-shell clam population in the Black Sea exhibited the highest genetic similarity to Baltic populations, which confirmed the hypothesis that M. arenaria was introduced to the Gulf of Odessa from the Baltic Sea. The most enigmatic results were obtained for populations from the White Sea, which were characterized by high genetic affinity with American populations.

  19. Identification of Sphaeroma terebrans via morphology and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xiu-Feng; HAN, Chong; ZHONG, Cai-Rong; XU, Jun-Qiu; HUANG, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopoda, is distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical mangroves. The taxonomy of S. terebrans is usually based on morphological characteristics, with its molecular identification still poorly understood. The number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod are considered as the major morphological characteristics in S. terebrans, which can cause difficulty in regards to accurate identification. In this study, we identified S. terebrans via molecular and morphological data. Furthermore, the validity of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of genus Sphaeroma, including species S. terebrans, S. retrolaeve, and S. serratum, was examined. The mitochondrial COI gene sequences of all specimens were sequenced and analysed. The interspecific Kimura 2-parameter distances were higher than intraspecific distances and no intraspecific-interspecific distance overlaps were observed. In addition, genetic distance and nucleotide diversity (π) exhibited no differences within S. terebrans. Our results revealed that the mitochondrial COI gene can serve as a valid DNA barcode for the identification of S. terebrans. Furthermore, the number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod were found to be unreliable taxonomic characteristics for S. terebrans. PMID:27686791

  20. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    LEHR, M. A.; KILPATRICK, C. W.; WILKERSON, R. C.; CONN, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) diagnostic bands are one tool used to differentiate cryptic mosquito species in the Anopheles albitarsis Complex. Monophyly of four species (A. albitarsis Lynch-Arribálzaga, A. albitarsis B, A. deaneorum Rosa-Freitas, and A. marajoara Galvão & Damasceno) currently identified with the RAPD technique was assessed using sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses support monophyly for A. albitarsis s.s., A. albitarsis B, and A. deaneorum. Anopheles marajoara, as identified by RAPD banding patterns, was either polyphyletic or paraphyletic in all phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic pattern and within-species genetic distances observed in A. marajoara suggest the existence of a previously unidentified species (species E) in northern Brazil and Venezuela. Diagnostic RAPD bands were unable to distinguish between A. marajoara and species E, probably because of the low number of correlated bands used to identify species and weaknesses of the RAPD technique, in particular, violations of the untested assumption of homology of comigrating bands. A. marajoara (even without species E) is paraphyletic with respect to A. deaneorum; if A. deaneorum is a separate species from A. marajoara, then A. marajoara may consist of two or more species in Amazonian Brazil. Based on mtDNA COI sequences, there are at least four phylogenetic species within the Albitarsis Complex: A. albitarsis s.s., A. albitarsis B, A. marajoara, and species E; the species status of A. deaneorum is ambiguous. PMID:17082822

  1. Mitochondrial COI gene as a tool in the taxonomy of mosquitoes Culex subgenus Melanoconion.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Emerson, Kevin J; de Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Greni, Susan; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2016-12-01

    The subgenus Melanoconion is the second largest subgenus within the genus Culex, with 160 described species. Several of the species are proven vectors of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Species of Melanoconion are well distributed from southern North America to most countries of South America and display the highest species diversity in tropical regions. Taxonomical identification within this group has been primarily based on morphological characters, with the male genitalia as the source of the most solid diagnostic features. The difficulty in reaching accurate species determinations when studying specimens of Culex (Melanoconion) has been extensively documented as a real limitation to expand knowledge of these insects. We tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene COI as a complementary tool in the taxonomy of Melanoconion. Using a data set of 120 COI sequences from Culex specimen captured in several localities in Brazil, the utility of COI barcodes for species delimitation is discussed through the evaluation of genetic divergences among specimens and the clustering patterns of species in three topologies obtained with Neighbor Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For all specimens included in this study a previous morphological examination was performed, and most of the taxonomical determinations were corroborated using the COI barcode. We generated COI sequences that belong to 48 species of Melanoconion, with a mean intraspecific K2P genetic divergence of 3%; and all interspecific divergence values higher than the intraspecific divergence values. This is the first comprehensive study of subgenus Melanoconion, with evidence of COI as a useful and accessible DNA barcode.

  2. Genetic Population Structure of Dastarcus helophoroides (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) From Different Long-Horned Beetle Hosts Based on Complete Sequences of Mitochondrial COI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengqing; Chang, Yong; Li, Menglou

    2017-03-03

    Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of long-horned beetles in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, the genetic sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit Ι was used to investigate the genetics and relationships within and among D. helophoroides populations collected from five different geographic locations. We used principal component analysis, heatmap, and Venn diagram results to determine the relationship between haplotypes and populations. In total, 26 haplotypes with 51 nucleotide polymorphic sites were defined, and low genetic diversity was found among the different populations. Significant genetic variations were observed mainly within populations, and no correlation was found between genetic distribution and geographical distance. Low pairwise fixation index values (-0.01424 to 0.04896) and high gene flows show that there was high gene exchange between populations. The codistributed haplotype DH01 was suggested to be the most ancestral haplotype, and other haplotypes were thought to have evolved from it through several mutations. In four of the populations, both common haplotypes (DH01, DH03, and DH22) and unique haplotypes were found. Low genetic diversity among different populations is related to a relatively high flight capacity, host movement, and human-aided dispersal of D. helophoroides. The high gene exchange and typically weak population genetic structure among five populations, especially among populations of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), Monochamus alternatus (Hope), and Massicus raddei (Blessig), may suggest that these populations cross naturally in the field.

  3. Assessment of snake DNA barcodes based on mitochondrial COI and Cytb genes revealed multiple putative cryptic species in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Laopichienpong, Nararat; Muangmai, Narongrit; Supikamolseni, Arrjaree; Twilprawat, Panupon; Chanhome, Lawan; Suntrarachun, Sunutcha; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-12-15

    DNA barcodes of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), cytochrome b (Cytb) genes, and their combined data sets were constructed from 35 snake species in Thailand. No barcoding gap was detected in either of the two genes from the observed intra- and interspecific sequence divergences. Intra- and interspecific sequence divergences of the COI gene differed 14 times, with barcode cut-off scores ranging over 2%-4% for threshold values differentiated among most of the different species; the Cytb gene differed 6 times with cut-off scores ranging over 2%-6%. Thirty-five specific nucleotide mutations were also found at interspecific level in the COI gene, identifying 18 snake species, but no specific nucleotide mutation was observed for Cytb in any single species. This suggests that COI barcoding was a better marker than Cytb. Phylogenetic clustering analysis indicated that most species were represented by monophyletic clusters, suggesting that these snake species could be clearly differentiated using COI barcodes. However, the two-marker combination of both COI and Cytb was more effective, differentiating snake species by over 2%-4%, and reducing species numbers in the overlap value between intra- and interspecific divergences. Three species delimitation algorithms (general mixed Yule-coalescent, automatic barcoding gap detection, and statistical parsimony network analysis) were extensively applied to a wide range of snakes based on both barcodes. This revealed cryptic diversity for eleven snake species in Thailand. In addition, eleven accessions from the database previously grouped under the same species were represented at different species level, suggesting either high genetic diversity, or the misidentification of these sequences in the database as a consequence of cryptic species.

  4. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI gene and its informative potential for evolutionary inferences in the families Coreidae and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Souza, H V; Marchesin, S R C; Itoyama, M M

    2016-02-05

    The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene is one of the most popular markers used for molecular systematics. Fragments of this gene are often used to infer phylogenies, particularly the region near the 5'-end, which is used by the DNA Barcoding Consortium. With a growing number of sequences being deposited in the DNA barcoding database, there is an urgent need to understand the evolution of this gene and its evolutionary relationship among species; it is also important to analyze the informative potential of the gene for phylogenetic inferences for each group used. In this study, the COI gene was divided into three distinct regions: a 5'-region, a central region, and a 3'-region. The nucleotide composition of these regions was analyzed, and their potential for making informative phylogenetic inferences using species in the families Coreidae and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) was assessed. It was found that the same region in the COI gene may present different behaviors for each family analyzed, and that using additional regions from the same gene may even prejudice the analysis.

  5. The Mycetophila ruficollis Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) group in Europe: elucidating species delimitation with COI and ITS2 sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Jürgenstein, Siiri; Kurina, Olavi; Põldmaa, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract European species of the Mycetophila ruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The study represents the first evaluation of morphology-based species delimitation of closely related fungus gnat species by applying molecular information. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the male terminalia are presented along with a key for the identification of all nine European species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data generally supported the morphological species discrimination. The barcoding region of COI superseded ITS2 rDNA in resolving species. In the COI barcoding region interspecific differences ranged from 2.9 to 10.6% and the intraspecific distance from 0.08 to 0.8%. Only COI data distinguished between the similar and closely related Mycetophila ichneumonea and Mycetophila uninotata of which the latter was observed to include cryptic species. The host range of some species is suggested to be narrower than previously considered and to depend on the forest type. Presented evidence indicates the importance of analysing sequence data of morphologically very similar mycetophages reared from identified host fungi for elucidating species delimitation as well as their geographic and host ranges. New country records, viz. Estonia for Mycetophila evanida, Georgia for Mycetophila ichneumonea, Mycetophila idonea and Mycetophila ruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophila strobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species. PMID:26167119

  6. Application of COI Sequences in Studies of Phylogenetic Relationships Among 40 Apionidae Species

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszyńska, Aneta A.; Łętowski, Jacek; Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    The systematics of the family Apionidae, as well as the superfamily Curculionoidea, is currently in a state of flux. The comparative analyses of COI sequences from our studies shed some light on the systematics of these weevils. To study the relationship among the organisms of the family Apionidae, we determined the COI sequences of representatives of 23 species and 15 genera, i.e., Apion, Betulapion, Catapion, Ceratapion, Cyanapion, Eutrichapion, Exapion, Hemitrichapion, Holotrichapion, Ischnopterapion, Protapion, Pseudoperapion, Psudoprotapion, Pseudostenapion, and Stenopterapion. Then, they were compared with the COI sequences of 19 species and eight genera from GenBank (Aspidapion, Ceratapion, Exapion, Ischnopterapion, Lepidapion, Omphalapion, Oxystoma, and Protapion). The phylogenetic relationships inferred from molecular data are similar to the classification system developed by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (1999), with some exceptions within the tribe Oxystomatini, and genera Ceratapion and Exapion. PMID:22934614

  7. Analysis of sequence variation in Gnathostoma spinigerum mitochondrial DNA by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Ngarmamonpirat, Charinthon; Waikagul, Jitra; Petmitr, Songsak; Dekumyoy, Paron; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Anantapruti, Malinee T

    2005-03-01

    Morphological variations were observed in the advance third stage larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum collected from swamp eel (Fluta alba), the second intermediate host. Larvae with typical and three atypical types were chosen for partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence analysis. A 450 bp polymerase chain reaction product of the COI gene was amplified from mitochondrial DNA. The variations were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. The nucleotide variations of the COI gene in the four types of larvae indicated the presence of an intra-specific variation of mitochondrial DNA in the G. spinigerum population.

  8. A new versatile primer set targeting a short fragment of the mitochondrial COI region for metabarcoding metazoan diversity: application for characterizing coral reef fish gut contents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The PCR-based analysis of homologous genes has become one of the most powerful approaches for species detection and identification, particularly with the recent availability of Next Generation Sequencing platforms (NGS) making it possible to identify species composition from a broad range of environmental samples. Identifying species from these samples relies on the ability to match sequences with reference barcodes for taxonomic identification. Unfortunately, most studies of environmental samples have targeted ribosomal markers, despite the fact that the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I gene (COI) is by far the most widely available sequence region in public reference libraries. This is largely because the available versatile (“universal”) COI primers target the 658 barcoding region, whose size is considered too large for many NGS applications. Moreover, traditional barcoding primers are known to be poorly conserved across some taxonomic groups. Results We first design a new PCR primer within the highly variable mitochondrial COI region, the “mlCOIintF” primer. We then show that this newly designed forward primer combined with the “jgHCO2198” reverse primer to target a 313 bp fragment performs well across metazoan diversity, with higher success rates than versatile primer sets traditionally used for DNA barcoding (i.e. LCO1490/HCO2198). Finally, we demonstrate how the shorter COI fragment coupled with an efficient bioinformatics pipeline can be used to characterize species diversity from environmental samples by pyrosequencing. We examine the gut contents of three species of planktivorous and benthivorous coral reef fish (family: Apogonidae and Holocentridae). After the removal of dubious COI sequences, we obtained a total of 334 prey Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to 14 phyla from 16 fish guts. Of these, 52.5% matched a reference barcode (>98% sequence similarity) and an additional 32% could be assigned to a

  9. Homology difference analysis of invasive mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in Southern China with COI gene sequence variability.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Z; Ma, J; Hu, X N; Zeng, L

    2015-02-01

    The mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis (P. solenopsis) has caused much agricultural damage since its recent invasion in China. However, the source of this invasion remains unclear. This study uses molecular methods to clarify the relationships among different population of P. solenopsis from China, USA, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam to determine the geographic origin of the introduction of this species into China. P. solenopsis samples were collected from 25 different locations in three provinces of Southern China. Samples from the USA, Pakistan, and Vietnam were also obtained. Parts of the mitochondrial genes for cytochrome oxidase I (COI) were sequenced for each sample. Homologous DNA sequences of the samples from the USA and India were downloaded from Gen Bank. Two haplotypes were found in China. The first was from most samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan populations in the China and Pakistan groups, and the second from a few samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan populations in the China, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam groups. As shown in the maximum likelihood of trees constructed using the COI sequences, these samples belonged to two clades. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are probably closely related to populations in Pakistan. The variation, relationship, expansion, and probable geographic origin of P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are also discussed.

  10. COI and ITS2 sequences delimit species, reveal cryptic taxa and host specificity of fig-associated Sycophila (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Zhou, Xin; Feng, Gui; Hu, Haoyuan; Niu, Liming; Hebert, Paul D N; Huang, Dawei

    2010-01-01

    Although the genus Sycophila has broad host preferences, some species are specifically associated with figs as nonpollinator wasps. Because of their sexual dimorphism, morphological plasticity, cryptic mating behaviour and poorly known biology, species identifications are often uncertain. It is particularly difficult to match conspecific females and males. In this study, we employed two molecular markers, mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2, to identify Sycophila from six Chinese fig species. Morphological studies revealed 25 female and male morphs, while sequence results for both genes were consistent in supporting the presence of 15 species, of which 13 were host specialists and two used dual hosts. A single species of Sycophila was respectively found on four fig species, but six species were isolated from Ficus benjamina and a same number was reared from Ficus microcarpa. Sequence results revealed three male morphs in one species and detected two species that were overlooked by morphological analysis.

  11. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    SYSTEMATICS Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified...J.M.,O.Pellmyr, J.N.Thompson, andR.G.Harrison. 1994. Phylogeny of Greya ( Lepidoptera : Prodoxidae), based on nucleotide sequence variation in

  12. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  13. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  14. Progress on resolving the Gonatocerus tuberculifemur complex: neither COI nor ITS2 sequence data alone can discriminate all the species within the complex, whereas, ISSR-PCR DNA fingerprinting can

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We utilized two molecular methods to aid in resolving the Gonatocerus tuberculifemur complex, potential glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) biological control candidate agents from South America. The two methods used were DNA sequencing of both the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI...

  15. Application of COI barcode sequence for the identification of snake medicine (Zaocys).

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuping; Guo, Linong; Luo, Huiming; Yuan, Hang; Chen, Shuyun; Zheng, Jian; Lin, Ruichao

    2016-01-01

    Counterfeits in the medicine market make the authentication of snakes used for Chinese medicine a challenge to Chinese drug regulatory control agencies. This paper explores existing methods that can be used to quickly and accurately distinguish Zaocys (Z. dhumnades) from its counterfeits for routine identification of snake meats in food and drug control laboratories. In this research, the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) fragments of 51 samples from 17 species of snakes were amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The inter- and intra-specific variations of COI sequences were analyzed and compared based on Kimura-2-parameter (K-2P) distances; the minimal interspecific K-2P distance was 0.0934, which was bigger than the maximum intraspecific K-2P distance in Z. dhumnades (0.0523), indicating that Zaocys can be separated from its counterfeits. The Neighbor-Joining (N-J) tree of the snakes was constructed and the results show that snakes of the same species cluster with 100% bootstrap values. Since the Zaocys and its counterfeits are of different species, they can be distinguished using the N-J tree method. Another 10 samples of Zaocys from markets and drug stores were identified at the species level, among which 5 samples were proven to be the counterfeits--Ptyas korros.

  16. Phylogenetic relationship of Turkish Apis mellifera subspecies based on sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I region.

    PubMed

    Özdil, F; İlhan, F

    2012-04-27

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation can be used to infer honey bee evolutionary relationships. We examined DNA sequence diversity in the cytochrome C oxidase I (COI or Cox1) gene segment of the mitochondrial genome in 112 samples of Apis mellifera from 15 different populations in Turkey. Six novel haplotypes were found for the COI gene segment. There were eight variable sites in the COI gene, although only three were parsimony-informative sites. The mean pairwise genetic distance was 0.3% for the COI gene segment. Neighbor-joining (NJ) trees of the COI gene segment were constructed with the published sequences of A. mellifera haplotypes that are available in GenBank; the genetic variation was compared among the different honeybee haplotypes. The NJ dendogram based on the COI sequences available in GenBank showed that Eastern European races were clustered together, whereas the Mellifera and Iberian haplotypes were clustered far apart. The haplotypes found in this study were clustered together with A. mellifera ligustica and some of the Greek honey bees (accession Nos. GU056169 and GU056170) found in NCBI GenBank database. This study expands the knowledge about the mitochondrial COI region and presents the first comprehensive sequence analysis of this region in Turkish honeybees.

  17. Genetic structure of Africanized honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L.) from Brazil and Uruguay viewed through mitochondrial DNA COI-COII patterns.

    PubMed

    Collet, T; Ferreira, K M; Arias, M C; Soares, A E E; Del Lama, M A

    2006-11-01

    Mitochondrial genotypes of Africanized honeybees from Brazil and Uruguay were surveyed by DraI restriction of the COI-COII region. Eleven mitotypes were found, three of which had not previously been described (A28-A30). Out of 775 samples (725 from Brazil, 50 from Uruguay), 197 were A1 and 520 were A4. A1 frequency increases toward the north of Brazil, whereas A4 frequency increases toward the south, a pattern echoing the African distribution. The origin of the A4 and most of the A1 African patterns can be attributed to the introduction of Apis mellifera scutellata into Brazil in 1956. The A29 and A30 patterns have the P1 sequence observed in many Iberian Peninsula samples, which represent the traces of the introductions into Brazil and Uruguay by settlers.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA COI characterization of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Paraguay and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Arnemann, J A; James, W J; Walsh, T K; Guedes, J V C; Smagghe, G; Castiglioni, E; Tay, W T

    2016-04-07

    Since its detection in Brazil in 2013, the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been reported in Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Here we present evidence extending the South American range of H. armigera to Uruguay, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region. Molecular characterization of this gene region from individuals from Paraguay also supports previous morphological identification of H. armigera in Paraguay. Shared mtDNA haplotypes in H. armigera from Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay were identified. Additional surveying of populations in this region will be imperative to better monitor and understand factors that are underpinning its presence and successful adaptation in these South American regions. We discuss our findings with respect to the development of resistance pest management strategies of this invasive insect pest in a predominantly monoculture soybean crop landscape in the Southern Cone region.

  19. Identification of cephalopod species from the North and Baltic Seas using morphology, COI and 18S rDNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Katharina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We morphologically analyzed 79 cephalopod specimens from the North and Baltic Seas belonging to 13 separate species. Another 29 specimens showed morphological features of either Alloteuthis mediaor Alloteuthis subulata or were found to be in between. Reliable identification features to distinguish between A. media and A. subulata are currently not available. The analysis of the DNA barcoding region of the COI gene revealed intraspecific distances (uncorrected p) ranging from 0 to 2.13 % (average 0.1 %) and interspecific distances between 3.31 and 22 % (average 15.52 %). All species formed monophyletic clusters in a neighbor-joining analysis and were supported by bootstrap values of ≥99 %. All COI haplotypes belonging to the 29 Alloteuthis specimens were grouped in one cluster. Neither COI nor 18S rDNA sequences helped to distinguish between the different Alloteuthis morphotypes. For species identification purposes, we recommend the use of COI, as it showed higher bootstrap support of species clusters and less amplification and sequencing failure compared to 18S. Our data strongly support the assumption that the genus Alloteuthis is only represented by a single species, at least in the North Sea. It remained unclear whether this species is A. subulata or A. media. All COI sequences including important metadata were uploaded to the Barcode of Life Data Systems and can be used as reference library for the molecular identification of more than 50 % of the cephalopod fauna known from the North and Baltic Seas.

  20. Genetic variation of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), among populations from Serbia and neighbouring countries, as inferred from COI sequence variability.

    PubMed

    Prijović, M; Skaljac, M; Drobnjaković, T; Zanić, K; Perić, P; Marčić, D; Puizina, J

    2014-06-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an invasive and highly polyphagous phloem-feeding pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Trialeurodes vaporariorum causes serious damage due to direct feeding and transmits several important plant viruses. Excessive use of insecticides has resulted in significantly reduced levels of susceptibility of various T. vaporariorum populations. To determine the genetic variability within and among populations of T. vaporariorum from Serbia and to explore their genetic relatedness with other T. vaporariorum populations, we analysed the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of 16 populations from Serbia and six neighbouring countries: Montenegro (three populations), Macedonia (one population) and Croatia (two populations), for a total of 198 analysed specimens. A low overall level of sequence divergence and only five variable nucleotides and six haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplotype, H1, was identified in all Serbian populations and in all specimens from distant localities in Croatia and Macedonia. The COI sequence data that was retrieved from GenBank and the data from our study indicated that H1 is the most globally widespread T. vaporariorum haplotype. A lack of spatial genetic structure among the studied T. vaporariorum populations, as well as two demographic tests that we performed (Tajima's D value and Fu's Fs statistics), indicate a recent colonisation event and population growth. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI haplotypes in this study and other T. vaporariorum haplotypes that were retrieved from GenBank were performed using Bayesian inference and median-joining (MJ) network analysis. Two major haplogroups with only a single unique nucleotide difference were found: haplogroup 1 (containing the five Serbian haplotypes and those previously identified in India, China, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Morocco, Reunion and the USA) and haplogroup 3

  1. Genetic diversity in two Japanese flounder populations from China seas inferred using microsatellite markers and COI sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongdong; Li, Sanlei; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Yurong; Zhan, Wei; Shi, Huilai

    2012-07-01

    Japanese flounder is one of the most important commercial species in China; however, information on the genetic background of natural populations in China seas is scarce. The lack of genetic data has hampered fishery management and aquaculture development programs for this species. In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic diversity in natural populations of Japanese flounder sampled from the Yellow Sea (Qingdao population, QD) and East China Sea (Zhoushan population, ZS) using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequencing data. A total of 68 different alleles were observed over 10 microsatellite loci. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the number of genotypes per locus ranged from 3 to 45. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity in QD were 0.733 and 0.779, respectively, and in ZS the heterozygosity values were 0.708 and 0.783, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in 7 of the 10 microsatellite loci in each of the two populations. The COI sequencing analysis revealed 25 polymorphic sites and 15 haplotypes in the two populations. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity in the QD population were 0.746±0.072 8 and 0.003 34±0.001 03 respectively, and in ZS population the genetic diversity values were 0.712±0.047 0 and 0.003 18±0.000 49, respectively. The microsatellite data ( F st =0.048 7, P <0.001) and mitochondrial DNA data ( F st =0.128, P <0.001) both revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two populations. The information on the genetic variation and differentiation in Japanese flounder obtained in this study could be used to set up suitable guidelines for the management and conservation of this species, as well as for managing artificial selection programs. In future studies, more geographically diverse stocks should be used to obtain a deeper understanding of the population structure of Japanese

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, Cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes).

    PubMed

    Webb, David Matthew; Moore, William S

    2005-08-01

    Although the woodpeckers have long been recognized as a natural, monophyletic taxon, morphological analyses of their intra- and intergeneric relationships have produced conflicting results. To clarify this issue, and as part of a larger study of piciform relationships, nucleotide sequences for the 12S ribosomal RNA (12S; 1123 bp), cytochrome b (Cyt b; 1022 bp), and cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI; 1512 bp) mitochondrial genes were obtained from 34 piciform species that included 16 of the 23 currently recognized woodpecker genera (subfamily Picinae), three piculets (subfamily Picumninae), a wryneck (subfamily Jynginae), a honeyguide (family Indicatoridae), and three barbets (infraorder Ramphastides). Analyses were conducted on the individual and combined 12S, Cyt b, and COI sequences with maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian algorithms. Based on the strong, congruent support among the different data partitions and models of sequence evolution, a highly resolved consensus of the relationships among woodpeckers and their allies could be formed. The monophyly of Indicatoridae + Picidae (infraorder Picides), Picidae, Picinae + Picumninae, and Picinae was strongly supported in all analyses. However, the tribes Colaptini, Picini, Campephilini, and Campetherini were shown to be paraphyletic as were the genera of Colaptes and Piculus. A revision of the tribal-level classification of woodpeckers is proposed and the importance of plumage convergence among woodpeckers is discussed.

  3. Simultaneous identification and DNA barcoding of six Eimeria species infecting turkeys using PCR primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) locus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Mian A; Shivaramaiah, Srichaitanya; Dorsey, Kristi Moore; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Cobean, Julie; Barta, John R

    2015-05-01

    Species-specific PCR primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) locus were generated that allow for the specific identification of the most common Eimeria species infecting turkeys (i.e., Eimeria adenoeides, Eimeria meleagrimitis, Eimeria gallopavonis, Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria innocua). PCR reaction chemistries were optimized with respect to divalent cation (MgCl2) and dNTP concentrations, as well as PCR cycling conditions (particularly anneal temperature for primers). Genomic DNA samples from single oocyst-derived lines of six Eimeria species were tested to establish specificity and sensitivity of these newly designed primer pairs. A mixed 60-ng total DNA sample containing 10 ng of each of the six Eimeria species was used as DNA template to demonstrate specific amplification of the correct product using each of the species-specific primer pairs. Ten nanograms of each of the five non-target Eimeria species was pooled to provide a non-target, control DNA sample suitable to test the specificity of each primer pair. The amplifications of the COI region with species-specific primer pairs from pooled samples yielded products of expected sizes (209 to 1,012 bp) and no amplification of non-target Eimeria sp. DNA was detected using the non-target, control DNA samples. These primer pairs specific for Eimeria spp. of turkeys did not amplify any of the seven Eimeria species infecting chickens. The newly developed PCR primers can be used as a diagnostic tool capable of specifically identifying six turkey Eimeria species; additionally, sequencing of the PCR amplification products yields sequence-based genotyping data suitable for identification and molecular phylogenetics.

  4. Improved COI barcoding primers for Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Lohman, David J; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Meier, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The All Birds Barcoding Initiative aims to assemble a DNA barcode database for all bird species, but the 648-bp 'barcoding' region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can be difficult to amplify in Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes). Using COI sequences from complete mitochondrial genomes, we designed a primer pair that more reliably amplifies and sequences the COI barcoding region of Southeast Asian passerine birds. The 655-bp region amplified with these primers overlaps the COI region amplified with other barcoding primer pairs, enabling direct comparison of sequences with previously published DNA barcodes.

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of all the Saimiri taxa (Cebidae, Primates) inferred from mt COI and COII gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Luengas-Villamil, Kelly; Leguizamon, Norberto; de Thoisy, Benoit; Gálvez, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    Some previous genetic studies have been performed to resolve the molecular phylogenetics of the squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). However, these studies did not show consensus in how many taxa are within this genus and what the relationships among them are. For this reason, we sequenced 2,237 base pairs of the mt COI and COII genes in 218 Saimiri individuals. All, less 12 S. sciureus sciureus from French Guyana, were sampled in the wild. These samples represented all the living Saimiri taxa recognized. There were four main findings of this study. (1) Our analysis detected 17 different Saimiri groups: albigena, cassiquiarensis, five polyphyletic macrodon groups, three polyphyletic ustus groups, sciureus, collinsi, boliviensis, peruviensis, vanzolinii, oerstedii and citrinellus. Four different phylogenetic trees showed the Central American squirrel monkey (S. oerstedii) as the most differentiated taxon. In contrast, albigena was indicated to be the most recent taxon. (2) There was extensive hybridization and/or historical introgression among albigena, different macrodon groups, peruviensis, sciureus and collinsi. (3) Different tests showed that our maximum likelihood tree was consistent with two species of Saimiri: S. oerstedii and S. sciureus. If no cases of hybridization were detected implicating S. vanzolinii, this could be a third recognized species. (4) We also estimated that the first temporal splits within this genus occurred around 1.4-1.6 million years ago, which indicates that the temporal split events within Saimiri were correlated with Pleistocene climatic changes. If the biological species concept is applied because, in this case, it is operative due to observed hybridization in the wild, the number of species within this genus is probably more limited than recently proposed by other authors. The Pleistocene was the fundamental epoch when the mitochondrial Saimiri diversification process occurred.

  6. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of two Tunisian bivalves (Mactridae) Mactra corallina (Linnaeus, 1758) and Eastonia rugosa (Helbling, 1799) based on COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Chetoui, Imene; Denis, Françoise; Boussaid, Mohamed; Telahigue, Khoula; El Cafsi, M'Hamed

    2016-01-01

    A partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was used as a genetic marker for a genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis (DNA barcoding) of two Mactridae species, Mactra corallina and Eastonia rugosa, collected from the Tunisian coast. These Mactridae species could be distinguished by DNA barcoding techniques and they will be considered as monophyletic clades with the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree. The genetic structure detected that E. rugosa presents three haplotypes with a high frequency of HER1 (0.89). However, M. corralina shared 14 haplotypes. The haplotypic diversity (H) was equal to 0.205 and 0.954, respectively, for E. rugosa and M. corallina. While the nucleotide diversity (π) was higher for M. corallina (π=0.0818), the mismatch distribution showed a unimodal curve for E. rugosa (a recent sudden demographic expansion) and a multimodal distribution for M. corallina (size stability).

  7. Sequences of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene are suitable for species identification of Korean Calliphorinae flies of forensic importance (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hwan; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Yu, Dong Ha; Jeong, Hyun Ju; Yoo, Ga Young; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2009-09-01

    Calliphorinae fly species are important indicators of the postmortem interval especially during early spring and late fall in Korea. Although nucleotide sequences of various Calliphorinae fly species are available, there has been no research on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences of Korean Calliphorinae flies. Here, we report the full-length sequences of the COI gene of four Calliphorinae fly species collected in Korea (five individuals of Calliphora vicina, five Calliphora lata, four Triceratopyga calliphoroides and three Aldrichina grahami). Each COI gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced and the resulting nucleotide sequences were aligned and analyzed by MEGA4 software. The results indicate that COI nucleotide sequences can be used to distinguish between these four species. Our phylogenetic result coincides with recent taxonomic views on the subfamily Calliphorinae in that the genera Aldrichina and Triceratopyga are nested within the genus Calliphora.

  8. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene.

  9. Unusually high genetic diversity in COI sequences of Chimarra obscura (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chimarra obscura (Walker 1852) is a philopotamid caddisfly found throughout much of North America. Using the COI DNA barcode locus, we have found unexpectedly high amounts of genetic diversity and distances within C. obscura. Of the approximately 150 specimens sampled, we have fo...

  10. Identification of a group of cryptic marine limpet species, Cellana karachiensis (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda) off Veraval coast, India, using mtDNA COI sequencing.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sneha; Poriya, Paresh; Vakani, Bhavik; Singh, S P; Kundu, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Present communication reports the phylogenetic relationship between three groups of a marine limpet having different color banding patterns using COI sequencing. Samples were sequenced for mtDNA COI gene using universal primer. Comparative BLAST revealed that all three types were around 99.59% identical with Cellana karachiensis, first record of this species from Indian coasts. Apart from the morphological variations, the mtDNA COI gene analysis revealed around 1% nucleotide variations between these three types. The observed dissimilarity in COI sequences was possibly too little to consider these types as three different species. The derivation of amino acid positions indicated that these types could possibly be a complex of three cryptic species of C. karachiensis. The study proposes that the Oman and Indian populations of C. karachiensis might have derived by allopatric speciation due to geographical isolation. The group of these three cryptic species, sharing same habitat between themselves, possibly showed sympatric speciation.

  11. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  12. Mitochondrial COII sequences and modern human origins.

    PubMed

    Ruvolo, M; Zehr, S; von Dornum, M; Pan, D; Chang, B; Lin, J

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and to estimate when the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. New COII gene sequences were determined for five humans (Homo sapiens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus); and for a common chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). COII sequences were analyzed with those from another relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial region (ND4-5). From class 1 (third codon position) sequence data, a relative divergence date for the human mitochondrial ancestor is estimated as 1/27 th of the human-chimpanzee divergence time. If it is assumed that humans and chimpanzees diverged 6 Mya, this places a human mitochondrial ancestor at 222,000 years, significantly different from 1 Myr (the presumed time of an H. erectus emergence from Africa). The mean coalescent time estimated from all 1,580 sites of combined mitochondrial data, when a 6-Mya human-chimpanzee divergence is assumed, is 298,000 years, with 95% confidence interval of 129,000-536,000 years. Neither estimate is compatible with a 1-Myr-old human mitochondrial ancestor. The mitochondrial DNA sequence data from COII and ND4-5 regions therefore do not support this multiregional hypothesis for the emergence of modern humans.

  13. Deep COI sequencing of standardized benthic samples unveils overlooked diversity of Jordanian coral reefs in the northern Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Rshaidat, Mamoon M D; Snider, Allison; Rosebraugh, Sydney; Devine, Amanda M; Devine, Thomas D; Plaisance, Laetitia; Knowlton, Nancy; Leray, Matthieu

    2016-09-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA barcodes (metabarcoding), particularly when combined with standardized sampling protocols, is one of the most promising approaches for censusing overlooked cryptic invertebrate communities. We present biodiversity estimates based on sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene for coral reefs of the Gulf of Aqaba, a semi-enclosed system in the northern Red Sea. Samples were obtained from standardized sampling devices (Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS)) deployed for 18 months. DNA barcoding of non-sessile specimens >2 mm revealed 83 OTUs in six phyla, of which only 25% matched a reference sequence in public databases. Metabarcoding of the 2 mm - 500 μm and sessile bulk fractions revealed 1197 OTUs in 15 animal phyla, of which only 4.9% matched reference barcodes. These results highlight the scarcity of COI data for cryptobenthic organisms of the Red Sea. Compared with data obtained using similar methods, our results suggest that Gulf of Aqaba reefs are less diverse than two Pacific coral reefs but much more diverse than an Atlantic oyster reef at a similar latitude. The standardized approaches used here show promise for establishing baseline data on biodiversity, monitoring the impacts of environmental change, and quantifying patterns of diversity at regional and global scales.

  14. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence

    PubMed Central

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy. PMID:26668551

  15. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence.

    PubMed

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy.

  16. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Heliconius hecale (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Qing; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Tiger Longwing Heliconius hecale has been reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 1507×. The circular genome is 15,338 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop or control region. All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the COI and ND1 genes with CGA and TTG as their start codons, respectively. Three PCGs (COI, COII and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T, the ND3 gene harbors the stop codon TAG, while all the other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.5% A, 42.1% T, 7.5% G, and 10.9% C) with an overall GC content of 18.4%.

  18. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of Luidia (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) from Chinese waters with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli

    2013-09-01

    Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.

  19. First report on the occurrence of the comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) in Ulleungdo Island in the East Sea: Ecology and molecular identification of the species using COI gene sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Park, Heung-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Jeong, Eui-Young; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Pen shell is one of the largest marine bivalves inhabiting shallow subtidal soft bottoms in the west Pacific and Indian Oceans. In Korea, the comb pen shell Atrina pectinata fisheries has been established on the south and west coasts. Recently, a pen shell population has been discovered from a subtidal sand flat (25-30 m depth) in Ulleungdo Island located in the East Sea of Korea, suggesting a potential shellfish resource in this area. In the present study, we first surveyed the population density and size of the unique pen shell using SCUBA, and identified the pen shell to species level using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence. An underwater survey carried out from July to September 2013 revealed that populations of pen shell patched on subtidal sand flat at a depth of 20-25 m. Grain size analysis indicated that sand particles accounted for 99% of the 600 × 700 m sand flat. The underwater survey also indicated that density of the pen shell ranged between 6-19 ind/m2, with a mean of 11 ind/m2. Shell height (i.e. longest axis of the shell) of the pen shell on the sand flat varied between 17.2 cm to 28.8 cm, with a mean of 25.1 cm, and the age was estimated to range between 1.5-7.5 yrs, with a mean of 5 yr. COI DNA sequence obtained from the pen shell in this study showed 98.9-99.2% similarity to Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) reported from Japan. In the cluster analysis, the COI DNA sequence of the pen shells from Ulleungdo Island was grouped with A. pectinata reported from Japan and China, indicating that the pen shell discovered in this study was A. pectinata, commonly distributed on the west and south coasts of Korea.

  20. Next-generation sequencing for mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, C J; Brilhante, V; Suomalainen, A

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of our understanding of mitochondrial function has come from studies of inherited mitochondrial diseases, but still majority of the patients lack molecular diagnosis. Furthermore, effective treatments for mitochondrial disorders do not exist. Development of therapies has been complicated by the fact that the diseases are extremely heterogeneous, and collecting large enough cohorts of similarly affected individuals to assess new therapies properly has been difficult. Next-generation sequencing technologies have in the last few years been shown to be an effective method for the genetic diagnosis of inherited mitochondrial diseases. Here we review the strategies and findings from studies applying next-generation sequencing methods for the genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. Detailed knowledge of molecular causes also enables collection of homogenous cohorts of patients for therapy trials, and therefore boosts development of intervention. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24138576

  1. Inferring ethnicity from mitochondrial DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The assignment of DNA samples to coarse population groups can be a useful but difficult task. One such example is the inference of coarse ethnic groupings for forensic applications. Ethnicity plays an important role in forensic investigation and can be inferred with the help of genetic markers. Being maternally inherited, of high copy number, and robust persistence in degraded samples, mitochondrial DNA may be useful for inferring coarse ethnicity. In this study, we compare the performance of methods for inferring ethnicity from the sequence of the hypervariable region of the mitochondrial genome. Results We present the results of comprehensive experiments conducted on datasets extracted from the mtDNA population database, showing that ethnicity inference based on support vector machines (SVM) achieves an overall accuracy of 80-90%, consistently outperforming nearest neighbor and discriminant analysis methods previously proposed in the literature. We also evaluate methods of handling missing data and characterize the most informative segments of the hypervariable region of the mitochondrial genome. Conclusions Support vector machines can be used to infer coarse ethnicity from a small region of mitochondrial DNA sequence with surprisingly high accuracy. In the presence of missing data, utilizing only the regions common to the training sequences and a test sequence proves to be the best strategy. Given these results, SVM algorithms are likely to also be useful in other DNA sequence classification applications. PMID:21554759

  2. Universal COI primers for DNA barcoding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Che, Jing; Chen, Hong-Man; Yang, Jun-Xiao; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Jiang, Ke; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-03-01

    DNA barcoding is a proven tool for the rapid and unambiguous identification of species, which is essential for many activities including the vouchering tissue samples in the genome 10K initiative, genealogical reconstructions, forensics and biodiversity surveys, among many other applications. A large-scale effort is underway to barcode all amphibian species using the universally sequenced DNA region, a partial fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I COI. This fragment is desirable because it appears to be superior to 16S for barcoding, at least for some groups of salamanders. The barcoding of amphibians is essential in part because many species are now endangered. Unfortunately, existing primers for COI often fail to achieve this goal. Herein, we report two new pairs of primers (➀, ➁) that in combination serve to universally amplify and sequence all three orders of Chinese amphibians as represented by 36 genera. This taxonomic diversity, which includes caecilians, salamanders and frogs, suggests that the new primer pairs will universally amplify COI for the vast majority species of amphibians.

  3. Relationships within aphids Cinara (Cupressobium) (Hemiptera) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Durak, Roma; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Bartoszewski, Sławomir

    2014-02-01

    The relationships between Cinara (Cupressobium) aphids inhabiting woody parts and leaves of conifers belonging to Cupressaceae have been studied using a mitochondrial gene (COI) and a nuclear gene (EF1-α). Based on the COI sequences, genetic distances between species ranged from 5.6 % between Cinara (C.) tujafilina (del Guercio) and Cinara (C.) juniperi (De Geer) to 10.5 % between C. (C.) tujafilina and Cinara (C.) mordvilkoi (Pašek). Genetic distances among EF1-α sequences were lower and showed from 0.1 % between C. cupressi and C. juniperi to 2.3 % between C. tujafilina and C. mordvilkoi. Molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic analysis and maximum parsimony (MP) criterion. Phylogenetic trees obtained based on COI and EF1-α marker genes created two sister clades. Our results indicate that Cinara (Cupressobium) are a monophyletic group of aphids. Phylogenetic relationships amongst Cupressobium aphids do not result from the association with the host plant, but from the feeding site on the host plant or an ability to change the microhabitat on the plant. As closely related species inhabit similar microhabitats on different host plants, it suggests that the host switching is the main mode of speciation in this subgenus.

  4. Distribution of Mosquitoes in the South East of Argentina and First Report on the Analysis Based on 18S rDNA and COI Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Nieto, Leonardo M.; Maciá, Arnaldo; Parisi, Gustavo; Farina, Juan L.; Vidal-Domínguez, María E.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Berón, Corina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mar del Plata is the most important city on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, mosquitoes inhabiting such area are almost uncharacterized. To increase our knowledge in their distribution, we sampled specimens of natural populations. After the morphological identification based on taxonomic keys, sequences of DNA from small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes were obtained from native species and the phylogenetic analysis of these sequences were done. Fourteen species from the genera Uranotaenia, Culex, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora were found and identified. Our 18S rDNA and COI-based analysis indicates the relationships among groups at the supra-species level in concordance with mosquito taxonomy. The introduction and spread of vectors and diseases carried by them are not known in Mar del Plata, but some of the species found in this study were reported as pathogen vectors. PMID:24098700

  5. Use of cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (COI) nucleotide sequences for identification of the Korean Luciliinae fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hwan; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Yu, Dong Ha; Jeong, Hyun Ju; Yoo, Ga Young; Chung, Ukhee; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2009-12-01

    Blowflies, especially species belonging to the subfamily Luciliinae, are the first insects to lay eggs on corpses in Korea. Fast and accurate species identification has been a key task for forensic entomologists. Because conventional morphologic identification methods have many limitations with respect to forensic practice, molecular methods have been proposed to identify fly species of forensic importance. To this end, the authors amplified and sequenced the full length of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of the Luciliinae fly species collected in Korea. The results showed the COI sequences are instrumental in identifying Luciliinae fly species. However, when compared with previously reported data, considerable inconsistencies were noted. Hemipyrellia ligurriens data in this study differed significantly from two of the five pre-existing data. Two closely related species, Lucilia illustris and Lucilia caesar, showed an overlap of COI haplotypes due to four European sequences. The results suggest that more individuals from various geographic regions and additive nuclear DNA markers should be analyzed, and morphologic identification keys must be reconfirmed to overcome these inconsistencies.

  6. Sequencing and comparing whole mitochondrial genomes ofanimals

    SciTech Connect

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Macey, J. Robert; Medina, Monica

    2005-04-22

    Comparing complete animal mitochondrial genome sequences is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. Not only are they much more informative than shorter sequences of individual genes for inferring evolutionary relatedness, but these data also provide sets of genome-level characters, such as the relative arrangements of genes, that can be especially powerful. We describe here the protocols commonly used for physically isolating mtDNA, for amplifying these by PCR or RCA, for cloning,sequencing, assembly, validation, and gene annotation, and for comparing both sequences and gene arrangements. On several topics, we offer general observations based on our experiences to date with determining and comparing complete mtDNA sequences.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nectogale elegans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting; Yan, Chaochao; Tan, Zheng; Tu, Feiyun; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2014-08-01

    The elegant water shrew (Nectogale elegans) belongs to the family Soricidae, and distributes in northern South Asia, central and southern China and northern Southeast Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. elegans was sequenced. It was determined to be 17,460 bases, and included 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one non-coding region, which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 heavy-strand concatenated PCGs. Phylogenetic analyses further confirmed that Crocidurinae diverged prior to Soricinae, and Sorex unguiculatus differentiated earlier than N. elegans.

  8. The first assess of the haplotypes from COI gene sequences in species of spittlebugs (Cicadomorpha: Hemiptera) and aquatic true bugs (Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha: Hemiptera) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castanhole, M M U; Marchesin, S R C; Pereira, L L V; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Valério, J R; Itoyama, M M

    2013-11-07

    We made the first analysis of the COI gene sequences of 22 species of spittlebugs and aquatic true bugs sampled in São Paulo State (Brazil) and used this information to determine the variability within these groups. Considering each codon position, we observed that the third base was the most variable, and the first base was the most conserved. Among species, Mahanarva fimbriolata and Deois flavopicta had the greatest genetic distance (0.181), and Notozulia entreriana and Mahanarva sp had the smallest distance (0.055), with an average variation of 0.119. In Gerromorpha, the greatest distance occurred between Halobatopsis platensis and Rhagovelia zela (0.401), while between Cylindrostethus palmaris and Brachymetra albinervis albinervis, the distance was only 0.187; the average value observed for the Gerromorpha was 0.265. In the Nepomorpha, the species Buenoa antigone antigone and Belostoma micantulum had the greatest genetic distance (0.337), while Martarega brasiliensis and B. a. antigone had the smallest (0.154). The average value observed for Nepomorpha was 0.203. In Cicadomorpha (Auchenorrhyncha) and Nepomorpha (Heteroptera), the COI gene has been conserved; however, it is still useful for characterization of the different taxa. COI analysis was unable to resolve some of the Gerromorpha groups.

  9. Phylogeny of Thaumastodermatidae (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Todaro, M. Antonio; Kånneby, Tobias; Dal Zotto, Matteo; Jondelius, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic relationships within Gastrotricha are poorly known. Attempts to shed light on this subject using morphological traits have led to hypotheses lacking satisfactory statistical support; it seemed therefore that a different approach was needed. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper we attempt to elucidate the relationships within the taxonomically vast family Thaumastodermatidae (Macrodasyida) using molecular sequence data. The study includes representatives of all the extant genera of the family and for the first time uses a multi-gene approach to infer evolutionary liaisons within Gastrotricha. The final data set comprises sequences of three genes (18S, 28S rDNA and COI mtDNA) from 41 species, including 29 thaumastodermatids, 11 non-thaumastodermatid macrodasyidans and a single chaetonotidan. Molecular data was analyzed as a combined set of 3 genes and as individual genes, using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Two different outgroups were used: Xenotrichula intermedia (Chaetonotida) and members of the putative basal Dactylopodola (Macrodasyida). Thaumastodermatidae and all other sampled macrodasyidan families were found monophyletic except for Cephalodasyidae. Within Thaumastodermatidae Diplodasyinae and Thaumastodermatinae are monophyletic and so are most genera. Oregodasys turns out to be the most basal group within Thaumastodermatinae in analyses of the concatenated data set as well as in analyses of the nuclear genes. Thaumastoderma appears as the sister taxon to the remaining species. Surprisingly, Tetranchyroderma is non-monophyletic in our analyses as one group of species clusters with Ptychostomella while another appears as the sister group of Pseudostomella. Conclusions/Significance Results in general agree with the current classification; however, a revision of the more derived thaumastodermatid taxa seems necessary. We also found that the ostensible COI sequences from several species do not conform to the general

  10. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5’-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection. PMID:26599908

  11. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5'-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA sequences support allozyme evidence for cryptic radiation of New Zealand Peripatoides (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Trewick, S A

    2000-03-01

    A combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and sequencing were used to survey cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity among New Zealand ovoviviparous Onychophora. Most of the sites and individuals had previously been analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. A total of 157 peripatus collected at 54 sites throughout New Zealand were screened yielding 62 different haplotypes. Comparison of 540-bp COI sequences from Peripatoides revealed mean among-clade genetic distances of up to 11. 4% using Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) analysis or 17.5% using general time-reversible (GTR + I + Gamma) analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight well-supported clades that were consistent with the allozyme analysis. Five of the six cryptic peripatus species distinguished by allozymes were confirmed by mtDNA analysis. The sixth taxon appeared to be paraphyletic, but genetic and geographical evidence suggested recent speciation. Two additional taxa were evident from the mtDNA data but neither occurred within the areas surveyed using allozymes. Among the peripatus surveyed with both mtDNA and allozymes, only one clear instance of recent introgression was evident, even though several taxa occurred in sympatry. This suggests well-developed mate recognition despite minimal morphological variation and low overall genetic diversity.

  13. Mitochondrial COI and 16sRNA evidence for a single species hypothesis of E. vitis, J. formosana and E. onukii in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian-Yu; Han, Bao-Yu; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most damaging tea pests in main tea production regions of East Asia. For lack of recognized morphological characters, the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan have always been named as Empoasca vitis Göthe, Jacobiasca formosana Paoli and Empoasca onukii MATSUDA, respectively. Furthermore, nothing is known about the genetic relationships among them. In this study, we collected six populations from Mainland China, four populations from Japan and one population from Taiwan, and examined the genetic distances in the COI and 16sRNA regions of mtDNA among them. The results showed that the genetic distances based on single gene or the combined sequences among eleven leafhopper populations were 0.3-1.2%, which were all less than the species boundary of 2%. Moreover, there were at least two haplotypes shared by two distinct populations from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis based on single gene or combined sets also supported that tea green leafhoppers from Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan were closely related to each other, and there were at least two specimens from different regions clustered ahead of those from the same region. Therefore, we propose that the view of recognizing the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in three adjacent tea production regions of East Asia as different species is unreliable or questionable and suggest that they are a single species.

  14. Mitochondrial COI and 16sRNA Evidence for a Single Species Hypothesis of E. vitis, J. formosana and E. onukii in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jian-Yu; Han, Bao-Yu; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most damaging tea pests in main tea production regions of East Asia. For lack of recognized morphological characters, the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan have always been named as Empoasca vitis Göthe, Jacobiasca formosana Paoli and Empoasca onukii MATSUDA, respectively. Furthermore, nothing is known about the genetic relationships among them. In this study, we collected six populations from Mainland China, four populations from Japan and one population from Taiwan, and examined the genetic distances in the COI and 16sRNA regions of mtDNA among them. The results showed that the genetic distances based on single gene or the combined sequences among eleven leafhopper populations were 0.3–1.2%, which were all less than the species boundary of 2%. Moreover, there were at least two haplotypes shared by two distinct populations from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis based on single gene or combined sets also supported that tea green leafhoppers from Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan were closely related to each other, and there were at least two specimens from different regions clustered ahead of those from the same region. Therefore, we propose that the view of recognizing the dominant species of tea green leafhoppers in three adjacent tea production regions of East Asia as different species is unreliable or questionable and suggest that they are a single species. PMID:25506929

  15. Identification of forensically important sarcophagid flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in China, based on COI and 16S rDNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yadong; Cai, Jifeng; Chang, Yunfeng; Li, Xiang; Liu, Qinlai; Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Xiang; Zhong, Ming; Wen, Jifang; Wang, Jiangfeng

    2011-11-01

    Insects attracted to cadavers may provide important indications of the postmortem interval (PMI). However, use of the flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) for PMI estimation is limited as the species are often not morphologically distinct, especially as immatures. In this study, 23 forensically important flesh flies were collected from 13 locations in 10 Chinese provinces. Then, a 278-bp segment of the cytochrome oxidase subunits one (COI) gene and a 289-bp segment of the 16S rDNA gene of all specimens were successfully sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into four species (Boerttcherisca peregrina [Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830], Helicophagella melanura [Meigen, 1826], Parasarcophaga albiceps [Meigen, 1826], and Parasarcophaga dux [Thompson, 1869]) with relatively strong supporting values, thus indicating that the COI and 16S rDNA regions are suitable for identification of sarcophagid species. The difference between intraspecific threshold and interspecific divergence confirmed the potential of the two regions for sarcophagid species identification.

  16. Simple sequence repeats in bryophyte mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao-Xian; Zhu, Rui-Liang; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are thought to be common in plant mitochondrial (mt) genomes, but have yet to be fully described for bryophytes. We screened the mt genomes of two liverworts (Marchantia polymorpha and Pleurozia purpurea), two mosses (Physcomitrella patens and Anomodon rugelii) and two hornworts (Phaeoceros laevis and Nothoceros aenigmaticus), and detected 475 SSRs. Some SSRs are found conserved during the evolution, among which except one exists in both liverworts and mosses, all others are shared only by the two liverworts, mosses or hornworts. SSRs are known as DNA tracts having high mutation rates; however, according to our observations, they still can evolve slowly. The conservativeness of these SSRs suggests that they are under strong selection and could play critical roles in maintaining the gene functions.

  17. Complete mitochondrial sequences from Mesolithic Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Alessandra; Tassi, Francesca; Susca, Roberta Rosa; Vai, Stefania; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bellis, Gianluca De; Lugliè, Carlo; Gonzalez Fortes, Gloria; Lari, Martina; Barbujani, Guido; Caramelli, David; Ghirotto, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic prehistory of Sardinia because of the scarcity of pre-Neolithic human remains. From a genetic perspective, modern Sardinians are known as genetic outliers in Europe, showing unusually high levels of internal diversity and a close relationship to early European Neolithic farmers. However, how far this peculiar genetic structure extends and how it originated was to date impossible to test. Here we present the first and oldest complete mitochondrial sequences from Sardinia, dated back to 10,000 yBP. These two individuals, while confirming a Mesolithic occupation of the island, belong to rare mtDNA lineages, which have never been found before in Mesolithic samples and that are currently present at low frequencies not only in Sardinia, but in the whole Europe. Preliminary Approximate Bayesian Computations, restricted by biased reference samples for Mesolithic Sardinia (the two typed samples) and Neolithic Europe (limited to central and north European sequences), suggest that the first inhabitants of the island have had a small or negligible contribution to the present-day Sardinian population, which mainly derives its genetic diversity from continental migration into the island by Neolithic times. PMID:28256601

  18. Complete mitochondrial sequences from Mesolithic Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Modi, Alessandra; Tassi, Francesca; Susca, Roberta Rosa; Vai, Stefania; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bellis, Gianluca De; Lugliè, Carlo; Gonzalez Fortes, Gloria; Lari, Martina; Barbujani, Guido; Caramelli, David; Ghirotto, Silvia

    2017-03-03

    Little is known about the genetic prehistory of Sardinia because of the scarcity of pre-Neolithic human remains. From a genetic perspective, modern Sardinians are known as genetic outliers in Europe, showing unusually high levels of internal diversity and a close relationship to early European Neolithic farmers. However, how far this peculiar genetic structure extends and how it originated was to date impossible to test. Here we present the first and oldest complete mitochondrial sequences from Sardinia, dated back to 10,000 yBP. These two individuals, while confirming a Mesolithic occupation of the island, belong to rare mtDNA lineages, which have never been found before in Mesolithic samples and that are currently present at low frequencies not only in Sardinia, but in the whole Europe. Preliminary Approximate Bayesian Computations, restricted by biased reference samples for Mesolithic Sardinia (the two typed samples) and Neolithic Europe (limited to central and north European sequences), suggest that the first inhabitants of the island have had a small or negligible contribution to the present-day Sardinian population, which mainly derives its genetic diversity from continental migration into the island by Neolithic times.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation among populations and host races of Lambdina fiscellaria (Gn.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Sperling, F A; Raske, A G; Otvos, I S

    1999-02-01

    The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Gn.), is a recurring major forest pest that is widely distributed in North America. Three subspecies (L. f. fiscellaria, L. f. lugubrosa (Hulst) and L. f. somniaria (Hulst)) have been recognized based on larval host or adult pheromone differences, but no consistent morphological differences have been reported. To clarify their taxonomic status, we surveyed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and restriction site variation in two protein coding genes, cytochrome oxidase I and II (COI and COII), in populations across the range of L. fiscellaria. In addition to variation in COI and COII, we found an intergenic spacer region of 20-23 bp located between the tRNA tyrosine gene and the start of COI. Of the 141 specimens of L. fiscellaria assayed, 137 were grouped into two distinct mtDNA lineages, one of which was disproportionately associated with eastern populations and one with western populations. However, single specimens and two populations in eastern Canada had mtDNA resembling that of western populations. Three divergent and rare haplotypes had basal affinities to the two common lineages. The two major lineages of L. fiscellaria were diverged by approximately 2% from each other, as well as from the mtDNA of two outgroup species, L. athasaria (Walker) and L. pellucidaria(G. & R.). The two outgroup species had essentially the same mtDNA and may be conspecific. We interpret the pattern of mtDNA variation within L. fiscellaria as indicating genetic polymorphism within a single species without clear subspecific divisions, rather than evidence of multiple cryptic species.

  20. Identifications of Captive and Wild Tilapia Species Existing in Hawaii by Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Yang, Jinzeng

    2012-01-01

    Background The tilapia family of the Cichlidae includes many fish species, which live in freshwater and saltwater environments. Several species, such as O. niloticus, O. aureus, and O. mossambicus, are excellent for aquaculture because these fish are easily reproduced and readily adapt to diverse environments. Historically, tilapia species, including O. mossambicus, S. melanotheron, and O. aureus, were introduced to Hawaii many decades ago, and the state of Hawaii uses the import permit policy to prevent O. niloticus from coming into the islands. However, hybrids produced from O. niloticus may already be present in the freshwater and marine environments of the islands. The purpose of this study was to identify tilapia species that exist in Hawaii using mitochondrial DNA analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed 382 samples collected from 13 farm (captive) and wild tilapia populations in Oahu and the Hawaii Islands. Comparison of intraspecies variation between the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene from five populations indicated that mtDNA CR had higher nucleotide diversity than COI. A phylogenetic tree of all sampled tilapia was generated using mtDNA CR sequences. The neighbor-joining tree analysis identified seven distinctive tilapia species: O. aureus, O. mossambicus, O. niloticus, S. melanotheron, O. urolepies, T. redalli, and a hybrid of O. massambicus and O. niloticus. Of all the populations examined, 10 populations consisting of O. aureus, O. mossambicus, O. urolepis, and O. niloticus from the farmed sites were relatively pure, whereas three wild populations showed some degree of introgression and hybridization. Conclusions/Significance This DNA-based tilapia species identification is the first report that confirmed tilapia species identities in the wild and captive populations in Hawaii. The DNA sequence comparisons of mtDNA CR appear to be a valid method for tilapia species

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among Octopodidae species in coastal waters of China inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Lü, Z M; Cui, W T; Liu, L Q; Li, H M; Wu, C W

    2013-09-19

    Octopus in the family Octopodidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) has been generally recognized as a "catch-all" genus. The monophyly of octopus species in China's coastal waters has not yet been studied. In this paper, we inferred the phylogeny of 11 octopus species (family Octopodidae) in China's coastal waters using nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA. Sequence analysis of both genes revealed that the 11 species of Octopodidae fell into four distinct groups, which were genetically distant from one another and exhibited identical phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenies indicated strongly that the genus Octopus in China's coastal waters is also not monophyletic, and it is therefore clear that the Octopodidae systematics in this area requires major revision. It is demonstrated that partial sequence information of both the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI could be used as diagnostic molecular markers in the identification and resolution of the taxonomic ambiguity of Octopodidae species.

  2. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Legume Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Negruk, Valentine

    2013-01-01

    The number of plant mitochondrial genomes sequenced exceeds two dozen. However, for a detailed comparative study of different phylogenetic branches more plant mitochondrial genomes should be sequenced. This article presents sequencing data and comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the legume Vicia faba. The size of the V. faba circular mitochondrial master chromosome of cultivar Broad Windsor was estimated as 588,000 bp with a genome complexity of 387,745 bp and 52 conservative mitochondrial genes; 32 of them encoding proteins, 3 rRNA, and 17 tRNA genes. Six tRNA genes were highly homologous to chloroplast genome sequences. In addition to the 52 conservative genes, 114 unique open reading frames (ORFs) were found, 36 without significant homology to any known proteins and 29 with homology to the Medicago truncatula nuclear genome and to other plant mitochondrial ORFs, 49 ORFs were not homologous to M. truncatula but possessed sequences with significant homology to other plant mitochondrial or nuclear ORFs. In general, the unique ORFs revealed very low homology to known closely related legumes, but several sequence homologies were found between V. faba, Beta vulgaris, Nicotiana tabacum, Vitis vinifera, and even the monocots Oryza sativa and Zea mays. Most likely these ORFs arose independently during angiosperm evolution (Kubo and Mikami, 2007; Kubo and Newton, 2008). Computational analysis revealed in total about 45% of V. faba mtDNA sequence being homologous to the Medicago truncatula nuclear genome (more than to any sequenced plant mitochondrial genome), and 35% of this homology ranging from a few dozen to 12,806 bp are located on chromosome 1. Apparently, mitochondrial rrn5, rrn18, rps10, ATP synthase subunit alpha, cox2, and tRNA sequences are part of transcribed nuclear mosaic ORFs.

  3. Two new species of photosymbiotic ascidians of the genus Diplosoma from the Ryukyu Archipelago, with partial sequences of the COI gene.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Oka, Atsushi T; Hirose, Mamiko

    2009-05-01

    Two new species of Diplosoma are described from coral reefs in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan: D. watanabei sp. nov. and D. gumavirens sp. nov. Colonies of both species are green due to algal symbionts of Prochloron, which are distributed in the common cloacal cavity. Both species are characterized by the point of emergence of the retractor muscle and a unique combination of stigma numbers among the four rows of the branchial sac. There are three adhesive papillae in the embryos of D. watanabei, as in most ascidian embryos and larvae, whereas the pre-hatching embryos of D. gumavirens sp. nov. posses 12-16 adhesive papillae. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene discriminated the new species from each other and from congeners.

  4. [Molecular phylogeny and the time of divergence of minges (Chironomidae, Nematocera, Diptera) inferred from a partial nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI)].

    PubMed

    Demin, A G; Polukonova, N V; Miuge, N S

    2011-10-01

    This is the first study to infer the phylogenetic structure of minges of the subfamily Chironominae from the amino acid sequence of cytochrome oxidase I (COI). The subdivision of Chironominae into two tribes, Chironomini and Tanytarsini, has been confirmed. The segregation of the genera Pseudochironomus and Riethia into a separate tribe has not been confirmed. Stenochironomus gibbus forms a branch considerably deviating from the subfamily Chironominae. The genus Micropsectra is formed by a large polyphyletic cluster that also includes the genera Virgotanytharsus, Reotanytharsus, Kenopsectra, and Parapsectra. Tanytarsus is the basal genus of the tribe Tanytarsini. The times of divergence of the main taxa of Chironominae have been estimated. The calculated time of divergence of the genus Chironomus disproves the assumption that it is phylogenetically old.

  5. The first complete mitochondrial genome of Dacus longicornis (Diptera: Tephritidae) using next-generation sequencing and mitochondrial genome phylogeny of Dacini tribe

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fan; Pan, Xubin; Li, Xuankun; Yu, Yanxue; Zhang, Junhua; Jiang, Hongshan; Dou, Liduo; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dacus is one of the most economically important tephritid fruit flies. The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Dacus species – D. longicornis was sequenced by next-generation sequencing in order to develop the mitogenome data for this genus. The circular 16,253 bp mitogenome is the typical set and arrangement of 37 genes present in the ancestral insect. The mitogenome data of D. longicornis was compared to all the published homologous sequences of other tephritid species. We discovered the subgenera Bactrocera, Daculus and Tetradacus differed from the subgenus Zeugodacus, the genera Dacus, Ceratitis and Procecidochares in the possession of TA instead of TAA stop codon for COI gene. There is a possibility that the TA stop codon in COI is the synapomorphy in Bactrocera group in the genus Bactrocera comparing with other Tephritidae species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitogenome data from Tephritidae were inferred by Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods, strongly supported the sister relationship between Zeugodacus and Dacus. PMID:27812024

  6. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Pezizomycete Pyronema confluens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the ascomycete Pyronema confluens has been sequenced. The circular genome has a size of 191 kb and contains 48 protein-coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. Of the protein-coding genes, 14 encode conserved mitochondrial proteins, and 31 encode predicted homing endonuclease genes. PMID:27174271

  7. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Glass Sponge Oopsacas minuta

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Sébastien; Rocher, Caroline; Le Bivic, André

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Mediterranean glass sponge Oopsacas minuta. This 19-kb mitochondrial genome has 24 noncoding genes (22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs) and 14 protein-encoding genes coding for 11 subunits of respiratory chain complexes and 3 ATP synthase subunits. PMID:26227597

  8. Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders by concomitant next-generation sequencing of the exome and mitochondrial genome

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Smith, Laurie D.; Miller, Neil A.; Atherton, Andrea M.; Farrow, Emily G.; Strenk, Meghan E.; Soden, Sarah E.; Saunders, Carol J.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are notoriously difficult to diagnose due to extreme locus and allelic heterogeneity, with both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes potentially liable. Using exome sequencing we demonstrate the ability to rapidly and cost effectively evaluate both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to obtain a molecular diagnosis for four patients with three distinct mitochondrial disorders. One patient was found to have Leigh syndrome due to a mutation in MT-ATP6, two affected siblings were discovered to be compound heterozygous for mutations in the NDUFV1 gene, which causes mitochondrial complex I deficiency, and one patient was found to have coenzyme Q10 deficiency due to compound heterozygous mutations in COQ2. In all cases conventional diagnostic testing failed to identify a molecular diagnosis. We suggest that additional studies should be conducted to evaluate exome sequencing as a primary diagnostic test for mitochondrial diseases, including those due to mtDNA mutations. PMID:23631824

  9. PCR Primers for Metazoan Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Kweskin, Matthew; Knowlton, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of the biodiversity of communities of small organisms is most readily done using PCR-based analysis of environmental samples consisting of mixtures of individuals. Known as metagenetics, this approach has transformed understanding of microbial communities and is beginning to be applied to metazoans as well. Unlike microbial studies, where analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence is standard, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In this study we designed a set of PCR primers for the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequence based on 64 complete mitochondrial genomes and then tested their efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of the 64 complete mitochondrial genome sequences representing all metazoan classes available in GenBank were downloaded using the NCBI Taxonomy Browser. Alignment of sequences was performed for the excised mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences, and conserved regions were identified for all 64 mitochondrial genomes. These regions were used to design a primer pair that flanks a more variable region in the gene. Then all of the complete metazoan mitochondrial genomes available in NCBI's Organelle Genome Resources database were used to determine the percentage of taxa that would likely be amplified using these primers. Results suggest that these primers will amplify target sequences for many metazoans. Conclusions/Significance Newly designed 12S ribosomal DNA primers have considerable potential for metazoan metagenetic analysis because of their ability to amplify sequences from many metazoans. PMID:22536450

  10. COI is better than 16S rRNA for DNA barcoding Asiatic salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata: Hynobiidae).

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Gu, Hai-Feng; Peng, Rui; Chen, Qin; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Murphy, Robert W; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2012-01-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, because COI tends to be highly variable in amphibians, sequencing is often challenging. Consequently, another mtDNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, is often advocated for amphibian barcoding. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16S in discriminating species of hynobiid salamanders using 130 individuals. Species identification and classification of these animals, which are endemic to Asia, are often based on morphology only. Analysis of Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances (K2P) documents the mean intraspecific variation for COI and 16S rRNA genes to be 1.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Whereas COI can always identify species, sometimes 16S cannot. Intra- and interspecific genetic divergences occasionally overlap in both markers, thus reducing the value of a barcoding gap to identify genera. Regardless, COI is the better DNA barcoding marker for hynobiids. In addition to the comparison of two potential markers, high levels of intraspecific divergence in COI (>5%) suggest that both Onychodactylus fischeri and Salamandrella keyserlingii might be composites of cryptic species.

  11. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Youxian sheldrake.

    PubMed

    He, Shao-Ping; Liu, Li-Li; Yu, Qi-Fang; Li, Si; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Youxian sheldrake is excellent native breeds in Hunan province in China. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence plays an important role in the accurate determination of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. This is the first study to determine the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Youxian sheldrake using PCR-based amplification and Sanger sequencing. The characteristic of the entire mitochondrial genome was analyzed in detail, the total length of the mitogenome is 16,605 bp, with the base composition of 29.21% A, 22.18% T, 32.84% C, 15.77% G in the Youxian sheldrake. It contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Youxian sheldrake provided an important data for further study of the phylogenetics of poultry, and available data for the genetics and breeding.

  12. A novel mutation MT-COIII m.9267G>C and MT-COI m.5913G>A mutation in mitochondrial genes in a Tunisian family with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) associated with severe nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tabebi, Mouna; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Mnif, Mouna; Kallabi, Fakhri; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ben Saad, Wafa; Charfi, Nadia; Keskes-Ammar, Leila; Kamoun, Hassen; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2015-04-10

    Mitochondrial diabetes (MD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by a chronic hyperglycemia, maternal transmission and its association with a bilateral hearing impairment. Several studies reported mutations in mitochondrial genes as potentially pathogenic for diabetes, since mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells. In the present report, we studied a Tunisian family with mitochondrial diabetes (MD) and deafness associated with nephropathy. The mutational analysis screening revealed the presence of a novel heteroplasmic mutation m.9276G>C in the mitochondrial COIII gene, detected in mtDNA extracted from leukocytes of a mother and her two daughters indicating that this mutation is maternally transmitted and suggest its implication in the observed phenotype. Bioinformatic tools showed that m.9267G>C mutation (p.A21P) is « deleterious » and it can modify the function and the stability of the MT-COIII protein by affecting the assembly of mitochondrial COX subunits and the translocation of protons then reducing the activity of the respective OXPHOS complexes of ATP synthesis. The nonsynonymous mutation (p.A21P) has not been reported before, it is the first mutation described in the COXIII gene which is related to insulin dependent mitochondrial diabetes and deafness and could be specific to the Tunisian population. The m.9267G>C mutation was present with a nonsynonymous inherited mitochondrial homoplasmic variation MT-COI m.5913 G>A (D4N) responsible of high blood pressure, a clinical feature detected in all explored patients.

  13. COI barcode versus morphological identification of Culex ( Culex ) (Diptera: Culicidae) species: a case study using samples from Argentina and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Laurito, Magdalena; de Oliveira, Tatiane MP; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 Culex ( Culex ) species from Argentina and Brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of COI for barcoding using the best close match (BCM) algorithm. A pairwise Kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 COI barcode sequences was constructed. Of the 12 COI lineages recovered in the Neighbour-joining topology, five confirmed recognised morphological species ( Cx. acharistus , Cx. chidesteri , Cx. dolosus , Cx. lygrus and Cx. saltanensis ) with intraspecific divergences lower than 1.75%. Cx. bilineatus is formally resurrected from the synonymy of Cx. dolosus . Cx. maxi , Cx. surinamensis and the Coronator group species included were clustered into an unresolved lineage. The intraspecific distance of Cx. pipiens (3%) was almost twice the interspecific between it and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.6%). Regarding the BCM criteria, the COI barcode successfully identified 69% of all species. The rest of the sequences, approximately 10%, 18% and 3%, remained as ambiguously, mis and unidentified, respectively. The COI barcode does not contain enough information to distinguish Culex ( Cux. ) species. PMID:24473810

  14. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in the Arctoidea.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y P; Ryder, O A

    1993-01-01

    Some taxa in the superfamily Arctoidea, such as the giant panda and the lesser panda, have presented puzzles to taxonomists. In the present study, approximately 397 bases of the cytochrome b gene, 364 bases of the 12S rRNA gene, and 74 bases of the tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro) genes from the giant panda, lesser panda, kinkajou, raccoon, coatimundi, and all species of the Ursidae were sequenced. The high transition/transversion ratios in cytochrome b and RNA genes prior to saturation suggest that the presumed transition bias may represent a trend for some mammalian lineages rather than strictly a primate phenomenon. Transversions in the 12S rRNA gene accumulate in arctoids at about half the rate reported for artiodactyls. Different arctoid lineages evolve at different rates: the kinkajou, a procyonid, evolves the fastest, 1.7-1.9 times faster than the slowest lineage that comprises the spectacled and polar bears. Generation-time effect can only partially explain the different rates of nucleotide substitution in arctoids. Our results based on parsimony analysis show that the giant panda is more closely related to bears than to the lesser panda; the lesser panda is neither closely related to bears nor to the New World procyonids. The kinkajou, raccoon, and coatimundi diverged from each other very early, even though they group together. The polar bear is closely related to the spectacled bear, and they began to diverge from a common mitochondrial ancestor approximately 2 million years ago. Relationships of the remaining five bear species are derived. PMID:8415740

  15. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Daniel P.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence for sunflower and the first complete mitochondrial genome for any member of Asteraceae, the largest plant family, which includes over 23,000 named species. The master circle is 300,945-bp long and includes 27 protein-coding sequences, 18 tRNAs, and the 26S, 5S, and 18S rRNAs. PMID:27635002

  16. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of Pimelia darkling beetles on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Juan, C; Ibrahim, K M; Oromi, P; Hewitt, G M

    1996-12-01

    Four morphological taxa of the beetle genus Pimelia (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are known to exist on the Atlantic island of Tenerife. We have obtained DNA sequences for 61 individuals from these taxa across the island for a 200 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene. In addition, a restriction site polymorphism in the nuclear rRNA ITS-1 sequence was identified and screened in a sample of these individuals using the enzyme Kpn2I. The results were analysed using approaches which allow inferences to be made about the population genetic structure and the mitochondrial genealogy of these closely related beetles. The mtDNA haplotype distribution and the estimates of sequence divergence revealed the presence of two ancient mtDNA lineages which coincide with the disjunct volcanic evolution of the island. The ITS-1 polymorphism was found to be diagnostic of these two lineages. However, the morphological and mitochondrial phylogenies were found to be discordant. We argue that this is possibly the result of rapid morphological change, produced by selection in different habitats, which has been recently superimposed on an older mitochondrial DNA divergence.

  17. When COI barcodes deceive: complete genomes reveal introgression in hairstreaks.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qian; Shen, Jinhui; Borek, Dominika; Robbins, Robert K; Opler, Paul A; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2017-02-08

    Two species of hairstreak butterflies from the genus Calycopis are known in the United States: C. cecrops and C. isobeon Analysis of mitochondrial COI barcodes of Calycopis revealed cecrops-like specimens from the eastern US with atypical barcodes that were 2.6% different from either USA species, but similar to Central American Calycopis species. To address the possibility that the specimens with atypical barcodes represent an undescribed cryptic species, we sequenced complete genomes of 27 Calycopis specimens of four species: C. cecrops, C. isobeon, C. quintana and C. bactra Some of these specimens were collected up to 60 years ago and preserved dry in museum collections, but nonetheless produced genomes as complete as fresh samples. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using the whole mitochondrial and nuclear genomes were incongruent. While USA Calycopis with atypical barcodes grouped with Central American species C. quintana by mitochondria, nuclear genome trees placed them within typical USA C. cecrops in agreement with morphology, suggesting mitochondrial introgression. Nuclear genomes also show introgression, especially between C. cecrops and C. isobeon About 2.3% of each C. cecrops genome has probably (p-value < 0.01, FDR < 0.1) introgressed from C. isobeon and about 3.4% of each C. isobeon genome may have come from C. cecrops. The introgressed regions are enriched in genes encoding transmembrane proteins, mitochondria-targeting proteins and components of the larval cuticle. This study provides the first example of mitochondrial introgression in Lepidoptera supported by complete genome sequencing. Our results caution about relying solely on COI barcodes and mitochondrial DNA for species identification or discovery.

  18. A 454 sequencing approach to dipteran mitochondrial genome research.

    PubMed

    Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Singh, Baneshwar; Wells, Jeffrey D; Guerrero, Felix; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) data for Diptera, one of the largest metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. The advent of high throughput sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mtgenomes for many species affordably and quickly. However, these technologies need to be validated for dipterans as the members of this clade play important economic and research roles. Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms are widely used in genomic research involving non-model organisms. The Illumina platform has already been utilized for generating mitochondrial genomes without using conventional long range PCR for insects whereas the power of 454 sequencing for generating mitochondrial genome drafts without PCR has not yet been validated for insects. Thus, this study examines the utility of 454 sequencing approach for dipteran mtgenomic research. We generated complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipalpis using a 454 sequencing approach. Comparisons between newly obtained and existing assemblies for C. hominivorax and H. irritans revealed no major discrepancies and verified the utility of 454 sequencing for dipteran mitochondrial genomes. We also report the complete mitochondrial sequences for two forensically important flies, P. regina and S. crassipalpis, which could be used to provide useful information to legal personnel. Comparative analyses revealed that dipterans follow similar codon usage and nucleotide biases that could be due to mutational and selection pressures. This study illustrates the utility of 454 sequencing to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes for dipterans without the aid of conventional molecular techniques such as PCR and cloning and validates this method of mtgenome sequencing in arthropods.

  19. Molecular Poltergeists: Mitochondrial DNA Copies (numts) in Sequenced Nuclear Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Zeller, Raymond M.; Martin, William

    2010-01-01

    The natural transfer of DNA from mitochondria to the nucleus generates nuclear copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts) and is an ongoing evolutionary process, as genome sequences attest. In humans, five different numts cause genetic disease and a dozen human loci are polymorphic for the presence of numts, underscoring the rapid rate at which mitochondrial sequences reach the nucleus over evolutionary time. In the laboratory and in nature, numts enter the nuclear DNA via non-homolgous end joining (NHEJ) at double-strand breaks (DSBs). The frequency of numt insertions among 85 sequenced eukaryotic genomes reveal that numt content is strongly correlated with genome size, suggesting that the numt insertion rate might be limited by DSB frequency. Polymorphic numts in humans link maternally inherited mitochondrial genotypes to nuclear DNA haplotypes during the past, offering new opportunities to associate nuclear markers with mitochondrial markers back in time. PMID:20168995

  20. Directly repeated sequences associated with pathogenic mitochondrial DNA deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, D R; Rutledge, S L; Stine, O C; Hurko, O

    1989-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of junctional regions associated with large deletions of mitochondrial DNA found in four unrelated individuals with a phenotype of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. In each patient, the deletion breakpoint occurred within a directly repeated sequence of 13-18 base pairs, present in different regions of the normal mitochondrial genome-separated by 4.5-7.7 kilobases. In two patients, the deletions were identical. When all four repeated sequences are compared, a consensus sequence of 11 nucleotides emerges, similar to putative recombination signals, suggesting the involvement of a recombinational event. Partially deleted and normal mitochondrial DNAs were found in all tissues examined, but in very different proportions, indicating that these mutations originated before the primary cell layers diverged. Images PMID:2813377

  1. Mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongjun; Chen, Yu; Liu, Fuyu; Jiang, Chunhua; Gao, Yuqi

    2011-02-01

    The Tibetan wild ass, or kiang (Equus kiang) is endemic to the cold and hypoxic (4000-7000 m above sea level) climates of the montane and alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the E. kiang mitochondrial genome. Our results show that E. kiang mitochondrial DNA is 16,634 bp long, and predicted to encode all the 37 genes that are typical for vertebrates.

  2. The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Webb; Drautz, Daniela I.; Janecka, Jan E.; Lesk, Arthur M.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Packard, Mike; Zhang, Yeting; McClellan, Lindsay R.; Qi, Ji; Zhao, Fangqing; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Dalén, Love; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ericson, Per G.P.; Huson, Daniel H.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Murphy, William J.; Götherström, Anders; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first two complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), or so-called Tasmanian tiger, extinct since 1936. The thylacine's phylogenetic position within australidelphian marsupials has long been debated, and here we provide strong support for the thylacine's basal position in Dasyuromorphia, aided by mitochondrial genome sequence that we generated from the extant numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus). Surprisingly, both of our thylacine sequences differ by 11%–15% from putative thylacine mitochondrial genes in GenBank, with one of our samples originating from a direct offspring of the previously sequenced individual. Our data sample each mitochondrial nucleotide an average of 50 times, thereby providing the first high-fidelity reference sequence for thylacine population genetics. Our two sequences differ in only five nucleotides out of 15,452, hinting at a very low genetic diversity shortly before extinction. Despite the samples’ heavy contamination with bacterial and human DNA and their temperate storage history, we estimate that as much as one-third of the total DNA in each sample is from the thylacine. The microbial content of the two thylacine samples was subjected to metagenomic analysis, and showed striking differences between a wild-captured individual and a born-in-captivity one. This study therefore adds to the growing evidence that extensive sequencing of museum collections is both feasible and desirable, and can yield complete genomes. PMID:19139089

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Daweishan Mini chicken.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Li; Ding, Su-Ping; Ye, Shao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Guang; He, Bao-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Daweishan Mini chicken is a valuable chicken breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken using PCR amplification, sequencing and assembling has been obtained for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,785 bp, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.73% T, 32.51% C, 13.51% G. It contained 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The protein start codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken provides an important data set for further investigation on the phylogenetic relationships within Gallus gallus.

  4. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences Effectively Reveal the Phylogeny of Hylobates Gibbons

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yi-Chiao; Roos, Christian; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Inoue, Eiji; Shih, Chih-Chin; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background Uniquely among hominoids, gibbons exist as multiple geographically contiguous taxa exhibiting distinctive behavioral, morphological, and karyotypic characteristics. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the various gibbons, especially among Hylobates species, is still limited because previous studies used limited taxon sampling or short mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Here we use mtDNA genome sequences to reconstruct gibbon phylogenetic relationships and reveal the pattern and timing of divergence events in gibbon evolutionary history. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of 51 individuals representing 11 species belonging to three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus) using the high-throughput 454 sequencing system with the parallel tagged sequencing approach. Three phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, Bayesian analysis and neighbor-joining) depicted the gibbon phylogenetic relationships congruently and with strong support values. Most notably, we recover a well-supported phylogeny of the Hylobates gibbons. The estimation of divergence times using Bayesian analysis with relaxed clock model suggests a much more rapid speciation process in Hylobates than in Nomascus. Conclusions/Significance Use of more than 15 kb sequences of the mitochondrial genome provided more informative and robust data than previous studies of short mitochondrial segments (e.g., control region or cytochrome b) as shown by the reliable reconstruction of divergence patterns among Hylobates gibbons. Moreover, molecular dating of the mitogenomic divergence times implied that biogeographic change during the last five million years may be a factor promoting the speciation of Sundaland animals, including Hylobates species. PMID:21203450

  5. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers.

    PubMed

    Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus

  6. Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the Endangered Chilean silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus (Jenyns, 1841) (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae), validated with RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Véliz, David; Vega-Retter, Caren; Quezada-Romegialli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome for the Chilean silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus is reported for the first time. The entire mitochondrial genome was 16,544 bp in length (GenBank accession no. KM245937); gene composition and arrangement was conformed to that reported for most fishes and contained the typical structure of 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and a non-coding region. The assembled mitogenome was validated against sequences of COI and Control Region previously sequenced in our lab, functional genes from RNA-Seq data for the same species and the mitogenome of two other atherinopsid species available in Genbank.

  7. A novel mutation MT-COIII m.9267G>C and MT-COI m.5913G>A mutation in mitochondrial genes in a Tunisian family with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) associated with sever nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tabebi, Mouna; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Mnif, Mouna; Kallabi, Fakhri; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ben Saad, Wafa; Charfi, Nadia; Keskes-Ammar, Leila; Kamoun, Hassen; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2015-04-10

    Mitochondrial diabetes (MD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by a chronic hyperglycemia, maternal transmission and its association with a bilateral hearing impairment. Several studies reported mutations in mitochondrial genes as potentially pathogenic for diabetes, since mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cells. In the present report, we studied a Tunisian family with mitochondrial diabetes (MD) and deafness associated with nephropathy. The mutational analysis screening revealed the presence of a novel heteroplasmic mutation m.9276G>C in the mitochondrial COIII gene, detected in mtDNA extracted from leukocytes of a mother and her two daughters indicating that this mutation is maternally transmitted and suggest its implication in the observed phenotype. Bioinformatic tools showed that m.9267G>C mutation (p.A21P) is « deleterious » and it can modify the function and the stability of the MT-COIII protein by affecting the assembly of mitochondrial COX subunits and the translocation of protons then reducing the activity of the respective OXPHOS complexes of ATP synthesis. The nonsynonymous mutation (p.A21P) has not been reported before, it is the first mutation described in the COXIII gene which is related to insulin dependent mitochondrial diabetes and deafness and could be specific to the Tunisian population. The m.9267G>C mutation was present with a nonsynonymous inherited mitochondrial homoplasmic variation MT-COI m.5913 G>A (D4N) responsible of high blood pressure, a clinical feature detected in all explored patients. - Highlights: • MT-COX3 m.9267G>C (p.A21P), heteroplasmic substitution, is not reported in any database. • m.9267G>C can be responsible of the MIDD associated with nephropaty. • This substitution can modify the function and the stability of the MT-CO3 protein. • This substitution can modify MT-CO3 structure (2D and 3D). • MT-COX3 m.9267G>C is associated

  8. Recombination sequences in plant mitochondrial genomes: diversity and homologies to known mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, D B; Palmer, J D

    1984-01-01

    Several plant mitochondrial genomes contain repeated sequences that are postulated to be sites of homologous intragenomic recombination (1-3). In this report, we have used filter hybridizations to investigate sequence relationships between the cloned mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination repeats from turnip, spinach and maize and total mtDNA isolated from thirteen species of angiosperms. We find that strong sequence homologies exist between the spinach and turnip recombination repeats and essentially all other mitochondrial genomes tested, whereas a major maize recombination repeat does not hybridize to any other mtDNA. The sequences homologous to the turnip repeat do not appear to function in recombination in any other genome, whereas the spinach repeat hybridizes to reiterated sequences within the mitochondrial genomes of wheat and two species of pokeweed that do appear to be sites of recombination. Thus, although intragenomic recombination is a widespread phenomenon in plant mitochondria, it appears that different sequences either serve as substrates for this function in different species, or else surround a relatively short common recombination site which does not cross-hybridize under our experimental conditions. Identified gene sequences from maize mtDNA were used in heterologous hybridizations to show that the repeated sequences implicated in recombination in turnip and spinach/pokeweed/wheat mitochondria include, or are closely linked to genes for subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase and 26S rRNA, respectively. Together with previous studies indicating that the 18S rRNA gene in wheat mtDNA is contained within a recombination repeat (3), these results imply an unexpectedly frequent association between recombination repeats and plant mitochondrial genes. Images PMID:6473104

  9. DNA Barcoding the Medusozoa using mtCOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortman, Brian D.; Bucklin, Ann; Pagès, Francesc; Youngbluth, Marsh

    2010-12-01

    The Medusozoa are a clade within the Cnidaria comprising the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa. Identification of medusozoan species is challenging, even for taxonomic experts, due to their fragile forms and complex, morphologically-distinct life history stages. In this study 231 sequences for a portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene were obtained from 95 species of Medusozoans including; 84 hydrozoans (61 siphonophores, eight anthomedusae, four leptomedusae, seven trachymedusae, and four narcomedusae), 10 scyphozoans (three coronatae, four semaeostomae, two rhizostomae, and one stauromedusae), and one cubozoan. This region of mtCOI has been used as a DNA barcode (i.e., a molecular character for species recognition and discrimination) for a diverse array of taxa, including some Cnidaria. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between sequence variants within species ranged from 0 to 0.057 (mean 0.013). Within the 13 genera for which multiple species were available, K2P distance between congeneric species ranged from 0.056 to 0.381. A cluster diagram generated by Neighbor Joining (NJ) using K2P distances reliably clustered all barcodes of the same species with ≥99% bootstrap support, ensuring accurate identification of species. Intra- and inter-specific variation of the mtCOI gene for the Medusozoa are appropriate for this gene to be used as a DNA barcode for species-level identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis or taxonomic classification of unknown sequences at higher taxonomic levels. This study provides a set of molecular tools that can be used to address questions of speciation, biodiversity, life-history, and population boundaries in the Medusozoa.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaojing; Xu, Jun; Smith, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the budgie's mitochondrial genome sequence, a resource that can facilitate this parrot's use as a model organism as well as for determining its phylogenetic relatedness to other parrots/Psittaciformes. The estimated total length of the sequence was 18,193 bp. In addition to the to the 13 protein and tRNA and rRNA coding regions, the sequence also includes a duplicated hypervariable region, a feature unique to only a few birds. The two hypervariable regions shared a sequence identity of about 86%.

  12. Phylogeny of hydrothermal-vent-endemic gastropods Alviniconcha spp. from the western Pacific revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S; Segawa, R; Fijiwara, Y; Fujikura, K; Ohta, S; Hashimoto, J

    2001-06-01

    Mitochondrial genes for cytochrome oxidase I (COI) from hydrothermal-vent-endemic gastropods of the genus Alviniconcha were sequenced to determine the phylogenetic relationships among specimens from three areas in the western Pacific. Individuals of Alviniconcha hessleri were collected at two vent fields (depths 1470 m and 3600 m) in the Mariana Trough. Specimens collected in the North Fiji Basin could be divided into two genetically distinct groups, both of which also differed from A. hessleri from the Mariana Trough. None of the specimens of the genus Alviniconcha collected in the Manus Basin differed genetically from the dominant group from the North Fiji Basin. We suggest that the specimens of the genus Alviniconcha analyzed in the present study can be tentatively classified into A. hessleri and two undescribed species.

  13. COI haplotype groups in Mesocriconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and their morphospecies associations.

    PubMed

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Lodema, M; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2014-07-03

    Without applying an a priori bias for species boundaries, specimen identities in the plant-parasitic nematode genus Mesocriconema were evaluated by examining mitochondrial COI nucleotide sequences, morphology, and biogeography. A total of 242 specimens that morphologically conformed to the genus were individually photographed, measured, and amplified by a PCR primer set to preserve the linkage between specimen morphology and a specific DNA barcode sequence. Specimens were extracted from soil samples representing 45 locations across 23 ecoregions in North America. Dendrograms constructed by neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Inference using a 721-bp COI barcode were used to group COI haplotypes. Each tree-building approach resulted in 24 major haplotype groups within the dataset. The distinctiveness of these groups was evaluated by node support, genetic distance, absence of intermediates, and several measures of distinctiveness included in software used for the exploration of species boundaries. Five of the 24 COI haplotype groups corresponded to morphologically characterized, Linnaean species. Morphospecies conforming to M. discus, Discocriconemella inarata, M. rusticum, M. onoense, and M. kirjanovae were represented by groups composed of multiple closely related or identical COI haplotypes. In other cases, morphospecies names could be equally applied to multiple haplotype groups that were genetically distant from each other. Identification based on morphology alone resulted in M. curvatum and M. ornatum species designations applied to seven and three groups, respectively. Morphological characters typically used for species level identification were demonstrably variable within haplotype groups, suggesting caution in assigning species names based on published compendia that solely consider morphological characters. Morphospecies classified as M. xenoplax formed a monophyletic group composed of seven genetically distinct COI subgroups. The species

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Napialus hunanensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), the host insect of Cordyceps hawkesii.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiequn; Wei, Hongyi; Xin, Tianrong; Que, Shengquan; Zou, Zhiwen; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although Napialus hunanensis is important as the host of Cordyceps hawkesii (a valuable medicine in China), it remains poorly known especially on molecular level. To get a better understanding of it, the complete mitogenome was sequenced and annotated. It was 15,301 bp in length, contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an AT rich region. The base composition was 40.68% for A, 41.17% for T, 7.56% for G and 10.59% for C on the heavy strand. Except the COI with CGA and ND1 with TTG, the remaining protein-coding genes started with typical ATN. These coding genes ended up with TAA as well as an incomplete stop codon T (COII and ND3). According to other Hepialidae species, the rearrangement of tRNA(Met) in N. hunanensis is the ancestral type. The mitochondrial genome of N. hunanensis is an important source for species identification and phylogenetic analyses.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Pampus argenteus (Perciformes: Stromateidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Dandan; Cheng, Qiqun; Qiao, Huiying; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of Pampus argenteus (Perciformes: Stromateidae). The mitogenome is 17,098 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 23 tRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The overall nucleotide base composition of P. argenteus mtDNA is A 30.35%, C 25.55%, G 15.28% and T 28.82%, with an A + T content of 59.17%. Except for ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The mitochondrial genome of P. argenteus may be helpful to the studies on conservation genetics and stock evaluation of P. argenteus resource, as well as molecular phylogeny and species identification of Stromateidae.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyuan; Zhang, Dianchang; Guo, Huayang; Jiang, Shigui; Zhu, Caiyan

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Trachinotus ovatus was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mitogenome is 16,564 bp long and has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The overall base composition of mitogenome is estimated to be 29.0% for A, 28.9% for C, 26.2% for T, 15.9% for G, respectively, with a high A + T content (55.2%). With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The control region contains a dinucleotide repeat motif, (AT)5. This mitogenome sequence would play an important role in population genetics and the molecular taxonomy of T. ovatus.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Mustela eversmannii (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangshuai; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Honghai; Sun, Guolei; Zhao, Chao; Dou, Huashan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Steppe polecat, Mustela eversmannii, was sequenced for the first time using muscle tissue. The mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 16 463 bp in length and overall base composition is A (32.7%), T (27.3%), C (26.1%), and G (13.9%), which indicates a strong A-T bias. A phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 13 protein-coding genes and two rRNA genes of 10 Mustela species' mitochondrial genomes using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) demonstrated that these Mustela species were clustered into two clades and M. eversmannii was close to M. putorius.

  18. mitoSAVE: mitochondrial sequence analysis of variants in Excel.

    PubMed

    King, Jonathan L; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) contains genetic information amenable to numerous applications such as medical research, population and evolutionary studies, and human identity testing. However, inconsistent nomenclature assignment makes haplotype comparison difficult and can lead to false exclusion of potentially useful profiles. Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) is a platform for sequencing large datasets and potentially whole populations with relative ease. However, the data generated are not easily parsed and interpreted. With this in mind, mitoSAVE has been developed to enable fast conversion of Variant Call Format (VCF) files. mitoSAVE is an Excel-based workbook that converts data within the VCF into mtDNA haplotypes using phylogenetically-established nomenclature as well as rule-based alignments consistent with current forensic standards. mitoSAVE is formatted for human mitochondrial genome; however, it can easily be adapted to support other reasonably small genomes.

  19. Sequencing strategy for the whole mitochondrial genome resulting in high quality sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Liane; Zimmermann, Bettina; Daniaux, Martin; Parson, Walther

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that a reliable and fail-safe sequencing strategy is mandatory for high-quality analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, as the sequencing and base-calling process is prone to error. Here, we present a high quality, reliable and easy handling manual procedure for the sequencing of full mt genomes that is also appropriate for laboratories where fully automated processes are not available. Results We amplified whole mitochondrial genomes as two overlapping PCR-fragments comprising each about 8500 bases in length. We developed a set of 96 primers that can be applied to a (manual) 96 well-based technology, which resulted in at least double strand sequence coverage of the entire coding region (codR). Conclusion This elaborated sequencing strategy is straightforward and allows for an unambiguous sequence analysis and interpretation including sometimes challenging phenomena such as point and length heteroplasmy that are relevant for the investigation of forensic and clinical samples. PMID:19331681

  20. Deep sequencing unearths nuclear mitochondrial sequences under Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy-associated false heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA variants.

    PubMed

    Petruzzella, Vittoria; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Calabrese, Claudia; Dell'Aglio, Rosa; Trentadue, Raffaella; Piredda, Roberta; Artuso, Lucia; Rizza, Teresa; Bianchi, Marzia; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Guerriero, Silvana; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Attimonelli, Marcella

    2012-09-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ND mutations that are mostly homoplasmic. However, these mutations are not sufficient to explain the peculiar features of penetrance and the tissue-specific expression of the disease and are believed to be causative in association with unknown environmental or other genetic factors. Discerning between clear-cut pathogenetic variants, such as those that appear to be heteroplasmic, and less penetrant variants, such as the homoplasmic, remains a challenging issue that we have addressed here using next-generation sequencing approach. We set up a protocol to quantify MTND5 heteroplasmy levels in a family in which the proband manifests a LHON phenotype. Furthermore, to study this mtDNA haplotype, we applied the cybridization protocol. The results demonstrate that the mutations are mostly homoplasmic, whereas the suspected heteroplasmic feature of the observed mutations is due to the co-amplification of Nuclear mitochondrial Sequences.

  1. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene.

  2. Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology.

    PubMed

    Norlinder, Erika; Nygren, Arne; Wiklund, Helena; Pleijel, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    The phylogeny of scale-worms, benthic polychaetes carrying dorsal scales (elytra), including taxa from Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Pholoidae, Pholoididae, Polynoidae and Sigalionidae (Aphroditiformia), is assessed from the nuclear markers 18SrRNA and 28SrRNA, and mitochondrial 16SrRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and 24 morphological characters. The data sets are analyzed both separately and combined, with Bayesian analyses, maximum likelihood and parsimony. In total, 56 terminal taxa are examined, including 48 taxa from all scale-worm families, and eight out-group species. The results indicate that Aphroditidae and Eulepethidae are the most basally placed families among the scale-worms. The Pholoididae and Pisionidae are positioned within and synonymized with the Sigalionidae, and Pholoidae may be part of the same group. The subfamily Iphioninae falls out as sister group to a clade consisting of Polynoidae and Acoetidae and is elevated to Iphionidae. The families now included in the Aphroditiformia are Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Pholoidae, Polynoidae, Iphionidae and Sigalionidae, and the subfamily name Harmothoinae and Acholoinae are treated as a junior synonyms of Polynoinae.

  3. Mitochondrial sequence variation suggests an African influence in Portuguese cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Cymbron, T; Loftus, R T; Malheiro, M I; Bradley, D G

    1999-01-01

    A total of 49 samples from indigenous Portuguese cattle breeds were analysed for sequence variation in the hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses revealed that haplotypes fell into two distinct groups. These corresponded with two separate haplotype clusters into which, respectively, all African, or alternatively all sequences of European origin, have previously been shown to fall. Here, the majority of sequences of African type were encountered in three southern, as compared to three northern breeds. This pattern of African influence may reflect an intercontinental admixture in the initial origins of Iberian breeds, or it is perhaps an introgression dating from the long and influential Moorish occupation of the south of the Iberian peninsula. PMID:10212450

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from a 7000-year old brain.

    PubMed Central

    Pääbo, S; Gifford, J A; Wilson, A C

    1988-01-01

    Pieces of mitochondrial DNA from a 7000-year-old human brain were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Albumin and high concentrations of polymerase were required to overcome a factor in the brain extract that inhibits amplification. For this and other sources of ancient DNA, we find an extreme inverse dependence of the amplification efficiency on the length of the sequence to be amplified. This property of ancient DNA distinguishes it from modern DNA and thus provides a new criterion of authenticity for use in research on ancient DNA. The brain is from an individual recently excavated from Little Salt Spring in southwestern Florida and the anthropologically informative sequences it yielded are the first obtained from archaeologically retrieved remains. The sequences show that this ancient individual belonged to a mitochondrial lineage that is rare in the Old World and not previously known to exist among Native Americans. Our finding brings to three the number of maternal lineages known to have been involved in the prehistoric colonization of the New World. Images PMID:3186445

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cheirotonus jansoni (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Shao, L L; Huang, D Y; Sun, X Y; Hao, J S; Cheng, C H; Zhang, W; Yang, Q

    2014-02-20

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Cheirotonus jansoni (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), an endangered insect species from Southeast Asia. This long legged scarab is widely collected and reared for sale, although it is rare and protected in the wild. The circular genome is 17,249 bp long and contains a typical gene complement: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 putative tRNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. As with all other sequenced coleopteran species, a 5-bp long TAGTA motif was detected in the intergenic space sequence located between trnS(UCN) and nad1. The atypical cox1 start codon is AAC, and the putative initiation codon for the atp8 gene appears to be GTC, instead of the frequently found ATN. By sequence comparison, the 2590-bp long non-coding AT-rich region is the second longest among the coleopterans, with two tandem repeat regions: one is 10 copies of an 88-bp sequence and the other is 2 copies of a 153-bp sequence. Additionally, the A+T content (64%) of the 13 protein-coding genes is the lowest among all sequenced coleopteran species. This newly sequenced genome aids in our understanding of the comparative biology of the mitogenomes of coleopteran species and supplies important data for the conservation of this species.

  6. Phylogeography of Tetrancistrum nebulosi (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) on the host of mottled spinefoot (Siganus fuscescens) in the South China Sea, inferred from mitochondrial COI and ND2 genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Yan, Shuai; Brown, Christopher L; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah; Shi, Su-Fen; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-11-01

    To examine the phylogeographical pattern of Tetrancistrum nebulosi (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) in the South China Sea, fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes were obtained for 220 individuals collected from 8 localities along the southeast coast of China and 1 locality in Terengganu, Malaysia. Based on these two genes, two and three distinct clades with geographic signals were revealed on the phylogenetic trees respectively. The divergence between these clades was estimated to occur in the late Pleistocene. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise FST suggested a high rate of gene flow among individuals sampled from the Chinese coast, but with obvious genetic differentiation from the Malaysian population. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated that the T. nebulosi population experienced expansion in Pleistocene low sea level periods. Vicariance was considered to account for the genetic divergence between Chinese and Malaysian populations, while sea level fluctuations and mainland-island connections during glacial cycles were associated with the slight genetic divergence between the populations along the mainland coast of China and those off Sanya. On the contrary, oceanographic circulations and host migration could lead to genetic homogeneity of populations distributed along the mainland coast of China.

  7. Comparison of mitochondrial genome sequences of pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for three species of pangolins, Manis javanica, Phataginus tricuspis, and Smutsia temminckii, and comparisons were made with two other species, Manis pentadactyla and Phataginus tetradactyla. The genome of Manidae contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome, and the structure of the control region is highly conserved among species. In Manis, the overall base composition differs from that found in African genera. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the genera Manis, Phataginus, and Smutsia, as well as the basal division between Maninae and Smutsiinae. Comparisons with GenBank sequences reveal that the reference genomes of M. pentadactyla and P. tetradactyla (accession numbers NC_016008 and NC_004027) were sequenced from misidentified taxa, and that a new species of tree pangolin should be described in Gabon.

  8. Haplogrouping mitochondrial DNA sequences in Legal Medicine/Forensic Genetics.

    PubMed

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; van Oven, Mannis; Salas, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Haplogrouping refers to the classification of (partial) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences into haplogroups using the current knowledge of the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny. Haplogroup assignment of mtDNA control-region sequences assists in the focused comparison with closely related complete mtDNA sequences and thus serves two main goals in forensic genetics: first is the a posteriori quality analysis of sequencing results and second is the prediction of relevant coding-region sites for confirmation or further refinement of haplogroup status. The latter may be important in forensic casework where discrimination power needs to be as high as possible. However, most articles published in forensic genetics perform haplogrouping only in a rudimentary or incorrect way. The present study features PhyloTree as the key tool for assigning control-region sequences to haplogroups and elaborates on additional Web-based searches for finding near-matches with complete mtDNA genomes in the databases. In contrast, none of the automated haplogrouping tools available can yet compete with manual haplogrouping using PhyloTree plus additional Web-based searches, especially when confronted with artificial recombinants still present in forensic mtDNA datasets. We review and classify the various attempts at haplogrouping by using a multiplex approach or relying on automated haplogrouping. Furthermore, we re-examine a few articles in forensic journals providing mtDNA population data where appropriate haplogrouping following PhyloTree immediately highlights several kinds of sequence errors.

  9. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Susanna; Renaud, Gabriel; Viola, Bence; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Prüfer, Kay; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Denisovans, a sister group of Neandertals, have been described on the basis of a nuclear genome sequence from a finger phalanx (Denisova 3) found in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains. The only other Denisovan specimen described to date is a molar (Denisova 4) found at the same site. This tooth carries a mtDNA sequence similar to that of Denisova 3. Here we present nuclear DNA sequences from Denisova 4 and a morphological description, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, from another molar (Denisova 8) found in Denisova Cave in 2010. This new molar is similar to Denisova 4 in being very large and lacking traits typical of Neandertals and modern humans. Nuclear DNA sequences from the two molars form a clade with Denisova 3. The mtDNA of Denisova 8 is more diverged and has accumulated fewer substitutions than the mtDNAs of the other two specimens, suggesting Denisovans were present in the region over an extended period. The nuclear DNA sequence diversity among the three Denisovans is comparable to that among six Neandertals, but lower than that among present-day humans. PMID:26630009

  10. Population genetic structure and molecular diversity of the red swamp crayfish in China based on mtDNA COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi

    2016-08-23

    Population genetic structure and molecular diversity are closely related to adaptability, potential and evolutionary of a species, which also reflects its population history. We analyzed the molecular variability and genetic structure among 24 populations of the red swamp crayfish in China based on the COI region. The COI of 687 bp aligned across 44 haplotypes, the average AT content (68.1%) was slightly higher than the AT content (31.9%). AMOVA indicated that a high proportion of the total genetic variance was attributable to variations within populations (87.57%), whereas only 12.43% occurred among populations. The Fst values were between 0.016 and 0.585, and the Nm values were between 0.178 and 15.182 in each population. All of the AMOVA, Fst statistics and Nm values suggested low genetic differentiation, but a high level genetic diversity existed in Chinese populations of Procambarus clarkii. The phylogenetic trees showed that some geographical populations were irregularly distributed according to the river systems while others were matched well, suggesting that genetic differentiation is created largely by geographic isolation.

  11. Patterns of Protein Evolution in Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COI) from the Class Arachnida

    PubMed Central

    Young, Monica R; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Because sequence information is now available for the 648bp barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) from more than 400,000 animal species, this gene segment can be used to probe patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The present study examines levels of amino acid substitution and the frequency of indels in COI from 4177 species of arachnids, including representatives from all 16 orders and 43% of its families (267/625). It examines divergences at three taxonomic levels—among members of each order to an outgroup, among families in each order and among BINs, a species proxy, in each family. Order Distances vary fourfold (0.10–0.39), while the mean of the Family Distances for the ten orders ranges fivefold (0.07–0.35). BIN Distances show great variation, ranging from 0.01 or less in 12 families to more than 0.25 in eight families. Patterns of amino acid substitution in COI are generally congruent with previously reported variation in nucleotide substitution rates in arachnids, but provide some new insights, such as clear rate acceleration in the Opiliones. By revealing a strong association between elevated rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, this study builds evidence for the selective importance of the rate variation among arachnid lineages. Moreover, it establishes that groups whose COI genes have elevated levels of amino acid substitution also regularly possess indels, a dramatic form of protein reconfiguration. Overall, this study suggests that the mitochondrial genome of some arachnid groups is dynamic with high rates of amino acid substitution and frequent indels, while it is ‘locked down’ in others. Dynamic genomes are most prevalent in arachnids with short generation times, but the possible impact of breeding system deserves investigation since many of the rapidly evolving lineages reproduce by haplodiploidy, a mode of reproduction absent in ‘locked down’ taxa. PMID:26308206

  12. A complete Neandertal mitochondrial genome sequence determined by high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Green, Richard E.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Krause, Johannes; Briggs, Adrian W.; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Uhler, Caroline; Meyer, Matthias; Good, Jeffrey M.; Maricic, Tomislav; Stenzel, Udo; Prüfer, Kay; Siebauer, Michael; Burbano, Hernán A.; Ronan, Michael; Rothberg, Jonathan M.; Egholm, Michael; Rudan, Pavao; Brajković, Dejana; Kućan, Željko; Gušić, Ivan; Wikström, Mårten; Laakkonen, Liisa; Kelso, Janet; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante

    2008-01-01

    Summary A complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence was reconstructed from a 38,000-year-old Neandertal individual using 8,341 mtDNA sequences identified among 4.8 Gb of DNA generated from ~0.3 grams of bone. Analysis of the assembled sequence unequivocally establishes that the Neandertal mtDNA falls outside the variation of extant human mtDNAs and allows an estimate of the divergence date between the two mtDNA lineages of 660,000±140,000 years. Of the 13 proteins encoded in the mtDNA, subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain has experienced the largest number of amino acid substitutions in human ancestors since the separation from Neandertals. There is evidence that purifying selection in the Neandertal mtDNA was reduced compared to other primate lineages suggesting that the effective population size of Neandertals was small. PMID:18692465

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Coreoperca whiteheadi (Perciformes: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Lv, Liyuan; Tian, Changxu; Liang, Xufang; Yuan, Yongchao; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Coreoperca whiteheadi was determined. The complete mtDNA genome sequence of C. whiteheadi is 16,483 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. Overall base composition of mitogenome is estimated to be 28.30% for A, 29.33% for C, 16.06% for G and 26.32% for T, respectively, with a high A + T content (54.62%). The complete mitogenome of the C. whiteheadi could contribute to basic researches on population history, molecular systematics and phylogeography. It is also helpful to the reasonable utilization and development of rational management strategies for C. whiteheadi resource.

  14. Male biased gene flow in banana pseudostem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliver) as revealed by analysis of the COI-tRNA(Leu) COII region.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Vishvas M; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2015-02-01

    The genetic diversity amongst thirty weevils representing six Indian populations of banana pseudostem weevil, i.e., Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) was estimated by sequence analysis of the partial COI-tRNA(Leu)-COII region. The sequences exhibited AT bias typical of insect mitochondrial DNA which was highest in the first codon position of COI and in the third codon position of COII. There was no phylogeographic distribution of the populations. The Fu and Li's D and F tests were non-significant for this mitochondrial region. No Wolbachia infection was detected in any of the populations. The genetic differentiation amongst the populations was highly significant (p < 0.001; χ2 = 123.333; df = 75), suggesting restricted gene flow between the populations. This result did not correlate with that obtained with nuclear rDNA markers, i.e., ITS1 and ITS2, suggesting a male biased gene flow between the populations.

  15. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Folmer, O; Black, M; Hoeh, W; Lutz, R; Vrijenhoek, R

    1994-10-01

    We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.

  16. Population histories of right whales (Cetacea: Eubalaena) inferred from mitochondrial sequence diversities and divergences of their whale lice (Amphipoda: Cyamus).

    PubMed

    Kaliszewska, Zofia A; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Barco, Susan G; Benegas, Rafael; Best, Peter B; Brown, Moira W; Brownell, Robert L; Carribero, Alejandro; Harcourt, Robert; Knowlton, Amy R; Marshall-Tilas, Kim; Patenaude, Nathalie J; Rivarola, Mariana; Schaeff, Catherine M; Sironi, Mariano; Smith, Wendy A; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2005-10-01

    Right whales carry large populations of three 'whale lice' (Cyamus ovalis, Cyamus gracilis, Cyamus erraticus) that have no other hosts. We used sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI gene to ask (i) whether cyamid population structures might reveal associations among right whale individuals and subpopulations, (ii) whether the divergences of the three nominally conspecific cyamid species on North Atlantic, North Pacific, and southern right whales (Eubalaena glacialis, Eubalaena japonica, Eubalaena australis) might indicate their times of separation, and (iii) whether the shapes of cyamid gene trees might contain information about changes in the population sizes of right whales. We found high levels of nucleotide diversity but almost no population structure within oceans, indicating large effective population sizes and high rates of transfer between whales and subpopulations. North Atlantic and Southern Ocean populations of all three species are reciprocally monophyletic, and North Pacific C. erraticus is well separated from North Atlantic and southern C. erraticus. Mitochondrial clock calibrations suggest that these divergences occurred around 6 million years ago (Ma), and that the Eubalaena mitochondrial clock is very slow. North Pacific C. ovalis forms a clade inside the southern C. ovalis gene tree, implying that at least one right whale has crossed the equator in the Pacific Ocean within the last 1-2 million years (Myr). Low-frequency polymorphisms are more common than expected under neutrality for populations of constant size, but there is no obvious signal of rapid, interspecifically congruent expansion of the kind that would be expected if North Atlantic or southern right whales had experienced a prolonged population bottleneck within the last 0.5 Myr.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of five squamates: phylogenetic affiliation of snakes.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2004-04-30

    Complete or nearly complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were determined from four lizards (Western fence lizard, Warren's spinytail lizard, Terrestrial arboreal alligator lizard, and Chinese crocodile lizard) and a snake (Texas blind snake). These genomes had a typical gene organization found in those of most mammals and fishes, except for a translocation of the glutamine tRNA gene in the blind snake and a tandem duplication of the threonine and proline tRNA genes in the spinytail lizard. Although previous work showed the existence of duplicate control regions in mitochondrial DNAs of several snakes, the blind snake did not have this characteristic. Phylogenetic analyses based on different tree-building methods consistently supported that the blind snake and a colubrid snake (akamata) make a sister clade relative to all the lizard taxa from six different families. An alternative hypothesis that snakes evolved from a lineage of varanoids was not favored and nearly statistically rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. It is therefore likely that the apparent similarity of the tongue structure between snakes and varanoids independently evolved and that the duplication of the control region occurred on a snake lineage after divergence of the blind snake.

  18. Identification of Sequences Encoding Symbiodinium minutum Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Erin R.; Howe, Christopher J.; Nisbet, R. Ellen R.

    2016-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are an extremely diverse group of algae closely related to the Apicomplexa and the ciliates. Much work has previously been undertaken to determine the presence of various biochemical pathways within dinoflagellate mitochondria. However, these studies were unable to identify several key transcripts including those encoding proteins involved in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, iron–sulfur cluster biosynthesis, and protein import. Here, we analyze the draft nuclear genome of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum, as well as RNAseq data to identify nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. The results confirm the presence of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle in the dinoflagellates. Results also demonstrate the difficulties in using the genome sequence for the identification of genes due to the large number of introns, but show that it is highly useful for the determination of gene duplication events. PMID:26798115

  19. Identification of Sequences Encoding Symbiodinium minutum Mitochondrial Proteins.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Erin R; Howe, Christopher J; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2016-01-21

    The dinoflagellates are an extremely diverse group of algae closely related to the Apicomplexa and the ciliates. Much work has previously been undertaken to determine the presence of various biochemical pathways within dinoflagellate mitochondria. However, these studies were unable to identify several key transcripts including those encoding proteins involved in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, and protein import. Here, we analyze the draft nuclear genome of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum, as well as RNAseq data to identify nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. The results confirm the presence of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle in the dinoflagellates. Results also demonstrate the difficulties in using the genome sequence for the identification of genes due to the large number of introns, but show that it is highly useful for the determination of gene duplication events.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    PubMed

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the liverwort Pleurozia purpurea reveals extremely conservative mitochondrial genome evolution in liverworts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Xue, Jiayu; Li, Libo; Liu, Yang; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes have been known to be highly unusual in their large sizes, frequent intra-genomic rearrangement, and generally conservative sequence evolution. Recent studies show that in early land plants the mitochondrial genomes exhibit a mixed mode of conservative yet dynamic evolution. Here, we report the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome from the liverwort Pleurozia purpurea. The circular genome has a size of 168,526 base pairs, containing 43 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, 25 tRNA genes, and 31 group I or II introns. It differs from the Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial genome, the only other liverwort chondriome that has been sequenced, in lacking two genes (trnRucg and trnTggu) and one intron (rrn18i1065gII). The two genomes have identical gene orders and highly similar sequences in exons, introns, and intergenic spacers. Finally, a comparative analysis of duplicated trnRucu and other trnR genes from the two liverworts and several other organisms identified the recent lateral origin of trnRucg in Marchantia mtDNA through modification of a duplicated trnRucu. This study shows that the mitochondrial genomes evolve extremely slowly in liverworts, the earliest-diverging lineage of extant land plants, in stark contrast to what is known of highly dynamic evolution of mitochondrial genomes in seed plants.

  2. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Four Strains of the Bloom-Forming Raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Nakayama, Natsuko; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of four strains of bloom-forming raphidophytes from Heterosigma akashiwo. These 39-kb sequences contain 42 protein-, two rRNA-, and 26 tRNA-coding sequences. Notable sequence variations were observed among these four newly sequenced and three previously characterized strains, suggesting their potential usage as strain-specific markers. PMID:27932641

  3. Identification of two homologous mitochondrial DNA sequences, which bind strongly and specifically to a mitochondrial protein of Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, M; Mustich, A; Gadaleta, M N; Cantatore, P

    1991-01-01

    Using a combination of band shift and DNasel protection experiments, two Paracentrotus lividus mitochondrial sequences, able to bind tightly and selectively to a mitochondrial protein from sea urchin embryos, have been found. The two sequences, which compete with each other for binding to the protein, are located in two genome regions which are thought to contain regulatory signals for mitochondrial replication and transcription. A computer analysis suggests that the sequence TTTTRTANNTCYYATCAYA, common to the two binding regions, is the minimal recognition signal for the binding to the protein. We discuss the hypothesis that the protein binding capacity of these two sequences is involved in the control of sea urchin mtDNA replication during developmental stages. Images PMID:1956785

  4. A 454 sequencing approach to dipteran mitochondrial genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of complete mitochondrial genome data for Diptera, one of the largest Metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. Herein, we generated the complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipa...

  5. Seafood Identification in Multispecies Products: Assessment of 16SrRNA, cytb, and COI Universal Primers' Efficiency as a Preliminary Analytical Step for Setting up Metabarcoding Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Alice; Tinacci, Lara; Sotelo, Carmen G; Marchetti, Martina; Guidi, Alessandra; Zheng, Wenjie; Armani, Andrea

    2017-04-05

    Few studies applying NGS have been conducted in the food inspection field, particularly on multispecies seafood products. A preliminary study screening the performance and the potential application in NGS analysis of 14 "universal primers" amplifying 16SrRNA, cytb, and COI genes in fish and cephalopods was performed. Species used in surimi preparation were chosen as target. An in silico analysis was conducted to test primers' coverage capacity by assessing mismatches (number and position) with the target sequences. The 9 pairs showing the best coverage capacity were tested in PCR on DNA samples of 53 collected species to assess their amplification performance (amplification rate and amplicon concentration). The results confirm that primers designed for the 16SrRNA gene amplification are the most suitable for NGS analysis also for identification of multispecies seafood products. In particular, the primer pair of Chapela et al. (2002) is the best candidate.

  6. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Divergence among Lycopersicon and Related Solanum Species

    PubMed Central

    McClean, Phillip E.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1986-01-01

    Sequence divergence among the mitochondrial (mt) DNA of nine Lycopersicon and two closely related Solanum species was estimated using the shared fragment method. A portion of each mt genome was highlighted by probing total DNA with a series of plasmid clones containing mt-specific DNA fragments from Lycopersicon pennellii. A total of 660 fragments were compared. As calculated by the shared fragment method, sequence divergence among the mtDNAs ranged from 0.4% for the L. esculentum-L. esculentum var. cerasiforme pair to 2.7% for the Solanum rickii-L. pimpinellifolium and L. cheesmanii-L. chilense pairs. The mtDNA divergence is higher than that reported for Lycopersicon chloroplast (cp) DNA, which indicates that the DNAs of the two plant organelles are evolving at different rates. The percentages of shared fragments were used to construct a phenogram that illustrates the present-day relationships of the mtDNAs. The mtDNA-derived phenogram places L. hirsutum closer to L. esculentum than taxonomic and cpDNA comparisons. Further, the recent assignment of L. pennellii to the genus Lycopersicon is supported by the mtDNA analysis. PMID:17246320

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of COI1 gene (AsCOI1) from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Jianhe; Xu, Yanhong; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Aquilaria sinensis, a kind of typically wounding-induced medicinal plant with a great economical value, is widely used in the production of traditional Chinese medicine, perfume and incense. Coronatine-insensitive protein 1 (COI1) acts as a receptor in jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway, and regulates the expression of JA-responsive genes in plant defense. However, little is known about the COI1 gene in A. sinensis. Here, based on the transcriptome data, a full-length cDNA sequence of COI1 (termed as AsCOI1) was firstly cloned by RT-PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategies. AsCOI1 is 2330 bp in length (GenBank accession No. KM189194), and contains a complete open frame (ORF) of 1839 bp. The deduced protein was composed of 612 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 68.93 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.56, and was predicted to possess F-box and LRRs domains. Combining bioinformatics prediction with subcellular localization experiment analysis, AsCOI1 was appeared to locate in nucleus. AsCOI1 gene was highly expressed in roots and stems, the major organs of agarwood formation. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), mechanical wounding and heat stress could significantly induce the expression level of AsCOI1 gene. AsCOI1 is an early wound-responsive gene, and it likely plays some role in agarwood formation.

  9. Cloning, expression and characterization of COI1 gene (AsCOI1) from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Jianhe; Xu, Yanhong; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Aquilaria sinensis, a kind of typically wounding-induced medicinal plant with a great economical value, is widely used in the production of traditional Chinese medicine, perfume and incense. Coronatine-insensitive protein 1 (COI1) acts as a receptor in jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway, and regulates the expression of JA-responsive genes in plant defense. However, little is known about the COI1 gene in A. sinensis. Here, based on the transcriptome data, a full-length cDNA sequence of COI1 (termed as AsCOI1) was firstly cloned by RT–PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategies. AsCOI1 is 2330 bp in length (GenBank accession No. KM189194), and contains a complete open frame (ORF) of 1839 bp. The deduced protein was composed of 612 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 68.93 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.56, and was predicted to possess F-box and LRRs domains. Combining bioinformatics prediction with subcellular localization experiment analysis, AsCOI1 was appeared to locate in nucleus. AsCOI1 gene was highly expressed in roots and stems, the major organs of agarwood formation. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), mechanical wounding and heat stress could significantly induce the expression level of AsCOI1 gene. AsCOI1 is an early wound-responsive gene, and it likely plays some role in agarwood formation. PMID:26579478

  10. Why barcode? High-throughput multiplex sequencing of mitochondrial genomes for molecular systematics

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, M. J. T. N.; Dodsworth, S.; Culverwell, C. L.; Bocak, L.; Ahrens, D.; Littlewood, D. T. J.; Pons, J.; Vogler, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome sequences are important markers for phylogenetics but taxon sampling remains sporadic because of the great effort and cost required to acquire full-length sequences. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cost-effective way to sequence the full complement of protein coding mitochondrial genes from pooled samples using the 454/Roche platform. Multiplexing was achieved without the need for expensive indexing tags (‘barcodes’). The method was trialled with a set of long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from 30 species of Coleoptera (beetles) sequenced in a 1/16th sector of a sequencing plate. Long contigs were produced from the pooled sequences with sequencing depths ranging from ∼10 to 100× per contig. Species identity of individual contigs was established via three ‘bait’ sequences matching disparate parts of the mitochondrial genome obtained by conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing. This proved that assembly of contigs from the sequencing pool was correct. Our study produced sequences for 21 nearly complete and seven partial sets of protein coding mitochondrial genes. Combined with existing sequences for 25 taxa, an improved estimate of basal relationships in Coleoptera was obtained. The procedure could be employed routinely for mitochondrial genome sequencing at the species level, to provide improved species ‘barcodes’ that currently use the cox1 gene only. PMID:20876691

  11. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial DNA genome of Channa asiatica (Perciformes: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Channa asiatica mitochondrial (mtDNA) genome was determined in this study. The genome sequence (GenBank accession number KJ930190) was 16,550 base pairs in length, and the gene content and organization on the mitochondrial genome were similar to the other Channa fishes. The overall base composition of C. asiatica mitogenome is 29.4% A, 26.3% T, 15.3% G, 29.0% C, with a high A + T content of 55.7%. The mitochondrial sequence could provide useful genetic information for studying the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  12. Next-generation sequencing reveals DGUOK mutations in adult patients with mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions

    PubMed Central

    Garone, Caterina; Bordoni, Andreina; Gutierrez Rios, Purificacion; Calvo, Sarah E.; Ripolone, Michela; Ranieri, Michela; Rizzuti, Mafalda; Villa, Luisa; Magri, Francesca; Corti, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Moggio, Maurizio; DiMauro, Salvatore; Comi, Giacomo P.; Sciacco, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders still remains elusive in a large proportion of patients, but advances in next generation sequencing are significantly improving our chances to detect mutations even in sporadic patients. Syndromes associated with mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions are caused by different molecular defects resulting in a wide spectrum of predominantly adult-onset clinical presentations, ranging from progressive external ophthalmoplegia to multi-systemic disorders of variable severity. The mutations underlying these conditions remain undisclosed in half of the affected subjects. We applied next-generation sequencing of known mitochondrial targets (MitoExome) to probands presenting with adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy and harbouring mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions in skeletal muscle. We identified autosomal recessive mutations in the DGUOK gene (encoding mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase), which has previously been associated with an infantile hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA depletion. Mutations in DGUOK occurred in five independent subjects, representing 5.6% of our cohort of patients with mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions, and impaired both muscle DGUOK activity and protein stability. Clinical presentations were variable, including mitochondrial myopathy with or without progressive external ophthalmoplegia, recurrent rhabdomyolysis in a young female who had received a liver transplant at 9 months of age and adult-onset lower motor neuron syndrome with mild cognitive impairment. These findings reinforce the concept that mutations in genes involved in deoxyribonucleotide metabolism can cause diverse clinical phenotypes and suggest that DGUOK should be screened in patients harbouring mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. PMID:23043144

  13. Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Norman, Janette; Robertson, James; Sarre, Stephen; Georges, Arthur

    2010-09-01

    Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all living species on Earth, with the data generated being uploaded to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) which can then be used for species identification. The COI gene therefore offers forensics scientists an opportunity to use the marker to analyze unknown samples and compare sequences generated in BOLD. Once sequences from enough species are on the database, it is anticipated that routine identification of an unknown species may be possible. However, most forensic laboratories are not yet suited to this type of analysis and do not have the expertise to fully interpret the implications of matches and non matches involving a poorly sampled taxa (for example where there are cryptic species) and in providing the required opinion evidence. Currently, the use of BOLD is limited by the number of relevant species held in the database and the quality assurance and regulation of sequences that are there. In this paper, the COI methodology and BOLD are tested on a selection of introduced and Australian mammals in a forensic environment as the first step necessary in the implementation of this approach in the Australian context. Our data indicates that the COI methodology performs well on distinct species but needs further exploration when identifying more closely related species. It is evident from our study that changes will be required to implement DNA based wildlife forensics using the BOLD approach for forensic applications and recommendations are made for the future adoption of this technology into forensic laboratories.

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Spider Mite Sub-Family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Based on the Mitochondrial COI Gene and the 18S and the 5′ End of the 28S rRNA Genes Indicates That Several Genera Are Polyphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tomoko; Morishita, Maiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825–1,901 bp) and 28S (the 5′ end of 646–743 bp) rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp). As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus) appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered. PMID:25289639

  15. Aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss is associated with the G7444A mutation in the mitochondrial COI/tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} genes in two Chinese families

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Yi; Liao Zhisu; Li Zhiyuan; Chen Jianfu; Qian Yaping; Tang Xiaowen; Wang Jindan; Yang Li; Li Ronghua; Ji Jinzhang; Choo, Daniel I. |; Lu Jianxin . E-mail: jx@mail.wz.zj.cn; Guan Minxin |||. E-mail: min-xin.guan@chmcc.org

    2006-04-14

    We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of two Chinese families with aminoglycoside induced and non-syndromic hearing impairment. Clinical and genetic evaluations revealed the variable severity and age-of-onset in hearing impairment in these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of hearing impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphism, in addition to the identical G7444A mutation associated with hearing loss. Indeed, the G7444A mutation in the CO1 gene and the precursor of tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} gene is present in homoplasmy only in the maternal lineage of those pedigrees but not other members of these families and 164 Chinese controls. Their mitochondrial genomes belong to the Eastern Asian haplogroups C5a and D4a, respectively. In fact, the occurrence of the G7444A mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by hearing impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of hearing impairment. However, there was the absence of other functionally significant mtDNA mutations in two Chinese pedigrees carrying the G7444A mutation. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or aminoglycoside(s) may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the deafness-associated G7444A mutation in these Chinese pedigrees.

  16. The History of Slavs Inferred from Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mielnik-Sikorska, Marta; Daca, Patrycja; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Perkova, Maria; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    To shed more light on the processes leading to crystallization of a Slavic identity, we investigated variability of complete mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups H5 and H6 (63 mtDNA genomes) from the populations of Eastern and Western Slavs, including new samples of Poles, Ukrainians and Czechs presented here. Molecular dating implies formation of H5 approximately 11.5–16 thousand years ago (kya) in the areas of southern Europe. Within ancient haplogroup H6, dated at around 15–28 kya, there is a subhaplogroup H6c, which probably survived the last glaciation in Europe and has undergone expansion only 3–4 kya, together with the ancestors of some European groups, including the Slavs, because H6c has been detected in Czechs, Poles and Slovaks. Detailed analysis of complete mtDNAs allowed us to identify a number of lineages that seem specific for Central and Eastern Europe (H5a1f, H5a2, H5a1r, H5a1s, H5b4, H5e1a, H5u1, some subbranches of H5a1a and H6a1a9). Some of them could possibly be traced back to at least ∼4 kya, which indicates that some of the ancestors of today's Slavs (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ukrainians and Russians) inhabited areas of Central and Eastern Europe much earlier than it was estimated on the basis of archaeological and historical data. We also sequenced entire mitochondrial genomes of several non-European lineages (A, C, D, G, L) found in contemporary populations of Poland and Ukraine. The analysis of these haplogroups confirms the presence of Siberian (C5c1, A8a1) and Ashkenazi-specific (L2a1l2a) mtDNA lineages in Slavic populations. Moreover, we were able to pinpoint some lineages which could possibly reflect the relatively recent contacts of Slavs with nomadic Altaic peoples (C4a1a, G2a, D5a2a1a1). PMID:23342138

  17. COI barcodes and phylogeny of doves (Columbidae family).

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Arif, Ibrahim Abdulwahid

    2013-12-01

    Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene has been recognized as an authentic tool for species identification. Besides its potential barcoding capacity, COI sequences have also been used for inferring the phylogeny. Phylogenetic relationships among genera of Columbidae (pigeons and doves family) have not been fully resolved because of scarce sampling of taxa and limited availability of sequence data. In this study, we have evaluated the efficiency of COI barcodes for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of various doves. We sequenced the 693 bp region of COI gene of three species of doves including Oena capensis, Streptopelia decaocto, and Streptopelia senegalensis. After retrieving the relevant sequences from the GenBank, the entire data-set of 85 sequences represented 25 dove species from 11 different genera of the family Columbidae. The COI sequences of four species including Chalcophaps indica (two specimens), Columbina inca (five specimens), Geopelia striata (three specimens), and Macropygia phasianella (three specimens) were identical. The mean intraspecific base differences ranged from 0 to 37 while the P-distances ranged between 0 and 0.058. For most of the species, the P-distances were ≤ 0.008. Phylogenetic analysis differentiated the taxa into three major clusters. One of the clusters grouped five genera including Claravis, Columbina, Gallicolumba, Geopelia, and Geotrygon. The remaining two clusters grouped three genera each including Chalcophaps, Oena, and Turtur in one cluster and Macropygia, Streptopelia, and Zenaida in another cluster. Further sub-clustering clearly separated all the genera into individual clusters except two discrepancies for the genera Streptopelia and Turtur. Species-level cladistics clearly separated all the species into distinctive clades. In conclusion, COI barcoding is a powerful tool for species identification with added information on phylogenetic inference. The finding of this study will help to understand the

  18. Phylogenetic divisions among Collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) detected using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Jaime; Morales, Socorro; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Moran, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is one of the three extant recognised species of the family Tayassuidae, living in the Americas. To understand phylogenetic relationships among Collared peccaries, the entire mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b as well as partial nuclear GPIP and PRE-1 P27, PRE-1 P642 and TYR sequences from specimens from Colombia, Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, United States and Australian zoo animals of unknown origin were analysed. Separate and combined analyses of the mitochondrial sequences provided good resolution of Collared peccary relationships. Nuclear sequences were partially informative when combined sequence analyses were performed. Maximum Likelihood analyses of mitochondrial sequences showed that Collared peccaries clustered in two major clades, representing North-Central American and South American specimens. Collared peccaries from Colombia are paraphyletic. Statistical Parsimony analysis of combined nuclear sequences showed a distribution of DNA variants consistent with mitochondrial sequence analyses. However, there is an uncoupling of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence variation in two specimens from Colombia. The present study suggests the recent contact of isolated populations within Colombia and possible mitochondrial introgression between the North/Central clade and the South clade. Pairwise genetic distances comparison of mitochondrial sequences show that divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was higher and comparable respectively with that within and between the other two recognised peccary species. Divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was also higher than that observed within and even between recognised species of the Suidae family. The divergence within the major clades of the Collared peccary showed comparable values with those observed within the other two species of Tayassuidae and within six species of Suidae. The results show that the geographically

  19. Evidence of a Native Northwest Atlantic COI Haplotype Clade in the Cryptogenic Colonial Ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    PubMed

    Yund, Philip O; Collins, Catherine; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-06-01

    The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri should be considered cryptogenic (i.e., not definitively classified as either native or introduced) in the Northwest Atlantic. Although all the evidence is quite circumstantial, over the last 15 years most research groups have accepted the scenario of human-mediated dispersal and classified B. schlosseri as introduced; others have continued to consider it native or cryptogenic. We address the invasion status of this species by adding 174 sequences to the growing worldwide database for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and analyzing 1077 sequences to compare genetic diversity of one clade of haplotypes in the Northwest Atlantic with two hypothesized source regions (the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean). Our results lead us to reject the prevailing view of the directionality of transport across the Atlantic. We argue that the genetic diversity patterns at COI are far more consistent with the existence of at least one haplotype clade in the Northwest Atlantic (and possibly a second) that substantially pre-dates human colonization from Europe, with this native North American clade subsequently introduced to three sites in Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. However, we agree with past researchers that some sites in the Northwest Atlantic have more recently been invaded by alien haplotypes, so that some populations are currently composed of a mixture of native and invader haplotypes.

  20. Linear Plasmids and the Rate of Sequence Evolution in Plant Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jessica M.; Simmons, Mark P.; Wu, Zhiqiang; Sloan, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants experience frequent insertions of foreign sequences, including linear plasmids that also exist in standalone forms within mitochondria, but the history and phylogenetic distribution of plasmid insertions is not well known. Taking advantage of the increased availability of plant mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these plasmids and plasmid-derived insertions. Mitochondrial genomes from multiple land plant lineages (including liverworts, lycophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms) include fragmented remnants from ancient plasmid insertions. Such insertions are much more recent and widespread in angiosperms, in which approximately 75% of sequenced mitochondrial genomes contain identifiable plasmid insertions. Although conflicts between plasmid and angiosperm phylogenies provide clear evidence of repeated horizontal transfers, we were still able to detect significant phylogenetic concordance, indicating that mitochondrial plasmids have also experienced sustained periods of (effectively) vertical transmission in angiosperms. The observed levels of sequence divergence in plasmid-derived genes suggest that nucleotide substitution rates in these plasmids, which often encode their own viral-like DNA polymerases, are orders of magnitude higher than in mitochondrial chromosomes. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the periodic incorporation of mitochondrial genes into plasmids contributes to the remarkable heterogeneity in substitution rates among genes that has recently been discovered in some angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. In support of this hypothesis, we show that the recently acquired ψtrnP-trnW gene region in a maize linear plasmid is evolving significantly faster than homologous sequences that have been retained in the mitochondrial chromosome in closely related grasses. PMID:26759362

  1. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans

    PubMed Central

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-01-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. PMID:26199191

  2. Entire Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing on Massively Parallel Sequencing for the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome analysis has been a potent tool in forensic practice as well as in the understanding of human phylogeny in the maternal lineage. The traditional mtDNA analysis is focused on the control region, but the introduction of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) has made the typing of the entire mtDNA genome (mtGenome) more accessible for routine analysis. The complete mtDNA information can provide large amounts of novel genetic data for diverse populations as well as improved discrimination power for identification. The genetic diversity of the mtDNA sequence in different ethnic populations has been revealed through MPS analysis, but the Korean population not only has limited MPS data for the entire mtGenome, the existing data is mainly focused on the control region. In this study, the complete mtGenome data for 186 Koreans, obtained using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) technology and retrieved from rather common mtDNA haplogroups based on the control region sequence, are described. The results showed that 24 haplogroups, determined with hypervariable regions only, branched into 47 subhaplogroups, and point heteroplasmy was more frequent in the coding regions. In addition, sequence variations in the coding regions observed in this study were compared with those presented in other reports on different populations, and there were similar features observed in the sequence variants for the predominant haplogroups among East Asian populations, such as Haplogroup D and macrohaplogroups M9, G, and D. This study is expected to be the trigger for the development of Korean specific mtGenome data followed by numerous future studies. PMID:28244283

  3. Novel genetic diversity within Anopheles punctimacula s.l.: phylogenetic discrepancy between the Barcode cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Jose R; Scott, Marilyn E; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Rovira, Jose R; Dutari, Larissa C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bickersmith, Sara; Conn, Jan E

    2013-10-01

    Anopheles punctimacula s.l. is a regional malaria vector in parts of Central America, but its role in transmission is controversial due to its unresolved taxonomic status. Two cryptic species, An. malefactor and An. calderoni, have been previously confused with this taxon, and evidence for further genetic differentiation has been proposed. In the present study we collected and morphologically identified adult female mosquitoes of An. punctimacula s.l. from 10 localities across Panama and one in Costa Rica. DNA sequences from three molecular regions, the three prime end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (3' COI), the Barcode region in the five prime end of the COI (5' COI), and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were used to test the hypothesis of new molecular lineages within An. punctimacula s.l. Phylogenetic analyses using the 3' COI depicted six highly supported molecular lineages (A-F), none of which was An. malefactor. In contrast, phylogenetic inference with the 5' COI demonstrated paraphyly. Tree topologies based on the combined COI regions and ITS2 sequence data supported the same six lineages as the 3' COI alone. As a whole this evidence suggests that An. punctimacula s.l. comprises two geographically isolated lineages, but it is not clear whether these are true species. The phylogenetic structure of the An. punctimacula cluster as well as that of other unknown lineages (C type I vs C type II; D vs E) appears to be driven by geographic partition, because members of these assemblages did not overlap spatially. We report An. malefactor for the first time in Costa Rica, but our data do not support the presence of An. calderoni in Panama.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Pampus chinensis (Perciformes: Stromateidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Dandan; Cheng, Qiqun; Qiao, Huiying; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Pampus chinensis (Perciformes: Stromateidae) was determined. The mitogenome is 16,535 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The overall mtDNA nucleotide base composition of P. chinensis is A 29.72%, C 28.10%, G 15.34%, and T 26.84%, with an A + T content of 56.56%. Except for ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The mitochondrial genome of P. chinensis may be helpful to the studies on stock evaluation and conservation genetics of P. chinensis resource, as well as molecular phylogeny of Stromateidae.

  5. The past, present and future of mitochondrial genomics: have we sequenced enough mtDNAs?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The year 2014 saw more than a thousand new mitochondrial genome sequences deposited in GenBank—an almost 15% increase from the previous year. Hundreds of peer-reviewed articles accompanied these genomes, making mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) the most sequenced and reported type of eukaryotic chromosome. These mtDNA data have advanced a wide range of scientific fields, from forensics to anthropology to medicine to molecular evolution. But for many biological lineages, mtDNAs are so well sampled that newly published genomes are arguably no longer contributing significantly to the progression of science, and in some cases they are tying up valuable resources, particularly journal editors and referees. Is it time to acknowledge that as a research community we have published enough mitochondrial genome papers? Here, I address this question, exploring the history, milestones and impacts of mitochondrial genomics, the benefits and drawbacks of continuing to publish mtDNAs at a high rate and what the future may hold for such an important and popular genetic marker. I highlight groups for which mtDNAs are still poorly sampled, thus meriting further investigation, and recommend that more energy be spent characterizing aspects of mitochondrial genomes apart from the DNA sequence, such as their chromosomal and transcriptional architectures. Ultimately, one should be mindful before writing a mitochondrial genome paper. Consider perhaps sending the sequence directly to GenBank instead, and be sure to annotate it correctly before submission. PMID:26117139

  6. The complete nucleotide sequence of white Amur bream (Parabramis pekinensis) mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiujie; Song, Wen; Wang, Yizhou; Du, Rui; Wang, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    White Amur bream, Parabramis pekinensis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), a freshwater cyprinid fish, is an important economic fish in several countries, especially in China. The complete sequence of P. pekinensis mitochondrial genome has been determined. The genome is 16,622 bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and the noncoding control region, with the genomic organization being identical to that of typical vertebrates. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1 to CSB3) were identified in the control region. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is useful for phylogenetic analysis and studies of population genetics of P. pekinensis.

  7. Complete genome sequence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Costelli, Cristina; Malavasi, Veronica; Cusano, Roberto; Concas, Alessandro; Angius, Andrea; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of the Chlorella sorokiniana strain (SAG 111-8 k) is presented in this work. Within the Chlorella genus, it represents the second species with a complete sequenced and annotated mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession no. KM241869). The genome consists of circular chromosomes of 52,528 bp and encodes a total of 31 protein coding genes, 3 rRNAs and 26 tRNAs. The overall AT contents of the C. sorokiniana mtDNA is 70.89%, while the coding sequence is of 97.4%.

  8. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered fish (Bahaba taipingensis): Mitogenome characterization and phylogenetic implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To understand the systematic status of Bahaba taipingensis within Sciaenidae, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Chinese bahaba has recently been determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16500 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) as well as a control region (CR) as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the extended termination associated sequence domain (ETAS), the central conserved sequence block domain (CSB-D, SCB-E and CSB-F) and the conserved sequence block domain (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bahaba taipingensis is more closely related to Pseudosciaeniae than Argyrosominae and Sciaeninae. Additionally, Bahaba taipingensis is the sister taxon of Miichthys miiuy, and those two are sister to Collichthys plus Larimichthys. PMID:26798311

  9. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered fish (Bahaba taipingensis): Mitogenome characterization and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    To understand the systematic status of Bahaba taipingensis within Sciaenidae, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Chinese bahaba has recently been determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16500 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) as well as a control region (CR) as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the extended termination associated sequence domain (ETAS), the central conserved sequence block domain (CSB-D, SCB-E and CSB-F) and the conserved sequence block domain (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bahaba taipingensis is more closely related to Pseudosciaeniae than Argyrosominae and Sciaeninae. Additionally, Bahaba taipingensis is the sister taxon of Miichthys miiuy, and those two are sister to Collichthys plus Larimichthys.

  10. A Cost-Effective Approach to Sequence Hundreds of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2016-01-01

    We present a cost-effective approach to sequence whole mitochondrial genomes for hundreds of individuals. Our approach uses small reaction volumes and unmodified (non-phosphorylated) barcoded adaptors to minimize reagent costs. We demonstrate our approach by sequencing 383 Fundulus sp. mitochondrial genomes (192 F. heteroclitus and 191 F. majalis). Prior to sequencing, we amplified the mitochondrial genomes using 4–5 custom-made, overlapping primer pairs, and sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. After removing low quality and short sequences, 2.9 million and 2.8 million reads were generated for F. heteroclitus and F. majalis respectively. Individual genomes were assembled for each species by mapping barcoded reads to a reference genome. For F. majalis, the reference genome was built de novo. On average, individual consensus sequences had high coverage: 61-fold for F. heteroclitus and 57-fold for F. majalis. The approach discussed in this paper is optimized for sequencing mitochondrial genomes on an Illumina platform. However, with the proper modifications, this approach could be easily applied to other small genomes and sequencing platforms. PMID:27505419

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Liu, Dong-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Song, Jian-Tao; Ji, Xian-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-05-01

    In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,267 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region.

  12. Molecular diversification of Trichuris spp. from Sigmodontinae (Cricetidae) rodents from Argentina based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Rocío; Robles, María Del Rosario; Panei, Carlos Javier; Cutillas, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    A molecular phylogenetic hypothesis is presented for the genus Trichuris based on sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cob). The taxa consisted of nine populations of whipworm from five species of Sigmodontinae rodents from Argentina. Bayesian Inference, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenies for each gene separately but also for the combined mitochondrial data and the combined mitochondrial and nuclear dataset. Phylogenetic results based on cox1 and cob mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed three clades strongly resolved corresponding to three different species (Trichuris navonae, Trichuris bainae, and Trichuris pardinasi) showing phylogeographic variation, but relationships among Trichuris species were poorly resolved. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on concatenated sequences had greater phylogenetic resolution for delimiting species and populations intra-specific of Trichuris than those based on partitioned genes. Thus, populations of T. bainae and T. pardinasi could be affected by geographical factors and co-divergence parasite-host.

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), based upon nuclear, mitochondrial, and endosymbiont gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeremy C; Wu, Jin; Gruwell, Matthew E; Gwiazdowski, Rodger; Santana, Sharlene E; Feliciano, Natalie M; Morse, Geoffrey E; Normark, Benjamin B

    2010-12-01

    Armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are among the most invasive insects in the world. They have unusual genetic systems, including diverse types of paternal genome elimination (PGE) and parthenogenesis. Intimate relationships with their host plants and bacterial endosymbionts make them potentially important subjects for the study of co-evolution. Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work (Morse and Normark, 2006) by analyzing armored scale and endosymbiont DNA sequences from 125 species of armored scale insect, represented by 253 samples and eight outgroup species. We used fragments of four different gene regions: the nuclear protein-coding gene Elongation Factor 1α (EF1α), the large ribosomal subunit (28S) rDNA, a mitochondrial region spanning parts of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase II (COII), and the small ribosomal subunit (16S) rDNA from the primary bacterial endosymbiont Uzinura diaspidicola. Maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses were performed producing highly congruent topological results. A comparison of two datasets, one with and one without missing data, found that missing data had little effect on topology. Our results broadly corroborate several major features of the existing classification, although we do not find any of the subfamilies, tribes or subtribes to be monophyletic as currently constituted. Using ancestral state reconstruction we estimate that the ancestral armored scale had the late PGE sex system, and it may as well have been pupillarial, though results differed between reconstruction methods. These results highlight the need for a complete revision of this family, and provide the groundwork for future taxonomic work in armored scale insects.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two flat-backed millipedes by next-generation sequencing (Diplopoda, Polydesmida)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Lixin; Bai, Yu; Ou, Yongyue; Wang, Changbao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A lack of mitochondrial genome data from myriapods is hampering progress across genetic, systematic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Here, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two millipedes, Asiomorpha coarctata Saussure, 1860 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) and Xystodesmus sp. (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) were assembled with high coverage using Illumina sequencing data. The mitochondrial genomes of the two newly sequenced species are circular molecules of 15,644 bp and 15,791 bp, within which the typical mitochondrial genome complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and two ribosomal RNA genes could be identified. The mitochondrial genome of Asiomorpha coarctata is the first complete sequence in the family Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) and the gene order of the two flat-backed millipedes is novel among known myriapod mitochondrial genomes. Unique translocations have occurred, including inversion of one half of the two genomes with respect to other millipede genomes. Inversion of the entire side of a genome (trnF-nad5-trnH-nad4-nad4L, trnP, nad1-trnL2-trnL1-rrnL-trnV-rrnS, trnQ, trnC and trnY) could constitute a common event in the order Polydesmida. Last, our phylogenetic analyses recovered the monophyletic Progoneata, subphylum Myriapoda and four internal classes. PMID:28138271

  15. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two flat-backed millipedes by next-generation sequencing (Diplopoda, Polydesmida).

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Lixin; Bai, Yu; Ou, Yongyue; Wang, Changbao

    2016-01-01

    A lack of mitochondrial genome data from myriapods is hampering progress across genetic, systematic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Here, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two millipedes, Asiomorpha coarctata Saussure, 1860 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) and Xystodesmus sp. (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) were assembled with high coverage using Illumina sequencing data. The mitochondrial genomes of the two newly sequenced species are circular molecules of 15,644 bp and 15,791 bp, within which the typical mitochondrial genome complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and two ribosomal RNA genes could be identified. The mitochondrial genome of Asiomorpha coarctata is the first complete sequence in the family Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) and the gene order of the two flat-backed millipedes is novel among known myriapod mitochondrial genomes. Unique translocations have occurred, including inversion of one half of the two genomes with respect to other millipede genomes. Inversion of the entire side of a genome (trnF-nad5-trnH-nad4-nad4L, trnP, nad1-trnL2-trnL1-rrnL-trnV-rrnS, trnQ, trnC and trnY) could constitute a common event in the order Polydesmida. Last, our phylogenetic analyses recovered the monophyletic Progoneata, subphylum Myriapoda and four internal classes.

  16. Identification of forensically important sarcophagid flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in China based on COI and period gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yadong; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Yan, Weitao; Li, Pei; Cai, Jifeng; Wu, LiXiang

    2014-01-01

    Unequivocal identification of insect specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. With the development of molecular identification, spate of discussions about the feature of the DNA fragments have been raised. Relying solely on single DNA fragment for delimiting closely related species is supposed to be dangerous. Aiming at obtaining more reliable markers that might be universally used, we explore the utility of 700-bp COI fragment and 678-bp period gene fragment in the identification of Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Thirty-six sarcophagid fly specimens were collected from 19 locations in 11 Chinese provinces. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into nine species with relatively strong supporting values, which indicated the possibility of separation congeneric species with COI and period gene fragments. The difference between intraspecific threshold and interspecific divergence confirmed that the combination of nuclear and mitochondrial genes for species identification is much more accurate. The results of this research will be instrumental for implementation of the Chinese Sarcophagidae database.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Hungarian red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) from high-throughput sequencing data and its phylogenetic position within the family Cervidae.

    PubMed

    Frank, Krisztián; Barta, Endre; Bana, Nóra Á; Nagy, János; Horn, Péter; Orosz, László; Stéger, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the Cervidae family. A common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is mitochondrial DNA analysis, which can be used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and for molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the development of sequencing technology, more and more mitochondrial sequences have been made available in public databases, including whole mitochondrial DNA sequences. These data have been used for phylogenetic analysis of animal species, and for studies of evolutionary processes. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of a Central European red deer, Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, from Hungary by a next generation sequencing technology. The mitochondrial genome is 16 354 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region, all of which are arranged similar as in other vertebrates. We made phylogenetic analyses with the new sequence and 76 available mitochondrial sequences of Cervidae, using Bos taurus mitochondrial sequence as outgroup. We used 'neighbor joining' and 'maximum likelihood' methods on whole mitochondrial genome sequences; the consensus phylogenetic trees supported monophyly of the family Cervidae; it was divided into two subfamilies, Cervinae and Capreolinae, and five tribes, Cervini, Muntiacini, Alceini, Odocoileini, and Capreolini. The evolutionary structure of the family Cervidae can be reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genomes; which method could be used broadly in phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of animal taxa.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Takifugu flavidus (Tetraodontiformes: Tetrodontidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfu; Zhou, Qin; Liu, Haijin; Li, Chao; Tong, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Takifugu flavidus (Tetraodontiformes: Tetrodontidae) was obtained in this study. The mitogenome is 16,449 bp in size and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The overall nucleotide composition of the heavy strand was 29.88% A, 25.81% T, 15.28% G and 29.03% C, with a slight AT bias of 55.69%. Except for ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, other genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The mitochondrial genome data of T. flavidus should contribute to phylogenetic analysis and studies on genetic structure, as well as molecular phylogeny and species identification of Tetrodontidae.

  19. Selective Enrichment and Sequencing of Whole Mitochondrial Genomes in the Presence of Nuclear Encoded Mitochondrial Pseudogenes (Numts)

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jonci N.; Shearman, Deborah C. A.; Brooks, Rob C.; Ballard, John W. O.

    2012-01-01

    Numts are an integral component of many eukaryote genomes offering a snapshot of the evolutionary process that led from the incorporation of an α-proteobacterium into a larger eukaryotic cell some 1.8 billion years ago. Although numt sequence can be harnessed as molecular marker, these sequences often remain unidentified and are mistaken for genuine mtDNA leading to erroneous interpretation of mtDNA data sets. It is therefore indispensable that during the process of amplifying and sequencing mitochondrial genes, preventive measures are taken to ensure the exclusion of numts to guarantee the recovery of genuine mtDNA. This applies to mtDNA analyses in general but especially to studies where mtDNAs are sequenced de novo as the launch pad for subsequent mtDNA-based research. By using a combination of dilution series and nested rolling circle amplification (RCA), we present a novel strategy to selectively amplify mtDNA and exclude the amplification of numt sequence. We have successfully applied this strategy to de novo sequence the mtDNA of the Black Field Cricket Teleogryllus commodus, a species known to contain numts. Aligning our assembled sequence to the reference genome of Teleogryllus emma (GenBank EU557269.1) led to the identification of a numt sequence in the reference sequence. This unexpected result further highlights the need of a reliable and accessible strategy to eliminate this source of error. PMID:22606342

  20. Mitochondrial genome sequences of Nematocera (lower Diptera): evidence of rearrangement following a complete genome duplication in a winter crane fly.

    PubMed

    Beckenbach, Andrew T

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented.

  1. Isolation and nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding rat mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, P M; Tellam, J; May, V L; Strauss, A W

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the complete sequence of the rat mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) precursor derived from nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. A single synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probe was used to screen a rat atrial cDNA library constructed in lambda gt10. A 1.2 kb full-length cDNA clone provided the first complete amino acid sequence of pre-mMDH. The 1014 nucleotide-long open reading frame encodes the 314 residue long mature mMDH protein and a 24 amino acid NH2-terminal extension which directs mitochondrial import and is cleaved from the precursor after import to generate mature mMDH. The amino acid composition of the transit peptide is polar and basic. The pre-mMDH transit peptide shows marked homology with those of two other enzymes targeted to the rat mitochondrial matrix. Images PMID:3755817

  2. Gene organization and complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Linwu mallard.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ke-Xiong; Liu, Li-Li; Yu, Qi-Fang; He, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Linwu mallard is an excellent native breeds from Hunan province in China. This is the first study to determine the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. mallard using PCR-based amplification and Sanger sequencing. The characteristic of the entire mitochondrial genome was analyzed in detail, with the base composition of 29.19% A, 22.19% T, 32.83% C, 15.79% G in the L. mallard (16,605 bp in length). It contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. mallard will be useful for the phylogenetics of poultry, and be available as basic data for the genetics and breeding.

  3. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the dragonfly genera Libellula, Ladona, and Plathemis (Odonata: Libellulidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 16S rRNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Artiss, T; Schultz, T R; Polhemus, D A; Simon, C

    2001-03-01

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among members of the odonate genus Libellula (Odonata: Anisoptera: Libellulidae) were examined using 735 bp of mitochondrial COI and 416 bp of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Considerable debate exists over several relationships within Libellula, as well over the status of two putative genera often placed as subgenera within Libellula: Ladona and Plathemis. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of the separate and combined data sets indicate that Plathemis is basal and monophyletic and that Ladona is the sister clade to the remainder of Libellula sensu stricto (s.s.) (all species within the genus Libellula, excluding Plathemis and Ladona). Moreover, two European taxa, Libellula fulva and L. depressa, were found to occupy a sister group relationship within the Ladona clade. Relationships within Libellula s.s. are less well resolved. However, monophyletic lineages within the genus are largely consistent with morphologically based subgeneric classifications. Although tree topologies from each analysis differed in some details, the differences were in no case statistically significant. The analysis of the combined COI and 16S data yielded trees with overall stronger support than analyses of either gene alone. Several analyses failed to support the monophyly of Libellula sensu lato due to the inclusion of one or more outgroup species. However, statistical comparisons of topologies produced by unconstrained analyses and analyses in which the monophyly of Libellula was constrained indicate that any differences are nonsignificant. Based on morphological data, we therefore reject the paraphyly of Libellula and accept the outgroup status of Orthemis ferruginea and Pachydiplax longipennis.

  4. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Labuschagne, Christiaan; Kotzé, Antoinette; Grobler, J Paul; Dalton, Desiré L

    2014-01-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was sequenced. The molecule was sequenced via next generation sequencing and primer walking. The size of the genome is 17,346 bp in length. Comparison with the mitochondrial DNA of two other penguin genomes that have so far been reported was conducted namely; Little blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) and the Rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). This analysis made it possible to identify common penguin mitochondrial DNA characteristics. The S. demersus mtDNA genome is very similar, both in composition and length to both the E. chrysocome and E. minor genomes. The gene content of the African penguin mitochondrial genome is typical of vertebrates and all three penguin species have the standard gene order originally identified in the chicken. The control region for S. demersus is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe and all three species of penguins contain two sets of similar repeats with varying copy numbers towards the 3' end of the control region, accounting for the size variance. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence for the mitochondrial genome of the African penguin, S. demersus. These results can be subsequently used to provide information for penguin phylogenetic studies and insights into the evolution of genomes.

  5. A molecular approach to the genus Alburnoides using COI sequences data set and the description of a new species, A. damghani, from the Damghan River system (the Dasht-e Kavir Basin, Iran) (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roudbar, Arash Jouladeh; Eagderi, Soheil; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Coad, Brian W.; Bogutskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The molecular status of nine species of the genus Alburnoides from different river drainages in Iran and additionally by seven species from Europe was assessed. mtDNA COI gene sequences from freshly collected specimens and available NCBI data revealed four major phylogenetic lineages. Based on the results, a distinct taxon from the Cheshmeh Ali (Ali Spring), a Damghan River tributary in the endorheic Dasht-e Kavir basin, northern Iran, which is the closest sister to Alburnoides namaki (Namak Lake basin) + Alburnoides coadi (Nam River in the endorheic Dasht-e Kavir basin) is considered as a new species, Alburnoides damghani sp. n. It is distinguished from other Alburnoides species in Iran by a combination of character states including: a weakly-developed, variably-scaled, ventral keel from completely scaleless to completely scaled, a short snout with the tip of the mouth cleft on a level with the lower margin of the pupil or slightly lower, a small eye (eye horizontal diameter slightly to markedly less than interorbital width), commonly 8½ branched dorsal-fin rays, commonly 11−12½ branched anal-fin rays, 40−46(47) total lateral-line scales, 2.5–4.2 or 2.5–4.1 pharyngeal teeth, gill rakers short and widely spaced, 6−8 in total, 39−41 (commonly 40), total vertebrae, (19)20(21) abdominal vertebrae, 19−21 (most commonly 20) caudal vertebrae, abdominal vertebral region most commonly equal to or longer than caudal region, and most common vertebral formulae 20+20 and 21+19. PMID:27110204

  6. Metazoan mitochondrial gene sequence reference datasets for taxonomic assignment of environmental samples

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Leray, Matthieu; Ho, Shian-Lei; Knowlton, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial-encoded genes are increasingly targeted in studies using high-throughput sequencing approaches for characterizing metazoan communities from environmental samples (e.g., plankton, meiofauna, filtered water). Yet, unlike nuclear ribosomal RNA markers, there is to date no high-quality reference dataset available for taxonomic assignments. Here, we retrieved all metazoan mitochondrial gene sequences from GenBank, and then quality filtered and formatted the datasets for taxonomic assignments using taxonomic assignment tools. The reference datasets—‘Midori references’—are available for download at www.reference-midori.info. Two versions are provided: (I) Midori-UNIQUE that contains all unique haplotypes associated with each species and (II) Midori-LONGEST that contains a single sequence, the longest, for each species. Overall, the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene was the most sequence-rich gene. However, sequences of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit RNA and Cytochrome b apoenzyme genes were observed for a large number of species in some phyla. The Midori reference is compatible with some taxonomic assignment software. Therefore, automated high-throughput sequence taxonomic assignments can be particularly effective using these datasets. PMID:28291235

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis).

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuanchen; Xing, Xiumei; Zha, Daiming; Yang, Fuhe

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome was 16,351 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, all of which were arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the northeast sika deer's mitochondrial genome was 33.3% of A, 24.4% of C, 28.9% of T and 13.4% of G. A termination-associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of northeastern red deer (Cervus elaphus xanthopygus).

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuanchen; Su, Weilin; Liu, Huamiao; Zha, Daiming; Zhang, Ranran; Xing, Xiumei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the northeastern red deer, Cervus elaphus xanthopygus, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome is 16,416 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, all of which are arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the northeastern red deer's mitochondrial genome is 33.3% of A, 24.3% of C, 28.9% of T and 13.5% of G. A termination-associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes vulpes montana).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes Vulpes montana) was sequenced for the first time using blood samples obtained from a wild female red fox captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai--Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world with an average elevation above 3500 m. Sequence analysis showed it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (CR). The variable tandem repeats in CR is the main reason of the length variability of mitochondrial genome among canide animals.

  10. The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences for Stomatopod Crustaceans: Implications for Phylogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Swinstrom, Kirsten; Caldwell, Roy; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-09-07

    We report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of stomatopods and compare their features to each other and to those of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding sequences were used to explore relationships within the Stomatopoda, within the malacostracan crustaceans, and among crustaceans and insects. Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacostraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.

  11. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-F.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Le; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-09-01

    The complete sequence (37 657 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-F was determined using Illumina sequencing data (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-F and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  12. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-W.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Yu; Xu, Le; Ye, Naihao

    2016-07-01

    The complete sequence (37 657 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-W was determined using Illumina sequencing data. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-W and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  13. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-G.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Dongsheng; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence (37,673 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-G was determined using Illumina sequencing data. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-G and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  14. Complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yuri L; Yura, Kei; Shindo, Miyuki; Kusakabe, Rie; Hayashi, Keiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys are eel-like jawless fishes evolutionarily positioned between invertebrates and vertebrates, and have been used as model organisms to explore vertebrate evolution. In this study we determined the complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the Japanese river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum, using next-generation sequencers. The sequence was 16,272 bp in length. The gene content and order were identical to those of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, which has been the reference among lamprey species. However, the sequence similarity was less than 90%, suggesting the need for the whole-genome sequencing of L. japonicum.

  15. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Rongchang pig is one of the native breeds in Sichuan province in China. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig is 16,710 bp, including 34.67% A, 26.18% C, 25.82% T and 13.33% G, and in the order A > C > T > G. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence about Rongchang pig. The mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig subsequently provides an important information in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Xiao, Ding-Fu; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig in Yunnan Province was firstly reported, which was determined through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig was 16720 bp, including 34.77% A, 26.18% C, 25.81% T and 13.24% G, and in the order A > C > T > G. Mitochondrial genome contained a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig provides an important data set for the study on genetic mechanism.

  17. Diversification of mitochondrial genome of Daphnia galeata (Cladocera, Crustacea): Comparison with phylogenetic consideration of the complete sequences of clones isolated from five lakes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokishita, Shin-Ichi; Shibuya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Taku; Sakamoto, Masaki; Ha, Jin-Yong; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagata, Hideo; Hanazato, Takayuki

    2017-02-17

    To characterize genetic diversity and gene flow among Daphnia galeata populations, the complete nucleotide (nt) sequences of the mitochondrial (mt) DNAs of D. galeata clones isolated from five lakes in Japan (Lakes Shirakaba, Suwa, Kizaki, Kasumigaura, and Biwa) were determined. Comparison of non-synonymous (amino acid altering) substitution rates with synonymous substitution rates of D. galeata mt protein-coding genes demonstrated that ATPase8 and COI genes were the most and least susceptible, respectively, to the evolutional forces selecting the aa substitutions. Several non-synonymous substitutions were found in ATPase8 and ATPase6 even in the comparison that no synonymous substitution was found. Comparison of the total number of nt variations among the mt DNAs suggested the phylogenetic relationship ((((Shirakaba/Suwa, Kizaki), Kasumigaura), Biwa), D. pulex). Maximum-likelihood analysis using the total nt sequences of mt protein-coding genes confirmed this relationship with bootstrap values higher than 98%. All the mtDNAs of the analyzed Japanese D. galeata clones contained a control region of essentially the same structure that is distinct from those of the previously reported European Daphnia species of the D. longispina complex. The two control regions of different structures spread among mtDNAs of the Japanese and European Daphnia species, respectively, probably after the divergence of the Japanese D. galeata under different selection pressures associated with their habitats.

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a salamander, Mertensiella luschani.

    PubMed

    Zardoya, Rafael; Malaga-Trillo, Edward; Veith, Michael; Meyer, Axel

    2003-10-23

    The complete nucleotide sequence (16,650 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the salamander Mertensiella luschani (Caudata, Amphibia) was determined. This molecule conforms to the consensus vertebrate mitochondrial gene order. However, it is characterized by a long non-coding intervening sequence with two 124-bp repeats between the tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro) genes. The new sequence data were used to reconstruct a phylogeny of jawed vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of all mitochondrial protein-coding genes at the amino acid level recovered a robust vertebrate tree in which lungfishes are the closest living relatives of tetrapods, salamanders and frogs are grouped together to the exclusion of caecilians (the Batrachia hypothesis) in a monophyletic amphibian clade, turtles show diapsid affinities and are placed as sister group of crocodiles+birds, and the marsupials are grouped together with monotremes and basal to placental mammals. The deduced phylogeny was used to characterize the molecular evolution of vertebrate mitochondrial proteins. Amino acid frequencies were analyzed across the main lineages of jawed vertebrates, and leucine and cysteine were found to be the most and least abundant amino acids in mitochondrial proteins, respectively. Patterns of amino acid replacements were conserved among vertebrates. Overall, cartilaginous fishes showed the least variation in amino acid frequencies and replacements. Constancy of rates of evolution among the main lineages of jawed vertebrates was rejected.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of the whole mitochondrial genome sequences among three gibbon genera.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Kazunari; Ishida, Takafumi

    2010-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of gibbons (4 genera, 12 species) deduced from short/partial mitochondrial DNA sequences were with low resolution and inconsistent. Their divergence over the short period of time may require longer sequences for the higher resolution. To solve the problems, we newly sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of Hylobates agilis, Hylobates pileatus, Nomascus sp. and Symphalangus syndactylus. A highly resolved phylogenetic tree was obtained for the mitochondrial genome in the neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses. The divergence dates of mitochondrial genome were estimated by Bayesian method; Nomascus and the other two genera to 8.0 million years ago (MYA), Symphalangus and Hylobates to 7.0 MYA, Hylobates pileatus and the other two Hylobates species to 3.9 MYA and Hylobates lar and Hylobates agilis to 3.3 MYA. Our results support the generic rank of Nomascus, Symphalangus and Hylobates, and proposed a new scenario that the Hylobates gibbons diverged in the Pliocene. This study shows the potential of the whole mitochondrial genome analyses to reveal detailed divergence history of gibbons.

  20. Interspecific Comparison and annotation of two complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

    SciTech Connect

    Millenbaugh, Bonnie A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J.; McDonald, Bruce A.

    2007-12-07

    The mitochondrial genomes of two isolates of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola were sequenced completely and compared to identify polymorphic regions. This organism is of interest because it is phylogenetically distant from other fungi with sequenced mitochondrial genomes and it has shown discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial genome of M. graminicola is a circular molecule of approximately 43,960 bp containing the typical genes coding for 14 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, one RNA polymerase, two rRNA genes and a set of 27 tRNAs. The mitochondrial DNA of M. graminicola lacks the gene encoding the putative ribosomal protein (rps5-like), commonly found in fungal mitochondrial genomes. Most of the tRNA genes were clustered with a gene order conserved with many other ascomycetes. A sample of thirty-five additional strains representing the known global mt diversity was partially sequenced to measure overall mitochondrial variability within the species. Little variation was found, confirming previous RFLP-based findings of low mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial sequence of M. graminicola is the first reported from the family Mycosphaerellaceae or the order Capnodiales. The sequence also provides a tool to better understand the development of fungicide resistance and the conflicting pattern of high nuclear and low mitochondrial diversity in global populations of this fungus.

  1. Developing diagnostic SNP panels for the identification of true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) within the limits of COI-based species delimitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid and reliable identification of quarantine pests is essential for plant inspection services to prevent introduction of invasive species. For insects, this may be a serious problem when dealing with morphologically similar cryptic species complexes and early developmental stages that lack distinctive characters useful for taxonomic identification. DNA based barcoding could solve many of these problems. The standard barcode fragment, an approx. 650 base pairs long sequence of the 5′end of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), enables differentiation of a very wide range of arthropods. However, problems remain in some taxa, such as Tephritidae, where recent genetic differentiation among some of the described species hinders accurate molecular discrimination. Results In order to explore the full species discrimination potential of COI, we sequenced the barcoding region of the COI gene of a range of economically important Tephritid species and complemented these data with all GenBank and BOLD entries for the systematic group available as of January 2012. We explored the limits of species delimitation of this barcode fragment among 193 putative Tephritid species and established operational taxonomic units (OTUs), between which discrimination is reliably possible. Furthermore, to enable future development of rapid diagnostic assays based on this sequence information, we characterized all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and established “near-minimal” sets of SNPs that differentiate among all included OTUs with at least three and four SNPs, respectively. Conclusions We found that although several species cannot be differentiated based on the genetic diversity observed in COI and hence form composite OTUs, 85% of all OTUs correspond to described species. Because our SNP panels are developed based on all currently available sequence information and rely on a minimal pairwise difference of three SNPs, they are highly reliable and hence

  2. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Chai, Yu-Lan; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig, which was 16,741 bp in size and had a nucleotide composition in A and T (60.46%). The genome consisted of a major non-coding control region (D-loop region) and 37 genes, including 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The genes in the mitochondrial genomes of Wuzhishan pig used three kinds of initiation codons (ATA, ATG, and GTG) and four kinds of termination codons (TAA, AGA, TAG, and an incomplete termination codons T-). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wuzhishan pig provides an important data set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  3. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Galápagos Endemic Land Snail Naesiotus nux

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Samuel S.; Settles, Matthew L.; New, Daniel D.; Parent, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    We report herein the draft mitochondrial genome sequence of Naesiotus nux, a Galápagos endemic land snail species of the genus Naesiotus. The circular genome is 15 kb and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 21 tRNA genes. PMID:26798085

  4. Pervasive Mitochondrial Sequence Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of Wild Carrot, Daucus carota spp. carota L.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McCauley, David E

    2015-01-01

    Exceptions to the generally accepted rules that plant mitochondrial genomes are strictly maternally inherited and that within-individual sequence diversity in those genomes, i.e., heteroplasmy, should be minimal are becoming increasingly apparent especially with regard to sequence-level heteroplasmy. These findings raise questions about the potential significance of such heteroplasmy for plant mitochondrial genome evolution. Still studies quantifying the amount and consequences of sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations are rare. In this study, we report pervasive sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations of wild carrot, a close relative of the cultivated crop. In order to assay directly for this heteroplasmy, we implemented a quantitative PCR assay that can detect and quantify intra-individual SNP variation in two mitochondrial genes (Cox1 and Atp9). We found heteroplasmy in > 60% of all wild carrot populations surveyed and in > 30% of the 140 component individuals that were genotyped. Heteroplasmy ranged from a very small proportion of the total genotype (e.g., 0.995:0.005) to near even mixtures (e.g., 0.590:0.410) in some individuals. These results have important implications for the role of intra-genomic recombination in the generation of plant mitochondrial genome genotypic novelty. The consequences of such recombination are evident in the results of this study through analysis of the degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP sites at the two genes studied.

  5. Draft Plastid and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences from Antarctic Alga Prasiola crispa

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Evelise Leis; Wallau, Gabriel da Luz; Rangel, Darlene Lopes; Machado, Laís Ceschini; da Silva, Alexandre Freitas; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Duarte; Macedo, Pablo Echeverria; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Victoria, Filipe de Carvalho; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2015-01-01

    The organelle genomes of the Antarctic alga Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing have been sequenced. The plastid and mitochondrial genomes have a total length of 196,502 bp and 89,819 bp, respectively. These genomes have 19 putative photosynthesis-related genes and 17 oxidative metabolism-related genes, respectively. PMID:26450727

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a phytophagous ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Behere, G T; Firake, D M; Tay, W T; Azad Thakur, N S; Ngachan, S V

    2016-01-01

    Ladybird beetles are generally considered as agriculturally beneficial insects, but the ladybird beetles in the coleopteran subfamily Epilachninae are phytophagous and major plant feeding pest species which causes severe economic losses to cucurbitaceous and solanaceous crops. Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) is one of the important pest species of ladybird beetle. In this report, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of H. pusillanima. For sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome, we used the Ion Torrent sequencing platform. The complete circular mitochondrial genome of the H. pusillanima was determined to be 16,216 bp long. There were totally 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA, 2 ribosomal RNA and a control (A + T-rich) region estimated to be 1690 bp. The gene arrangement and orientations of assembled mitogenome were identical to the reported predatory ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. This is the first completely sequenced coleopteran mitochondrial genome from the beetle subfamily Epilachninae from India. Data generated in this study will benefit future comparative genomics studies for understanding the evolutionary relationships between predatory and phytophagous coccinellid beetles.

  7. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  8. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Galápagos Endemic Land Snail Naesiotus nux.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Samuel S; Settles, Matthew L; New, Daniel D; Parent, Christine E; Gerritsen, Alida T

    2016-01-21

    We report herein the draft mitochondrial genome sequence of Naesiotus nux, a Galápagos endemic land snail species of the genus Naesiotus. The circular genome is 15 kb and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 21 tRNA genes.

  9. Two cases of human thelaziasis as confirmed by mitochondrial cox1 sequencing in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Guo, Jiu-Ying; Wang, Xue-Lian; Ma, Xiao-Li; Wang, Yi; An, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Two special cases of human thelaziasis were reported in China: an old farmer with heavy infection by 36 worms and a 7-year-old boy with infection by eight worms. Thelazia callipaeda was morphologically identified and confirmed by mitochondrial cox1 gene sequencing. PMID:25253041

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the unique species in Chrysocyon, was sequenced and reported for the first time using blood samples obtained from a female individual in Shanghai Zoo, China. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in accordance with other Canidae species and it contained 12 S rRNA gene, 16 S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region.

  11. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal evolutionary relationships of the Phytophthora 1c clade species.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Erica S; Russ, Carsten; Nusbaum, Chad; Zeng, Qiandong; Saville, Amanda C; Olarte, Rodrigo A; Carbone, Ignazio; Hu, Chia-Hui; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Samaniego, Jose A; Thorne, Jeffrey L; Ristaino, Jean B

    2015-11-01

    Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens of potato and tomato globally. The pathogen is closely related to four other Phytophthora species in the 1c clade including P. phaseoli, P. ipomoeae, P. mirabilis and P. andina that are important pathogens of other wild and domesticated hosts. P. andina is an interspecific hybrid between P. infestans and an unknown Phytophthora species. We have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the sister species of P. infestans and examined the evolutionary relationships within the clade. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the P. phaseoli mitochondrial lineage is basal within the clade. P. mirabilis and P. ipomoeae are sister lineages and share a common ancestor with the Ic mitochondrial lineage of P. andina. These lineages in turn are sister to the P. infestans and P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineages. The P. andina Ic lineage diverged much earlier than the P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineage and P. infestans. The presence of two mitochondrial lineages in P. andina supports the hybrid nature of this species. The ancestral state of the P. andina Ic lineage in the tree and its occurrence only in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru suggests that the origin of this species hybrid in nature may occur there.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    SciTech Connect

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-15

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at http://www.jgi.doe.gov), but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  13. Highly conserved D-loop-like nuclear mitochondrial sequences (Numts) in tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Lv, Xiaoping; Yue, Bisong

    2006-08-01

    Using oligonucleotide primers designed to match hypervariable segments I (HVS-1) of Panthera tigris mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we amplified two different PCR products (500 bp and 287 bp) in the tiger (Panthera tigris), but got only one PCR product (287 bp) in the leopard (Panthera pardus). Sequence analyses indicated that the sequence of 287 bp was a D-loop-like nuclear mitochondrial sequence (Numts), indicating a nuclear transfer that occurred approximately 4.8-17 million years ago in the tiger and 4.6-16 million years ago in the leopard. Although the mtDNA D-loop sequence has a rapid rate of evolution, the 287-bp Numts are highly conserved; they are nearly identical in tiger subspecies and only 1.742% different between tiger and leopard. Thus, such sequences represent molecular 'fossils' that can shed light on evolution of the mitochondrial genome and may be the most appropriate outgroup for phylogenetic analysis. This is also proved by comparing the phylogenetic trees reconstructed using the D-loop sequence of snow leopard and the 287-bp Numts as outgroup.

  14. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences and Structures Aid in the Resolution of Piroplasmida phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Henry S.; Tarigo, Jaime L.; Cohn, Leah A.; Bird, David M.; Scholl, Elizabeth H.; Levy, Michael G.; Wiegmann, Brian M.; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of the order Piroplasmida, which includes a number of clinically and economically relevant organisms, is a hotly debated topic amongst parasitologists. Three genera (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) are recognized based on parasite life cycle characteristics, but molecular phylogenetic analyses of 18S sequences have suggested the presence of five or more distinct Piroplasmida lineages. Despite these important advancements, a few studies have been unable to define the taxonomic relationships of some organisms (e.g. C. felis and T. equi) with respect to other Piroplasmida. Additional evidence from mitochondrial genome sequences and synteny should aid in the inference of Piroplasmida phylogeny and resolution of taxonomic uncertainties. In this study, we have amplified, sequenced, and annotated seven previously uncharacterized mitochondrial genomes (Babesia canis, Babesia vogeli, Babesia rossi, Babesia sp. Coco, Babesia conradae, Babesia microti-like sp., and Cytauxzoon felis) and identified additional ribosomal fragments in ten previously characterized mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated mitochondrial and 18S sequences as well as cox1 amino acid sequence identified five distinct Piroplasmida groups, each of which possesses a unique mitochondrial genome structure. Specifically, our results confirm the existence of four previously identified clades (B. microti group, Babesia sensu stricto, Theileria equi, and a Babesia sensu latu group that includes B. conradae) while supporting the integration of Theileria and Cytauxzoon species into a single fifth taxon. Although known biological characteristics of Piroplasmida corroborate the proposed phylogeny, more investigation into parasite life cycles is warranted to further understand the evolution of the Piroplasmida. Our results provide an evolutionary framework for comparative biology of these important animal and human pathogens and help focus renewed efforts toward understanding the

  15. Import of desired nucleic acid sequences using addressing motif of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA for fluorescent in vivo hybridization of mitochondrial DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Alán, Lukáš; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2014-04-01

    Based on the matrix-addressing sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA (termed MAM), which is naturally imported into mitochondria, we have constructed an import system for in vivo targeting of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or mt-mRNA, in order to provide fluorescence hybridization of the desired sequences. Thus DNA oligonucleotides were constructed, containing the 5'-flanked T7 RNA polymerase promoter. After in vitro transcription and fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 or 647 dye, we obtained the fluorescent "L-ND5 probe" containing MAM and exemplar cargo, i.e., annealing sequence to a short portion of ND5 mRNA and to the light-strand mtDNA complementary to the heavy strand nd5 mt gene (5'-end 21 base pair sequence). For mitochondrial in vivo fluorescent hybridization, HepG2 cells were treated with dequalinium micelles, containing the fluorescent probes, bringing the probes proximally to the mitochondrial outer membrane and to the natural import system. A verification of import into the mitochondrial matrix of cultured HepG2 cells was provided by confocal microscopy colocalizations. Transfections using lipofectamine or probes without 5S-rRNA addressing MAM sequence or with MAM only were ineffective. Alternatively, the same DNA oligonucleotides with 5'-CACC overhang (substituting T7 promoter) were transcribed from the tetracycline-inducible pENTRH1/TO vector in human embryonic kidney T-REx®-293 cells, while mitochondrial matrix localization after import of the resulting unlabeled RNA was detected by PCR. The MAM-containing probe was then enriched by three-order of magnitude over the natural ND5 mRNA in the mitochondrial matrix. In conclusion, we present a proof-of-principle for mitochondrial in vivo hybridization and mitochondrial nucleic acid import.

  16. Homogeneity in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in Swedish subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Tillmar, Andreas O; Coble, Michael D; Wallerström, Thomas; Holmlund, Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    In order to promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing in Sweden we have typed 296 Swedish males, which will serve as a Swedish mtDNA frequency database. The tested males were taken from seven geographically different regions representing the contemporary Swedish population. The complete mtDNA control region was typed and the Swedish population was shown to have high haplotype diversity with a random match probability of 0.5%. Almost 47% of the tested samples belonged to haplogroup H and further haplogroup comparison with worldwide populations clustered the Swedish mtDNA data together with other European populations. AMOVA analysis of the seven Swedish subregions displayed no significant maternal substructure in Sweden (F (ST) = 0.002). Our conclusion from this study is that the typed Swedish individuals serve as good representatives for a Swedish forensic mtDNA database. Some caution should, however, be taken for individuals from the northernmost part of Sweden (provinces of Norrbotten and Lapland) due to specific demographic conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of a small sample set of a Swedish Saami population confirmed earlier findings that the Swedish Saami population is an outlier among European populations.

  17. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  18. Overview of worldwide diversity of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 haplotypes: two Old World lineages and a New World invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We utilized a Bayesian phylogenetic technique to resolve global relationships of Diaphorina citri populations. This is the first global phylogenetic study of D. citri. New mitochondrial primers were designed from an EST library and an 821 base pair region of the COI was amplified and sequenced. The ...

  19. Improved DNA barcoding method for Bemisia tabaci and related Aleyrodidae: Development of universal and Bemisia tabaci biotype-specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I polymerase chain reaction primers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly is the common name of heteropteran insects that comprise the Aleyrodidae family composed of over 160 genera and 1500 different species. The mitochondrial cytochome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence has been used extensively in whitefly phylogenetic comparisons and in biotype identification of th...

  20. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhao, Shuai; Wu, Hualin; Wu, Shengyang; Zhang, Zhongwen; Wang, Bo; Dou, Huashan

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) was determined using long PCR. The genome was 17,444 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 23 transfer RNA genes, 1 origin of L strand replication and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (32.9%), C (24.8%), T (29.0%), and G (13.3%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of tundra shrew. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees. The three Sorex species formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations.

  1. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-C6.

    PubMed

    Xu, Le; Wang, Shuai; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence (37 657 bp) of the Saccharina sp. ye-C6 was obtained from the assembled and annotated genome data sequenced by Illumina sequencing technology (KT271760). The circular genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Base composition of genome is A (28.41%), T (36.29%), C (14.72%), and G (20.58%). Through a phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae, we found that Saccharina sp. ye-C6 and Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species and strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  2. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. ); Brown, W.M. ); Honeycutt, R.L. )

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  3. Mitochondrial genome sequences of Artemia tibetiana and Artemia urmiana: assessing molecular changes for high plateau adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hangxiao; Luo, Qibin; Sun, Jing; Liu, Fei; Wu, Gang; Yu, Jun; Wang, Weiwei

    2013-05-01

    Brine shrimps, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), inhabit hypersaline environments and have a broad geographical distribution from sea level to high plateaus. Artemia therefore possess significant genetic diversity, which gives them their outstanding adaptability. To understand this remarkable plasticity, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two Artemia tibetiana isolates from the Tibetan Plateau in China and one Artemia urmiana isolate from Lake Urmia in Iran and compared them with the genome of a low-altitude Artemia, A. franciscana. We compared the ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitutions (Ka/Ks ratio) in the mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences and found that atp8 had the highest Ka/Ks ratios in comparisons of A. franciscana with either A. tibetiana or A. urmiana and that atp6 had the highest Ka/Ks ratio between A. tibetiana and A. urmiana. Atp6 may have experienced strong selective pressure for high-altitude adaptation because although A. tibetiana and A. urmiana are closely related they live at different altitudes. We identified two extended termination-associated sequences and three conserved sequence blocks in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genomes. We propose that sequence variations in the D-loop region and in the subunits of the respiratory chain complexes independently or collectively contribute to the adaptation of Artemia to different altitudes.

  4. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Crotalus horridus (timber rattlesnake).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jacob B; Cobb, Vincent A; Cahoon, A Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitogenome of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was completed using Sanger sequencing. It is 17,260 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs, two rRNAs and two control regions. Gene synteny is consistent with other snakes with the exception of a missing redundant tRNA (Ser) . This mitogenome should prove to be a useful addition of a well-known member of the Viperidae snake family.

  5. Differentiating between monozygotic twins through next-generation mitochondrial genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Ruxin; Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yinnan; Lu, Daru; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-01

    Monozygotic (MZ) twins, considered to be genetically identical, cannot be distinguished from one another by standard forensic DNA testing. A recent study employed whole genome sequencing to identify extremely rare mutations and reported that mutation analysis could be used to differentiate between MZ twins. Compared with nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has higher mutation rates; therefore, minor differences theoretically exist in MZ twins' mitochondrial genome (mtGenome). However, conventional Sanger-type sequencing (STS) is neither amenable to, nor feasible for, the detection of low-level sequence variants. The recent introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has the capability to sequence many targeted regions of multiple samples simultaneously with desirable depth of coverage. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether full mtGenome sequencing analysis can be used to differentiate between MZ twins. Ten sets of MZ twins provided blood samples that underwent extraction, quantification, mtDNA enrichment, library preparation, and ultra-deep sequencing. Point heteroplasmies were observed in eight sets of MZ twins, and a single nucleotide variant (nt15301) was detected in five sets of MZ twins. Thus, this study demonstrates that ultra-deep mtGenome sequencing could be used to differentiate between MZ twins.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three bats species and whole genome mitochondrial analyses reveal patterns of codon bias and lend support to a basal split in Chiroptera.

    PubMed

    Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2012-01-15

    Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes.

  7. Molecular Phylogeny of a tick, Ixodes granulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) based on cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana Che; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; George, Ernna; Nor, Shukor Md

    2014-09-01

    Identification of a local species of tick, Ixodes granulatus from the family Ixodidae is essential because it has potential to be vector for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia and tick thypus. The aim of this study is to portray the relationships among several populations of I. granulatus collected from different species of animal hosts and localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Polymerase Chain Reaction was conducted by amplifying mitochondrial DNA marker, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 15 individual ticks that attached to five different hosts caught from three different localities. Confirmation of the species identity was accomplished using BLAST program. Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) tree based on COI sequences were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 to identify the relationship among species. The result of this study showed a high genetic heterogeneity between I. granulatus and other species of the same genus (7.2-23.7%). Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation was observed among the species of I. granulatus collected from different localities (0-3.7%). This study produced the first establishment of molecular marker for clarifying genetic species variation and diversity of local I. granulatus tick which contribute to the control of tick-borne infections.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwen; Dai, Xiaojie; Xu, Qianghua; Wu, Feng; Gao, Chunxia; Zhang, Yanbo

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Carcharhinus longimanus was determined and analyzed. The complete mtDNA genome sequence of C. longimanus was 16,706 bp in length. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 2 non-conding regions: control region (D-loop) and origin of light-strand replication (OL). The complete mitogenome sequence information of C. longimanus can provide a useful data for further studies on molecular systematics, stock evaluation, taxonomic status and conservation genetics.

  9. Filling the gap - COI barcode resolution in eastern Palearctic birds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Palearctic region supports relatively few avian species, yet recent molecular studies have revealed that cryptic lineages likely still persist unrecognized. A broad survey of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences, or DNA barcodes, can aid on this front by providing molecular diagnostics for species assignment. Barcodes have already been extensively surveyed in the Nearctic, which provides an interesting comparison to this region; faunal interchange between these regions has been very dynamic. We explored COI sequence divergence within and between species of Palearctic birds, including samples from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia. As of yet, there is no consensus on the best method to analyze barcode data. We used this opportunity to compare and contrast three different methods routinely employed in barcoding studies: clustering-based, distance-based, and character-based methods. Results We produced COI sequences from 1,674 specimens representing 398 Palearctic species. These were merged with published COI sequences from North American congeners, creating a final dataset of 2,523 sequences for 599 species. Ninety-six percent of the species analyzed could be accurately identified using one or a combination of the methods employed. Most species could be rapidly assigned using the cluster-based or distance-based approach alone. For a few select groups of species, the character-based method offered an additional level of resolution. Of the five groups of indistinguishable species, most were pairs, save for a larger group comprising the herring gull complex. Up to 44 species exhibited deep intraspecific divergences, many of which corresponded to previously described phylogeographic patterns and endemism hotspots. Conclusion COI sequence divergence within eastern Palearctic birds is largely consistent with that observed in birds from other temperate regions. Sequence variation is primarily congruent with taxonomic boundaries; deviations from this trend

  10. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Liang; Liu, Zhen; Yang, An-Qi; Li, Zhi; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Lantang pig is a native breed of Guangzhou Province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Lantang pig is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,709 bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region, Table 1). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 34.69% for A, 26.18% for C, 25.82% for T and 13.31% for G, in the order A>C>T>G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes.

  11. New complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Cephalochordata) and the identity of this species' sequences.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Masahiro; Nishida, Mutsumi; Nishikawa, Teruaki

    2005-06-01

    Three mitochondrial (mt) genes were sequenced for two Atlantic lancelet species, Branchiostoma lanceolatum and B. floridae, to examine a serious discrepancy among previously published results of molecular studies: substantial sequence difference in a nuclear gene vs. virtual identity in the mt genome sequence. The results revealed that three mt genes of B. lanceolatum, collected from Helgoland in the North Sea and Naples in the Mediterranean, were quite diverged from those of B. floridae, collected from Tampa Bay, Florida. Therefore, the previously recognized identity in the mt genome between the two species is attributable to misidentification of materials used. To correct this misleading information, the complete mtDNA sequence of B. lanceolatum was determined for an individual from Helgoland.

  12. Sequence of specific mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment from Egyptian buffalo is used as a pattern for discrimination between river buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Hassan A I

    2011-08-01

    Characterization of molecular markers and the development of better assays for precise and rapid detection of domestic species are always in demand. This is particularly due to recent food scares and the crisis of biodiversity resulting from the huge ongoing illegal traffic of endangered species. The aim of this study was to develop a new and easy method for domestic species identification (river buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) based on the analysis of a specific mitochondrial nucleotide sequence. For this reason, a specific fragment of Egyptian buffalo mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene (422 bp) was amplified by PCR using two universal primers. The sequence of this specific fragment is completely conserved between all tested Egyptian buffaloes and other river buffaloes in different places in the world. Also, the lengths of the homologous fragments were less by one nucleotide (421 bp) in case of goats and two nucleotides (420 bp) in case of both cattle and sheep. The detection of specific variable sites between investigated species within this fragment was sufficient to identify the biological origin of the samples. This was achieved by alignment between the unknown homologous sequence and the reference sequences deposited in GenBank database (accession numbers, FJ748599-FJ748607). Considering multiple alignment results between 16S rRNA homologous sequences obtained from GenBank database with the reference sequence, it was shown that definite nucleotides are specific for each of the four studied species of the family Bovidae. In addition, other nucleotides are detected which can allow discrimination between two groups of animals belonging to two subfamilies of family Bovidae, Group one (closely related species like cattle and buffalo, Subfamily Bovinae) and Group two (closely related species like sheep and goat, Subfamily Caprinae). This 16S DNA barcode character-based approach could be used to complement cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) in DNA barcoding. Also, it is a

  13. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA in the sea urchin Arbacia lixula: conserved features of the echinoid mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, C; Martiradonna, A; Lanave, C; Saccone, C

    1996-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (15,719 nucleotides) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the sea urchin Arbacia lixula is presented. The comparison of gene arrangement between different echinoderm orders of the same class provides evidence that the gene organization is conserved within the same echinoderm class. The peculiarities of sea urchin mtDNA features, already described, are confirmed by the A. lixula mtDNA sequence. The comparison of the entire sequences of mtDNA among A. lixula, Paracentrotus lividus, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus allowed us to detect peculiar features, common to the three sea urchin species, that can represent the molecular signature of the mt genome in the sea urchin group. Analysis of the nucleotide composition indicates that A. lixula mtDNA, in contrast with the mtDNA of other sea urchins, shows a bias in the use of T and tends to avoid the use of C, most evident in the neutral part of the molecule, such as the third codon positions. This observation indicates that the three sea urchin mtDNAs evolve under different mutation pressure. Analysis of the sequence evolution allowed us to confirm the phylogenetic tree. However, the absolute divergence time, calculated on the basis of paleontological estimates, largely diverged from the expected one.

  14. MitoFates: improved prediction of mitochondrial targeting sequences and their cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Yoshinori; Tsuji, Junko; Fu, Szu-Chin; Tomii, Kentaro; Horton, Paul; Imai, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondria provide numerous essential functions for cells and their dysfunction leads to a variety of diseases. Thus, obtaining a complete mitochondrial proteome should be a crucial step toward understanding the roles of mitochondria. Many mitochondrial proteins have been identified experimentally but a complete list is not yet available. To fill this gap, methods to computationally predict mitochondrial proteins from amino acid sequence have been developed and are widely used, but unfortunately, their accuracy is far from perfect. Here we describe MitoFates, an improved prediction method for cleavable N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signals (presequences) and their cleavage sites. MitoFates introduces novel sequence features including positively charged amphiphilicity, presequence motifs, and position weight matrices modeling the presequence cleavage sites. These features are combined with classical ones such as amino acid composition and physico-chemical properties as input to a standard support vector machine classifier. On independent test data, MitoFates attains better performance than existing predictors in both detection of presequences and in predicting their cleavage sites. We used MitoFates to look for undiscovered mitochondrial proteins from 42,217 human proteins (including isoforms such as alternative splicing or translation initiation variants). MitoFates predicts 1167 genes to have at least one isoform with a presequence. Five-hundred and eighty of these genes were not annotated as mitochondrial in either UniProt or Gene Ontology. Interestingly, these include candidate regulators of parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria, and also many genes with known disease mutations, suggesting that careful investigation of MitoFates predictions may be helpful in elucidating the role of mitochondria in health and disease. MitoFates is open source with a convenient web server publicly available.

  15. The effect of model choice on phylogenetic inference using mitochondrial sequence data: lessons from the scorpions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Martin; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Fet, Victor; Blaxter, Mark

    2007-05-01

    Chelicerates are a diverse group of arthropods, with around 65,000 described species occupying a wide range of habitats. Many phylogenies describing the relationships between the various chelicerate orders have been proposed. While some relationships are widely accepted, others remain contentious. To increase the taxonomic sampling of species available for phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial genomes we produced the nearly complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Mesobuthus gibbosus. Mitochondrial gene order in M. gibbosus largely mirrors that in Limulus polyphemus but tRNA secondary structures are truncated. A recent analysis argued that independent reversal of mitochondrial genome strand-bias in several groups of arthropods, including spiders and scorpions, could compromise phylogenetic reconstruction and proposed an evolutionary model that excludes mutational events caused by strand-bias (Neutral Transitions Excluded, NTE). An arthropod dataset of six mitochondrial genes, when analyzed under NTE, yields strong support for scorpions as sister taxon to the rest of Chelicerata. We investigated the robustness of this result by exploring the effect of adding additional chelicerate genes and taxa and comparing the phylogenies obtained under different models. We find evidence that (1) placement of scorpions arising at the base of the Chelicerata is an artifact of model mis-specification and scorpions are strongly supported as basal arachnids and (2) an expanded chelicerate dataset finds support for several proposed interordinal relationships (ticks plus mites [Acari] and spiders plus whip spiders plus whip scorpions [Araneae+Pedipalpi]). Mitochondrial sequence data are subject to systematic bias that is positively misleading for evolutionary inference and thus extreme methodological care must be taken when using them to infer phylogenies.

  16. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the threatened alpine butterfly, Parnassius nomion (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the threatened alpine butterfly Parnassius nomion includes 13 protein-coding genes (ND1-6, COI-III, ATP6, ATP8, ND4, ND4L, CTYB), 2 ribosomal RNAs (12 S and 16 S), 22 transfer RNAs, which is 14,547 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common type found in most of other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which uses CGA as its start codon. Eleven PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, and COI, COII use the incomplete termination codon T.

  17. Species identification using genetic tools: the value of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences in whale conservation.

    PubMed

    Palumbi, S R; Cipriano, F

    1998-01-01

    DNA sequence analysis is a powerful tool for identifying the source of samples thought to be derived from threatened or endangered species. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from retail whale meat markets has shown consistently that the expected baleen whale in these markets, the minke whale, makes up only about half the products analyzed. The other products are either unregulated small toothed whales like dolphins or are protected baleen whales such as humpback, Bryde's, fin, or blue whales. Independent verification of such mtDNA identifications requires analysis of nuclear genetic loci, but this is technically more difficult than standard mtDNA sequencing. In addition, evolution of species-specific sequences (i.e., fixation of sequence differences to produce reciprocally monophyletic gene trees) is slower in nuclear than in mitochondrial genes primarily because genetic drift is slower at nuclear loci. When will use of nuclear sequences allow forensic DNA identification? Comparison of neutral theories of coalescence of mitochondrial and nuclear loci suggests a simple rule of thumb. The "three-times rule" suggests that phylogenetic sorting at nuclear loci is likely to produce species-specific sequences when mitochondrial alleles are reciprocally monophyletic and the branches leading to the mtDNA sequences of a species are three times longer than the average difference observed within species. A preliminary test of the three-times rule, which depends on many assumptions about the species and genes involved, suggests that blue and fin whales should have species-specific sequences at most neutral nuclear loci, whereas humpback and fin whales should show species-specific sequences at fewer nuclear loci. Partial sequences of actin introns from these species confirm the predictions of the three-times rule and show that blue and fin whales are reciprocally monophyletic at this locus. These intron sequences are thus good tools for the identification of these species

  18. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Genus Trichosporon Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swarajit Kumar; Wang, Li; Yokoyama, Koji; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) genes of 42 strains representing 23 species of the genus Trichosporon were partially sequenced to determine their molecular phylogenetic relationships. Almost half of the 22 strains investigated (from 11 different species) contained introns in their sequences. Analysis of a 396-bp coding sequence from each strain of Trichosporon under investigation showed a total of 141 (35.6%) variable nucleotide sites. A phylogenetic tree based on the cyt b gene sequences revealed that all species of Trichosporon except Trichosporon domesticum and Trichosporon montevideense had species-specific cyt b genes. Trichosporon sp. strain CBS 5581 was identified as Trichosporon pullulans, and one clinical isolate, IFM 48794, was identified as Trichosporon faecale. Analysis of 132-bp deduced amino acid sequences showed a total of 34 (25.75%) variable amino acid sites. T. domesticum and T. montevideense, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon asteroides, and Trichosporon gracile and Trichosporon guehoae had identical amino acid sequences. A phylogenetic tree constructed with the ascomycetes Saccharomyces douglasii and Candida glabrata taken as outgroup species and including representative species from closely related genera species of Trichosporon clustered with other basidiomycetous yeasts that contain xylose in their cell wall compositions. These results indicate the effectiveness of mitochondrial cyt b gene sequences for both species identification and the phylogenetic analysis of Trichosporon species. PMID:16207980

  19. A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, C; Lu, M; Lyznik, A; Mackenzie, S

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis. PMID:1498602

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ussurian moose, Alces alces cameloides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun

    2016-11-01

    Ussurian moose (Alces alces cameloides) in Northeast China, which is on the southmost edge of the species' Eurasian range, are facing dramatic decline in population size and distribution areas. We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Ussurian moose, which is thought as the oldest moose subspecies to better understand the evolutionary history of this circumboreal sole extant species. The mitogenome is 16,418 bp in length, consisting of two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region. The overall base composition is A: 33.7%, T: 30.1%, C: 23.2%, and G: 13.0%, with a much higher A + T content. The phylogenetic tree of moose and 10 other most closely related Cervidae species was built.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Neovison vison (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Shao-Jing; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Han-Lu; Zhong, Wei; Yang, Ya-Han; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-05-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the American mink Neovison vison have long been unclear. In this paper, the complete mitogenome of N. vison was sequenced and characterized. The total length was 16,594 bp and typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA, a large control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements were identical to those of typical vertebrate. The overall base composition is 33.6%, 25.4%, 27.8% and 13.3% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a moderate bias on AT content (61.4%). This result is expected to provide useful molecular data and contribute to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Mustelidae and Carnivora.

  2. High mitochondrial sequence diversity in linguistic isolates of the Alps.

    PubMed Central

    Stenico, M.; Nigro, L.; Bertorelle, G.; Calafell, F.; Capitanio, M.; Corrain, C.; Barbujani, G.

    1996-01-01

    Segment I of the control region of mtDNA (360 bases) was sequenced in seven samples, each of 10 individuals inhabiting villages in the eastern Italian Alps (South Tyrol and Trentino). Three linguistic groups, German, Italian, and Ladin, were represented by two samples each; the seventh sample comes from an isolated group of German origin, the Mocheni, who are linguistically distinct and geographically separated from the bulk of the German speakers. Seventy-four polymorphic sites were identified, defining 63 different haplotypes. Mocheni and Ladin speakers tend to form two clusters in the evolutionary trees inferred from sequences. Analysis of molecular variance shows significant differentiation within samples, among them, and among linguistic groups. Genetic differences between the Ladins and the other groups are not much smaller than between Europeans and some Africans; variation is large within groups, as well, with the exception of only the Mocheni. In the evolutionary trees where the four alpine groups are compared with other European populations, Mocheni and especially Ladins appear as clear outliers. Romansch-speaking Swiss, who are linguistically related to Ladins, are not genetically similar to them, for this segment of DNA. Because the time elapsed since colonization of the Alps (< or = 12,000 years) is short in mutational terms, the only model accounting for the observed relationships between mtDNA variation and linguistic identity seems one in which a population ancestral to Ladin speakers was already differentiated long before the Alps were settled and the current linguistic affiliations were established. For the Mocheni, the results are consistent with a simpler episode of allele loss, from an original genetic pool common to the ancestors of the current German speakers. PMID:8940282

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Lasiopodomys mandarinus mandarinus (Arvicolinae, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Li, Yangwei; Shi, Yuhua; Lu, Jiqi; Ji, Weihong; Wang, Zhenlong

    2016-11-30

    Mandarin vole (Lasiopodomys mandarinus) is a subterranean rodent that is often used as a model for studying subterranean hypoxic stress in mammals. However the taxonomy of this species is still in dispute. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has long been used for phylogenetic reconstruction and, in this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of L. mandarinus mandarinus was sequenced. Our results showed that the mitochondrial genome of L. m. mandarinus is a circular molecule of 16,367bp, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes. Except for the 8 tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. We also analyzed the phylogenetic position of L. mandarinus in respect to the tribe Arvicolini using the sequence of complete Cytb gene, 2rRNA genes and 12 protein-coding genes, and maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results gave further support to the species status of L. mandarinus and the generic status of Lasiopodomys.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and implications for african ape biogeography.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D; Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Anthony, Nicola M; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives.

  5. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Eastern Gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and Implications for African Ape Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D.; Soto-Calderón, Iván D.; Dew, J. Larry; Anthony, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives. PMID:25189777

  6. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Patellogastropoda) from Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: species identification based on DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Fatima Hayat Shaheen; Ayub, Zarrien; Begum, Samar; Siddiqui, Ghazala; Roberts, David

    2016-07-01

    The true limpets are found in the intertidal zone of the rocky shores of Pakistan, North Arabian Sea. Partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I was used to estimate the degree of genetic differentiation among the morphological forms of Cellana, which were considered as three separate species earlier in Pakistan. The study revealed that the three morphs of Cellana on COI sequence generated a single haplotype and matched with the COI sequence of Cellana karachiensis. This point out the phenotypic plasticity between the proposed species.

  7. Amerindian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups predominate in the population of Argentina: towards a first nationwide forensic mitochondrial DNA sequence database.

    PubMed

    Bobillo, Maria Cecilia; Zimmermann, Bettina; Sala, Andrea; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Corach, Daniel; Parson, Walther

    2010-07-01

    The study presents South American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data from selected north (N = 98), central (N = 193) and south (N = 47) Argentinean populations. Sequence analysis of the complete mtDNA control region (CR, 16024-576) resulted in 288 unique haplotypes ignoring C-insertions around positions 16193, 309, and 573; the additional analysis of coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms enabled a fine classification of the described lineages. The Amerindian haplogroups were most frequent in the north and south representing more than 60% of the sequences. A slightly different situation was observed in central Argentina where the Amerindian haplogroups represented less than 50%, and the European contribution was more relevant. Particular clades of the Amerindian subhaplogroups turned out to be nearly region-specific. A minor contribution of African lineages was observed throughout the country. This comprehensive admixture of worldwide mtDNA lineages and the regional specificity of certain clades in the Argentinean population underscore the necessity of carefully selecting regional samples in order to develop a nationwide mtDNA database for forensic and anthropological purposes. The mtDNA sequencing and analysis were performed under EMPOP guidelines in order to attain high quality for the mtDNA database.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing of Cat Hair: An Informative Forensic Tool*

    PubMed Central

    Tarditi, Christy R.; Grahn, Robert A.; Evans, Jeffrey J.; Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 81.7 million cats are in 37.5 million USA households. Shed fur can be criminal evidence due to transfer to victims, suspects, and / or their belongings. To improve cat hairs as forensic evidence, the mtDNA control region from single hairs, with and without root tags, was sequenced. A dataset of a 402 bp CR segment from 174 random-bred cats representing four USA geographic areas was generated to determine the informativeness of the mtDNA region. Thirty-two mtDNA mitotypes were observed ranging in frequencies from 0.6-27%. Four common types occurred in all populations. Low heteroplasmy, 1.7%, was determined. Unique mitotypes were found in 18 individuals, 10.3% of the population studied. The calculated discrimination power implied that 8.3 of 10 randomly selected individuals can be excluded by this region. The genetic characteristics of the region and the generated dataset support the use of this cat mtDNA region in forensic applications. PMID:21077873

  9. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of Bison bison and bison-cattle hybrids: function and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kory C; Halbert, Natalie D; Kolenda, Claire; Childers, Christopher; Hunter, David L; Derr, James N

    2011-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from 43 bison and bison-cattle hybrids were sequenced and compared with other bovids. Selected animals reflect the historical range and current taxonomic structure of bison. This study identified regions of potential nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities in hybrids, provided a complete mtDNA phylogenetic tree for this species, and uncovered evidence of bison population substructure. Seventeen bison haplotypes defined by 66 polymorphic sites were discovered, whereas 728 fixed differences and 86 non-synonymous mutations were identified between bison and bison-cattle hybrid sequences. The potential roles of the mtDNA genome in the function of hybrid animals and bison taxonomy are discussed.

  10. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed Egyptian swift).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  11. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II variations predict adverse prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Silkjaer, Trine; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Juhl-Christensen, Caroline; Hokland, Peter; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell

    2013-10-01

    Alterations in the two catalytic genes cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II (COI and COII) have recently been suggested to have an adverse impact on prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In order to explore this in further detail, we sequenced these two mitochondrial genes in diagnostic bone marrow or blood samples in 235 patients with AML. In 37 (16%) patients, a non-synonymous variation in either COI or COII could be demonstrated. No patients harboured both COI and COII non-synonymous variations. Twenty-four (10%) patients had non-synonymous variations in COI, whereas 13 (6%) patients had non-synonymous variations in COII. The COI and COII are essential subunits of cytochrome c oxidase that is the terminal enzyme in the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. In terms of disease course, we observed that in patients with a normal cytogenetic analysis at disease presentation (CN-AML) treated with curative intent, the presence of a non-synonymous variation in the COII was an adverse prognostic marker for both overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in both univariate (DFS; hazard ratio (HR) 4.4, P = 0.006) and multivariate analyses (DFS; HR 7.2, P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of a mitochondrial aberration playing an adverse prognostic role in adult AML, and we argue that its role as a potentially novel adverse prognostic marker in the subset of CN-AML should be explored further.

  12. Isolated respiratory chain enzyme deficiency in patients with a mitochondrial (encephalo-) myopathy: Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial complex and IV genes

    SciTech Connect

    Vries, D. de; Coo, I. de; Buddiger, P.

    1994-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of four enzyme complexes. Deficiencies of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) are frequently found in muscle biopsies from patients with a mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy. Mutations in the mitochondrial-encoded subunits have been observed in a number of different mitochondrial (encephalo-)myophathies. We screened eight mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy patients with an isolated complex I deficiency for mutations in the ND genes by direct sequencing. No abnormality was detected. We also studied 9 mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy patients and an isolated complex IV deficiency. In the muscle biopsy of one patient a novel heteroplasmic mutation (T {r_arrow} C) at nucleotide position 6681 was found in the mitochondrial COX I gene. This mutation led to the substitution of a conserved Tyr for His. As this mutation changed the secondary structure of the protein and was not found in the healthy mother, we consider it likely that this mutation is pathological. In the other patients no abnormality was detected. Therefore, mutations in the mitochondrially-encoded subunits are not a frequent cause of isolated respiratory chain enzyme deficiency.

  13. A specific isoform of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix by a N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Whatcott, Clifford J.; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Jacobson, Myron K.

    2009-12-10

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) convert NAD to polymers of ADP-ribose that are converted to free ADP-ribose by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). The activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP-1 following genotoxic stress has been linked to release of apoptosis inducing factor from the mitochondria, but the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted between nuclear and mitochondrial compartments are not well understood. The study reported here has examined the relationship between PARG and mitochondria in HeLa cells. Endogenous PARG associated with the mitochondrial fraction migrated in the range of 60 kDa. Transient transfection of cells with PARG expression constructs with amino acids encoded by exon 4 at the N-terminus was targeted to the mitochondria as demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy of whole cells. Deletion and missense mutants allowed identification of a canonical N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence consisting of the first 16 amino acids encoded by PARG exon 4. Sub-mitochondrial localization experiments indicate that this mitochondrial PARG isoform is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. The identification of a PARG isoform as a component of the mitochondrial matrix raises several interesting possibilities concerning mechanisms of nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk involved in regulation of cell death pathways.

  14. Mitochondrial genome sequences illuminate maternal lineages of conservation concern in a rare carnivore

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Science-based wildlife management relies on genetic information to infer population connectivity and identify conservation units. The most commonly used genetic marker for characterizing animal biodiversity and identifying maternal lineages is the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial genotyping figures prominently in conservation and management plans, with much of the attention focused on the non-coding displacement ("D") loop. We used massively parallel multiplexed sequencing to sequence complete mitochondrial genomes from 40 fishers, a threatened carnivore that possesses low mitogenomic diversity. This allowed us to test a key assumption of conservation genetics, specifically, that the D-loop accurately reflects genealogical relationships and variation of the larger mitochondrial genome. Results Overall mitogenomic divergence in fishers is exceedingly low, with 66 segregating sites and an average pairwise distance between genomes of 0.00088 across their aligned length (16,290 bp). Estimates of variation and genealogical relationships from the displacement (D) loop region (299 bp) are contradicted by the complete mitochondrial genome, as well as the protein coding fraction of the mitochondrial genome. The sources of this contradiction trace primarily to the near-absence of mutations marking the D-loop region of one of the most divergent lineages, and secondarily to independent (recurrent) mutations at two nucleotide position in the D-loop amplicon. Conclusions Our study has two important implications. First, inferred genealogical reconstructions based on the fisher D-loop region contradict inferences based on the entire mitogenome to the point that the populations of greatest conservation concern cannot be accurately resolved. Whole-genome analysis identifies Californian haplotypes from the northern-most populations as highly distinctive, with a significant excess of amino acid changes that may be indicative of molecular adaptation; D-loop sequences fail

  15. Amphioxus mitochondrial DNA, chordate phylogeny, and the limits of inference based on comparisons of sequences.

    PubMed

    Naylor, G J; Brown, W M

    1998-03-01

    Analyses of both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences derived from all 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes (12,234 bp) of 19 metazoan species, including that of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae ("amphioxus"), fail to yield the widely accepted phylogeny for chordates and, within chordates, for vertebrates. Given the breadth and the compelling nature of the data supporting that phylogeny, relationships supported by the mitochondrial sequence comparisons are almost certainly incorrect, despite their being supported by equally weighted parsimony, distance, and maximum-likelihood analyses. The incorrect groupings probably result in part from convergent base-compositional similarities among some of the taxa, similarities that are strong enough to overwhelm the historical signal. Comparisons among very distantly related taxa are likely to be particularly susceptible to such artifacts, because the historical signal is already greatly attenuated. Empirical results underscore the need for approaches to phylogenetic inference that go beyond simple site-by-site comparison of aligned sequences. This study and others indicate that, once a sequence sample of reasonable size has been obtained, accurate phylogenetic estimation may be better served by incorporating knowledge of molecular structures and processes into inference models and by seeking additional higher order characters embedded in those sequences, than by gathering ever larger sequence samples from the same organisms in he hope that the historical signal will eventually prevail.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the tubeworm Lamellibrachia satsuma and structural conservation in the mitochondrial genome control regions of Order Sabellida.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ajit Kumar; Kwon, Yong Min; Kang, Sung Gyun; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The control region of the mitochondrial genomes shows high variation in conserved sequence organizations, which follow distinct evolutionary patterns in different species or taxa. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Lamellibrachia satsuma from the cold-seep region of Kagoshima Bay, as a part of whole genome study and extensively studied the structural features and patterns of the control region sequences. We obtained 15,037 bp of mitochondrial genome using Illumina sequencing and identified the non-coding AT-rich region or control region (354 bp, AT=83.9%) located between trnH and trnR. We found 7 conserved sequence blocks (CSB), scattered throughout the control region of L. satsuma and other taxa of Annelida. The poly-TA stretches, which commonly form the stem of multiple stem-loop structures, are most conserved in the CSB-I and CSB-II regions. The mitochondrial genome of L. satsuma encodes a unique repetitive sequence in the control region, which forms a unique secondary structure in comparison to Lamellibrachia luymesi. Phylogenetic analyses of all protein-coding genes indicate that L. satsuma forms a monophyletic clade with L. luymesi along with other tubeworms found in cold-seep regions (genera: Lamellibrachia, Escarpia, and Seepiophila). In general, the control region sequences of Annelida could be aligned with certainty within each genus, and to some extent within the family, but with a higher rate of variation in conserved regions.

  17. Phylogenetic analyses of complete mitochondrial genome sequences suggest a basal divergence of the enigmatic rodent Anomalurus

    PubMed Central

    Horner, David S; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Reyes, Aurelio; Gissi, Carmela; Saccone, Cecilia; Pesole, Graziano

    2007-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic relationships between Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates and their allies (Euarchontoglires) have long been debated. While it is now generally agreed that Rodentia constitutes a monophyletic sister-group of Lagomorpha and that this clade (Glires) is sister to Primates and Dermoptera, higher-level relationships within Rodentia remain contentious. Results We have sequenced and performed extensive evolutionary analyses on the mitochondrial genome of the scaly-tailed flying squirrel Anomalurus sp., an enigmatic rodent whose phylogenetic affinities have been obscure and extensively debated. Our phylogenetic analyses of the coding regions of available complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Euarchontoglires suggest that Anomalurus is a sister taxon to the Hystricognathi, and that this clade represents the most basal divergence among sampled Rodentia. Bayesian dating methods incorporating a relaxed molecular clock provide divergence-time estimates which are consistently in agreement with the fossil record and which indicate a rapid radiation within Glires around 60 million years ago. Conclusion Taken together, the data presented provide a working hypothesis as to the phylogenetic placement of Anomalurus, underline the utility of mitochondrial sequences in the resolution of even relatively deep divergences and go some way to explaining the difficulty of conclusively resolving higher-level relationships within Glires with available data and methodologies. PMID:17288612

  18. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb), which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. Results The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp) included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC) and large (LSC) single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb). A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp) of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb), Cucurbita pepo (983 kb) and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb) share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Conclusions Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes, with a non

  19. Complete sequence of human mitochondrial DNA obtained by combining multiple displacement amplification and next-generation sequencing on a single oocyte.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Massimo; Orsini, Massimiliano; Colosimo, Alessia; Marcacci, Maurilia; Russo, Valentina; De Santo, Maria; D'Aurora, Marco; Stuppia, Liborio; Barboni, Barbara; Cammà, Cesare; Gatta, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays a key role in the development of a competent oocyte. In this study, the complete mtDNA sequence obtained for the first time by multiple displacement amplification approach in combination with next-generation sequencing from a single human oocyte is reported (GenBank accession no. KT364276). The analysis of oocyte mitochondrial mutations could provide a better understanding of the genetic variants correlated with the oocyte quality.

  20. Seventeen New Complete mtDNA Sequences Reveal Extensive Mitochondrial Genome Evolution within the Demospongiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2008-01-01

    Two major transitions in animal evolution–the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality–correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13–15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2–27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida). Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida) including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements, occurred in

  1. DNA sequences proximal to human mitochondrial DNA deletion breakpoints prevalent in human disease form G-quadruplexes, a class of DNA structures inefficiently unwound by the mitochondrial replicative Twinkle helicase.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Sommers, Joshua A; Zhou, Jun; Kaplan, Daniel L; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Brosh, Robert M

    2014-10-24

    Mitochondrial DNA deletions are prominent in human genetic disorders, cancer, and aging. It is thought that stalling of the mitochondrial replication machinery during DNA synthesis is a prominent source of mitochondrial genome instability; however, the precise molecular determinants of defective mitochondrial replication are not well understood. In this work, we performed a computational analysis of the human mitochondrial genome using the "Pattern Finder" G-quadruplex (G4) predictor algorithm to assess whether G4-forming sequences reside in close proximity (within 20 base pairs) to known mitochondrial DNA deletion breakpoints. We then used this information to map G4P sequences with deletions characteristic of representative mitochondrial genetic disorders and also those identified in various cancers and aging. Circular dichroism and UV spectral analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial G-rich sequences near deletion breakpoints prevalent in human disease form G-quadruplex DNA structures. A biochemical analysis of purified recombinant human Twinkle protein (gene product of c10orf2) showed that the mitochondrial replicative helicase inefficiently unwinds well characterized intermolecular and intramolecular G-quadruplex DNA substrates, as well as a unimolecular G4 substrate derived from a mitochondrial sequence that nests a deletion breakpoint described in human renal cell carcinoma. Although G4 has been implicated in the initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication, our current findings suggest that mitochondrial G-quadruplexes are also likely to be a source of instability for the mitochondrial genome by perturbing the normal progression of the mitochondrial replication machinery, including DNA unwinding by Twinkle helicase.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Marmota himalayana (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and phylogenetic analysis within Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Chao, Q J; Li, Y D; Geng, X X; Zhang, L; Dai, X; Zhang, X; Li, J; Zhang, H J

    2014-04-14

    This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana, class Marmota). We determined the M. himalayana mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence by using long-PCR methods and a primer-walking sequencing strategy with genus-specific primers. The complete mt genome of M. himalayana was 16,443 bp in length and comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a typical control region (CR). Gene order and orientation were identical to those in mt genomes of most vertebrates. The heavy strand showed an overall A+T content of 63.49%. AT and GC skews for the mt genome of the M. himalayana were 0.012 and -0.300, respectively, indicating a nucleotide bias against T and G. The control region was 997 bp in size and displayed some unusual features, including absence of repeated motifs and two conserved sequence blocks (CSB2 and CSB3), which is consistent with observations from two other rodent species, Sciurus vulgaris and Myoxus glis. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mt DNA sequences without the control region including 30 taxa of Rodentia was performed with Maximum-Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods and provided strong support for Sciurognathi polyphyly and Hystricognathi monophyly. This analysis also provided evidence that M. himalayana mt DNA was closely related to that from Sciurus vulgaris (Sciuridae) and was similar to mt DNA from Myoxus glis.

  3. The Complete DNA Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of a ``living Fossil,'' the Coelacanth (Latimeria Chalumnae)

    PubMed Central

    Zardoya, R.; Meyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 16,407-bp mitochondrial genome of the coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) was determined. The coelacanth mitochondrial genome order is identical to the consensus vertebrate gene order which is also found in all ray-finned fishes, the lungfish, and most tetrapods. Base composition and codon usage also conform to typical vertebrate patterns. The entire mitochondrial genome was PCR-amplified with 24 sets of primers that are expected to amplify homologous regions in other related vertebrate species. Analyses of the control region of the coelacanth mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of four 22-bp tandem repeats close to its 3' end. The phylogenetic analyses of a large data set combining genes coding for rRNAs, tRNAs, and proteins (16,140 characters) confirmed the phylogenetic position of the coelacanth as a lobe-finned fish; it is more closely related to tetrapods than to ray-finned fishes. However, different phylogenetic methods applied to this largest available molecular data set were unable to resolve unambiguously the relationship of the coelacanth to the two other groups of extant lobe-finned fishes, the lungfishes and the tetrapods. Maximum parsimony favored a lungfish/coelacanth or a lungfish/tetrapod sistergroup relationship depending on which transversion:transition weighting is assumed. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood supported a lungfish/tetrapod sistergroup relationship. PMID:9215903

  4. The complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a "living fossil," the coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae).

    PubMed

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    1997-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 16,407-bp mitochondrial genome of the coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) was determined. The coelacanth mitochondrial genome order is identical to the consensus vertebrate gene order which is also found in all ray-finned fishes, the lungfish, and most tetrapods. Base composition and codon usage also conform to typical vertebrate patterns. The entire mitochondrial genome was PCR-amplified with 24 sets of primers that are expected to amplify homologous regions in other related vertebrate species. Analyses of the control region of the coelacanth mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of four 22-bp tandem repeats close to its 3' end. The phylogenetic analyses of a large data set combining genes coding for rRNAs, tRNAs, and proteins (16,140 characters) confirmed the phylogenetic position of the coelacanth as a lobe-finned fish; it is more closely related to tetrapods than to ray-finned fishes. However, different phylogenetic methods applied to this largest available molecular data set were unable to resolve unambiguously the relationship of the coelacanth to the two other groups of extant lobe-finned fishes, the lungfishes and the tetrapods. Maximum parsimony favored a lungfish/coelacanth or a lungfish/tetrapod sistergroup relationship depending on which transversion:transition weighting is assumed. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood supported a lungfish/tetrapod sistergroup relationship.

  5. The full mitochondrial genome sequence of Raillietina tetragona from chicken (Cestoda: Davaineidae).

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian-Ying; Lin, Rui-Qing

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Raillietina tetragona was sequenced and its gene contents and genome organizations was compared with that of other tapeworm. The complete mt genome sequence of R. tetragona is 14,444 bp in length. It contains 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two non-coding region. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A + T of the complete mt genome are 71.4% for R. tetragona. The R. tetragona mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA marker for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Raillietina and has implications for the molecular diagnosis of chicken cestodosis caused by Raillietina.

  6. Sequencing mitochondrial DNA from a tooth and application to forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Ohira, H; Iwase, H; Takatori, T; Nagao, M; Ohtani, S

    1997-06-01

    Genetic identification can be complicated by long intervals between the time of death and examination of tissues, and sometimes only bone and teeth may be available for analysis. Several investigators have described the isolation of nuclear DNA from these materials, but all have indicated that the DNA is significantly degraded. Recently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing have enabled rapid and reliable characterization of specific highly polymorphic DNA sequences from different individuals. Above all, mitochondrial DNA sequences offer several unique advantages for the identification of human remains. The isolation of mtDNA from a tooth and the symmetrical PCR amplification and direct DNA sequencing of its most polymorphic regions are reported.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of thirteen globally sourced strains of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) form a powerful model for mitochondrial research.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonci N; Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitogenomes of 13 strains of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were sequenced. Haplotypes varied between 19 532 and 19 537 bp in length, and followed standard dipteran mitogenome content and organization. We detected a total of 354 variable sites between all thirteen haplotypes, while single pairs of haplotypes were separated by an average of 123 variable sites. The sequenced fly strains form a powerful model for mitochondrial research, when it comes to elucidating the links between the mitochondrial genotype and the phenotype.

  8. Establishing the pangolin mitochondrial D-loop sequences from the confiscated scales.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Wu, Jane-Hong; Chen, Chao-An; Chen, Yen-Jean; Wang, Guan-Bang; Chin, Shih-Chien; Wang, Lih-Chiann; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Pangolin scales are encountered in traditional East Asian medicines (TEAM) and the ever increasing demand for these scales has escalated the decline in the numbers of these mammals. The identification of protected pangolin species is necessary to enforce international and national legislation as well as assist with conservation measures. There is limited morphological feature on a pangolin scale thus requiring DNA analysis as a means of identification. We report on the isolation of DNA from pangolin scales and a strategy for obtaining the full length of the mitochondrial D-loop, being 1159 bp. Primer sets creating five overlapping amplicons were designed to amplify sections of this mitochondrial DNA locus. DNA from the blood stain of nineteen Formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) along with 145 scale samples that were suspected to have come from pangolins, was amplified and sequenced; leading to a total of 91 D-loop sequences being obtained. The 19 Formosan pangolin sequences produced 5 haplotypes and 72 of the 145 seized scales provided useable sequence classified as a further 38 haplotypes. The D-loop sequences from those scales suspected to be from a pangolin had a higher similarity to any of the 19 samples taken from M. p. pentadactyla compared to a D-loop sequence from Manis tetradactyla (the only pangolin D-loop sequence in GenBank, NC_004027). These 43 haplotypes were used to establish a local database for the D-loop sequence of pangolins and add to the data of Manis sp. held on GenBank. The PCR amplification strategy development in this study could be used in forensic DNA identification of scales suspected to be from protected pangolin species.

  9. Sequence Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genomes from Dutch Pedigrees with Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Neil; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Bolhuis, Piet A.; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Clarke, Lorne A.; Mackey, David A.; Preston, Gwen; Herrnstadt, Corinna

    2003-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences for 63 Dutch pedigrees with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were determined, 56 of which carried one of the classic LHON mutations at nucleotide (nt) 3460, 11778, or 14484. Analysis of these sequences indicated that there were several instances in which the mtDNAs were either identical or related by descent. The most striking example was a haplogroup J mtDNA that carried the 14484 LHON mutation. Four different but related mitochondrial genotypes were identified in seven of the Dutch pedigrees with LHON, including six of those described by van Senus. The control region of the founder sequence for these Dutch pedigrees with LHON matches the control-region sequence that Macmillan and colleagues identified in the founder mtDNA of French Canadian pedigrees with LHON. In addition, we obtained a perfect match between the Dutch 14484 founder sequence and the complete mtDNA sequences of two Canadian pedigrees with LHON. Those results indicate that these Dutch and French Canadian 14484 pedigrees with LHON share a common ancestor, that the single origin of the 14484 mutation in this megalineage occurred before the year 1600, and that there is a 14484/haplogroup J founder effect. We estimate that this lineage—including the 14484 LHON mutation—arose 900–1,800 years ago. Overall, the phylogenetic analyses of these mtDNA sequences conservatively indicate that a LHON mutation has arisen at least 42 times in the Dutch population. Finally, analysis of the mtDNA sequences from those pedigrees that did not carry classic LHON mutations suggested candidate pathogenic mutations at nts 9804, 13051, and 14325. PMID:12736867

  10. Reconstructing mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic next-generation sequencing reads—a baiting and iterative mapping approach

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz; Chevreux, Bastien

    2013-01-01

    We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data—mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/chrishah/MITObim. PMID:23661685

  11. Reconstructing mitochondrial genomes directly from genomic next-generation sequencing reads--a baiting and iterative mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz; Chevreux, Bastien

    2013-07-01

    We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of non-model organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data-mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/chrishah/MITObim.

  12. Determination and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wugangtong grey goose.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qian; Jiang, Gui-Tao; Cao, Rong; Yun, Long; Li, Guo-Jun; Dai, Qiu-Zhong; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing; He, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Wugangtong grey goose was reported in Human Province first, which was determined through PCR-based method. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,740 bp. It contains the typical structure, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region) as that of most other vertebrates. The overall composition of the mitogenome was estimated to be 30.22% for A, 22.67% for T, 32.05% for C and 15.07% for G. All the protein initiation codons are ATG, except for COX1, COX2 and ND5 are GTG, ND6 is CTA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Wugangtong grey goose will provides an important data set for the study in genetic mechanism of goose in Hunan province.

  13. [Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah (Serpents: Elapidae)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2010-07-01

    We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of King Cobra(GenBank accession number: EU_921899) by Ex Taq-PCR, TA-cloning and primer-walking methods. This genome is very similar to other vertebrate, which is 17 267 bp in length and encodes 38 genes (including 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA and 23 transfer RNA genes) and two long non-coding regions. The duplication of tRNA-Ile gene forms a new mitochondrial gene rearrangement model. Eight tRNA genes and one protein genes were transcribed from L strand, and the other genes were transcribed genes from H strand. Genes on the H strand show a fairly similar content of Adenosine and Thymine respectively, whereas those on the L strand have higher proportion of A than T. Combined rDNA sequence data (12S+16S rRNA) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 21 snake species for which complete mitochondrial genome sequences were available in the public databases. This large data set and an appropriate range of outgroup taxa demonstrated that Elapidae is more closely related to colubridae than viperidae, which supports the traditional viewpoints.

  14. Computational analysis of conserved coil functional residues in the mitochondrial genomic sequences of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bulbul; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophyte is a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue of humans and other animals. The infection known as dermatophytosis, caused by members of the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton includes infection to the groin (tinea cruris), beard (tinea barbae), scalp (tinea capitis), feet (tinea pedis), glabrous skin (tinea corporis), nail (tinea unguium), and hand (tinea manuum). The identification of evolutionary relationship between these three genera of dermatophyte is epidemiologically important to understand their pathogenicity. Mitochondrial DNA evolves more rapidly than a nuclear DNA due to higher rate of mutation but is very less affected by genetic recombination, making it an important tool for phylogenetic studies. Thus, here we present a novel scheme to identify the conserved coil functional residues of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Protein coding sequences of the mitochondrial genome were aligned for their similar sequences and homology modelling was performed for structure and pocket identification. The results obtained from comparative analysis of the protein sequences revealed the presence of functionally active sites in all the species of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. However in Epidermophyton floccosum it was observed in three protein sequences of the five studied. The absence of these conserved coil functional residues in E. floccusum may be correlated with lesser infectivity of this organism. The functional residues identified in the present study could be responsible for the disease and thus can act as putative target sites for drug designing. PMID:28149055

  15. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  16. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and phylogenetic evaluation of geographically disparate Sus scrofa breeds.

    PubMed

    Cannon, M V; Brandebourg, T D; Kohn, M C; Ðikić, D; Irwin, M H; Pinkert, C A

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates studies into the metabolic characteristics of production animals and their relation to production traits. Sequence analysis of mtDNA from pure-bred swine with highly disparate production characteristics (Mangalica Blonde, Mangalica Swallow-bellied, Meishan, Turopolje, and Yorkshire) was initiated to evaluate the influence of mtDNA polymorphisms on mitochondrial function. Herein, we report the complete mtDNA sequences of five Sus scrofa breeds and evaluate their position within the phylogeny of domestic swine. Phenotypic traits of Yorkshire, Mangalica Blonde, and Swallow-belly swine are presented to demonstrate their metabolic characteristics. Our data support the division of European and Asian breeds noted previously and confirm European ancestry of Mangalica and Turopolje breeds. Furthermore, mtDNA differences between breeds suggest function-altering changes in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation such as ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6), cytochrome oxidase I (MT-CO1), cytochrome oxidase III (MT-CO3), and cytochrome b (MT-CYB), supporting the hypothesis that mtDNA polymorphisms contribute to differences in metabolic traits between swine breeds. Our sequence data form the basis for future research into the roles of mtDNA in determining production traits in domestic animals. Additionally, such studies should provide insight into how mtDNA haplotype influences the extreme adiposity observed in Mangalica breeds.

  17. Phylogeny and evolution of the auks (subfamily Alcinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Piatt, John F.

    1994-01-01

    The genetic divergence and phylogeny of the auks was assessed by mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons in a study using 19 of the 22 auk species and two outgroup representatives. We compared more than 500 nucleotides from each of two mitochondrial genes encoding 12S rRNA and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6. Divergence times were estimated from transversional substitutions. The dovekie (Alle alle) is related to the razorbill (Alca torda) and the murres (Uria spp). Furthermore, the Xantus's murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) and the ancient (Synthliboramphus antiquus) and Japanese murrelets (Synthliboramphus wumizusume) are genetically distinct members of the same main lineage, whereas brachyramphine and synthliboramphine murrelets are not closely related. An early adaptive radiation of six main species groups of auks seems to trace back to Middle Miocene. Later speciation probably involved ecological differentiations and geographical isolations.

  18. Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Kocher, T D; Basasibwaki, P; Wilson, A C

    1990-10-11

    Lake Victoria, together with its satellite lakes, harbours roughly 200 endemic forms of cichlid fishes that are classified as 'haplochromines' and yet the lake system is less than a million years old. This 'flock' has attracted attention because of the possibility that it evolved within the lake from one ancestral species and that biologists are thus presented with a case of explosive evolution. Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic. We sequenced up to 803 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 14 representative Victorian species and 23 additional African species. The flock seems to be monophyletic, and is more akin to that from Lake Malawi than to species from Lake Tanganyika; in addition, it contains less genetic variation than does the human species, and there is virtually no sharing of mitochondrial DNA types among species. These results confirm that the founding event was recent.

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes from Polycladida (Platyhelminthes) using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Aguado, M Teresa; Grande, Cristina; Gerth, Michael; Bleidorn, Christoph; Noreña, Carolina

    2016-01-10

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of three polycladids, the acotylean Hoploplana elisabelloi and the cotyleans Enchiridium sp. and Prosthiostomum siphunculus have been assembled with high coverage from Illumina sequencing data. The mt genomes contain 36 genes including 12 of the 13 protein-coding genes characteristic for metazoan mitochondrial genomes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Gene annotation, gene order, genetic code, start and stop codons and codon bias have been identified. In comparison with the well investigated parasitic Neodermata, our analysis reveals a great diversity of gene orders within Polycladida and Platyhelminthes in general. By analyzing representative genomes of the main groups of Platyhelminthes we explored the phylogenetic relationships of this group. The phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the monophyly of Polycladida, and based on a small taxon sampling suggest the monophyly of Acotylea and Cotylea.

  20. A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Matthias; Fu, Qiaomei; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Glocke, Isabelle; Nickel, Birgit; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Pääbo, Svante

    2014-01-16

    Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. One of these sites, the 'Sima de los Huesos' ('pit of bones'), has yielded the world's largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 individuals dated to over 300,000 years ago. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.

  1. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the fat dormouse, Glis glis: further evidence of rodent paraphyly.

    PubMed

    Reyes, A; Pesole, G; Saccone, C

    1998-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the fat dormouse, Glis glis, has been sequenced (16,602 bp). A total of 23 complete mitochondrial mammalian genomes have been taken into account for phylogenetic reconstruction. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with parsimony, distance (stationary Markov model), and maximum-likelihood methods. In all cases, data strongly support the paraphyly of rodents, with dormouse and guinea pig in a different clade from rat and mouse, reaching bootstrap values of 95%. Rodent monophyly and the existence of Glires (Rodentia and Lagomorpha) are weakly supported, with maximum bootstrap values of 11% and 8.6%, respectively. This result agrees with the analyses of isochore patterns in the nuclear genome and the B2 and B2-like retroposons, which show a close relationship between dormice and guinea pigs rather than between dormice and rats and mice.

  2. The Mitochondrial Genomes of Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus (Aves, Accipitriformes): Sequence, Structure and Phylogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lan; Chen, Juan; Wang, Ping; Ren, Qiongqiong; Yuan, Jian; Qian, Chaoju; Hua, Xinghong; Guo, Zhichun; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jianke; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Hengwu; Bi, De; Zhang, Zongmeng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Dongsheng; Kan, Xianzhao

    2015-01-01

    The family Accipitridae is one of the largest groups of non-passerine birds, including 68 genera and 243 species globally distributed. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial sequences of two species of accipitrid, namely Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus, and conducted a comparative mitogenome analysis across the family. The mitogenome length of A. fasciata and B. lagopus are 18,513 and 18,559 bp with an A + T content of 54.2% and 55.0%, respectively. For both the two accipitrid birds mtDNAs, obvious positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew biases were detected for all 12 PCGs encoded by the H strand, whereas the reverse was found in MT-ND6 encoded by the L strand. One extra nucleotide‘C’is present at the position 174 of MT-ND3 gene of A. fasciata, which is not observed at that of B. lagopus. Six conserved sequence boxes in the Domain II, named boxes F, E, D, C, CSBa, and CSBb, respectively, were recognized in the CRs of A. fasciata and B. lagopus. Rates and patterns of mitochondrial gene evolution within Accipitridae were also estimated. The highest dN/dS was detected for the MT-ATP8 gene (0.32493) among Accipitridae, while the lowest for the MT-CO1 gene (0.01415). Mitophylogenetic analysis supported the robust monophyly of Accipitriformes, and Cathartidae was basal to the balance of the order. Moreover, we performed phylogenetic analyses using two other data sets (two mitochondrial loci, and combined nuclear and mitochondrial loci). Our results indicate that the subfamily Aquilinae and all currently polytypic genera of this subfamily are monophyletic. These two novel mtDNA data will be useful in refining the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary processes of Accipitriformes. PMID:26295156

  3. Cytogenetic and Sequence Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA Insertions in Nuclear Chromosomes of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Lough, Ashley N.; Faries, Kaitlyn M.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Hussain, Abid; Roark, Leah M.; Langewisch, Tiffany L.; Backes, Teresa; Kremling, Karl A. G.; Jiang, Jiming; Birchler, James A.; Newton, Kathleen J.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into nuclear genomes is a regularly occurring process that has been observed in many species. Few studies, however, have focused on the variation of nuclear-mtDNA sequences (NUMTs) within a species. This study examined mtDNA insertions within chromosomes of a diverse set of Zea mays ssp. mays (maize) inbred lines by the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization. A relatively large NUMT on the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L) was identified at approximately the same position in four inbred lines (B73, M825, HP301, and Oh7B). Further examination of the similarly positioned 9L NUMT in two lines, B73 and M825, indicated that the large size of these sites is due to the presence of a majority of the mitochondrial genome; however, only portions of this NUMT (∼252 kb total) were found in the publically available B73 nuclear sequence for chromosome 9. Fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis estimated the size of the B73 9L NUMT to be ∼1.8 Mb and revealed that the NUMT is methylated. Two regions of mtDNA (2.4 kb and 3.3 kb) within the 9L NUMT are not present in the B73 mitochondrial NB genome; however, these 2.4-kb and 3.3-kb segments are present in other Zea mitochondrial genomes, including that of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, a progenitor of domesticated maize. PMID:26333837

  4. Mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon: efficient sequencing method with reptile-oriented primers and novel gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Yoshinori; Endo, Hideki

    2004-04-30

    The mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) was nearly completely sequenced, except for two highly repetitive noncoding regions. An efficient sequencing method for squamate mitochondrial genomes was established by combining the long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and a set of reptile-oriented primers designed for nested PCR amplifications. It was found that the mitochondrial genome had novel gene arrangements in which genes from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 to proline tRNA were extensively shuffled with duplicate control regions. These control regions had 99% sequence similarity over 700 bp. Although snake mitochondrial genomes are also known to possess duplicate control regions with nearly identical sequences, the location of the second control region suggested independent occurrence of the duplication on lineages leading to snakes and the Komodo dragon. Another feature of the mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon was the considerable number of tandem repeats, including sequences with a strong secondary structure, as a possible site for the slipped-strand mispairing in replication. These observations are consistent with hypotheses that tandem duplications via the slipped-strand mispairing may induce mitochondrial gene rearrangements and may serve to maintain similar copies of the control region.

  5. Analysis of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the brachiopod terebratulina retusa places Brachiopoda within the protostomes.

    PubMed Central

    Stechmann, A; Schlegel, M

    1999-01-01

    Brachiopod phylogeny is still a controversial subject. Analyses using nuclear 18SrRNA and mitochondrial 12SrDNA sequences place them within the protostomes but some recent interpretations of morphological data support a relationship with deuterostomes. In order to investigate brachiopod affinities within the metazoa further, we compared the gene arrangement on the brachiopod mitochondrial genome with several metazoan taxa. The complete (15 451 bp) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the articulate brachiopod Terebratulina retusa was determined from two overlapping long polymerase chain reaction products. All the genes are encoded on the same strand and gene order comparisons showed that.only one major rearrangement is required to interconvert the T. retusa and Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polvplacophora) mitochondrial genomes. The partial mtDNA sequence of the prosobranch mollusc Littorina saxatilis shows complete congruence with the T. rehtusa gene arrangement with regard to the ribosomal and protein coding genes. This high similarity in gene arrangement is the first to be reported within the protostomes. Sequence analyses of mitochondrial protein coding genes also support a close relationship of the brachiopod with molluscs and annelids, thus supporting the clade Lophotrochozoa. Though being highly informative, sequence analyses of the mitochondrial protein coding genes failed to resolve the branching order within the lophotrochozoa. PMID:10902540

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida supports monophyly of Palaeacanthocephala (Acanthocephala: Polymorphida).

    PubMed

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Joong-Ki

    2015-08-01

    Acanthocephala is a relatively small, but distinct obligate parasitic group that includes 4 classes: Archiacanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Polyacanthocephala, and Eoacanthocephala. The phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalans are mainly based on nuclear ribosomal genes. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida (Palaeacanthocephala: Polymorphida), and used this genome sequence along with other platyzoan species (including syndermatan groups) to assess its phylogenetic position within Acanthocephala. The S. hispida mtDNA is a 14,742 bp circular molecule that contains 36 genes (lacking atp8) encoded in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences for 12 protein-coding genes suggested palaeacanthocephalan species to be monophyletic, and this group to be sister to Eoacanthocephala. These results confirm other morphological and molecular data supporting palaeacanthocephalan monophyly.

  7. Phylogeny and genetic diversity of Bridgeoporus nobilissimus inferred using mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redberg, G.L.; Hibbett, D.S.; Ammirati, J.F.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogeny of Bridgeoporus nobilissimus have been analyzed. DNA was extracted from spores collected from individual fruiting bodies representing six geographically distinct populations in Oregon and Washington. Spore samples collected contained low levels of bacteria, yeast and a filamentous fungal species. Using taxon-specific PCR primers, it was possible to discriminate among rDNA from bacteria, yeast, a filamentous associate and B. nobilissimus. Nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences of B. nobilissimus were compared among individuals representing six populations and were found to have less than 2% variation. These sequences also were used to design dual and nested PCR primers for B. nobilissimus-specific amplification. Mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA sequences were used in a phylogenetic analysis that placed B. nobilissimus in the hymenochaetoid clade, where it was associated with Oxyporus and Schizopora.

  8. Phylogenetic study and barcoding of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, found on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia using the COI gene.

    PubMed

    Chee, S Y; Devakie, M N; Siti Azizah, M N

    2011-06-28

    Blood cockles are among the most economically important brackish water invertebrates found in Malaysia. However, our knowledge of blood cockle phylogeny and systematics is rudimentary, especially for the species Tegillarca granosa. It is unclear, for instance, whether the cockles occurring on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a single species, or multiple, phylogenetically distinct species. We performed the first DNA molecular phylogenetic analysis of T. granosa to distinguish it from other related species found in other parts of the world and to create a DNA database for the species. An approximately 585-nucleotide fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase I, COI) was sequenced for 150 individual cockles, representing 10 populations: three from the north, four from the central part and three from the southern part of peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting dataset yielded tree topologies that not only showed the relationship between T. granosa and its closest relatives but its position in the evolutionary tree. Three mitochondrial clades were evident, each containing an individual genus. Using the mutation rate of the COI gene, the divergence time between T. granosa and its closest related species was estimated to be 460 thousand years ago. This study provides a phylogenetic framework for this ecologically prominent and commercially important cockle species.

  9. mit-o-matic: a comprehensive computational pipeline for clinical evaluation of mitochondrial variations from next-generation sequencing datasets.

    PubMed

    Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Dhiman, Heena; Joshi, Kandarp; Hasija, Yasha; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-04-01

    The human mitochondrial genome has been reported to have a very high mutation rate as compared with the nuclear genome. A large number of mitochondrial mutations show significant phenotypic association and are involved in a broad spectrum of diseases. In recent years, there has been a remarkable progress in the understanding of mitochondrial genetics. The availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have not only reduced sequencing cost by orders of magnitude but has also provided us good quality mitochondrial genome sequences with high coverage, thereby enabling decoding of a number of human mitochondrial diseases. In this study, we report a computational and experimental pipeline to decipher the human mitochondrial DNA variations and examine them for their clinical correlation. As a proof of principle, we also present a clinical study of a patient with Leigh disease and confirmed maternal inheritance of the causative allele. The pipeline is made available as a user-friendly online tool to annotate variants and find haplogroup, disease association, and heteroplasmic sites. The "mit-o-matic" computational pipeline represents a comprehensive cloud-based tool for clinical evaluation of mitochondrial genomic variations from NGS datasets. The tool is freely available at http://genome.igib.res.in/mitomatic/.

  10. Complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence of cDNA encoding the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue: lack of a mitochondrial targeting presequence.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, R G; Patel, H V; Gerber, G E; Morton, R C; Freeman, K B

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA clone spanning the entire amino acid sequence of the nuclear-encoded uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue mitochondria has been isolated and sequenced. With the exception of the N-terminal methionine the deduced N-terminus of the newly synthesized uncoupling protein is identical to the N-terminal 30 amino acids of the native uncoupling protein as determined by protein sequencing. This proves that the protein contains no N-terminal mitochondrial targeting prepiece and that a targeting region must reside within the amino acid sequence of the mature protein. Images PMID:3012461

  11. Complete Sequence and Analysis of Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) Mitochondrial Genome.

    PubMed

    Aljohi, Hasan Awad; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhao, Yuhui; Zeng, Jingyao; Alamer, Ali; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alawad, Abdullah O; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important crops in tropics, serving as an important source of food, drink, fuel, medicine, and construction material. Here we report an assembly of the coconut (C. nucifera, Oman local Tall cultivar) mitochondrial (mt) genome based on next-generation sequencing data. This genome, 678,653bp in length and 45.5% in GC content, encodes 72 proteins, 9 pseudogenes, 23 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs. Within the assembly, we find that the chloroplast (cp) derived regions account for 5.07% of the total assembly length, including 13 proteins, 2 pseudogenes, and 11 tRNAs. The mt genome has a relatively large fraction of repeat content (17.26%), including both forward (tandem) and inverted (palindromic) repeats. Sequence variation analysis shows that the Ti/Tv ratio of the mt genome is lower as compared to that of the nuclear genome and neutral expectation. By combining public RNA-Seq data for coconut, we identify 734 RNA editing sites supported by at least two datasets. In summary, our data provides the second complete mt genome sequence in the family Arecaceae, essential for further investigations on mitochondrial biology of seed plants.

  12. Complete Sequence and Analysis of Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) Mitochondrial Genome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuhui; Zeng, Jingyao; Alamer, Ali; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Alawad, Abdullah O.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important crops in tropics, serving as an important source of food, drink, fuel, medicine, and construction material. Here we report an assembly of the coconut (C. nucifera, Oman local Tall cultivar) mitochondrial (mt) genome based on next-generation sequencing data. This genome, 678,653bp in length and 45.5% in GC content, encodes 72 proteins, 9 pseudogenes, 23 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs. Within the assembly, we find that the chloroplast (cp) derived regions account for 5.07% of the total assembly length, including 13 proteins, 2 pseudogenes, and 11 tRNAs. The mt genome has a relatively large fraction of repeat content (17.26%), including both forward (tandem) and inverted (palindromic) repeats. Sequence variation analysis shows that the Ti/Tv ratio of the mt genome is lower as compared to that of the nuclear genome and neutral expectation. By combining public RNA-Seq data for coconut, we identify 734 RNA editing sites supported by at least two datasets. In summary, our data provides the second complete mt genome sequence in the family Arecaceae, essential for further investigations on mitochondrial biology of seed plants. PMID:27736909

  13. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in the emerging field of massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Just, Rebecca S.; Irwin, Jodi A.; Parson, Walther

    2015-01-01

    Long an important and useful tool in forensic genetic investigations, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing continues to mature. Research in the last few years has demonstrated both that data from the entire molecule will have practical benefits in forensic DNA casework, and that massively parallel sequencing (MPS) methods will make full mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) sequencing of forensic specimens feasible and cost-effective. A spate of recent studies has employed these new technologies to assess intraindividual mtDNA variation. However, in several instances, contamination and other sources of mixed mtDNA data have been erroneously identified as heteroplasmy. Well vetted mtGenome datasets based on both Sanger and MPS sequences have found authentic point heteroplasmy in approximately 25% of individuals when minor component detection thresholds are in the range of 10–20%, along with positional distribution patterns in the coding region that differ from patterns of point heteroplasmy in the well-studied control region. A few recent studies that examined very low-level heteroplasmy are concordant with these observations when the data are examined at a common level of resolution. In this review we provide an overview of considerations related to the use of MPS technologies to detect mtDNA heteroplasmy. In addition, we examine published reports on point heteroplasmy to characterize features of the data that will assist in the evaluation of future mtGenome data developed by any typing method. PMID:26009256

  14. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Phthonandria atrilineata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Hong, Gui-Yun; Jiang, Shao-Tong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2009-07-01

    Using long-polymerase chain reaction (Long-PCR) method, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Phthonandria atrilineata. The complete mtDNA from P. atrilineata was 15,499 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The P. atrilineata genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. The nucleotide composition of P. atrilineata mitogenome was biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.02%), and the 13 PCGs show different A + T contents that range from 73.25% (cox1) to 92.12% (atp8). Phthonandria had the canonical set of 22 tRNA genes, that fold in the typical cloverleaf structure described for metazoan mt tRNAs, with the unique exception of trnS(AGN). The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, which confirmed that P. atrilineata is most closely related to the superfamily Bombycoidea.

  15. Sequence-specific modification of mitochondrial DNA using a chimeric zinc finger methylase

    PubMed Central

    Minczuk, Michal; Papworth, Monika A.; Kolasinska, Paulina; Murphy, Michael P.; Klug, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    We used engineered zinc finger peptides (ZFPs) to bind selectively to predetermined sequences in human mtDNA. Surprisingly, we found that engineered ZFPs cannot be reliably routed to mitochondria by using only conventional mitochondrial targeting sequences. We here show that addition of a nuclear export signal allows zinc finger chimeric enzymes to be imported into human mitochondria. The selective binding of mitochondria-specific ZFPs to mtDNA was exemplified by targeting the T8993G mutation, which causes two mitochondrial diseases, neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) and also maternally inherited Leigh's syndrome. To develop a system that allows the monitoring of site-specific alteration of mtDNA we combined a ZFP with the easily assayed DNA-modifying activity of hDNMT3a methylase. Expression of the mutation-specific chimeric methylase resulted in the selective methylation of cytosines adjacent to the mutation site. This is a proof of principle that it is possible to target and alter mtDNA in a sequence-specific manner by using zinc finger technology. PMID:17170133

  16. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Crossostoma lacustre mitochondrial genome: conservation and variations among vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, C S; Hui, C F; Shen, S C; Huang, P C

    1992-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Crossostoma lacustre, a freshwater loach from mountain stream of Taiwan, has been cloned and sequenced. This fish mt genome, consisting of 16558 base-pairs, encodes genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs, in addition to a regulatory sequence for replication and transcription (D-loop), is similar to those of the other vertebrates in both the order and orientation of these genes. The protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes are highly homologous both in size and composition, to their counterparts in mammals, birds, amphibians, and invertebrates, and using essentially the same set of codons, including both the initiation and termination signals, and the tRNAs. Differences do exist, however, in the lengths and sequences of the D-loop regions, and in space between genes, which account for the variations in total lengths of the genomes. Our observations provide evidence for the first time for the conservation of genetic information in the fish mitochondrial genome, especially among the vertebrates. PMID:1408800

  17. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing of beetle larvae (Nitidulidae: Omosita) recovered from human bone.

    PubMed

    DiZinno, Joseph A; Lord, Wayne D; Collins-Morton, Mary B; Wilson, Mark R; Goff, M Lee

    2002-11-01

    The isolation, amplification, and characterization of human DNA from hematophagous (blood feeding) and necrophagous (carrion feeding) arthropods have been advanced significantly by the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA sequencing methodologies. Historically, DNA technology has been successfully utilized to identify individual hosts upon which species of hematophagous arthropods have fed. The analysis of hematophagous insects' gut content blood meals has led to major advances in medical entomology and vector-borne disease epidemiology. In the forensic arena, the ability to apply similar techniques to insects recovered from badly decomposed remains has been greatly enhanced through the advent of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) techniques. Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been utilized to identify both the human remains upon which fly larvae (maggots) have fed and the species of the larvae themselves. The preliminary work detailed here demonstrates, for the first time, the successful application of mtDNA sequencing techniques to the analysis of necrophagous beetle larvae. A small sample of sap beetle larvae, Omosita spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), was collected from human skeletal remains during anthropological examination and analyzed for human DNA using mtDNA sequencing. The beetle larvae yielded mtDNA matching that of the host human bone. The results detailed here further demonstrate the robust nature of human mtDNA and the ability to recover valuable mtDNA evidence from forensically important, late decompositional stage insect species.

  18. A functional test of Neandertal and modern human mitochondrial targeting sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Gralle, Matthias; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Paeaebo, Svante

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Two mutations in mitochondrial targeting peptides occurred during human evolution, possibly after Neandertals split off from modern human lineage. {yields} The ancestral and modern human versions of these two targeting peptides were tested functionally for their effects on localization and cleavage rate. {yields} In spite of recent evolution, and to the contrary of other mutations in targeting peptides, these mutations had no visible effects. -- Abstract: Targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins to different organelles, such as mitochondria, is a process that can result in the redeployment of proteins to new intracellular destinations during evolution. With the sequencing of the Neandertal genome, it has become possible to identify amino acid substitutions that occurred on the modern human lineage since its separation from the Neandertal lineage. Here we analyze the function of two substitutions in mitochondrial targeting sequences that occurred and rose to high frequency recently during recent human evolution. The ancestral and modern versions of the two targeting sequences do not differ in the efficiency with which they direct a protein to the mitochondria, an observation compatible with the neutral theory of molecular evolution.

  19. Underlying Data for Sequencing the Mitochondrial Genome with the Massively Parallel Sequencing Platform Ion Torrent™ PGM™

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies have the capacity to sequence targeted regions or whole genomes of multiple nucleic acid samples with high coverage by sequencing millions of DNA fragments simultaneously. Compared with Sanger sequencing, MPS also can reduce labor and cost on a per nucleotide basis and indeed on a per sample basis. In this study, whole genomes of human mitochondria (mtGenome) were sequenced on the Personal Genome Machine (PGMTM) (Life Technologies, San Francisco, CA), the out data were assessed, and the results were compared with data previously generated on the MiSeqTM (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The objectives of this paper were to determine the feasibility, accuracy, and reliability of sequence data obtained from the PGM. Results 24 samples were multiplexed (in groups of six) and sequenced on the at least 10 megabase throughput 314 chip. The depth of coverage pattern was similar among all 24 samples; however the coverage across the genome varied. For strand bias, the average ratio of coverage between the forward and reverse strands at each nucleotide position indicated that two-thirds of the positions of the genome had ratios that were greater than 0.5. A few sites had more extreme strand bias. Another observation was that 156 positions had a false deletion rate greater than 0.15 in one or more individuals. There were 31-98 (SNP) mtGenome variants observed per sample for the 24 samples analyzed. The total 1237 (SNP) variants were concordant between the results from the PGM and MiSeq. The quality scores for haplogroup assignment for all 24 samples ranged between 88.8%-100%. Conclusions In this study, mtDNA sequence data generated from the PGM were analyzed and the output evaluated. Depth of coverage variation and strand bias were identified but generally were infrequent and did not impact reliability of variant calls. Multiplexing of samples was demonstrated which can improve throughput and reduce cost per sample analyzed

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A

    2008-10-28

    We conducted a comparative evaluation of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. Our findings showed the failure of 12S rRNA gene to differentiate between the genus Oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16S rRNA accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16S rRNA segment for molecular phylogeny of oryx at the genus and possibly species levels.

  1. Population genetic structure and historical demography of Oratosquilla oratoria revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Ding, Ge; Ge, B; Zhang, H; Tang, B

    2012-12-01

    Genetic diversity, population genetic structure and molecular phylogeographic pattern of mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Bohai Sea and South China Sea were analyzed by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Nucleotide and haplotype diversities were 0.00409-0.00669 and 0.894-0.953 respectively. Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree clustered two distinct lineages. Both phylogenetic tree and median-joining network showed the consistent genetic structure corresponding to geographical distribution. Mismatch distributions, negative neutral test and "star-like" network supported a sudden population expansion event. And the time was estimated about 44000 and 50000 years ago.

  2. A conserved 11 nucleotide sequence contains an essential promoter element of the maize mitochondrial atp1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, W D; Stern, D B

    1992-01-01

    To determine the structure of a functional plant mitochondrial promoter, we have partially purified an RNA polymerase activity that correctly initiates transcription at the maize mitochondrial atp1 promoter in vitro. Using a series of 5' deletion constructs, we found that essential sequences are located within--19 nucleotides (nt) of the transcription initiation site. The region surrounding the initiation site includes conserved sequence motifs previously proposed to be maize mitochondrial promoter elements. Deletion of a conserved 11 nt sequence showed that it is critical for promoter function, but deletion or alteration of conserved upstream G(A/T)3-4 repeats had no effect. When the atp1 11 nt sequence was inserted into different plasmids lacking mitochondrial promoter activity, transcription was only observed for one of these constructs. We infer from these data that the functional promoter extends beyond this motif, most likely in the 5' direction. The maize mitochondrial cox3 and atp6 promoters also direct transcription initiation in this in vitro system, suggesting that it may be widely applicable for studies of mitochondrial transcription in this species. Images PMID:1372246

  3. The complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the gadilid scaphopod Siphonondentalium lobatum (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    Comparisons of mitochondrial gene sequences and gene arrangements can be informative for reconstructing high-level phylogenetic relationships. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Siphonodentalium lobatum, (Mollusca, Scaphopoda). With only 13,932 bases, it is the shortest molluscan mitochondrial genome reported so far. The genome contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The ATPase subunit 8 gene is exceptionally short. Several transfer RNAs show truncated TpsiC arms or DHU arms. The gene arrangement of S. lobatum is markedly different from all other known molluscan mitochondrial genomes and shows low similarity even to an unpublished gene order of a dentaliid scaphopod. Phylogenetic analyses of all available complete molluscan mitochondrial genomes based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein-coding genes yield trees with low support for the basal branches. None of the traditionally accepted molluscan taxa and phylogenies are recovered in all analyses, except for the euthyneuran Gastropoda. S. lobatum appears as the sister taxon to two of the three bivalve species. We conclude that the deep molluscan phylogeny is probably beyond the resolution of mitochondrial protein sequences. Moreover, assessing the phylogenetic signal in gene order data requires a much larger taxon sample than is currently available, given the exceptional diversity of this character set in the Mollusca.

  4. When mtDNA COI is misleading: congruent signal of ITS2 molecular marker and morphology for North European Melanostoma Schiner, 1860 (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The northern European taxa of genus Melanostoma Schiner, 1860 (Syrphidae, Diptera) are revised. A longstanding question concerning the number of Melanostoma taxa occurring in northern Europe prompted us to contrast and compare their morphological and molecular variability. Particular uncertainty concerned the putative existence of a sibling species of Melanostoma mellinum, and the identity of the taxon Melanostoma dubium in northern Europe due to existence of morphologically similar dark forms of M. mellinum in the northern parts of its distributional range. Partial sequences of two DNA markers, the mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI-3') and the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were analysed separately under parsimony. The obtained COI-3'gene fragment showed taxon-specific haplotypes and haplotypes that were shared among the taxa. The ITS2 sequences presented genotypes unique to each species, and congruence with our independently established taxonomic entities. Based on congruent signal of the ITS2 sequences and study of morphological characters we establish the presence of four taxa in northern Europe: Melanostoma mellium (= M. dubium nec auctt., syn. n.), M. certum sp. n. (= M. dubium auctt.), M. mellarium stat. n. (= M. mellinum auctt. partim) and M. scalare. Lectotype designations were made for Musca mellina, Syrphus mellarius and Melanostoma mellinum var. melanatus. The following synonymies were established: Melanostoma mellarium = Melanostoma melanatum syn. n.; Melanostoma mellinum = Scaeva dubia syn. n., Melanostoma tschernovi syn. n., and Melanostoma clausseni syn. n. Morphological circumscriptions of the taxa and an identification key are presented. PMID:25152670

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the Drosophila virilis section (Diptera: Drosophilidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-cheng; Park, Jecheol; Watabe, Hide-aki; Gao, Jian-jun; Xiangyu, Jing-gong; Aotsuka, Tadashi; Chen, Hong-wei; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2006-08-01

    Regardless of the well-documented virilis species group, most groups of the Drosophila virilis section have not been completely studied at molecular level since it was suggested. Therefore, phylogenetic relationships among and within species groups of the virilis section are generally unknown. In present paper, the complete mitochondrial ND2 gene and fragment of COI gene in combination with a nuclear gene, Adh coding region, were used to derive the most extensive molecular phylogeny to date for the Drosophila virilis section. A total of 111 individuals covering 61 species were sampled in this study. Novel phylogenetic findings included (1) support for the paraphyly of the melanica and robusta species group and at least two subgroups of the robusta species group, the lacertosa and okadai subgroups, were distinguished as paraphyletic taxa. In addition, (2) present results revealed the sister relationship between D. moriwakii and the robusta subgroup, conflicting with current taxonomy regarding D. moriwakii, which was shifted from the robusta species group to the melanica group. (3) In contrast to the robusta and melanica species groups, monophyly of the polychaeta species group, the angor group and the virilis group was confirmed, respectively. However, the monophyletic quadrisetata species group was resolved with uncertainty. (4) Our analyses of combined data set suggested close relationship between the quadrisetata species group and the unpublished clefta group, and the okadai subgroup is sister to the clade comprising of the quadrisetata and clefta species groups. Within the virilis section, D. fluvialis and three tropical species groups, the polychaeta group, the angor group and the repleta group, are found to branch off earlier than other ingroup taxa. This suggests that the virilis section might have originated in the Old World tropics. Besides, the derived status of the close affinities of the quadrisetata group, the clefta group, and the melanica and robusta

  6. Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial DNA of the Annelid Worm Lumbricus Terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Boore, J. L.; Brown, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the mitochondrial genome of an oligochaete annelid, the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. This genome contains the 37 genes typical of metazoan mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including ATPase8, which is missing from some invertebrate mtDNAs. ATPase8 is not immediately upstream of ATPase6, a condition found previously only in the mtDNA of snails. All genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The largest noncoding region is 384 nt and is characterized by several homopolymer runs, a tract of alternating TA pairs, and potential secondary structures. All protein-encoding genes either overlap the adjacent downstream gene or end at an abbreviated stop codon. In Lumbricus mitochondria, the variation of the genetic code that is typical of most invertebrate mitochondrial genomes is used. Only the codon ATG is used for translation initiation. Lumbricus mtDNA is A + T rich, which appears to affect the codon usage pattern. The DHU arm appears to be unpaired not only in tRNA(ser(AGN)), as is typical for metazoans, but perhaps also in tRNA(ser(UCN)), a condition found previously only in a chiton and among nematodes. Relating the Lumbricus gene organization to those of other major protostome groups requires numerous rearrangements. PMID:8536978

  7. Intraspecific nucleotide sequence differences in the major noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Horai, S; Hayasaka, K

    1990-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the major noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 95 human placentas have been determined. These sequences include at least a 482-bp-long region encompassing most of the D-loop-forming region. Comparisons of these sequences with those previously determined have revealed remarkable features of nucleotide substitutions and insertion/deletion events. The nucleotide diversity among the sequences is estimated as 1.45%, which is three- to fourfold higher than the corresponding value estimated from restriction-enzyme analysis of whole mtDNA genome. A hypervariable region has also been defined. In this 14-bp region, 17 different sequences were detected. More than 97% of the base changes are transitions. A significantly nonrandom distribution of nucleotide substitutions and sequence length variations were also noted. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that diversity among the negroids is much larger than that among the caucasoids or the mongoloids. In fact, part of the negroids first diverged from other humans in the phylogenetic tree. A striking finding in the phylogenetic analysis is that the mongoloids can be separated into two distinct groups. Divergence of part of the mongoloids follows the earliest divergence of part of the negroids. The remainder of the mongoloids subsequently diverged together with the caucasoids. This observation confirmed our earlier study, which clearly demonstrated, by the restriction-enzyme analysis, existence of two distinct groups in the Japanese. Images Figure 3 PMID:2316527

  8. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC.

  9. SAM: String-based sequence search algorithm for mitochondrial DNA database queries

    PubMed Central

    Röck, Alexander; Irwin, Jodi; Dür, Arne; Parsons, Thomas; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the haploid mitochondrial (mt) genome has numerous applications in forensic and population genetics, as well as in disease studies. Although mtDNA haplotypes are usually determined by sequencing, they are rarely reported as a nucleotide string. Traditionally they are presented in a difference-coded position-based format relative to the corrected version of the first sequenced mtDNA. This convention requires recommendations for standardized sequence alignment that is known to vary between scientific disciplines, even between laboratories. As a consequence, database searches that are vital for the interpretation of mtDNA data can suffer from biased results when query and database haplotypes are annotated differently. In the forensic context that would usually lead to underestimation of the absolute and relative frequencies. To address this issue we introduce SAM, a string-based search algorithm that converts query and database sequences to position-free nucleotide strings and thus eliminates the possibility that identical sequences will be missed in a database query. The mere application of a BLAST algorithm would not be a sufficient remedy as it uses a heuristic approach and does not address properties specific to mtDNA, such as phylogenetically stable but also rapidly evolving insertion and deletion events. The software presented here provides additional flexibility to incorporate phylogenetic data, site-specific mutation rates, and other biologically relevant information that would refine the interpretation of mitochondrial DNA data. The manuscript is accompanied by freeware and example data sets that can be used to evaluate the new software (http://stringvalidation.org). PMID:21056022

  10. Mitochondrial tRNA sequences as unusual replication origins: pathogenic implications for Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé; Krishnan, Neeraja M; Rao, Basuthkar J

    2006-12-07

    The heavy strand of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes accumulates deaminations proportionally to the time it spends single-stranded during replication. A previous study showed that the strength of genome-wide deamination gradients originating from tRNA gene's locations increases with their capacities to form secondary structures resembling mitochondrial origins of light strand replication (OL), suggesting an alternative function for tRNA sequences. We hypothesize that this function is frequently pathogenic for those tRNA genes that normally do not form OL-like structures, because this could cause excess mutations in genome regions unadapted to tolerate them. In human mitochondrial genomes, pathogenic tRNA variants usually form less OL-like structures than non-pathogenic ones in cases where the normal non-pathogenic tRNA variant can function as OL, as evolutionary analyses reveal. For tRNAs lacking the putative OL-like functioning capacity, pathogenic variants form more OL-like secondary structures, particularly structures that might invoke bi-directional replication (true for 14 among 21 tRNA species, p<0.05, sign test; significantly at p<0.05 (1 tailed test) for 7 tRNA species), but not more unidirectional replication invoking structures. Accounting for the functional cloverleaf-like structure-forming capacities of tRNAs yields similar results. Rare, non-pathogenic tRNA mutants tend to form more OL-like structures than the common, non-pathogenic ones, suggesting weak directional selection also among non-pathogenic variants. The duration spent single stranded by a region of the heavy strand (D(ssH)) during replication, estimated by integrating over all regions that can function as OL in Homo sapiens mitochondrial genomes, increases with distance of that region from the Dloop. This suggests convergence of single-strandedness during replication and transcription, and explains conserved locations of tRNA species in mitochondrial genomes and bacterial operons. These

  11. Collection of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences from Rhipicephalus ticks from various geographic locations around the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the origin of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, will be helpful to the effort to find biological control agents. Molecular phylogenetics can assist in this determination. Thus, we sequenced and assembled partial gene sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I coding r...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence and Lack of Response to Anoxia in the Annual Killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Josiah T.; Herrejon Chavez, Florisela; Podrabsky, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    The annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus inhabits ephemeral ponds in regions of Venezuela, South America. Permanent populations of A. limnaeus are maintained by production of stress-tolerant embryos that are able to persist in the desiccated sediment. Previous work has demonstrated that A. limnaeus have a remarkable ability to tolerate extended periods of anoxia and desiccating conditions. After considering temperature, A. limnaeus embryos have the highest known tolerance to anoxia when compared to any other vertebrate yet studied. Oxygen is completely essential for the process of oxidative phosphorylation by mitochondria, the intracellular organelle responsible for the majority of adenosine triphosphate production. Thus, understanding the unique properties of A. limnaeus mitochondria is of great interest. In this work, we describe the first complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) sequence of a single adult A. limnaeus individual and compare both coding and non-coding regions to several other closely related fish mtgenomes. Mitochondrial features were predicted using MitoAnnotator and polyadenylation sites were predicted using RNAseq mapping. To estimate the responsiveness of A. limnaeus mitochondria to anoxia treatment, we measure relative mitochondrial DNA copy number and total citrate synthase activity in both relatively anoxia-tolerant and anoxia-sensitive embryonic stages. Our cross-species comparative approach identifies unique features of ND1, ND5, ND6, and ATPase-6 that may facilitate the unique phenotype of A. limnaeus embryos. Additionally, we do not find evidence for mitochondrial degradation or biogenesis during anoxia/reoxygenation treatment in A. limnaeus embryos, suggesting that anoxia-tolerant mitochondria do not respond to anoxia in a manner similar to anoxia-sensitive mitochondria. PMID:27630577

  13. Sequence and organization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    He, Chongbo; Han, Jiabo; Ge, Longli; Zhou, Zunchun; Gao, Xianggang; Mu, Yunlei; Liu, Weidong; Cao, Jie; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2008-06-01

    In this work, the mitochondrial genomes for spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri) were completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial genome sequences of the spotted halibut and barfin flounder were 17,273 and 17,588 bp in length, respectively. The organization of the two mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes containing 37 genes (2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding genes) and two non-coding regions (control region (CR) and WANCY region). In the CR, the termination associated sequence (ETAS), six central conserved block (CSB-A,B,C,D,E,F), three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) and a region of 61-bp tandem repeat cluster at the end of CSB-3 were identified by similarity comparison with fishes and other vertebrates. The tandem repeat sequences show polymorphism among the different individuals of the two species. The complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut and barfin flounder should be useful for evolutionary studies of flatfishes and other vertebrate species.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial genomic sequences are reported from 12 members in the four families of the reptile group Amphisbaenia. Analysis of 11,946 aligned nucleotide positions (5,797 informative) produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The family Rhineuridae is basal and Bipedidae is the sister taxon to the Amphisbaenidae plus Trogonophidae. Amphisbaenian reptiles are surprisingly old, predating the breakup of Pangaea 200 million years before present, because successive basal taxa (Rhineuridae and Bipedidae) are situated in tectonic regions of Laurasia and nested taxa (Amphisbaenidae and Trogonophidae) are found in Gondwanan regions. Thorough sampling within the Bipedidae shows that it is not tectonic movement of Baja California away from the Mexican mainland that is primary in isolating Bipes species, but rather that primary vicariance occurred between northern and southern groups. Amphisbaenian families show parallel reduction in number of limbs and Bipes species exhibit parallel reduction in number of digits. A measure is developed for comparing the phylogenetic information content of various genes. A synapomorphic trait defining the Bipedidae is a shift from the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement to the derived state of trnE and nad6. In addition, a tandem duplication of trnT and trnP is observed in B. biporus with a pattern of pseudogene formation that varies among populations. The first case of convergent rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome among animals demonstrated by complete genomic sequences is reported. Relative to most vertebrates, the Rhineuridae has the block nad6, trnE switched in order with cob, trnT, trnP, as they are in birds.

  15. Phylogeny of "Philoceanus complex" seabird lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Page, Roderic D M; Cruickshank, Robert H; Dickens, Megan; Furness, Robert W; Kennedy, Martyn; Palma, Ricardo L; Smith, Vincent S

    2004-03-01

    The Philoceanus complex is a large assemblage of lice that parasitise procellariiform seabirds (petrels, albatrosses, and their relatives). We obtained mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequences from 39 species from diverse hosts and localities. Resolution of deeper relationships between genera was limited, however there is evidence for two major clades, one hosted by albatrosses, the other by petrels. Based on our results, the genera hosted by albatrosses are excellent candidates for detailed analysis of cospeciation. Our results also suggest that a previous estimate of a 5-fold difference in the relative rate of sequence evolution in lice and their avian hosts is an artefact of limited taxonomic sampling.

  16. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  17. A Case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection as Confirmed by Mitochondrial COX1 Gene Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyun; Eom, Keeseon S.; Park, Min Sun; Kwon, Oh Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Sun

    2013-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been reported in Korea as Diphyllobothrium latum because of their close morphologic resemblance. We have identified a human case of D. nihonkaiense infection using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene sequence analysis. On 18 February 2012, a patient who had consumed raw fish a month earlier visited our outpatient clinic with a long tapeworm parasite excreted in the feces. The body of the segmented worm was 2 m long and divided into the scolex (head) and proglottids. It was morphologically close to D. nihonkaiense and D. latum. The cox1 gene analysis showed 99.4% (340/342 bp) homology with D. nihonkaiense but only 91.8% (314/342 bp) homology with D. latum. The present study suggested that the Diphyllobothrium spp. infection in Korea should be analyzed with specific DNA sequence for an accurate species identification. PMID:24039292

  18. Sequence and organization of complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly, Aquatica leii (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hengwu; Ding, Minghui; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    The firefly Aquatica leii (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) is widely distributed in China. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the first complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly from the subfamily Luciolinae. The circular genome of 16,856 bp in length contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Overall base composition of the genome is 42.28% A, 34.80% T, 13.91% C and 9.01% G, with an AT bias of 77.08%. All protein-coding genes start with an ATN codon, and terminate with the typical stop codon TAA, TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region is unusually long (2239 bp), containing six 113 bp tandem repeats and a microsatellite-like (TA)7 element. The genome sequence is useful for studying the evolution of sexual signaling and many ecological specializations in fireflies.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Korean hare (Lepus coreanus).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Chung, Chul-Un; Kwak, Myounghai

    2015-02-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Korean hare (Lepus coreanus) was determined by the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction and primer-walking methods. The mitogenome of the Korean hare is 17,472 bp in length and contains sequences that encode 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and a noncoding control region. The mitogenome is arranged in an identical order to that found in most other vertebrates. All mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for eight tRNA genes and the ND6 gene. The control region contains putative termination associated elements, conserved sequence blocks and short and long tandem repeats motifs.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among onychophora from Australasia inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D M; Rowell, D M; Tait, N N; Briscoe, D A; Higgins, A V

    1998-10-01

    Nucleotide sequence variation in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (456 bp) was examined for 26 onychophorans representing 15 genera of the family Peripatopsidae from Australasia. Sequence analysis revealed high intergeneric COI sequence divergence (up to 20.6% corrected) but low amino acid substitution rates, with high levels of transitional saturation evident. Among unambiguously alignable sequences, parsimony and distance analyses revealed a broadly congruent tree topology, robust to various algorithms and statistical analysis. There are two major groupings. One, largely unresolved, consists entirely of Australian mainland taxa. The other, for which there is convincing support, includes all of the New Zealand and Tasmanian taxa together with one mainland Australian species. In respect of the two major groupings, this topology is consistent with previous morphologically based phylogenies and provides further evidence for an ancient radiation within the mainland Australian Onychophora. The biogeographic implications of the close affinities revealed between the Tasmanian and New Zealand taxa are discussed.

  1. DNA barcoding of Oryx leucoryx using the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase gene.

    PubMed

    Elmeer, K; Almalki, A; Mohran, K A; Al-Qahtani, K N; Almarri, M

    2012-03-08

    The massive destruction and deterioration of the habitat of Oryx leucoryx and illegal hunting have decimated Oryx populations significantly, and now these animals are almost extinct in the wild. Molecular analyses can significantly contribute to captive breeding and reintroduction strategies for the conservation of this endangered animal. A representative 32 identical sequences used for species identification through BOLD and GenBank/NCBI showed maximum homology 96.06% with O. dammah, which is a species of Oryx from Northern Africa, the next closest species 94.33% was O. gazella, the African antelope. DNA barcode sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase (COI) gene were determined for O. leucoryx; identification through BOLD could only recognize the genus correctly, whereas the species could not be identified. This was due to a lack of sequence data for O. leucoryx on BOLD. Similarly, BLAST analysis of the NCBI data base also revealed no COI sequence data for the genus Oryx.

  2. Sequencing and analysis of complete mitochondrial genome of Apodemus draco (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Haixue; Jia, Qiang; Li, Fengjun; Liu, Yongcheng; Chen, Shunde; Yong, Bin

    2015-08-14

    The genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields. They are also one of the best species for biogeographic study and understanding the environmental changes. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Apodemus draco is determined. The mitogenome is 16 220 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region, with a base composition of 35.1% A, 29.0% T, 23.8% C and 12.1% G. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of Apodemus draco and other 23 rodents were used for mitochondrial genome phylogenetic analyses. The monophyly of the genus Apodemus was well supported with sister to the genus Mus. Bayesian analysis also suggested that Apodemus draco was a sister to Apodemus latronum. The present study may facilitate further investigation of the molecular evolution and biogeographic study of the genus Apodemus.

  3. Sequencing and analysis of complete mitochondrial genome of Apodemus draco (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Haixue; Jia, Qiang; Li, Fengjun; Liu, Yongcheng; Chen, Shunde; Yong, Bin

    2016-07-01

    The genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields. They are also one of the best species for biogeographic study and understanding the environmental changes. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Apodemus draco is determined. The mitogenome is 16 220 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region, with a base composition of 35.1% A, 29.0% T, 23.8% C and 12.1% G. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of Apodemus draco and other 23 rodents were used for mitochondrial genome phylogenetic analyses. The monophyly of the genus Apodemus was well supported with sister to the genus Mus. Bayesian analysis also suggested that Apodemus draco was a sister to Apodemus latronum. The present study may facilitate further investigation of the molecular evolution and biogeographic study of the genus Apodemus.

  4. Identification of a Degradation Signal Sequence within Substrates of the Mitochondrial i-AAA Protease.

    PubMed

    Rampello, Anthony J; Glynn, Steven E

    2017-03-24

    The i-AAA protease is a component of the mitochondrial quality control machinery that regulates respiration, mitochondrial dynamics, and protein import. The protease is required to select specific substrates for degradation from among the diverse complement of proteins present in mitochondria, yet the rules that govern this selection are unclear. Here, we reconstruct the yeast i-AAA protease, Yme1p, to examine the in vitro degradation of two intermembrane space chaperone subunits, Tim9 and Tim10. Yme1p degrades Tim10 more rapidly than Tim9 despite high sequence and structural similarity, and loss of Tim10 is accelerated by the disruption of conserved disulfide bonds within the substrate. An unstructured N-terminal region of Tim10 is necessary and sufficient to target the substrate to the protease through recognition of a short phenylalanine-rich motif, and the presence of similar motifs in other small Tim proteins predicts robust degradation by the protease. Together, these results identify the first specific degron sequence within a native i-AAA protease substrate.

  5. Whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing in Alpine populations and the genetic history of the Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Coia, V; Cipollini, G; Anagnostou, P; Maixner, F; Battaggia, C; Brisighelli, F; Gómez-Carballa, A; Destro Bisol, G; Salas, A; Zink, A

    2016-01-14

    The Tyrolean Iceman is an extraordinarily well-preserved natural mummy that lived south of the Alpine ridge ~5,200 years before present (ybp), during the Copper Age. Despite studies that have investigated his genetic profile, the relation of the Iceman´s maternal lineage with present-day mitochondrial variation remains elusive. Studies of the Iceman have shown that his mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) belongs to a novel lineage of haplogroup K1 (K1f) not found in extant populations. We analyzed the complete mtDNA sequences of 42 haplogroup K bearing individuals from populations of the Eastern Italian Alps - putatively in genetic continuity with the Tyrolean Iceman-and compared his mitogenome with a large dataset of worldwide K1 sequences. Our results allow a re-definition of the K1 phylogeny, and indicate that the K1f haplogroup is absent or rare in present-day populations. We suggest that mtDNA Iceman´s lineage could have disappeared during demographic events starting in Europe from ~5,000 ybp. Based on the comparison of our results with published data, we propose a scenario that could explain the apparent contrast between the phylogeographic features of maternal and paternal lineages of the Tyrolean Iceman within the context of the demographic dynamics happening in Europe from 8,000 ybp.

  6. Whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing in Alpine populations and the genetic history of the Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman

    PubMed Central

    Coia, V.; Cipollini, G.; Anagnostou, P.; Maixner, F.; Battaggia, C.; Brisighelli, F.; Gómez-Carballa, A; Destro Bisol, G.; Salas, A.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Tyrolean Iceman is an extraordinarily well-preserved natural mummy that lived south of the Alpine ridge ~5,200 years before present (ybp), during the Copper Age. Despite studies that have investigated his genetic profile, the relation of the Iceman´s maternal lineage with present-day mitochondrial variation remains elusive. Studies of the Iceman have shown that his mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) belongs to a novel lineage of haplogroup K1 (K1f) not found in extant populations. We analyzed the complete mtDNA sequences of 42 haplogroup K bearing individuals from populations of the Eastern Italian Alps – putatively in genetic continuity with the Tyrolean Iceman—and compared his mitogenome with a large dataset of worldwide K1 sequences. Our results allow a re-definition of the K1 phylogeny, and indicate that the K1f haplogroup is absent or rare in present-day populations. We suggest that mtDNA Iceman´s lineage could have disappeared during demographic events starting in Europe from ~5,000 ybp. Based on the comparison of our results with published data, we propose a scenario that could explain the apparent contrast between the phylogeographic features of maternal and paternal lineages of the Tyrolean Iceman within the context of the demographic dynamics happening in Europe from 8,000 ybp. PMID:26764605

  7. Complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the land snail Albinaria coerulea.

    PubMed

    Hatzoglou, E; Rodakis, G C; Lecanidou, R

    1995-08-01

    The complete sequence (14,130 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the land snail Albinaria coerulea was determined. It contains 13 protein, two rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. Twenty-four of these genes are encoded by one and 13 genes by the other strand. The gene arrangement shares almost no similarities with that of two other molluscs for which the complete gene content and arrangement are known, the bivalve Mytilus edulis and the chiton Katharina tunicata; the protein and rRNA gene order is similar to that of another terrestrial gastropod, Cepaea nemoralis. Unusual features include the following: (1) the absence of lengthy noncoding regions (there are only 141 intergenic nucleotides interspersed at different gene borders, the longest intergenic sequence being 42 nucleotides) (2) the presence of several overlapping genes (mostly tRNAs), (3) the presence of tRNA-like structures and other stem and loop structures within genes. An RNA editing system acting on tRNAs must necessarily be invoked for posttranscriptional extension of the overlapping tRNAs. Due to these features, and also because of the small size of its genes (e.g., it contains the smallest rRNA genes among the known coelomates), it is one of the most compact mitochondrial genomes known to date.

  8. Complete Sequence and Gene Organization of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Land Snail Albinaria Coerulea

    PubMed Central

    Hatzoglou, E.; Rodakis, G. C.; Lecanidou, R.

    1995-01-01

    The complete sequence (14,130 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the land snail Albinaria coerulea was determined. It contains 13 protein, two rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. Twenty-four of these genes are encoded by one and 13 genes by the other strand. The gene arrangement shares almost no similarities with that of two other molluscs for which the complete gene content and arrangement are known, the bivalve Mytilus edulis and the chiton Katharina tunicata; the protein and rRNA gene order is similar to that of another terrestrial gastropod, Cepaea nemoralis. Unusual features include the following: (1) the absence of lengthy noncoding regions (there are only 141 intergenic nucleotides interspersed at different gene borders, the longest intergenic sequence being 42 nucleotides), (2) the presence of several overlapping genes (mostly tRNAs), (3) the presence of tRNA-like structures and other stem and loop structures within genes. An RNA editing system acting on tRNAs must necessarily be invoked for posttranscriptional extension of the overlapping tRNAs. Due to these features, and also because of the small size of its genes (e.g., it contains the smallest rRNA genes among the known coelomates), it is one of the most compact mitochondrial genomes known to date. PMID:7498775

  9. Phylogenetically Informative Length Polymorphism and Sequence Variability in Mitochondrial DNA of Australian Songbirds (Pomatostomus)

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, S. V.; Wilson, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    A combination of restriction analysis and direct sequencing via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to build trees relating mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 50 individuals belonging to five species of Australian babblers (Pomatostomus). The trees served as a quantitative framework for analyzing the direction and tempo of evolution of an intraspecific length polymorphism from a third mitochondrial ancestor. The length polymorphism lies between the cytochrome b and 12S rRNA (srRNA) genes. Screening of mtDNAs within and between the five species with restriction enzymes showed that Pomatosomus temporalis was polymorphic for two smaller size classes (M and S) that are completely segregated geographically, whereas mtDNAs from the other four species were exclusively of a third, larger size (L). Inter- and intraspecific phylogenetic trees relating mtDNAs based on restriction maps, cytochrome b sequences obtained via PCR, and the two data sets combined were compared to one another statistically and were broadly similar except for the phylogenetic position of Pomatosomus halli. Both sets of phylogenies imply that only two deletion events can account for the observed intraspecific distribution of the three length types. High levels of base-substitutional divergence were detected within and between northern and southern lineages of P. temporalis, which implies a low level of gene flow between northern and southern regions as well as a low rate of length mutation. These conclusions were confirmed by applying coalescent theory to the statistical framework provided by the phylogenetic analyses. PMID:1979038

  10. Heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genomes of human lice and ticks revealed by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C; Burger, Thomas D; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation.

  11. Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA detects highly divergent haplotypes in blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Block, B A

    1992-06-01

    We were able to differentiate between species of billfish (Istiophoridae family) and to detect considerable intraspecific variation in the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) by directly sequencing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, 612-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Thirteen variable nucleotide sites separated blue marlin (n = 26) into 7 genotypes. On average, these genotypes differed by 5.7 base substitutions. A smaller sample of swordfish from an equally broad geographic distribution displayed relatively little intraspecific variation, with an average of 1.3 substitutions separating different genotypes. A cladistic analysis of blue marlin cytochrome b variants indicates two major divergent evolutionary lines within the species. The frequencies of these two major evolutionary lines differ significantly between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins. This finding is important given that the Atlantic stocks of blue marlin are considered endangered. Migration from the Pacific can help replenish the numbers of blue marlin in the Atlantic, but the loss of certain mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the Atlantic due to overfishing probably could not be remedied by an influx of Pacific fish because of their absence in the Pacific population. Fishery management strategies should attempt to preserve the genetic diversity within the species. The detection of DNA sequence polymorphism indicates the utility of PCR technology in pelagic fishery genetics.

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  13. Evolution of Repeated Sequence Arrays in the D-Loop Region of Bat Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, G. S.; Mayer, F.; Kerth, G.; Petri, B.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 species of bats representing 11 families revealed that repeated sequence arrays near the tRNA-Pro gene are present in all vespertilionine bats. Across 18 species tandem repeats varied in size from 78 to 85 bp and contained two to nine repeats. Heteroplasmy ranged from 15% to 63%. Fewer repeats among heteroplasmic than homoplasmic individuals in a species with up to nine repeats indicates selection may act against long arrays. A lower limit of two repeats and more repeats among heteroplasmic than homoplasmic individuals in two species with few repeats suggests length mutations are biased. Significant regressions of heteroplasmy, θ and π, on repeat number further suggest that repeat duplication rate increases with repeat number. Comparison of vespertilionine bat consensus repeats to mammal control region sequences revealed that tandem repeats of similar size, sequence and number also occur in shrews, cats and bighorn sheep. The presence of two conserved protein-binding sequences in all repeat units indicates that convergent evolution has occurred by duplication of functional units. We speculate that D-loop region tandem repeats may provide signal redundancy and a primitive repair mechanism in the event of somatic mutations to these binding sites. PMID:9215906

  14. mtDNAprofiler: a Web application for the nomenclature and comparison of human mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Lee, Hwan Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a valuable tool in the fields of forensic, population, and medical genetics. However, recording and comparing mtDNA control region or entire genome sequences would be difficult if researchers are not familiar with mtDNA nomenclature conventions. Therefore, mtDNAprofiler, a Web application, was designed for the analysis and comparison of mtDNA sequences in a string format or as a list of mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs). mtDNAprofiler which comprises four mtDNA sequence-analysis tools (mtDNA nomenclature, mtDNA assembly, mtSNP conversion, and mtSNP concordance-check) supports not only the accurate analysis of mtDNA sequences via an automated nomenclature function, but also consistent management of mtSNP data via direct comparison and validity-check functions. Since mtDNAprofiler consists of four tools that are associated with key steps of mtDNA sequence analysis, mtDNAprofiler will be helpful for researchers working with mtDNA. mtDNAprofiler is freely available at http://mtprofiler.yonsei.ac.kr.

  15. Primer effect in the detection of mitochondrial DNA point heteroplasmy by automated sequencing.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Marta; Ramos, Amanda; Santos, Cristina; Aluja, Maria Pilar

    2013-06-01

    The correct detection of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy by automated sequencing presents methodological constraints. The main goals of this study are to investigate the effect of sense and distance of primers in heteroplasmy detection and to test if there are differences in the accurate determination of heteroplasmy involving transitions or transversions. A gradient of the heteroplasmy levels was generated for mtDNA positions 9477 (transition G/A) and 15,452 (transversion C/A). Amplification and subsequent sequencing with forward and reverse primers, situated at 550 and 150 bp from the heteroplasmic positions, were performed. Our data provide evidence that there is a significant difference between the use of forward and reverse primers. The forward primer is the primer that seems to give a better approximation to the real proportion of the variants. No significant differences were found concerning the distance at which the sequencing primers were placed neither between the analysis of transitions and transversions. The data collected in this study are a starting point that allows to glimpse the importance of the sequencing primers in the accurate detection of point heteroplasmy, providing additional insight into the overall automated sequencing strategy.

  16. Mitochondrial genome sequences and comparative genomics ofPhytophthora ramorum and P. sojae

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Frank N.; Douda, Bensasson; Tyler, Brett M.; Boore,Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of theoomycetes of Phytophthora ramorum and P. sojae were determined during thecourse of their complete nuclear genome sequencing (Tyler, et al. 2006).Both are circular, with sizes of 39,314 bp for P. ramorum and 42,975 bpfor P. sojae. Each contains a total of 37 identifiable protein-encodinggenes, 25 or 26 tRNAs (P. sojae and P. ramorum, respectively)specifying19 amino acids, and a variable number of ORFs (7 for P. ramorum and 12for P. sojae) which are potentially additional functional genes.Non-coding regions comprise approximately 11.5 percent and 18.4 percentof the genomes of P. ramorum and P. sojae, respectively. Relative to P.sojae, there is an inverted repeat of 1,150 bp in P. ramorum thatincludes an unassigned unique ORF, a tRNA gene, and adjacent non-codingsequences, but otherwise the gene order in both species is identical.Comparisons of these genomes with published sequences of the P. infestansmitochondrial genome reveals a number of similarities, but the gene orderin P. infestans differs in two adjacent locations due to inversions.Sequence alignments of the three genomes indicated sequence conservationranging from 75 to 85 percent and that specific regions were morevariable than others.

  17. The phylogeny of Mediterranean tortoises and their close relativesbased on complete mitochondrial genome sequences from museumspecimens

    SciTech Connect

    Parham, James F.; Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Feldman, Chris R.; Turkozan, Oguz; Polymeni, Rosa; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-04-29

    As part of an ongoing project to generate a mitochondrial database for terrestrial tortoises based on museum specimens, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 10 species and a {approx}14 kb sequence from an eleventh species are reported. The sampling of the present study emphasizes Mediterranean tortoises (genus Testudo and their close relatives). Our new sequences are aligned, along with those of two testudinoid turtles from GenBank, Chrysemys picta and Mauremys reevesii, yielding an alignment of 14,858 positions, of which 3,238 are parsimony informative. We develop a phylogenetic taxonomy for Testudo and related species based on well-supported, diagnosable clades. Several well-supported nodes are recovered, including the monophyly of a restricted Testudo, T. kleinmanni + T. marginata (the Chersus clade), and the placement of the enigmatic African pancake tortoise (Malacochersustornieri) within the predominantly Palearctic greater Testudo group (Testudona tax. nov.). Despite the large amount of sequence reported, there is low statistical support for some nodes within Testudona and Sowe do not propose names for those groups. A preliminary and conservative estimation of divergence times implies a late Miocene diversification for the testudonan clade (6-12 million years ago), matching their first appearance in the fossil record. The multi-continental distribution of testudonan turtles can be explained by the establishment of permanent connections between Europe, Africa, and Asia at this time. The arrival of testudonan turtles to Africa occurred after one or more initial tortoise invasions gave rise to the diverse (>25 species) 'Geochelone complex.'Two unusual genomic features are reported for the mtDNA of one tortoise, M. tornieri: (1) nad4 has a shift of reading frame that we suggest is resolved by translational frameshifting of the mRNA on the ribosome during protein synthesis and (2) there are two copies of the control region and trnF, with the latter

  18. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the black chiton, Katharina tunicata.

    PubMed

    Boore, J L; Brown, W M

    1994-10-01

    The DNA sequence of the 15,532-base pair (bp) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the chiton Katharina tunicata has been determined. The 37 genes typical of metazoan mtDNA are present: 13 for protein subunits involved in oxidative phosphorylation, 2 for rRNAs and 22 for tRNAs. The gene arrangement resembles those of arthropods much more than that of another mollusc, the bivalve Mytilus edulis. Most genes abut directly or overlap, and abbreviated stop codons are inferred for four genes. Four junctions between adjacent pairs of protein genes lack intervening tRNA genes; however, at each of these junctions there is a sequence immediately adjacent to the start codon of the downstream gene that is capable of forming a stem-and-loop structure. Analysis of the tRNA gene sequences suggests that the D arm is unpaired in tRNA(ser)(AGN), which is typical of metazoan mtDNAs, and also in tRNA(ser)(UCN), a condition found previously only in nematode mtDNAs. There are two additional sequences in Katharina mtDNA that can be folded into structures resembling tRNAs; whether these are functional genes is unknown. All possible codons except the stop codons TAA and TAG are used in the protein-encoding genes, and Katharina mtDNA appears to use the same variation of the mitochondrial genetic code that is used in Drosophila and Mytilus. Translation initiates at the codons ATG, ATA and GTG. A + T richness appears to have affected codon usage patterns and, perhaps, the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins. A 142-bp non-coding region between tRNA(glu) and CO3 contains a 72-bp tract of alternating A and T.

  19. Complete DNA Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Black Chiton, Katharina Tunicata

    PubMed Central

    Boore, J. L.; Brown, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the 15,532-base pair (bp) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the chiton Katharina tunicata has been determined. The 37 genes typical of metazoan mtDNA are present: 13 for protein subunits involved in oxidative phosphorylation, 2 for rRNAs and 22 for tRNAs. The gene arrangement resembles those of arthropods much more than that of another mollusc, the bivalve Mytilus edulis. Most genes abut directly or overlap, and abbreviated stop codons are inferred for four genes. Four junctions between adjacent pairs of protein genes lack intervening tRNA genes; however, at each of these junctions there is a sequence immediately adjacent to the start codon of the downstream gene that is capable of forming a stem-and-loop structure. Analysis of the tRNA gene sequences suggests that the D arm is unpaired in tRNA(ser(AGN)), which is typical of metazoan mtDNAs, and also in tRNA(ser(UCN)), a condition found previously only in nematode mtDNAs. There are two additional sequences in Katharina mtDNA that can be folded into structures resembling tRNAs; whether these are functional genes is unknown. All possible codons except the stop codons TAA and TAG are used in the protein-encoding genes, and Katharina mtDNA appears to use the same variation of the mitochondrial genetic code that is used in Drosophila and Mytilus. Translation initiates at the codons ATG, ATA and GTG. A + T richness appears to have affected codon usage patterns and, perhaps, the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins. A 142-bp non-coding region between tRNA(glu) and CO3 contains a 72-bp tract of alternating A and T. PMID:7828825

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the spider habronattus oregonensis reveals rearranged and extremely truncated tRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Masta, Susan E.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of the jumping spider Habronattus oregonensis of the arachnid order Araneae (Arthropoda: Chelicerata). A number of unusual features distinguish this genome from other chelicerate and arthropod mitochondrial genomes. Most of the transfer RNA gene sequences are greatly reduced in size and cannot be folded into typical cloverleaf-shaped secondary structures. At least nine of the tRNA sequences lack the potential to form TYC arm stem pairings, and instead are inferred to have TV-replacement loops. Furthermore, sequences that could encode the 3' aminoacyl acceptor stems in at least 10 tRNAs appear to be lacking, because fully paired acceptor stems are not possible and because the downstream sequences instead encode adjacent genes. Hence, these appear to be among the smallest known tRNA genes. We postulate that an RNA editing mechanism must exist to restore the 3' aminoacyl acceptor stems in order to allow the tRNAs to function. At least seven tRN As are rearranged with respect to the chelicerate Limulus polyphemus, although the arrangement of the protein-coding genes is identical. Most mitochondrial protein-coding genes of H. oregonensis have ATN as initiation codons, as commonly found in arthropod mtDNAs, but cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 genes apparently use UUG as an initiation codon. Finally, many of the gene sequences overlap one another and are truncated. This 14,381 bp genome, the first mitochondrial genome of a spider yet sequenced, is one of the smallest arthropod mitochondrial genomes known. We suggest that post transcriptional RNA editing can likely maintain function of the tRNAs while permitting the accumulation of mutations that would otherwise be deleterious. Such mechanisms may have allowed for the minimization of the spider mitochondrial genome.

  1. Extensive mitochondrial genome rearrangements between Cerithioidea and Hypsogastropoda (Mollusca; Caenogastropoda) as determined from the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA of Cerithidea djadjariensis and Batillaria cumingi.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shigeaki

    2010-06-01

    Partial nucleotide sequences ( approximately 8000 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA of two cerithioidean gastropod species-Cerithidea djadjariensis and Batillaria cumingi-were determined. The order of mitochondrial genes (eight protein genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and nine transfer RNA genes) was identical between these two species. and remarkably different from the previously reported order in other gastropods. The results indicate that the genome structure of the common ancestor of Cerithioidea and its sister group, Hypsogastropoda, is almost identical to that of the common ancestor of Gastropoda; moreover, independent mitochondrial genome rearrangements were identified between the lineages of Cerithioidea and Hypsogastropoda. The rearrangements within Cerithioidea can be explained by the inversion of a single tRNA gene, two translocations of a single tRNA gene, and three translocations of a genome fragment containing a tRNA gene and protein-coding gene(s).

  2. Species identification and phylogenetic analysis of genus Nassarius (Nassariidae) based on mitochondrial genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haitao; Lin, Duan; Fang, Hongda; Zhu, Aijia; Gao, Yang

    2010-05-01

    Genus Nassarius contains many subgenera, such as Zeuxis, Telasco, Niotha, Varicinassa, Plicarcularia, Nassarius s. str. and Reticunassa. On the basis of morphological characteristics of the shell and radula and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes, Nassarius specimens collected from the South China Sea were identified and phylogenetically analyzed. Although Nassarius sp. and Nassarius ( Varicinassa) variciferus were morphologically different in their shells, few variations were found among their radular teeth and sequences of mtCOI and mt16S RNA genes. Therefore, Nassarius sp. should be classified as N. (Varicinassa) variciferus. Nassarius (Zeuxis) sp. has only a subtle difference from Nassarius (Zeuxis) algidus on the shell, but it shows obvious differences in radular teeth and DNA sequence, indicating that they are two distinct species. Sequence divergence of mtCOI and mt16S RNA genes within Nassarius species was much lower than that between species, suggesting that these two genes are suitable for Nassarius species identification. Phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony) based on mtCOI and mt16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of two groups in genus Nassarius and a closest relationship between subgenera Zeuxis and Telasco. Species of subgenus Plicarcularia did not form a single clade. The molecular phylogeny was not congruent with the previous morphological phylogeny. The subgeneric divisions of genus Nassarius appear to be uncertain and unreliable.

  3. Sequence variability in three mitochondrial genes among four roundworm species from wild animals in China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Gao, Jun-Feng; Sheng, Zhong-Hua; Lou, Yan; Zheng, Xu; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2015-02-01

    Sequence variability in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely portions of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (pnad1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (pnad4), for Toxocara canis. Baylisacaris transfuga. Ascaris suum and Parascaris equorum from Canis lupus. Ursus thibetanus. Sus scrofa and Equus burchelli in China were examined. The lengths of the sequences of pcox1, pnad1 and pnad4 were 711 bp, 648 bp and 666 bp, respectively. No intra-species differences were detected in pcox1 for the four examined ascarid species, in pnad1 for T. canis. A. suum and P. equorum, and in pnad4 for B. transfuga and P. equorum. Sequence differences in pnad4 for six roundworm samples of T. canis and P. equorum were 0-0.1% and 0-0.3%, respectively, and were 0-0.3% in pnad1 for six roundworm samples isolate of B. transfuga. The inter-specific sequence differences among four species were 8.7-12.4% for pcox1, 13.9-17.7% for pnad1, and 14.0-25.7% for pnad4. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the three mtDNA fragments could be used to identify ascarid species in families Ascaridiae and Toxocaridae.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; García, Nuria; Pääbo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias

    2013-09-24

    Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments

    PubMed Central

    Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; García, Nuria; Pääbo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp. PMID:24019490

  6. Mitochondrial DNA in the sea urchin Arbacia lixula: evolutionary inferences from nucleotide sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, C; Lanave, C; Musci, M D; Saccone, C

    1991-07-01

    From the stirodont Arbacia lixula we determined the sequence of 5,127 nucleotides of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encompassing 18 tRNAs, two complete coding genes, parts of three other coding genes, and part of the 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The sequence confirms that the organization of mtDNA is conserved within echinoids. Furthermore, it underlines the following peculiar features of sea urchin mtDNA: the clustering of tRNAs, the short noncoding regulatory sequence, and the separation by the ND1 and ND2 genes of the two rRNA genes. Comparison with the orthologous sequences from the camarodont species Paracentrotus lividus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed that (1) echinoids have an extra piece on the amino terminus of the ND5 gene that is probably the remnant of an old leucine tRNA gene; (2) third-position codon nucleotide usage has diverged between A. lixula and the camarodont species to a significant extent, implying different directional mutational pressures; and (3) the stirodont-camarodont divergence occurred twice as long ago as did the P. lividus-S. purpuratus divergence.

  7. A pedigree-based study of mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence variation among Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A T; Del Valle, A; Bowling, M

    2000-02-01

    Through DNA sequence comparisons of a mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable region, we investigated matrilineal diversity for Arabian horses in the United States. Sixty-two horses were tested. From published pedigrees they traced in the maternal line to 34 mares acquired primarily in the mid to late 19th century from nomadic Bedouin tribes. Compared with the reference sequence (GenBank X79547), these samples showed 27 haplotypes with altogether 31 base substitution sites within 397 bp of sequence. Based on examination of pedigrees from a random sampling of 200 horses in current studbooks of the Arabian Horse Registry of America, we estimated that this study defined the expected mtDNA haplotypes for at least 89% of Arabian horses registered in the US. The reliability of the studbook recorded maternal lineages of Arabian pedigrees was demonstrated by haplotype concordance among multiple samplings in 14 lines. Single base differences observed within two maternal lines were interpreted as representing alternative fixations of past heteroplasmy. The study also demonstrated the utility of mtDNA sequence studies to resolve historical maternity questions without access to biological material from the horses whose relationship was in question, provided that representatives of the relevant female lines were available for comparison. The data call into question the traditional assumption that Arabian horses of the same strain necessarily share a common maternal ancestry.

  8. Belgian canine population and purebred study for forensics by improved mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Desmyter, Stijn; Gijsbers, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    In canine population studies for forensics, the mitochondrial DNA is profiled by sequencing the two hyper variable regions, HV1 and HV2 of the control region. In a first effort to create a Belgian population database some samples showed partially poor sequence quality. We demonstrated that a nuclear pseudogene was co-amplified with the mtDNA control region. Using a new combination of primers this adverse result was no longer observed and sequencing quality was improved. All former samples with poor sequence data were reanalyzed. Furthermore, the forensic canine population study was extended to 208 breed and mixed dogs. In total, 58 haplotypes were identified, resulting in an exclusion capacity of 0.92. The profile distribution of the Belgian population sample was not significantly different from those observed in population studies of three other countries. In addition to the total population study 107 Belgian registered pedigree dogs of six breeds were profiled. Per breed, the obtained haplotypes were supplemented with those from population and purebred studies. The combined data revealed that some haplotypes were more or less prominent present in particular dog breeds. The statistically significant differences in haplotype distribution between breeds and population sample can have consequences on mtDNA databasing and matching probabilities in forensics.

  9. Population subdivision in Europe's great bustard inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Pitra, C; Lieckfeldt, D; Alonso, J C

    2000-08-01

    A continent-wide survey of sequence variation in mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear (n) DNA of the endangered great bustard (Otis tarda) was conducted to assess the extent of phylogeographic structure in a morphologically monotypic bird. DNA sequence variation in a combined 809 bp segment of the mtDNA genome from 66 individuals from the last six breeding regions showed relatively low levels of intraspecific sequence diversity (n = 0.32%) but significant differences in the regional distribution of 11 haplotypes (phiST = 0.49). Despite their exceptional potential for dispersal, a complete and long-term historical separation between the populations from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and mainland Europe (Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, and Russia) was demonstrated. Divergence between populations based on a 3-bp insertion-deletion polymorphism within the intron region of the nuclear CHD-Z gene was geographically concordant with the primary subdivision identified within the mtDNA sequences. Inferred aspects of phylogeography were used to formulate conservation recommendations for this endangered species.

  10. Nucleotide Sequence and Gene Organization of the Starfish Asterina Pectinifera Mitochondrial Genome

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, S.; Himeno, H.; Miura, K. I.; Watanabe, K.

    1995-01-01

    The 16,260-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the starfish Asterina pectinifera has been sequenced. The genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs and 22 tRNAs are organized in an extremely economical fashion, similar to those of other animal mtDNAs, with some of the genes overlapping each other. The gene organization is the same as that for another echinoderm, sea urchin, except for the inversion of a 4.6-kb segment that contains genes for two proteins, 13 tRNAs and the 16S rRNA. Judging from the organization of the protein coding genes, mammalian mtDNAs resemble the sea urchin mtDNA more than that of the starfish. The region around the 3' end of the 12S rRNA gene of the starfish shows a high similarity with those for vertebrates. This region encodes a possible stem and loop structure; similar potential structures occur in this region of vertebrate mtDNAs and also in nonmitochondrial small subunit rRNA. A similar stem and loop structure is also found at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA genes in A. pectinifera, in another starfish Pisaster ochraceus, in vertebrates and in Drosophila, but not in sea urchins. The full sequence data confirm the presumption that AGA/AGG, AUA and AAA codons, respectively, code for serine, isoleucine, and asparagine in the starfish mitochondria, and that AGA/AGG codons are read by tRNA(GCU)(Ser), which possesses a truncated dihydrouridine arm, that was previously suggested from a partial mtDNA sequence. The structural characteristics of tRNAs and possible mechanisms for the change in the mitochondrial genetic code are also discussed. PMID:7672576

  11. Origin and phylogenetic analysis of Tibetan Mastiff based on the mitochondrial DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Li, Qifa; Liu, Zhenshan; Li, Yinxia; Zhao, Xingbo; Dong, Liyan; Pan, Zengxiang; Sun, Yuanrong; Li, Ning; Xu, Yinxue; Xie, Zhuang

    2008-06-01

    At present, the Tibetan Mastiff is the oldest and most ferocious dog in the world. However, the origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and its phylogenetic relationship with other large breed dogs such as Saint Bernard are unclear. In this study, the primers were designed according to the mitochondrial genome sequence of the domestic dog, and the 2,525 bp mitochondrial sequence, containing the whole sequence of Cytochrome b, tRNA-Thr, tRNA-Pro, and control region of the Tibetan Mastiff, was obtained. Using grey wolves and coyotes as outgroups, the Tibetan Mastiff and 12 breeds of domestic dogs were analyzed in phylogenesis. Tibetan Mastiff, domestic dog breeds, and grey wolves were clustered into a group and coyotes were clustered in a group separately. This indicated that the Tibetan Mastiff and the other domestic dogs originated from the grey wolf, and the Tibetan Mastiff belonged to Carnivora, Canidae, Canis, Canis lupus, Canis lupus familiaris on the animal taxonomy. In domestic dogs, the middle and small breed dogs were clustered at first; German Sheepdog, Swedish Elkhound, and Black Russian Terrier were clustered into one group, and the Tibetan Mastiff, Old English Sheepdog, Leonberger, and Saint Bernard were clustered in another group. This confirmed the viewpoint that many of the famous large breed dogs worldwide such as Saint Bernard possibly had the blood lineage of the Tibetan Mastiff, based on the molecular data. According to the substitution rate, we concluded that the approximate divergence time between Tibetan Mastiff and grey wolf was 58,000 years before the present (YBP), and the approximate divergence time between other domestic dogs and grey wolf was 42,000 YBP, demonstrating that the time of origin of the Tibetan Mastiff was earlier than that of the other domestic dogs.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tranah, Gregory J; Lam, Ernest T; Katzman, Shana M; Nalls, Michael A; Zhao, Yiqiang; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mooney, Sean; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Manini, Todd M; Cummings, Steven R

    2012-09-01

    The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

  13. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores

  14. Phylogenetic studies of two Anas platyrhynchos (Anatini: Anatinae) in Hunan province of China based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Lin, Qian; Cao, Rong; Yuan, Ya-Ting; Pan, Di-Zi; Yun, Long; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNAs of Chinese duck, Anas platyrhynchos, population from two different areas of Hunan province in China. The Anas platyrhynchos breed Linwu duck (LW) sample was taken from the Linwu county of Chenzhou city, and the Anas platyrhynchos breed Youxian duck (YX) sample was taken from the Youxian county of Zhuzhou city. The lengths of their complete mitochondrial genome were 16,604 bp (LW) and 16,606 bp (YX), respectively. The organization of the two Anas platyrhynchos breed mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other duck mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed species are divided into four major clades: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Also, the Linwu duck and Youxian duck have highly similar phylogenetic relationship.

  15. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the short mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma), and its phylogenetic position within Scombroidei, Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Jondeung, Amnuay; Karinthanyakit, Wirangrong

    2010-04-01

    In order to support studies of short mackerel population genetic structure in the Gulf of Thailand and phylogenetic relationships, the mitochondrial genome of the short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma, has recently been determined by a partial cloning technique, long PCR with three pairs of newly designed primers and primer walking sequencing. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,539 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) and a control region (CR) as in other bony fishes. Within the 845-bp CR, we identified several conserved motifs. The phylogeny obtained by Bayesian analyses based on two nucleotide datasets corresponding to the cytb and nd2 mitochondrial genes strongly support the inclusion of R. brachysoma within the monophyletic tribe of Scombrini in the family Scombridae. The obtained phylogeny also reveals high-statistical support for the existence of two distinct groups indicating that Scombroidei and Xiphioidei are two separate suborders.

  16. Characterization of mitochondrial control region in Merlucciidae: sequence variation and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Crous, Marta; Roldán, María I

    2015-06-12

    In order to describe the structure and evolution of Merlucciidae and related Gadiformes mitochondrial control region we analysed 470 bp of 31 taxa belonging to 28 different species. The general structure and conserved sequence blocks observed in Gadiformes mitochondrial control region are similar to those present in other teleost fishes. The length of this segment is variable among related species due to the presence of numerous indels at domain I. Domain II is the most conserved region with a high G content. The GTGGG-box is absent in all Merluccius and seven other Gadidae species. Several methods of phylogenetic analyses has revealed the monophyly of Gadiformes, Gadinae and Merlucciidae. Merlucciidae is most closely related to Gadidae. Within Merlucciidae, American and Euroafrican clades show similar levels of differentiation to those within Gadinae where Trisopterus and Micromesistius are sister taxa. Genetic distance values for Merluccius subspecies pairs are less than half of those between species, comparable to intra specific differentiation levels in marine fish species.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fausser, Jean-Luc; Prosper, Prosper; Donati, Giuseppe; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Rumpler, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and particularly in the cytogenetic distinct subspecies group of Hapalemur griseus, 357 bp sequence of cytochrome b and 438 bp of 12S mitochondrial DNAs were analyzed on a sample of animals captured in areas extending from the north to the south-east of Madagascar. This sample covers all cytogenetically defined types recognized of the genus Hapalemur. Results Phylogenetic trees and distances analyses demonstrate a first emergence of Hapalemur simus followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Hapalemur griseus is composed of 4 subspecies separated into two clades. The first contains H. g. griseus, H. g. alaotrensis and H. g. occidentalis. The second consists of H. g. meridionalis. A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades. Conclusions Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics. The new cytotype H. g. ssp which has been previously characterized by cytogenetic studies contains animals clustering either with the group of Hapalemur griseus griseus or with that of Hapalemur meridionalis. This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies. PMID:11914128

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence from an endangered Indian snake, Python molurus molurus (Serpentes, Pythonidae).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Bhawna; Meganathan, P R; Haque, Ikramul

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an endangered Indian snake, Python molurus molurus (Indian Rock Python). A typical snake mitochondrial (mt) genome of 17258 bp length comprising of 37 genes including the 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes along with duplicate control regions is described herein. The P. molurus molurus mt. genome is relatively similar to other snake mt. genomes with respect to gene arrangement, composition, tRNA structures and skews of AT/GC bases. The nucleotide composition of the genome shows that there are more A-C % than T-G% on the positive strand as revealed by positive AT and CG skews. Comparison of individual protein coding genes, with other snake genomes suggests that ATP8 and NADH3 genes have high divergence rates. Codon usage analysis reveals a preference of NNC codons over NNG codons in the mt. genome of P. molurus. Also, the synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates (ka/ks) suggest that most of the protein coding genes are under purifying selection pressure. The phylogenetic analyses involving the concatenated 13 protein coding genes of P. molurus molurus conformed to the previously established snake phylogeny.

  19. Neotomine-peromyscine rodent systematics based on combined analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Serena A; Carroll, Darin S; Edwards, Cody W; Kilpatrick, C William; Bradley, Robert D

    2006-07-01

    Recently, sequences from two nuclear genes (exon 6 of the dentin matrix protein 1 gene and intron 7 of the beta-fibrinogen gene) and one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b gene) were used independently in an attempt to resolve phylogenetic relationships within the neotomine-peromyscine complex. Although these studies provided testable hypotheses regarding this group of rodents, the affinities of certain tribes and genera remain uncertain. To elucidate these relationships, the three data partitions were tested for heterogeneity and then concatenated according to conditional data combination and total evidence approaches. Support was found for five clades, four of which correspond to well recognized tribes (the Neotomini, Peromyscini=Reithrodontomyini, Baiomyini, and Tylomyini). Recommendations are made regarding the recognition of Ochrotomys as a tribe of its own, the Ochrotomyini, paralleling other recent findings. The Peromyscini, Baiomyini, and Ochrotomyini are unresolved in relation to each other, but as a whole are sister to the Neotomini. The Tylomyini is basal to all clades. It appears that combined data from the nuclear and mitochondrial genes (analyzing all three partitions simultaneously) resulted in the best phylogenetic hypothesis regarding the complex.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yabin; Leng, Zheng; Zhao, Liping; Ruan, Qiping

    2017-03-01

    The dark-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) belongs to Ranidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. nigromaculatus was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 567 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the P. nigromaculatus is 29.2% A, 27.4% T, 28.4% C, and 15.0% G. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. nigromaculatus was closely related to P. plancyi and P. chosenicus. The complete mitogenome of P. nigromaculatus can provide important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  1. On the value of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences for reconstructing the phylogeny of vanilloid orchids (Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Most molecular phylogenetic studies of Orchidaceae have relied heavily on DNA sequences from the plastid genome. Nuclear and mitochondrial loci have only been superficially examined for their systematic value. Since 40% of the genera within Vanilloideae are achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophs, this is an ideal group of orchids in which to evaluate non-plastid gene sequences. Methods Phylogenetic reconstructions for Vanilloideae were produced using independent and combined data from the nuclear 18S, 5·8S and 26S rDNA genes and the mitochondrial atpA gene and nad1b-c intron. Key Results These new data indicate placements for genera such as Lecanorchis and Galeola, for which plastid gene sequences have been mostly unavailable. Nuclear and mitochondrial parsimony jackknife trees are congruent with each other and previously published trees based solely on plastid data. Because of high rates of sequence divergence among vanilloid orchids, even the short 5·8S rDNA gene provides impressive levels of resolution and support. Conclusions Orchid systematists are encouraged to sequence nuclear and mitochondrial gene regions along with the growing number of plastid loci available. PMID:19251715

  2. Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W; Stern, David B; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2010-06-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors.

  3. Random sampling causes the low reproducibility of rare eukaryotic OTUs in Illumina COI metabarcoding

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    DNA metabarcoding, the PCR-based profiling of natural communities, is becoming the method of choice for biodiversity monitoring because it circumvents some of the limitations inherent to traditional ecological surveys. However, potential sources of bias that can affect the reproducibility of this method remain to be quantified. The interpretation of differences in patterns of sequence abundance and the ecological relevance of rare sequences remain particularly uncertain. Here we used one artificial mock community to explore the significance of abundance patterns and disentangle the effects of two potential biases on data reproducibility: indexed PCR primers and random sampling during Illumina MiSeq sequencing. We amplified a short fragment of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) for a single mock sample containing equimolar amounts of total genomic DNA from 34 marine invertebrates belonging to six phyla. We used seven indexed broad-range primers and sequenced the resulting library on two consecutive Illumina MiSeq runs. The total number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) was ∼4 times higher than expected based on the composition of the mock sample. Moreover, the total number of reads for the 34 components of the mock sample differed by up to three orders of magnitude. However, 79 out of 86 of the unexpected OTUs were represented by <10 sequences that did not appear consistently across replicates. Our data suggest that random sampling of rare OTUs (e.g., small associated fauna such as parasites) accounted for most of variation in OTU presence–absence, whereas biases associated with indexed PCRs accounted for a larger amount of variation in relative abundance patterns. These results suggest that random sampling during sequencing leads to the low reproducibility of rare OTUs. We suggest that the strategy for handling rare OTUs should depend on the objectives of the study. Systematic removal of rare OTUs may avoid inflating diversity based on

  4. Barcoding amoebae: comparison of SSU, ITS and COI genes as tools for molecular identification of naked lobose amoebae.

    PubMed

    Nassonova, Elena; Smirnov, Alexey; Fahrni, Jose; Pawlowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Morphological identification of naked lobose amoebae has always been a problem, hence the development of reliable molecular tools for species distinction is a priority for amoebae systematics. Previous studies based on SSU rDNA sequences provided a backbone for the phylogeny of Amoebozoa but were of little help for the species distinctions in this group. On one hand, the SSU rDNA sequences were rather conserved between closely related species; on the other hand, the intra-strain polymorphism of the SSU gene obscured species identification. In the present study, a 3' fragment of the SSU, a complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 block and a 5' fragment of COI gene were cloned and sequenced for six Vannella morphospecies, of which V. simplex was represented by six different isolates. SSU rDNA and ITS were found to be inappropriate for species differentiation, while distinctive and homogenous COI sequences were obtained for each well-defined morphospecies. Moreover, a number of distinct COI genotypes have been identified among V. simplex isolates. This suggests that COI may be a good candidate for DNA barcoding of amoebae, but further studies are necessary to confirm the accurateness of the COI gene as a barcode in other gymnamoebae, and to understand the taxonomic meaning of COI variations.

  5. Arthropod Phylogenetics in Light of Three Novel Millipede (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) Mitochondrial Genomes with Comments on the Appropriateness of Mitochondrial Genome Sequence Data for Inferring Deep Level Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Michael S.; Swafford, Lynn; Spruill, Chad L.; Bond, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Arthropods are the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, but their phylogenetic relationships are poorly understood. Herein, we describe three mitochondrial genomes representing orders of millipedes for which complete genomes had not been characterized. Newly sequenced genomes are combined with existing data to characterize the protein coding regions of myriapods and to attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships within the Myriapoda and Arthropoda. Results The newly sequenced genomes are similar to previously characterized millipede sequences in terms of synteny and length. Unique translocations occurred within the newly sequenced taxa, including one half of the Appalachioria falcifera genome, which is inverted with respect to other millipede genomes. Across myriapods, amino acid conservation levels are highly dependent on the gene region. Additionally, individual loci varied in the level of amino acid conservation. Overall, most gene regions showed low levels of conservation at many sites. Attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships suffered from questionable relationships and low support values. Analyses of phylogenetic informativeness show the lack of signal deep in the trees (i.e., genes evolve too quickly). As a result, the myriapod tree resembles previously published results but lacks convincing support, and, within the arthropod tree, well established groups were recovered as polyphyletic. Conclusions The novel genome sequences described herein provide useful genomic information concerning millipede groups that had not been investigated. Taken together with existing sequences, the variety of compositions and evolution of myriapod mitochondrial genomes are shown to be more complex than previously thought. Unfortunately, the use of mitochondrial protein-coding regions in deep arthropod phylogenetics appears problematic, a result consistent with previously published studies. Lack of phylogenetic signal renders the

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates catesbeianus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yubo; Tao, Bofang; Fang, Xindong; Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates catesbeianus (Anura: Ranidae) is sequenced to analyze the gene arrangement. It is a circular molecule of 18,241 bp in length including 37 genes typically found in other frogs. The AT content of the overall base composition of L. catesbeianus is 59.9%. The length of control region is 2783 bp with 66.0% AT content. Protein-coding genes begin with ATG as start codon except except ND1 and ATP6 began with ATA, COI and ND4L with GTG, and ND2 with ATT. COI end with AGG as stop codon, COII and ND6 end with AGA, ND2 end with TAG, ATP8. ND4L. ND5 and Cytb end with TAA, and the other five PCGs end with a incomplete stop codon (a single stop nucleotide T).

  7. Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumbacher, J.P.; Pratt, T.K.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    The avian family Aegothelidae (Owlet-nightjars) comprises nine extant species and one extinct species, all of which are currently classified in a single genus, Aegotheles. Owlet-nightjars are secretive nocturnal birds of the South Pacific. They are relatively poorly studied and some species are known from only a few specimens. Furthermore, their confusing morphological variation has made it difficult to cluster existing specimens unambiguously into hierarchical taxonomic units. Here we sample all extant owlet-nightjar species and all but three currently recognized subspecies. We use DNA extracted primarily from museum specimens to obtain mitochondrial gene sequences and construct a molecular phylogeny. Our phylogeny suggests that most species are reciprocally monophyletic, however A. albertisi appears paraphyletic. Our data also suggest splitting A. bennettii into two species and splitting A. insignis and A. tatei as suggested in another recent paper. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of extant zokors (Myospalacinae) (Rodentia, Spalacidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Su, Junhu; Ji, Weihong; Wang, Jing; Gleeson, Dianne M; Zhou, Janwei; Hua, Limin; Wei, Yanming

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we use three mitochondrial markers, cytochrome b gene (Cyt b), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and control region (D-loop) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of extant zokor species in Mysopalacinae. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on Cyt b strongly supports the monophyly genera Eospalax and Myospalax with E. fontanierii being the most ancient species in Eospalax. Further phylogenetic analyses of four species of Eospalax based on ND4 and D-loop sequences revealed two clades that correspond to two geographical distributions. The basal clade includes E. cansus which is mainly found on Loess Plateau (LP) and another clade including E. baileyi, E. smithii and E. rufescens that inhabits areas above 2000 m on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Qinling Mountains. Geographical events of QTP and LP may have played a major role in the diversification and evolution of Mysopalacinae.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus).

    PubMed

    Li, Yumei; Yao, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Lingyu; Yan, Shouqing

    2016-09-01

    The Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus) is a species of family Zosteropidae, which is distributed widely in the world. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye was determined. It has a total length of 17 811 bp, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 2 control regions. The total base composition was 30.2% for A, 31.0% for C, 14.2% for G and 24.6% for T. The phylogenetic tree of Chestnut-flanked white-eye and 13 other species belonging to the order Passeriformes was built. The molecular data presented here will be useful to study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of Chestnut-flanked white-eye.

  10. Phylogenetic position of mammoth and Steller's sea cow within Tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, T; Hayashi, S; Mikhelson, V M

    1997-04-01

    Here we report DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene segments (1,005 base pairs per species) for the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) and the extant Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), the Western Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the hyrax (Procavia capensis). These molecular data have allowed us to construct the phylogeny for the Tethytheria. Our molecular data resolve the trichotomy between the two species of living elephants and the mammoth and confirm that the mammoth was more closely related to the Asian elephant than to the African elephant. Our data also suggest that the sea cow-dugong divergence was likely as ancient as the dugong-manatee split, and it appears to have been much earlier (22 million years ago) than had been previously estimated (4-8 million years ago) by immunological comparison.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in two groups of Italian Veneto speakers from Veneto.

    PubMed

    Mogentale-Profizi, N; Chollet, L; Stévanovitch, A; Dubut, V; Poggi, C; Pradié, M P; Spadoni, J L; Gilles, A; Béraud-Colomb, E

    2001-03-01

    Although frequencies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in the different European populations are rather homogenous, there are a few European populations or linguistic isolates that show different mtDNA haplogroup distributions; examples are the Saami and Ladin speakers from the eastern Italian Alps. MtDNA sequence diversity was analysed from subjects from two villages in Veneto. The first, Posina, is situated in the Venetian Alps near Vicenza. The second, Barco di Pravisdomini is a village on the plains near Venice. In spite of their common Veneto dialect, the two group populations have not preserved a genetic homogeneity; particularly, they show differences in T and J haplogroups frequencies. MtDNA diversity in these two groups seems to depend more on their geographic situation.

  12. Does behavior reflect phylogeny in swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)? A test using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P L; Clayton, D H; Griffiths, R; Page, R D

    1996-01-01

    Swiftlets are small insectivorous birds, many of which nest in caves and are known to echolocate. Due to a lack of distinguishing morphological characters, the taxonomy of swiftlets is primarily based on the presence or absence of echolocating ability, together with nest characters. To test the reliability of these behavioral characters, we constructed an independent phylogeny using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences from swiftlets and their relatives. This phylogeny is broadly consistent with the higher classification of swifts but does not support the monophyly of swiftlets. Echolocating swiftlets (Aerodramus) and the nonecholocating "giant swiftlet" (Hydrochous gigas) group together, but the remaining nonecholocating swiftlets belonging to Collocalia are not sister taxa to these swiftlets. While echolocation may be a synapomorphy of Aerodramus (perhaps secondarily lost in Hydrochous), no character of Aerodramus nests showed a statistically significant fit to the molecular phylogeny, indicating that nest characters are not phylogenetically reliable in this group. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8692950

  13. A phylogeny of cockroaches and related insects based on DNA sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, S

    1995-01-01

    Cockroaches are among the most ancient winged insects, the earliest fossils dating back to about 400 million years. Several conflicting phylogenies for cockroach families, subfamilies, and genera have been proposed in the past. In addition, the relationship of Cryptocercidae to other cockroach families and the relationship between the cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and the termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis, have generated debate. In this paper, a phylogeny for cockroaches, mantids, and termites based on DNA sequence of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes is presented. The results indicated that cockroaches are a monophyletic group, whose sister group is Mantoidea. The inferred relationship among cockroach families was in agreement with the presently accepted phylogeny. However, there was only partial congruence at the subfamily and the generic levels. The phylogeny inferred here does not support a close relationship between C. punctulatus and M. darwiniensis. The apparent synapomorphies of these two species are likely a manifestation of convergent evolution because there are similarities in biology and habitat. PMID:7534409

  14. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of four Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Shoffner, J.M.; Wallace, D.C.

    1996-01-22

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence was determined on 3 patients with Alzheimer`s disease (AD) exhibiting AD plus Parkinson`s disease (PD) neuropathologic changes and one patient with PD. Patient mtDNA sequences were compared to the standard Cambridge sequence to identify base changes. In the first AD + PD patient, 2 of the 15 nucleotide substitutions may contribute to the neuropathology, a nucleotide pair (np) 4336 transition in the tRNA{sup Gln} gene found 7.4 times more frequently in patients than in controls, and a unique np 721 transition in the 12S rRNA gene which was not found in 70 other patients or 905 controls. In the second AD + PD patient, 27 nucleotide substitutions were detected, including an np 3397 transition in the ND1 gene which converts a conserved methionine to a valine. In the third AD + PD patient, 2 polymorphic base substitutions frequently found at increased frequency in Leber`s hereditary optic neuropathy patients were observed, an np 4216 transition in ND1 and an np 13708 transition in the ND5 gene. For the PD patient, 2 novel variants were observed among 25 base substitutions, an np 1709 substitution in the 16S rRNA gene and an np 15851 missense mutation in the cytb gene. Further studies will be required to demonstrate a casual role for these base substitutions in neurodegenerative disease. 68 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Application of mitochondrial genes sequences for measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian oryx.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al

    2011-01-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) had faced extinction in the wild more than three decades ago and was saved by the prudent efforts of captive breeding programs. A clear understanding of the molecular diversity of contemporary Arabian oryx population is important for the long term success of captive breeding and reintroduction of this potentially endangered species. We have sequenced the segments of mitochondrial DNA including12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and control region (CR) genes of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced animals. Although the sequences of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and Cyt-b were found to be identical for all the samples, typical sequence variations in the CR gene were observed in the form of 7 haplotypes. One of these haplotypes has been reported earlier while the remaining 6 haplotypes are novel and represent different lineages from the founders. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities were found to be 0.789 and 0.009 respectively. The genetic distances among the 7 mtDNA haplotypes varied from 0.001 to 0.017. These findings are of potential relevance to the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx.

  16. HaploGrep 2: mitochondrial haplogroup classification in the era of high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Pacher, Dominic; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kronenberg, Florian; Salas, Antonio; Schönherr, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles can be classified into phylogenetic clusters (haplogroups), which is of great relevance for evolutionary, forensic and medical genetics. With the extensive growth of the underlying phylogenetic tree summarizing the published mtDNA sequences, the manual process of haplogroup classification would be too time-consuming. The previously published classification tool HaploGrep provided an automatic way to address this issue. Here, we present the completely updated version HaploGrep 2 offering several advanced features, including a generic rule-based system for immediate quality control (QC). This allows detecting artificial recombinants and missing variants as well as annotating rare and phantom mutations. Furthermore, the handling of high-throughput data in form of VCF files is now directly supported. For data output, several graphical reports are generated in real time, such as a multiple sequence alignment format, a VCF format and extended haplogroup QC reports, all viewable directly within the application. In addition, HaploGrep 2 generates a publication-ready phylogenetic tree of all input samples encoded relative to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. Finally, new distance measures and optimizations of the algorithm increase accuracy and speed-up the application. HaploGrep 2 can be accessed freely and without any registration at http://haplogrep.uibk.ac.at. PMID:27084951

  17. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (Chordata, Urochordata).

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, S i; Ueda, T; Feldmaier-Fuchs, G; Pääbo, S; Ueshima, R; Kondow, A; Nishikawa, K; Watanabe, K

    1999-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 14,771-bp-long mitochondrial (mt) DNA of a urochordate (Chordata)-the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi-was determined. All the Halocynthia mt-genes were found to be located on a single strand, which is rich in T and G rather than in A and C. Like nematode and Mytilus edulis mtDNAs, that of Halocynthia encodes no ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene. However, it does encode an additional tRNA gene for glycine (anticodon TCT) that enables Halocynthia mitochondria to use AGA and AGG codons for glycine. The mtDNA carries an unusual tRNA(Met) gene with a TAT anticodon instead of the usual tRNA(Met)(CAT) gene. As in other metazoan mtDNAs, there is not any long noncoding region. The gene order of Halocynthia mtDNA is completely different from that of vertebrate mtDNAs except for tRNA(His)-tRNA(Ser)(GCU), suggesting that evolutionary change in the mt-gene structure is much accelerated in the urochordate line compared with that in vertebrates. The amino acid sequences of Halocynthia mt-proteins deduced from their gene sequences are quite different from those in other metazoans, indicating that the substitution rate in Halocynthia mt-protein genes is also accelerated. PMID:10581290

  18. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (Chordata, Urochordata).

    PubMed

    Yokobori, S i; Ueda, T; Feldmaier-Fuchs, G; Pääbo, S; Ueshima, R; Kondow, A; Nishikawa, K; Watanabe, K

    1999-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 14,771-bp-long mitochondrial (mt) DNA of a urochordate (Chordata)-the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi-was determined. All the Halocynthia mt-genes were found to be located on a single strand, which is rich in T and G rather than in A and C. Like nematode and Mytilus edulis mtDNAs, that of Halocynthia encodes no ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene. However, it does encode an additional tRNA gene for glycine (anticodon TCT) that enables Halocynthia mitochondria to use AGA and AGG codons for glycine. The mtDNA carries an unusual tRNA(Met) gene with a TAT anticodon instead of the usual tRNA(Met)(CAT) gene. As in other metazoan mtDNAs, there is not any long noncoding region. The gene order of Halocynthia mtDNA is completely different from that of vertebrate mtDNAs except for tRNA(His)-tRNA(Ser)(GCU), suggesting that evolutionary change in the mt-gene structure is much accelerated in the urochordate line compared with that in vertebrates. The amino acid sequences of Halocynthia mt-proteins deduced from their gene sequences are quite different from those in other metazoans, indicating that the substitution rate in Halocynthia mt-protein genes is also accelerated.

  19. Sequence polymorphism in a novel noncoding region of Pacific oyster mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Aranishi, Futoshi; Okimoto, Takane

    2005-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence polymorphism in a 641-bp novel major noncoding region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-NC) of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was analysed for 29 cultured individuals within the Goseong population. A total of 30 variable sites were detected, and the relative frequency of nucleotide alteration was determined to be 4.68. Alterations were mostly single nucleotide substitutions. Transition, transversion, both transition and transversion, and both transversion and nucleotide deletion were observed at 18, 9, 2 and 1 sites, respectively. Among 29 specimens, 22 haplotypes were identified, and pairwise genetic diversity of haplotypes was calculated to be 0.988 from multiple sequence substitutions using the two-parameter model. A phylogenetic tree, obtained for haplotypes by the neighbor-joining method, showed a single cluster of linkages. The cluster comprised 11 haplotypes associating with 14 specimens, while the other 11 haplotypes associating with 15 specimens were scattered. This mtDNA-NC presenting a high nucleotide sequence polymorphism is a potential mtDNA control region. It therefore can serve as a genetic marker for intraspecies phylogenetic analysis of the Pacific oyster and is more useful than the less polymorphic mtDNA coding genes.

  20. DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of red-backed voles (Clethrionomys).

    PubMed

    Matson, C W; Baker, R J

    2001-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced for 71 individuals from five species of the rodent genus Clethrionomys both to understand patterns of variation and to explore the existence of previously described domains and other elements. Among species, the control region ranged from 942 to 971 bp in length. Our data were compatible with the proposal of three domains (extended terminal associated sequences [ETAS], central, conserved sequence blocks [CSB]) within the control region. The most conserved region in the control region was the central domain (12% of nucleotide positions variable), whereas in the ETAS and CSB domains, 22% and 40% of nucleotide positions were variable, respectively. Tandem repeats were encountered only in the ETAS domain of Clethrionomys rufocanus. This tandem repeat found in C. rufocanus was 24 bp in length and was located at the 5' end of the control region. Only two of the proposed CSB and ETAS elements appeared to be supported by our data; however, a "CSB1-like" element was also documented in the ETAS domain.

  1. Systematic position of Pseudocorynosoma and Andracantha (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

    2009-02-01

    Species of Pseudocorynosoma are North and South American acanthocephalans that use waterfowl as definitive hosts and amphipods as intermediate hosts, whereas species of Andracantha occur in fish-eating birds with a worldwide distribution. Pseudocorynosoma and Andracantha were originally described as Corynosoma (now restricted to endoparasites of marine mammals). Morphologically, Andracantha is distinct from other genera of Polymorphidae in possessing 2 fields of spines on the trunk, whereas Corynosoma and Pseudocorynosoma have a single field. A recent phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphological characters suggested that Andracantha is closely related to Corynosoma, whereas Pseudocorynosoma was of uncertain phylogenetic position within the Polymorphidae. To test the systematic affinities of these 3 genera, we sequenced 2 nuclear genes (SSU and LSU ribosomal DNA) and 1 mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1; cox 1) of species representing Corynosoma, Andracantha, and Pseudocorynosoma and analyzed the data, including available sequences of other polymorphids. Maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian analyses of the combined (SSU + LSU) sequences and the concatenated data of 3 genes (SSU + LSU + cox 1) placed Andracantha as the sister taxon to Corynosoma with robust support values. All analyses also showed that Pseudocorynosoma is an independent lineage that does not share a common ancestry with Andracantha and Corynosoma. These phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that birds were the ancestral hosts of polymorphids and that the association of Corynosoma with marine mammals represents a subsequent episode of colonization.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Divergence among Meloidogyne incognita, Romanomermis culicivorax, Ascaris suum, and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Harris, T. S.; Hyman, B. C.

    1993-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3), large rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from Meloidogyne incognita and Romanomermis culicivorax. Both species show considerable genetic distance within these same genes when compared with Caenorhabditis elegans or Ascaris suum, two species previously analyzed. Caenorhabditis, Ascaris, and Meloidogyne were selected as representatives of three subclasses in the nematode class Secernentea: Rhabditia, Spiruria, and Diplogasteria, respectively. Romanomermis served as a representative out-group of the class Adenophorea. The divergence between the phytoparasitic lineage (represented by Meloidogyne) and the three other species is so great that virtually every variable position in these genes appears to have accumulated multiple mutations, obscuring the phylogenetic information obtainable from these comparisons. The 39 and 42% amino acid similarity between the M. incognita and C. elegans ND3 and cytochrome b coding sequences, respectively, are approximately the same as those of C. elegans-mouse comparisons for the same genes (26 and 44%). This discovery calls into question the feasibility of employing cloned C. elegans probes as reagents to isolate phytoparasitic nematode genes. The genetic distance between the phytoparasitic nematode lineage and C. elegans markedly contrasts with the 79% amino acid similarity between C. elegans and A. suum for the same sequences. The molecular data suggest that Caenorhabditis and Ascaris belong to the same subclass. PMID:19279810

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Indian caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) inferred from mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark; A Sheps, Jonathan; Oommen, Oommen V; Cohen, Bernard L

    2002-06-01

    India has a diverse caecilian fauna, including representatives of three of the six currently recognized families, the Caeciliidae, Ichthyophiidae, the endemic Uraeotyphlidae, but previous molecular phylogenetic studies of caecilians have not included sequences for any Indian caecilians. Partial 12S and 16S mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained for a single representative of each of the caecilian families found in India and aligned against previously reported sequences for 13 caecilian species. The resulting alignment (16 taxa, 1200 sites, of which 288 cannot be aligned unambiguously) was analyzed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and distance methods. As judged by bootstrap proportions, decay indices, and leaf stabilities, well-supported relationships of the Indian caecilians are recovered from the alignment. The data (1) corroborate the hypothesis, based on morphology, that the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae are sister taxa, (2) recover a monophyletic Ichthyophiidae, including Indian and South East Asian representatives, and (3) place the Indian caeciliid Gegeneophis ramaswamii as the sister group of the caeciliid caecilians of the Seychelles. Rough estimates of divergence times suggest an origin of the Uraeotyphlidae and Ichthyophiidae while India was isolated from Laurasia and Africa and are most consistent with an Indian origin of these families and subsequent dispersal of ichthyophiids into South East Asia.

  4. Cloning and sequencing of the PIF gene involved in repair and recombination of yeast mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Foury, F; Lahaye, A

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear gene PIF of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for both repair of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and recognition of a recombinogenic signal characterized by a 26-bp palindromic AT sequence in the ery region of mtDNA. This gene has been cloned in yeast by genetic complementation of pif mutants. Its chromosomal disruption does not destroy the genetic function of mitochondria. The nucleotide sequence of the 3.5-kb insert from a complementing plasmid reveals an open reading frame encoding a potential protein of 857 amino acids and Mr = 97,500. An ATP-binding domain is present in the central part of the gene and in the carboxy-terminal region a putative DNA-binding site is present. Its alpha helix-turn-alpha helix motif is found in DNA-binding proteins such as lambda and lactose repressors which recognize symmetric sequences. Significant amino acid homology is observed with yeast RAD3 and E. coli UvrD (helicase II) proteins which are required for excision repair of damaged DNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3038524

  5. Eukaryote-wide sequence analysis of mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The outer membranes of mitochondria are thought to be homologous to the outer membranes of Gram negative bacteria, which contain 100's of distinct families of β-barrel membrane proteins (BOMPs) often forming channels for transport of nutrients or drugs. However, only four families of mitochondrial BOMPs (MBOMPs) have been confirmed to date. Although estimates as high as 100 have been made in the past, the number of yet undiscovered MBOMPs is an open question. Fortunately, the recent discovery of a membrane integration signal (the β-signal) for MBOMPs gave us an opportunity to look for undiscovered MBOMPs. Results We present the results of a comprehensive survey of eukaryotic protein sequences intended to identify new MBOMPs. Our search employs recent results on β-signals as well as structural information and a novel BOMP predictor trained on both bacterial and mitochondrial BOMPs. Our principal finding is circumstantial evidence suggesting that few MBOMPs remain to be discovered, if one assumes that, like known MBOMPs, novel MBOMPs will be monomeric and β-signal dependent. In addition to this, our analysis of MBOMP homologs reveals some exceptions to the current model of the β-signal, but confirms its consistent presence in the C-terminal region of MBOMP proteins. We also report a β-signal independent search for MBOMPs against the yeast and Arabidopsis proteomes. We find no good candidates MBOMPs in yeast but the Arabidopsis results are less conclusive. Conclusions Our results suggest there are no remaining MBOMPs left to discover in yeast; and if one assumes all MBOMPs are β-signal dependent, few MBOMP families remain undiscovered in any sequenced organism. PMID:21272379

  6. A new phylogeny for the genus Picea from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequences.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Jared D; Aleksić, Jelena M; Zou, Jiabin; Wang, Jing; Liu, Jianquan; Renner, Susanne S

    2013-12-01

    Studies over the past ten years have shown that the crown groups of most conifer genera are only about 15-25 Ma old. The genus Picea (spruces, Pinaceae), with around 35 species, appears to be no exception. In addition, molecular studies of co-existing spruce species have demonstrated frequent introgression. Perhaps not surprisingly therefore previous phylogenetic studies of species relationships in Picea, based mostly on plastid sequences, suffered from poor statistical support. We therefore generated mitochondrial, nuclear, and further plastid DNA sequences from carefully sourced material, striking a balance between alignability with outgroups and phylogenetic signal content. Motif duplications in mitochondrial introns were treated as characters in a stochastic Dollo model; molecular clock models were calibrated with fossils; and ancestral ranges were inferred under maximum likelihood. In agreement with previous findings, Picea diverged from its sister clade 180 million years ago (Ma), and the most recent common ancestor of today's spruces dates to 28 Ma. Different from previous analyses though, we find a large Asian clade, an American clade, and a Eurasian clade. Two expansions occurred from Asia to North America and several between Asia and Europe. Chinese P. brachytyla, American P. engelmannii, and Norway spruce, P. abies, are not monophyletic, and North America has ten, not eight species. Divergence times imply that Pleistocene refugia are unlikely to be the full explanation for the relationships between the European species and their East Asian relatives. Thus, northern Norway spruce may be part of an Asian species complex that diverged from the southern Norway spruce lineage in the Upper Miocene, some 6 Ma, which can explain the deep genetic gap noted in phylogeographic studies of Norway spruce. The large effective population sizes of spruces, and incomplete lineage sorting during speciation, mean that the interspecific relationships within each of the

  7. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Bactericera cockerelli and Comparison with Three Other Psylloidea Species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengnian; Cen, Yijing; Wallis, Christopher M; Trumble, John T; Prager, Sean; Yokomi, Ray; Zheng, Zheng; Deng, Xiaoling; Chen, Jianchi; Liang, Guangwen

    2016-01-01

    Potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is an important pest of potato, tomato and pepper. Not only could a toxin secreted by nymphs results in serious phytotoxemia in some host plants, but also over the past few years B. cockerelli was shown to transmit "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum", the putative bacterial pathogen of potato zebra chip (ZC) disease, to potato and tomato. ZC has caused devastating losses to potato production in the western U.S., Mexico, and elsewhere. New knowledge of the genetic diversity of the B. cockerelli is needed to develop improved strategies to manage pest populations. Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing provides important knowledge about insect evolution and diversity in and among populations. This report provides the first complete B. cockerelli mitogenome sequence as determined by next generation sequencing technology (Illumina MiSeq). The circular B. cockerelli mitogenome had a size of 15,220 bp with 13 protein-coding gene (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and a non-coding region of 975 bp. The overall gene order of the B. cockerelli mitogenome is identical to three other published Psylloidea mitogenomes: one species from the Triozidae, Paratrioza sinica; and two species from the Psyllidae, Cacopsylla coccinea and Pachypsylla venusta. This suggests all of these species share a common ancestral mitogenome. However, sequence analyses revealed differences between and among the insect families, in particular a unique region that can be folded into three stem-loop secondary structures present only within the B. cockerelli mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree based on the 13 PCGs matched an existing taxonomy scheme that was based on morphological characteristics. The available complete mitogenome sequence makes it accessible to all genes for future population diversity evaluation of B. cockerelli.

  8. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Bactericera cockerelli and Comparison with Three Other Psylloidea Species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fengnian; Cen, Yijing; Wallis, Christopher M.; Trumble, John T.; Prager, Sean; Yokomi, Ray; Zheng, Zheng; Deng, Xiaoling; Chen, Jianchi; Liang, Guangwen

    2016-01-01

    Potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is an important pest of potato, tomato and pepper. Not only could a toxin secreted by nymphs results in serious phytotoxemia in some host plants, but also over the past few years B. cockerelli was shown to transmit “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”, the putative bacterial pathogen of potato zebra chip (ZC) disease, to potato and tomato. ZC has caused devastating losses to potato production in the western U.S., Mexico, and elsewhere. New knowledge of the genetic diversity of the B. cockerelli is needed to develop improved strategies to manage pest populations. Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing provides important knowledge about insect evolution and diversity in and among populations. This report provides the first complete B. cockerelli mitogenome sequence as determined by next generation sequencing technology (Illumina MiSeq). The circular B. cockerelli mitogenome had a size of 15,220 bp with 13 protein-coding gene (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and a non-coding region of 975 bp. The overall gene order of the B. cockerelli mitogenome is identical to three other published Psylloidea mitogenomes: one species from the Triozidae, Paratrioza sinica; and two species from the Psyllidae, Cacopsylla coccinea and Pachypsylla venusta. This suggests all of these species share a common ancestral mitogenome. However, sequence analyses revealed differences between and among the insect families, in particular a unique region that can be folded into three stem-loop secondary structures present only within the B. cockerelli mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree based on the 13 PCGs matched an existing taxonomy scheme that was based on morphological characteristics. The available complete mitogenome sequence makes it accessible to all genes for future population diversity evaluation of B. cockerelli. PMID:27227976

  9. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: gene arrangements indicate that Platyhelminths are Eutrochozoans.

    PubMed

    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, M; Brown, W M; Boore, J L

    2001-05-01

    Using "long-PCR," we amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900-nt sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large noncoding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31-nt sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 bp with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures were identified also for the noncoding regions of two other cestode mtDNAS: Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than placing them basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

  10. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of Butomus umbellatus – A Member of an Early Branching Lineage of Monocotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, Argelia; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes in the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons, i.e., the Acorales and Alismatales, we are sequencing complete genomes from a suite of key taxa. As a starting point the present paper describes the mitochondrial genome of Butomus umbellatus (Butomaceae) based on next-generation sequencing data. The genome was assembled into a circular molecule, 450,826 bp in length. Coding sequences cover only 8.2% of the genome and include 28 protein coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 12 tRNA genes. Some of the tRNA genes and a 16S rRNA gene are transferred from the plastid genome. However, the total amount of recognized plastid sequences in the mitochondrial genome is only 1.5% and the amount of DNA transferred from the nucleus is also low. RNA editing is abundant and a total of 557 edited sites are predicted in the protein coding genes. Compared to the 40 angiosperm mitochondrial genomes sequenced to date, the GC content of the Butomus genome is uniquely high (49.1%). The overall similarity between the mitochondrial genomes of Butomus and Spirodela (Araceae), the closest relative yet sequenced, is low (less than 20%), and the two genomes differ in size by a factor 2. Gene order is also largely unconserved. However, based on its phylogenetic position within the core alismatids Butomus will serve as a good reference point for subsequent studies in the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons. PMID:23637852

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for Crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci and Acanthaster brevispinus

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Nina; Hamaguchi, Masami; Sasaki, Miho; Nagai, Satoshi; Saba, Masaki; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Background The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L.), has been blamed for coral mortality in a large number of coral reef systems situated in the Indo-Pacific region. Because of its high fecundity and the long duration of the pelagic larval stage, the mechanism of outbreaks may be related to its meta-population dynamics, which should be examined by larval sampling and population genetic analysis. However, A. planci larvae have undistinguished morphological features compared with other asteroid larvae, hence it has been difficult to discriminate A. planci larvae in plankton samples without species-specific markers. Also, no tools are available to reveal the dispersal pathway of A. planci larvae. Therefore the development of highly polymorphic genetic markers has the potential to overcome these difficulties. To obtain genomic information for these purposes, the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome of A. planci and its putative sibling species, A. brevispinus were determined and their characteristics discussed. Results The complete mtDNA of A. planci and A. brevispinus are 16,234 bp and 16,254 bp in size, respectively. These values fall within the length variation range reported for other metazoan mitochondrial genomes. They contain 13 proteins, 2 rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes and the putative control region in the same order as the asteroid, Asterina pectinifera. The A + T contents of A. planci and A. brevispinus on their L strands that encode the majority of protein-coding genes are 56.3% and 56.4% respectively and are lower than that of A. pectinifera (61.2%). The percent similarity of nucleotide sequences between A. planci and A. brevispinus is found to be highest in the CO2 and CO3 regions (both 90.6%) and lowest in ND2 gene (84.2%) among the 13 protein-coding genes. In the deduced putative amino acid sequences, CO1 is highly conserved (99.2%), and ATP8 apparently evolves faster any of the other protein-coding gene (85.2%). Conclusion

  12. Random Mating Between Two Widely Divergent Mitochondrial Lineages of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): A Test of Species Limits in a Phosphine-Resistant Stored Product Pest.

    PubMed

    Toon, A; Daglish, G J; Ridley, A W; Emery, R N; Holloway, J C; Walter, G H

    2016-10-01

    Effective pest management relies on accurate delimitation of species and, beyond this, on accurate species identification. Mitochondrial COI sequences are useful for providing initial indications in delimiting species but, despite acknowledged limitations in the method, many studies involving COI sequences and species problems remain unresolved. Here we illustrate how such impasses can be resolved with microsatellite and nuclear sequence data, to assess more directly the amount of gene flow between divergent lineages. We use a population genetics approach to test for random mating between two 8 ± 2% divergent COI lineages of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). This species has become strongly resistant to phosphine, a fumigant used worldwide for disinfesting grain. The possibility of cryptic species would have significant consequences for resistance management, especially if resistance was confined to one mitochondrial lineage. We find no evidence of restricted gene flow or nonrandom mating across the two COI lineages of these beetles, rather we hypothesize that historic population structure associated with early Pleistocene climate changes likely contributed to divergent lineages within this species.

  13. Full Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Sugar Beet Wireworm Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), a Common Agricultural Pest

    PubMed Central

    New, Daniel D.; Robison, Barrie D.; Rashed, Arash; Hohenlohe, Paul; Forney, Larry; Rashidi, Mahnaz; Wilson, Cathy M.; Settles, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the full mitochondrial genome sequence of Limonius californicus, a species of click beetle that is an agricultural pest in its larval form. The circular genome is 16.5 kb and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. PMID:26798113

  14. Analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the soybean rust pathogens Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two soybean rust pathogens, Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae, have been sequenced. The mt genome of P. pachyrhizi is a circular 31,825-bp molecule with a mean GC content of 34.6 percent, while P. meibomiae possesses a 32,520-bp circular molecule with a mean G...

  15. Low-coverage MiSeq next generation sequencing reveals the mitochondrial genome of the Eastern Rock Lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Stephen R; Griffith, Ian S; Murphy, Nick P; Strugnell, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Eastern Rock lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, is reported for the first time. Using low-coverage, long read MiSeq next generation sequencing, we constructed and determined the mtDNA genome organization of the 15,470 bp sequence from two isolates from Eastern Tasmania, Australia and Northern New Zealand, and identified 46 polymorphic nucleotides between the two sequences. This genome sequence and its genetic polymorphisms will likely be useful in understanding the distribution and population connectivity of the Eastern Rock Lobster, and in the fisheries management of this commercially important species.

  16. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A; Zheng, Ning

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Oncicola luehei (Acanthocephala: Archiacanthocephala) and its phylogenetic position within Syndermata.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Sultana, Tahera; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Yung Chul; García-Varela, Martín; Nadler, Steven A; Park, Joong-Ki

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Oncicola luehei (14,281bp), the first archiacanthocephalan representative and the second complete sequence from the phylum Acanthocephala. The complete genome contains 36 genes including 12 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) as reported for other syndermatan species. All genes are encoded on the same strand. The overall nucleotide composition of O. luehei mtDNA is 37.7% T, 29.6% G, 22.5% A, and 10.2% C. The overall A+T content (60.2%) is much lower, compared to other syndermatan species reported so far, due to the high frequency (18.3%) of valine encoded by GTN in its protein-coding genes. Results from phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences for 10 protein-coding genes from 41 representatives of major metazoan groups including O. luehei supported monophyly of the phylum Acanthocephala and of the clade Syndermata (Acanthocephala+Rotifera), and the paraphyly of the clade Eurotatoria (classes Bdelloidea+Monogononta from phylum Rotifera). Considering the position of the acanthocephalan species within Syndermata, it is inferred that obligatory parasitism characteristic of acanthocephalans was acquired after the common ancestor of acanthocephalans diverged from its sister group, Bdelloidea. Additional comparison of complete mtDNA sequences from unsampled acanthocephalan lineages, especially classes Polyacanthocephala and Eoacanthocephala, is required to test if mtDNA provides reliable information for the evolutionary relationships and pattern of life history diversification found in the syndermatan groups.

  18. Assembly and comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an economic plant Salix suchowensis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelin; Li, Juan; Bi, Changwei; Xu, Yiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Ye, Qiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Willow is a widely used dioecious woody plant of Salicaceae family in China. Due to their high biomass yields, willows are promising sources for bioenergy crops. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of S. suchowensis with the length of 644,437 bp using Roche-454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing technologies. Base composition of the S. suchowensis mt genome is A (27.43%), T (27.59%), C (22.34%), and G (22.64%), which shows a prevalent GC content with that of other angiosperms. This long circular mt genome encodes 58 unique genes (32 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA genes), and 9 of the 32 protein-coding genes contain 17 introns. Through the phylogenetic analysis of 35 species based on 23 protein-coding genes, it is supported that Salix as a sister to Populus. With the detailed phylogenetic information and the identification of phylogenetic position, some ribosomal protein genes and succinate dehydrogenase genes are found usually lost during evolution. As a native shrub willow species, this worthwhile research of S. suchowensis mt genome will provide more desirable information for better understanding the genomic breeding and missing pieces of sex determination evolution in the future. PMID:28367378

  19. TOWARD A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY FOR PEROMYSCUS: EVIDENCE FROM MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME-b SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Durish, Nevin D.; Rogers, Duke S.; Miller, Jacqueline R.; Engstrom, Mark D.; Kilpatrick, C. William

    2009-01-01

    One hundred DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene of 44 species of deer mice (Peromyscus (sensu stricto), 1 of Habromys, 1 of Isthmomys, 2 of Megadontomys, and the monotypic genera Neotomodon, Osgoodomys, and Podomys were used to develop a molecular phylogeny for Peromyscus. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference) were conducted to evaluate alternative hypotheses concerning taxonomic arrangements (sensu stricto versus sensu lato) of the genus. In all analyses, monophyletic clades were obtained that corresponded to species groups proposed by previous authors; however, relationships among species groups generally were poorly resolved. The concept of the genus Peromyscus based on molecular data differed significantly from the most current taxonomic arrangement. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees depicted strong support for a clade placing Habromys, Megadontomys, Neotomodon, Osgoodomys, and Podomys within Peromyscus. If Habromys, Megadontomys, Neotomodon, Osgoodomys, and Podomys are regarded as genera, then several species groups within Peromyscus (sensu stricto) should be elevated to generic rank. Isthmomys was associated with the genus Reithrodontomys; in turn this clade was sister to Baiomys, indicating a distant relationship of Isthmomys to Peromyscus. A formal taxonomic revision awaits synthesis of additional sequence data from nuclear markers together with inclusion of available allozymic and karyotypic data. PMID:19924266

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Urechis caupo, a representative of the phylum Echiura

    PubMed Central

    Boore, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although hundreds of these genome sequences have been reported, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, with many whole phyla remaining unstudied. This is the first description of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a representative of the phylum Echiura, that of the fat innkeeper worm, Urechis caupo. Results This mtDNA is 15,113 nts in length and 62% A+T. It contains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs in an arrangement somewhat similar to that of annelid worms. All genes are encoded by the same DNA strand which is rich in A and C relative to the opposite strand. Codons ending with the dinucleotide GG are more frequent than would be expected from apparent mutational biases. The largest non-coding region is only 282 nts long, is 71% A+T, and has potential for secondary structures. Conclusions Urechis caupo mtDNA shares many features with those of the few studied annelids, including the common usage of ATG start codons, unusual among animal mtDNAs, as well as gene arrangements, tRNA structures, and codon usage biases. PMID:15369601

  1. Evolutionary Relations of Hexanchiformes Deep-Sea Sharks Elucidated by Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Keiko; Tomita, Taketeru; Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Sano, Kazumi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kono, Azumi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Tanaka, Sho

    2013-01-01

    Hexanchiformes is regarded as a monophyletic taxon, but the morphological and genetic relationships between the five extant species within the order are still uncertain. In this study, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of seven sharks including representatives of the five Hexanchiformes, one squaliform, and one carcharhiniform and inferred the phylogenetic relationships among those species and 12 other Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) species for which the complete mitogenome is available. The monophyly of Hexanchiformes and its close relation with all other Squaliformes sharks were strongly supported by likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 13,749 aligned nucleotides of 13 protein coding genes and two rRNA genes that were derived from the whole mDNA sequences of the 19 species. The phylogeny suggested that Hexanchiformes is in the superorder Squalomorphi, Chlamydoselachus anguineus (frilled shark) is the sister species to all other Hexanchiformes, and the relations within Hexanchiformes are well resolved as Chlamydoselachus, (Notorynchus, (Heptranchias, (Hexanchus griseus, H. nakamurai))). Based on our phylogeny, we discussed evolutionary scenarios of the jaw suspension mechanism and gill slit numbers that are significant features in the sharks. PMID:24089661

  2. Phylogenetic Relationships of Palaearctic Formica Species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Goropashnaya, Anna V.; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Seifert, Bernhard; Pamilo, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Ants of genus Formica demonstrate variation in social organization and represent model species for ecological, behavioral, evolutionary studies and testing theoretical implications of the kin selection theory. Subgeneric division of the Formica ants based on morphology has been questioned and remained unclear after an allozyme study on genetic differentiation between 13 species representing all subgenera was conducted. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus were examined using mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome b and a part of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6. All 23 Formica species sampled in the Palaearctic clustered according to the subgeneric affiliation except F. uralensis that formed a separate phylogenetic group. Unlike Coptoformica and Formica s. str., the subgenus Serviformica did not form a tight cluster but more likely consisted of a few small clades. The genetic distances between the subgenera were around 10%, implying approximate divergence time of 5 Myr if we used the conventional insect divergence rate of 2% per Myr. Within-subgenus divergence estimates were 6.69% in Serviformica, 3.61% in Coptoformica, 1.18% in Formica s. str., which supported our previous results on relatively rapid speciation in the latter subgenus. The phylogeny inferred from DNA sequences provides a necessary framework against which the evolution of social traits can be compared. We discuss implications of inferred phylogeny for the evolution of social traits. PMID:22911845

  3. Genetic structure of Florida green turtle rookeries as indicated by mitochondrial DNA control region sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shamblin, Brian M.; Bagley, Dean A.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M.; Desjardin, Nicole A.; Martin, R. Erik; Hart, Kristen M.; Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Rusenko, Kirt; Stiner, John C.; Sobel, Debra; Johnson, Chris; Wilmers, Thomas; Wright, Laura J.; Nairn, Campbell J.

    2014-01-01

    Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting has increased dramatically in Florida over the past two decades, ranking the Florida nesting aggregation among the largest in the Greater Caribbean region. Individual beaches that comprise several hundred kilometers of Florida’s east coast and Keys support tens to thousands of nests annually. These beaches encompass natural to highly developed habitats, and the degree of demographic partitioning among rookeries was previously unresolved. We characterized the genetic structure of ten Florida rookeries from Cape Canaveral to the Dry Tortugas through analysis of 817 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 485 nesting turtles. Two common haplotypes, CM-A1.1 and CM-A3.1, accounted for 87 % of samples, and the haplotype frequencies were strongly partitioned by latitude along Florida’s Atlantic coast. Most genetic structure occurred between rookeries on either side of an apparent genetic break in the vicinity of the St. Lucie Inlet that separates Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island, representing the finest scale at which mtDNA structure has been documented in marine turtle rookeries. Florida and Caribbean scale analyses of population structure support recognition of at least two management units: central eastern Florida and southern Florida. More thorough sampling and deeper sequencing are necessary to better characterize connectivity among Florida green turtle rookeries as well as between the Florida nesting aggregation and others in the Greater Caribbean region.

  4. Sequence Analysis of Mitochondrial Genome of Toxascaris leonina from a South China Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kangxin; Yang, Fang; Abdullahi, A. Y.; Song, Meiran; Shi, Xianli; Wang, Minwei; Fu, Yeqi; Pan, Weida; Shan, Fang; Chen, Wu; Li, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Toxascaris leonina is a common parasitic nematode of wild mammals and has significant impacts on the protection of rare wild animals. To analyze population genetic characteristics of T. leonina from South China tiger, its mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced. Its complete circular mt genome was 14,277 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A and T. The most common start codon and stop codon were TTG and TAG, and 4 genes ended with an incomplete stop codon. There were 13 intergenic regions ranging 1 to 10 bp in size. Phylogenetically, T. leonina from a South China tiger was close to canine T. leonina. This study reports for the first time a complete mt genome sequence of T. leonina from the South China tiger, and provides a scientific basis for studying the genetic diversity of nematodes between different hosts. PMID:28095667

  5. Sequence Analysis of Mitochondrial Genome of Toxascaris leonina from a South China Tiger.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangxin; Yang, Fang; Abdullahi, A Y; Song, Meiran; Shi, Xianli; Wang, Minwei; Fu, Yeqi; Pan, Weida; Shan, Fang; Chen, Wu; Li, Guoqing

    2016-12-01

    Toxascaris leonina is a common parasitic nematode of wild mammals and has significant impacts on the protection of rare wild animals. To analyze population genetic characteristics of T. leonina from South China tiger, its mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced. Its complete circular mt genome was 14,277 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A and T. The most common start codon and stop codon were TTG and TAG, and 4 genes ended with an incomplete stop codon. There were 13 intergenic regions ranging 1 to 10 bp in size. Phylogenetically, T. leonina from a South China tiger was close to canine T. leonina. This study reports for the first time a complete mt genome sequence of T. leonina from the South China tiger, and provides a scientific basis for studying the genetic diversity of nematodes between different hosts.

  6. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences of extinct birds: ratite phylogenetics and the vicariance biogeography hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Haddrath, O; Baker, A J

    2001-05-07

    The ratites have stimulated much debate as to how such large flightless birds came to be distributed across the southern continents, and whether they are a monophyletic group or are composed of unrelated lineages that independently lost the power of flight. Hypotheses regarding the relationships among taxa differ for morphological and molecular data sets, thus hindering attempts to test whether plate tectonic events can explain ratite biogeography. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial DNA genomes of two extinct moas from New Zealand, along with those of five extant ratites (the lesser rhea, the ostrich, the great spotted kiwi, the emu and the southern cassowary and two tinamous from different genera. The non-stationary base composition in these sequences violates the assumptions of most tree-building methods. When this bias is corrected using neighbour-joining with log-determinant distances and non-homogeneous maximum likelihood, the ratites are found to be monophlyletic, with moas basal, as in morphological trees. The avian sequences also violate a molecular clock, so we applied a non-parametric rate smoothing algorithm, which minimizes ancestor-descendant local rate changes, to date nodes in the tree. Using this method, most of the major ratite lineages fit the vicariance biogeography hypothesis, the exceptions being the ostrich and the kiwi, which require dispersal to explain their present distribution.

  7. Molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of eyelid geckos (Squamata: Eublepharidae).

    PubMed

    Jonniaux, Pierre; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2008-01-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of approximately 2.3 kbp including the complete NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene and its flanking genes, as well as parts of 12S and 16S rRNA genes were determined from major species of the eyelid gecko family Eublepharidae sensu [Kluge, A.G. 1987. Cladistic relationships in the Gekkonoidea (Squamata, Sauria). Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 173, 1-54.]. In contrast to previous morphological studies, phylogenetic analyses based on these sequences supported that Eublepharidae and Gekkonidae form a sister group with Pygopodidae, raising the possibility of homoplasious character change in some key features of geckos, such as reduction of movable eyelids and innovation of climbing toe pads. The phylogenetic analyses also provided a well-resolved tree for relationships between the eublepharid species. The Bayesian estimation of divergence times without assuming the molecular clock suggested the Jurassic divergence of Eublepharidae from Gekkonidae and radiations of most eublepharid genera around the Cretaceous. These dating results appeared to be robust against some conditional changes for time estimation, such as gene regions used, taxon representation, and data partitioning. Taken together with geological evidence, these results support the vicariant divergence of Eublepharidae and Gekkonidae by the breakup of Pangea into Laurasia and Gondwanaland, and recent dispersal of two African eublepharid genera from Eurasia to Africa after these landmasses were connected in the Early Miocene.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Taenia multiceps Isolates from Gansu Province, China by Sequencing of Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu

    2013-01-01

    A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species. PMID:23710087

  9. Molecular characterization of Taenia multiceps isolates from Gansu Province, China by sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen Hui; Jia, Wan Zhong; Qu, Zi Gang; Xie, Zhi Zhou; Luo, Jian Xun; Yin, Hong; Sun, Xiao Lin; Blaga, Radu; Fu, Bao Quan

    2013-04-01

    A total of 16 Taenia multiceps isolates collected from naturally infected sheep or goats in Gansu Province, China were characterized by sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The complete cox1 gene was amplified for individual T. multiceps isolates by PCR, ligated to pMD18T vector, and sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that out of 16 T. multiceps isolates 10 unique cox1 gene sequences of 1,623 bp were obtained with sequence variation of 0.12-0.68%. The results showed that the cox1 gene sequences were highly conserved among the examined T. multiceps isolates. However, they were quite different from those of the other Taenia species. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete cox1 gene sequences revealed that T. multiceps isolates were composed of 3 genotypes and distinguished from the other Taenia species.

  10. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of the Threadfin Cichlid (Petrochromis trewavasae) and the Blunthead Cichlid (Tropheus moorii) and Patterns of Mitochondrial Genome Evolution in Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Christoph; Koblmüller, Stephan; Gülly, Christian; Schlötterer, Christian; Sturmbauer, Christian; Thallinger, Gerhard G.

    2013-01-01

    The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes represent a model especially suited to study adaptive radiation and speciation. With several African cichlid genome projects being in progress, a promising set of closely related genomes is emerging, which is expected to serve as a valuable data base to solve questions on genotype-phenotype relations. The mitochondrial (mt) genomes presented here are the first results of the assembly and annotation process for two closely related but eco-morphologically highly distinct Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Petrochromis trewavasae and Tropheus moorii. The genomic sequences comprise 16,588 bp (P. trewavasae) and 16,590 bp (T. moorii), and exhibit the typical mitochondrial structure, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Analyses confirmed that the two species are very closely related with an overall sequence similarity of 96%. We analyzed the newly generated sequences in the phylogenetic context of 21 published labroid fish mitochondrial genomes. Consistent with other vertebrates, the D-loop region was found to evolve faster than protein-coding genes, which in turn are followed by the rRNAs; the tRNAs vary greatly in the rate of sequence evolution, but on average evolve the slowest. Within the group of coding genes, ND6 evolves most rapidly. Codon usage is similar among examined cichlid tribes and labroid families; although a slight shift in usage patterns down the gene tree could be observed. Despite having a clearly different nucleotide composition, ND6 showed a similar codon usage. C-terminal ends of Cox1 exhibit variations, where the varying number of amino acids is related to the structure of the obtained phylogenetic tree. This variation may be of functional relevance for Cox1 synthesis. PMID:23826193

  11. Phylogeography and Pleistocene refugia of the adder (Vipera berus) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Ursenbacher, S; Carlsson, M; Helfer, V; Tegelström, H; Fumagalli, L

    2006-10-01

    In order to contribute to the debate about southern glacial refugia used by temperate species and more northern refugia used by boreal or cold-temperate species, we examined the phylogeography of a widespread snake species (Vipera berus) inhabiting Europe up to the Arctic Circle. The analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation in 1043 bp of the cytochrome b gene and in 918 bp of the noncoding control region was performed with phylogenetic approaches. Our results suggest that both the duplicated control region and cytochrome b evolve at a similar rate in this species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that V. berus is divided into three major mitochondrial lineages, probably resulting from an Italian, a Balkan and a Northern (from France to Russia) refugial area in Eastern Europe, near the Carpathian Mountains. In addition, the Northern clade presents an important substructure, suggesting two sequential colonization events in Europe. First, the continent was colonized from the three main refugial areas mentioned above during the Lower-Mid Pleistocene. Second, recolonization of most of Europe most likely originated from several refugia located outside of the Mediterranean peninsulas (Carpathian region, east of the Carpathians, France and possibly Hungary) during the Mid-Late Pleistocene, while populations within the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas fluctuated only slightly in distribution range, with larger lowland populations during glacial times and with refugial mountain populations during interglacials, as in the present time. The phylogeographical structure revealed in our study suggests complex recolonization dynamics of the European continent by V. berus, characterized by latitudinal as well as altitudinal range shifts, driven by both climatic changes and competition with related species.

  12. DNA capture and next-generation sequencing can recover whole mitochondrial genomes from highly degraded samples for human identification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing can be a useful aid for identifying people from compromised samples when nuclear DNA is too damaged, degraded or below detection thresholds for routine short tandem repeat (STR)-based analysis. Standard mtDNA typing, focused on PCR amplicon sequencing of the control region (HVS I and HVS II), is limited by the resolving power of this short sequence, which misses up to 70% of the variation present in the mtDNA genome. Methods We used in-solution hybridisation-based DNA capture (using DNA capture probes prepared from modern human mtDNA) to recover mtDNA from post-mortem human remains in which the majority of DNA is both highly fragmented (<100 base pairs in length) and chemically damaged. The method ‘immortalises’ the finite quantities of DNA in valuable extracts as DNA libraries, which is followed by the targeted enrichment of endogenous mtDNA sequences and characterisation by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Results We sequenced whole mitochondrial genomes for human identification from samples where standard nuclear STR typing produced only partial profiles or demonstrably failed and/or where standard mtDNA hypervariable region sequences lacked resolving power. Multiple rounds of enrichment can substantially improve coverage and sequencing depth of mtDNA genomes from highly degraded samples. The application of this method has led to the reliable mitochondrial sequencing of human skeletal remains from unidentified World War Two (WWII) casualties approximately 70 years old and from archaeological remains (up to 2,500 years old). Conclusions This approach has potential applications in forensic science, historical human identification cases, archived medical samples, kinship analysis and population studies. In particular the methodology can be applied to any case, involving human or non-human species, where whole mitochondrial genome sequences are required to provide the highest level of maternal lineage discrimination

  13. Characterization of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes in gadiformes: sequence variations, secondary structural features, and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Ingrid; Johansen, Steinar

    2002-10-01

    Secondary structure features of mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (mt-rRNAs) of bony fishes were investigated by a DNA sequence alignment approach. The small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) mt-rRNA genes were found to contain several additional variable regions compared to their mammalian counterparts. Fish mt-LSU rRNA genes were found to be longer than the mammalians due to increased length of some of the variable regions. The 5' and 3' ends of Atlantic cod mt-rRNAs were precisely mapped. The 3' ends of mt-SSU rRNAs were found to be homogenous and mono-adenylated, whereas that of the mt-LSU rRNAs were heterogenous and oligo-adenylated. The 5' ends of mt-SSU rRNAs appeared to be heterogenous, corresponding to the presumed first and second positions of the gene. Sequences of the central domain and the D-domain of the mt-SSU and mt-LSU rRNA genes, respectively, were determined and characterized for 11 gadiform species (representing the families Gadidae, Lotidae, Ranicipitidae, Merlucciidae, Phycidae, and Macrouridae) and one Lophiidae species. Detailed secondary structure models of the RNA regions are presented for the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Roundnose grenadier (Coryphaeonides rupestris). Saturation plots revealed that DNA nucleotide positions corresponding to unpaired RNA regions become saturated with transitions at sequence divergence levels about 0.15. Phylogenetic analyses revealed some aspects of gadiform relationships. Gadidae was identified as the most derived of the gadiform families. Lotidae was found to be the family closest related to Gadidae, and Ranicipitidae was also recognized as a derived gadiform taxon.

  14. Massive parallel sequencing of human whole mitochondrial genomes with Ion Torrent technology: an optimized workflow for Anthropological and Population Genetics studies.

    PubMed

    De Fanti, Sara; Vianello, Dario; Giuliani, Cristina; Quagliariello, Andrea; Cherubini, Anna; Sevini, Federica; Iaquilano, Nicoletta; Franceschi, Claudio; Sazzini, Marco; Luiselli, Donata

    2016-11-08

    Investigation of human mitochondrial DNA variation patterns and phylogeny has been extensively used in Anthropological and Population Genetics studies and sequencing the whole mitochondrial genome is progressively becoming the gold standard. Among the currently available massive parallel sequencing technologies, Ion Torrent™ semiconductor sequencing represents a promising approach for such studies. Nevertheless, an experimental protocol conceived to enable the achievement of both as high as possible yield and of the most homogeneous sequence coverage through the whole mitochondrial genome is still not available. The present work was thus aimed at improving the overall performance of whole mitochondrial genomes Ion Torrent™ sequencing, with special focus on the capability to obtain robust coverage and highly reliable variants calling. For this purpose, a series of cost-effective modifications in standard laboratory workflows was fine-tuned to optimize them for medium- and large-scale population studies. A total of 54 human samples were thus subjected to sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome with the Ion Personal Genome Machine™ System in four distinct experiments and using Ion 314 chips. Seven of the selected samples were also characterized by means of conventional Sanger sequencing for the sake of comparison. Obtained results demonstrated that the implemented optimizations had definitely improved sequencing outputs in terms of both variants calling efficiency and coverage uniformity, enabling to setup an effective and accurate protocol for whole mitochondrial genome sequencing and a considerable reduction in experimental time consumption and sequencing costs.

  15. Complete sequence of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) mitochondrial genome and its genetic relationship with related species.

    PubMed

    Nishibori, M; Hayashi, T; Tsudzuki, M; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2001-12-01

    The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; JQ) is one of the domesticated fowl species of Japan. To provide DNA sequence information for examination of its phylogenetic position in the order Galliformes, the complete sequence of the JQ mitochondria was determined. Sequence analysis revealed that the JQ mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA of 16 697 basepairs (bp), which is smaller than the chicken mitochondrial DNA of 16 775 bp, but the genomic structure of JQ mitochondria was the same as that of the chicken. The sequence homologies of all mitochondrial genes including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), between Japanese quail and chicken ranged from 78.0 to 89.9%. Because the sequences of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes had been reported in five species [Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant: RP), Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken: CH), Perdix perdix (grey partridge: GP), Bambusicola thoracia (Chinese bamboo partridge: CP), and Aythya americana (redhead: RH)], the concatenated nucleotide sequences (2184 bp) and amino acid sequences of these two genes were used in a phylogenetic analysis of JQ against these five species using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. Using the first and second bases of the codons, and the third base of the codons indicated a phylogenic tree of [RH, (RP, GP), (JQ, (CH, CP))]. A phylogenic tree of [RH, JQ, (RP, GP), (CH, CP)] was determined using amino acid sequences. Because the local bootstrap values for the JQ branch in these trees are not high, additional sequence is necessary for construction of a reliable tree.

  16. Delimiting the species Neosiphonia yendoi (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on COI and rbcL genetic variation in Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeongseok; Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-09-01

    Although the marine red algal genus Neosiphonia is well characterized, many species of Neosiphonia are poorly understood. To correctly define the species delimitation of Neosiphonia yendoi using genetic variation, owing to the confusion over identification with " N. sphaerocarpa" from Korea, we investigated intensively the haplotype network of the mitochondrial COI and the plastid rbcL genes of specimens collected from Korea and Japan. The molecular analyses indicated that specimens collected in different sites of Korea and Japan belong to the same species, Neosiphonia yendoi and " Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa" from Korea, which is distinguished from N. sphaerocarpa from Florida and is allied with N. yendoi collected from the type locality, Muroran of Japan. A total of 29 COI and 13 rbcL haplotypes were found and the COI haplotype network shows evidence of a clear break between specimens from Jeju Island and all other locations of Korea, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity within N. yendoi.

  17. Long-PCR based next generation sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome of the peacock skate Pavoraja nitida (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence (16,760 bp) of the peacock skate Pavoraja nitida using a long-PCR based next generation sequencing method. It has 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region in the typical vertebrate arrangement. Primers, protocols, and procedures used to obtain this mitogenome are provided. We anticipate that this approach will facilitate rapid collection of mitogenome sequences for studies on phylogenetic relationships, population genetics, and conservation of cartilaginous fishes.

  18. Analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of three members of the Montastraea annularis coral species complex (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Hironobu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2005-11-01

    Complete mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two individuals each of Montastraea annularis, Montastraea faveolata, and Montastraea franksi were determined. Gene composition and order differed substantially from the sea anemone Metridium senile, but were identical to that of the phylogenetically distant coral genus Acropora. However, characteristics of the non-coding regions differed between the two scleractinian genera. Among members of the M. annularis complex, only 25 of 16,134 base pair positions were variable. Sixteen of these occurred in one colony of M. franksi, which (together with additional data) indicates the existence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages in this species. Overall, rates of evolution for these mitochondrial genomes were extremely slow (0.03 0.04% per million years based on the fossil record of the M. annularis complex). At higher taxonomic levels, patterns of genetic divergence and synonymous/nonsynonymous substitutions suggest non-neutral and unequal rates of evolution between the two lineages to which Montastraea and Acropora belong.

  19. Simultaneous detection of human mitochondrial DNA and nuclear-inserted mitochondrial-origin sequences (NumtS) using forensic mtDNA amplification strategies and pyrosequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Bintz, Brittania J; Dixon, Groves B; Wilson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies enable the identification of minor mitochondrial DNA variants with higher sensitivity than Sanger methods, allowing for enhanced identification of minor variants. In this study, mixtures of human mtDNA control region amplicons were subjected to pyrosequencing to determine the detection threshold of the Roche GS Junior(®) instrument (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN). In addition to expected variants, a set of reproducible variants was consistently found in reads from one particular amplicon. A BLASTn search of the variant sequence revealed identity to a segment of a 611-bp nuclear insertion of the mitochondrial control region (NumtS) spanning the primer-binding sites of this amplicon (Nature 1995;378:489). Primers (Hum Genet 2012;131:757; Hum Biol 1996;68:847) flanking the insertion were used to confirm the presence or absence of the NumtS in buccal DNA extracts from twenty donors. These results further our understanding of human mtDNA variation and are expected to have a positive impact on the interpretation of mtDNA profiles using deep-sequencing methods in casework.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the South american and the Australian lungfish: testing of the phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial data sets for phylogenetic problems in tetrapod relationships.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Henner; Denk, Angelika; Zitzler, Jürgen; Joss, Jean J; Meyer, Axel

    2004-12-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequences (16403 and 16572 base pairs, respectively) of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi). The mitochondrial DNA sequences were established in an effort to resolve the debated evolutionary positions of the lungfish and the coelacanth relative to land vertebrates. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on complete mtDNA sequences, including only the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, sequence were able to strongly reject the traditional textbook hypothesis that coelacanths are the closest relatives of land vertebrates. However, these studies were unable to statistically significantly distinguish between the two remaining scenarios: lungfish as the closest relatives to land vertebrates and lungfish and coelacanths jointly as their sister group (Cao et al. 1998; Zardoya et al. 1998; Zardoya and Meyer 1997a). Lungfish, coelacanths, and the fish ancestors of the tetrapod lineage all originated within a short time window of about 20 million years, back in the early Devonian (about 380 to 400 million years ago). This short divergence time makes the determination of the phylogenetic relationships among these three lineages difficult. In this study, we attempted to break the long evolutionary branch of lungfish, in an effort to better resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant sarcopterygian lineages. The gene order of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American and Australian lungfish conforms to the consensus gene order among gnathostome vertebrates. The phylogenetic analyses of the complete set of mitochondrial proteins (without ND6) suggest that the lungfish are the closest relatives of the tetrapods, although the support in favor of this scenario is not statistically significant. The two other smaller data sets (tRNA and rRNA genes) give inconsistent results depending on the

  1. Alpha helical structures in the leader sequence of human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase responsible for mitochondrial import.

    PubMed

    Kotzamani, Dimitra; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (hGDH) exists in two highly homologous isoforms with a distinct regulatory and tissue expression profile: a housekeeping hGDH1 isoprotein encoded by the GLUD1 gene and an hGDH2 isoenzyme encoded by the GLUD2 gene. There is evidence that both isoenzymes are synthesized as pro-enzymes containing a 53 amino acid long N-terminal leader peptide that is cleaved upon translocation into the mitochondria. However, this GDH signal peptide is substantially larger than that of most nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins, the leader sequence of which typically contains 17-35 amino acids and they often form a single amphipathic α-helix. To decode the structural elements that are essential for the mitochondrial targeting of human GDHs, we performed secondary structure analyses of their leader sequence. These analyses predicted, with 82% accuracy, that both leader peptides are positively charged and that they form two to three α-helices, separated by intermediate loops. The first α-helix of hGDH2 is strongly amphipathic, displaying both a positively charged surface and a hydrophobic plane. We then constructed GLUD2-EGFP deletion mutants and used them to transfect three mammalian cell lines (HEK293, COS 7 and SHSY-5Y). Confocal laser scanning microscopy, following co-transfection with pDsRed2-Mito mitochondrial targeting vector, revealed that deletion of the entire leader sequence prevented the enzyme from entering the mitochondria, resulting in its retention in the cytoplasm. Deletion of the first strongly amphipathic α-helix only was also sufficient to prevent the mitochondrial localization of the truncated protein. Moreover, truncated leader sequences, retaining the second and/or the third putative α-helix, failed to restore the mitochondrial import of hGDH2. As such, the first N-terminal alpha helical structure is crucial for the mitochondrial import of hGDH2 and these findings may have implications in understanding the evolutionary

  2. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2009-01-01

    Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including

  3. Fast assembly of the mitochondrial genome of a plant parasitic nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Guillaume; Jühling, Frank; Chapuis, Élodie; Zedane, Loubab; Lhuillier, Émeline; Mateille, Thierry; Bellafiore, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the variations of nematode mitogenomes (mtDNA). Sequencing a complete mtDNA using a PCR approach remains a challenge due to frequent genome reorganizations and low sequence similarities between divergent nematode lineages. Here, a genome skimming approach based on HiSeq sequencing (shotgun) was used to assemble de novo the first complete mtDNA sequence of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola). An AT-rich genome (84.3%) of 20,030 bp was obtained with a mean sequencing depth superior to 300. Thirty-six genes were identified with a semi-automated approach. A comparison with a gene map of the M. javanica mitochondrial genome indicates that the gene order is conserved within this nematode lineage. However, deep genome rearrangements were observed when comparing with other species of the superfamily Hoplolaimoidea. Repeat elements of 111 bp and 94 bp were found in a long non-coding region of 7.5 kb, as similarly reported in M. javanica and M. hapla. This study points out the power of next generation sequencing to produce complete mitochondrial genomes, even without a reference sequence, and possibly opening new avenues for species/race identification, phylogenetics and population genetics of nematodes.

  4. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

    1999-01-01

    Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae. PMID:10488238

  5. Length heterogeneity at conserved sequence block 2 in human mitochondrial DNA acts as a rheostat for RNA polymerase POLRMT activity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Benedict G.; Wellesley, Frederick C.; Savery, Nigel J.; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The guanine (G)-tract of conserved sequence block 2 (CSB 2) in human mitochondrial DNA can result in transcription termination due to formation of a hybrid G-quadruplex between the nascent RNA and the nontemplate DNA strand. This structure can then influence genome replication, stability and localization. Here we surveyed the frequency of variation in sequence identity and length at CSB 2 amongst human mitochondrial genomes and used in vitro transcription to assess the effects of this length heterogeneity on the activity of the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, POLRMT. In general, increased G-tract length correlated with increased termination levels. However, variation in the population favoured CSB 2 sequences which produced efficient termination while particularly weak or strong signals were avoided. For all variants examined, the 3′ end of the transcripts mapped to the same downstream sequences and were prevented from terminating by addition of the transcription factor TEFM. We propose that CSB 2 length heterogeneity allows variation in the efficiency of transcription termination without affecting the position of the products or the capacity for regulation by TEFM. PMID:27436287

  6. Eight new mtDNA sequences of glass sponges reveal an extensive usage of +1 frameshifting in mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Haen, Karri M; Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2014-02-10

    Three previously studied mitochondrial genomes of glass sponges (phylum Porifera, class Hexactinellida) contained single nucleotide insertions in protein coding genes inferred as sites of +1 translational frameshifting. To investigate the distribution and evolution of these sites and to help elucidate the mechanism of frameshifting, we determined eight new complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from glass sponges and examined individual mitochondrial genes from three others. We found nine new instances of single nucleotide insertions in these sequences and analyzed them both comparatively and phylogenetically. The base insertions appear to have been gained and lost repeatedly in hexactinellid mt protein genes, suggesting no functional significance for the frameshifting sites. A high degree of sequence conservation, the presence of unusual tRNAs, and a distinct pattern of codon usage suggest the "out-of-frame pairing" model of translational frameshifting. Additionally, we provide evidence that relaxed selection pressure on glass sponge mtDNA - possibly a result of their low growth rates and deep-water lifestyle - has allowed frameshift insertions to be tolerated for hundreds of millions of years. Our study provides the first example of a phylogenetically diverse and extensive usage of translational frameshifting in animal mitochondrial coding sequences.

  7. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility-Associated Chimeric Open Reading Frames Identified by Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of Four Cajanus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tuteja, Reetu; Saxena, Rachit K.; Davila, Jaime; Shah, Trushar; Chen, Wenbin; Xiao, Yong-Li; Fan, Guangyi; Saxena, K. B.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Spillane, Charles; Town, Christopher; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea. PMID:23792890

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among cirrate octopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) resolved using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Piertney, Stuart B; Hudelot, Cendrine; Hochberg, F G; Collins, Martin A

    2003-05-01

    PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE CIRRATE OCTOPODS (MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) were investigated using partial sequences of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene. The derived phylogeny supports the traditional separation of cirrate families based on web form. Genera with a single web (Opisthoteuthis, Grimpoteuthis, Luteuthis, and Cirroctopus) are clearly distinct from those with an intermediate or secondary web (Cirroteuthis, Cirrothauma, and Stauroteuthis). The cirrates with a single web are separated into three groups. The first group is represented by Opisthoteuthis species, the second by Grimpoteuthis and Luteuthis, and the third by members of the genus Cirroctopus. There is no support for the isolation of Luteuthis in a separate family (Luteuthidae). There is, however, evidence of two groupings within the genus Opisthoteuthis. The data suggest the following revisions in the systematic classification of the cirrates: (1) Cirrothauma, Cirroteuthis, and Stauroteuthis be united in the Cirroteuthidae; (2) Grimpoteuthis and Luteuthis be placed in the Grimpoteuthidae; (3) Opisthoteuthis in the Opisthoteuthidae, and; (4) Cirroctopus be considered sufficiently distinct from both Opisthoteuthidae and Grimpoteuthidae to warrant placement in a new family.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA sequence-based phylogenetic relationship of Trichiurus lepturus (Perciformes: Trichiuridae) from the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Tamadoni Jahromi, S.; Mohd Noor, S. A.; Pirian, K.; Dehghani, R.; Nazemi, M.; Khazaali, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mitochondrial DNA analysis using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed to investigate the phylogeny relationship of Trichiurus lepturus in the Persian Gulf compared to the other investigated area. The amplification of 16S rDNA resulted in a product of 600 bp in all samples. The results showed that the isolated strain belongs to T. lepturus showing 42 divergence sites among the same reported partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene from the other area (West Atlantic and Indo-Pacific area). Phylogeny results showed that all 18 haplotypes of the species clustered into five clades with reasonably high bootstrap support of values (>64%). Overall, the tree topology for both phylogenetic and phenetic trees for 16S rDNA was similar. Both trees exposed two major clusters, one wholly containing the haplotypes of the T. lepturus species belonging to Indo-Pacific area with two major sister groups including Persian Gulf specimen and the other cleared the Western Atlantic and Japan individuals clustered in another distinct clade supporting the differentiation between the two areas. Phylogenic relationship observed between the Persian Gulf and the other Indo-Pacific Individuals suggested homogeneity between two mentioned areas. PMID:27822250

  10. A new hypothesis of squamate evolutionary relationships from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Ted M.; Larson, Allan; Louis, Edward; Macey, J. Robert

    2004-05-19

    Squamate reptiles serve as model systems for evolutionary studies of a variety of morphological and behavioral traits, and phylogeny is crucial to many generalizations derived from such studies. Specifically, the traditional dichotomy between Iguania and Scleroglossa has been correlated with major evolutionary shifts within Squamata. We present a molecular phylogenetic study of squamates using DNA sequence data from the nuclear genes RAG-1 and c-mos and the mitochondrial ND2 region, sampling all major clades and most major subclades. Monophyly of Iguania, Anguimorpha, and almost all currently recognized squamate families is strongly supported. However, monophyly is rejected for Scleroglossa, Varanoidea, and several other higher taxa, and Iguania is highly nested within Squamata. Limblessness evolved independently in snakes, dibamids, and amphisbaenians, suggesting widespread morphological convergence or parallelism in limbless, burrowing forms. Amphisbaenians are the sister group of lacertids, and snakes are grouped with iguanians and anguimorphs. Dibamids diverged early in squamate evolutionary history. Xantusiidae is the sister taxon of Cordylidae. Studies of functional tongue morphology and feeding mode have found significant differences between Scleroglossa and Iguania, and our finding of a nonmonophyletic Scleroglossa and a highly nested Iguania suggest that similar states evolved separately in Sphenodon and Iguania, and that jaw prehension is the ancestral feeding mode in squamates.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of the large carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa (Hymenoptera: apidae), based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Leys, R; Cooper, S J; Schwarz, M P

    2000-12-01

    Carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa Latreille, a group of bees found on all continents, are of particular interest to behavioral ecologists because of their utility for studies of the evolution of mating strategies and sociality. This paper presents phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b for 22 subgenera of Xylocopa. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. The analyses resulted in three resolved clades of subgenera: a South American group (including the subgenera Stenoxylocopa, Megaxylocopa, and Neoxylocopa), a group including the subgenera Xylocopa s.s. and Ctenoxylocopa, and an Ethiopean group (including the subgenera Afroxylocopa, Mesotrichia, Alloxylocopa, Platynopoda, Hoploxylocopa, and Koptortosoma). The relationships between the 11 other subgenera and the resolved clades are unclear. Within the Ethiopian group we found a clear separation of the African and the Oriental taxa and apparent polyphyly of the subgenus Koptortosoma. Using an evolutionary rate for ants, we investigated whether Gondwana vicariance or more recent dispersal events could best explain the present-day distribution of subgenera. Although some taxa show divergences that approach Gondwanan breakup times, most divergences between geographic groups are too recent to support a vicariance hypothesis.

  12. A phylogenetic analysis of Pseudonaja (Hydrophiinae, Elapidae, Serpentes) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Adam; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Mark N; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2005-11-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND4 and adjacent tRNA sequences for a geographically extensive series of specimens reveals nine major clades within Pseudonaja, of which six are largely coincident with nominal taxa (P. affinis, P. guttata, P. inframacula, P. ingrami, P. modesta, and P. textilis). The remaining three clades are composed of specimens presently referred to P. nuchalis. Two of these clades correspond with the "Darwin" and "Southern" morphs of previous authors, while the third clade incorporates the "Orange with black head" and "Pale head, grey nape" morphs. We are unable to confirm the presence of consistent karyotypic differences between "Orange with black head" and "Pale head, grey nape" specimens, however, P. inframacula, P. textilis, and P. nuchalis "Darwin" are found to exhibit distinctive karyotypes, as previously reported. These results, in conjunction with additional observations of karyotpic and morphological variation, are consistent with nine historically-independent lineages (i.e., species) within Pseudonaja. There is strong support for a clade composed of P. affinis, P. inframacula, P. ingrami, P. textilis, and the three P. nuchalis lineages, and for the relationships (P. inframacula, P. nuchalis "Southern") and (P. nuchalis "Darwin", P. nuchalis "Orange with black head"--"Pale head, grey nape" ).

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among major species of japanese coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using three mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Takumiya, Mikio; Kobayashi, Mari; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2005-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 36 species of major coleoid cephalopods from Japanese waters were studied using partial sequences of three mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Octopoda and Decapoda were monophylic groups. Within Sepioidea, Sepiadariidae and Sepiolidae were not closely related to Sepiidae, but rather related to Teuthoidea. Sepiidae with a distinct calcareous shell formed a single cluster. Myopsida was closely related to Oegopsida. Within Octopoda, Opisthoteuthis depressa and Argonauta argo diverged earlier than Octopodiidae. The common octopuses in Japanese waters were separated into three clusters. The first cluster occupied a basal position, and includes large-sized octopuses, such as Enteroctopus dofleini and Octopus (Paroctopus) conispadiceus from the continental shelf and upper slope. The second cluster consisted of long-armed octopuses, such as O. ornatus, O. minor, and O. sasakii. The third cluster contained small- to medium-sized octopus, such as Amphioctopus fangsiao, A. areolatus, O. cyaneus, and O. vulgaris, in which several species possess ocelli on the web. The second cluster formed the sister group to the third cluster.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S

    2012-09-01

    Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.

  15. Global matrilineal population structure in sperm whales as indicated by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lyrholm, T; Gyllensten, U

    1998-01-01

    The genetic variability and population structure of worldwide populations of the sperm whale was investigated by sequence analysis of the first 5'L 330 base pairs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The study included a total of 231 individuals from three major oceanic regions, the North Atlantic, the North Pacific and the Southern Hemisphere. Fifteen segregating nucleotide sites defined 16 mtDNA haplotypes (lineages). The most common mtDNA types were present in more than one oceanic region, whereas ocean-specific types were rare. Analyses of heterogeneity of mtDNA type frequencies between oceans indicated moderate (GST = 0.03) but statistically significant (p = 0.0007) genetic differentiation on a global scale. In addition, strong genetic differentiation was found between potential social groups (GST = 0.03-0.6), indicating matrilineal relatedness within groups. The global nucleotide diversity was quite low (pi = 0.004) implying a recent common mtDNA ancestry (< 100,000) years ago) and a young global population structure. However, within this time period, female dispersal has apparently been limited enough to allow the development of global mtDNA differentiation. The results are consistent with those from observational studies and whaling data indicating stable social affiliations, some degree of area fidelity and latitudinal range limitations in groups of females and juveniles. PMID:9753788

  16. Phylogeny and evolution of Digitulati ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) inferred from mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Hui; Imura, Yûki; Okamoto, Munehiro; Kim, Choong-Gon; Zhou, Hong-Zhang; Paik, Jong-Cheol; Osawa, Syozo

    2004-01-01

    Genealogical trees have been constructed using mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences of 87 specimens consisting of 32 species which have been believed to belong to the division Digitulati (one of the lineages of the subtribe Carabina) of the world. There have been recognized six lineages, which are well separated from each other. Each lineage contains the following genus: (1) the lineage A: Ohomopterus from Japan; (2) the lineage B: Isiocarabus from eastern Eurasian Continent; (3) the lineage C: Carabus from China which are further subdivided into three sublineages; (4) the lineage D: Carabus from USA; (5) the lineage E: Carabus from the Eurasian Continent, Japan and North America; and (6) the lineage F: Eucarabus from the Eurasian Continent. Additionally, the genus Acrocarabus which had been treated as a constituent of the division Archicarabomorphi has been recognized to be the 7th lineage of the division Digitulati from the ND5 genealogical analysis as well as morphology. These lineages are assumed to have radiated within a short period and are largely linked to their geographic distribution.

  17. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5′ end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  18. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  19. Strategies for complete mitochondrial genome sequencing on Ion Torrent PGM™ platform in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yishu; Guo, Fei; Yu, Jiao; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Jinling; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Bin; Jia, Fei; Sun, Zhu; Song, He; Jiang, Xianhua

    2016-05-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a time saving and cost-efficient method to detect the complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) compared to Sanger sequencing. In this study we focused on developing strategies for mtGenome sequencing on the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform and NGS data analysis. With our experience, 4, 15 and 30 samples could be loaded onto Ion 314™, Ion 316™ and Ion 318™ chips respectively at a pooling concentration of 26pM, achieving to sufficient average coverage of ≥1500 × and well strand balance of 1.05. Data processing software is essential to NGS mega data analysis. The in-house Perl scripts were developed for primary data analysis to screen out uncertain positions and samples from variant call format (VCF) reports and for pedigree study to perform pairwise comparisons. The Integrative Genomic Viewer (IGV) and the NextGENe software were introduced to secondary data analysis. The mthap and EMMA were employed for haplogroup assignment. The dataset was reviewed and approved by the EMPOP as the final version, which showed 2.66% error rate generated from the Torrent Variant Caller (TVC). Across the mtGenome, 4022 variants were found at 725 nucleotide positions, where ratio of transitions to transversions was estimated at 20.89:1 and 22.18% of variants was concentrated at hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and HVS-II). Totally, 107 complete mtGenome haplotypes were observed from 107 Northern Chinese Han and assigned to 88 haplogroups. The random match probability (RMP) of complete mtGenome was calculated as 0.009345794, decreasing 26.19% by comparison to that of HVS-I only, and the haplotype diversity (HD) was evaluated as 1, increasing 0.33% by comparison to that of HVS-I only. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our population was clustered to East and Southeast Asians. The strategies in this study are suitable for complete mtGenome sequencing on Ion Torrent PGM™ platform and Northern Chinese Han (EMP00670) is the first

  20. Phylogenetic relationships in European Ceriporiopsis species inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tomšovský, Michal; Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify taxonomy and examine evolutionary relationships within European Ceriporiopsis species using a combined analysis of the large subunit (nLSU) nuclear rRNA and small subunit (mtSSU) mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences. Data from the ITS region were applied to enhance the view of the phylogenetic relationships among different species. The studied samples grouped into four complex clades, suggesting that the genus Ceriporiopsis is polyphyletic. The generic type Ceriporiopsis gilvescens formed a separate group together with Ceriporiopsis guidella and Phlebia spp. in the phlebioid clade. In this clade, the closely related species Ceriporiopsis resinascens and Ceriporiopsis pseudogilvescens grouped together with Ceriporiopsis aneirina. C. resinascens and C. pseudogilvescens have identical LSU and SSU sequences but differ in ITS. Ceriporiopsis pannocincta also fell in the phlebioid clade, but showed closer proximity to Gloeoporus dichrous than to C. gilvescens or C. aneirina-C. pseudogilvescens-C. resinascens group. Another clade was composed of a Ceriporiopsis balaenae-Ceriporiopsis consobrina group and was found to be closely related to Antrodiella and Frantisekia, with the overall clade highly reminiscent of the residual polyporoid clade. The monotypic genus Pouzaroporia, erected in the past for Ceriporiopsis subrufa due to its remarkable morphological differences, also fell within the residual polyporoid clade. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora held an isolated position from the other species of the genus. Therefore, the previously proposed name Gelatoporia subvermispora has been adopted for this species. Physisporinus rivulosus appeared unrelated to two other European Physisporinus species. Moreover, Ceriporiopsis (=Skeletocutis) jelicii grouped in a separate clade, distinct from Ceriporiopsis species. Finally, the ITS data demonstrated the proximity of some Ceriporiopsis species (Ceriporiopsis portcrosensis and Ceriporiopsis

  1. Major patterns of higher teleostean phylogenies: a new perspective based on 100 complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Miya, Masaki; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Endo, Hiromitsu; Ishiguro, Naoya B; Inoue, Jun G; Mukai, Takahiko; Satoh, Takashi P; Yamaguchi, Motoomi; Kawaguchi, Akira; Mabuchi, Kohji; Shirai, Shigeru M; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2003-01-01

    A recent preliminary study using complete mitochondrial DNA sequences from 48 species of teleosts has suggested that higher teleostean phylogenies should be reinvestigated on the basis of more intensive taxonomic sampling. As a second step towards the resolution of higher teleostean phylogenies, which have been described as the "(unresolved) bush at the top of the tree," we reanalyzed their relationships using mitogenomic data from 100 purposefully chosen species that fully represented all of the higher teleostean orders, except for the Batrachoidiformes. Unweighted and weighted maximum parsimony analyses were conducted with the data set that comprised concatenated nucleotide sequences from 12 protein-coding genes (excluding 3rd codon positions) and 21 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (stem regions only) from each species. The resultant trees were well resolved and largely congruent, with most internal branches being supported by high statistical values. All major, comprehensive groups above ordinal level as currently defined in higher teleosts (with the exception of the Neoteleostei and several monotypic groups), such as the Eurypterygii, Ctenosquamata, Acanthomorpha, Paracanthopterygii, Acanthopterygii, and Percomorpha, appeared to be nonmonophyletic in the present tree. Such incongruities largely resulted from differences in the placement and/or limits of the orders Ateleopodiformes, Lampridiformes, Polymixiiformes, Ophidiiformes, Lophiiformes, Beryciformes, Stephanoberyciformes, and Zeiformes, long-standing problematic taxa in systematic ichthyology. Of these, the resulting phylogenetic positions of the Ophidiiformes and Lophiiformes were totally unexpected, because, although they have consistently been considered relatively primitive groups within higher teleosts (Paracanthopterygii), they were confidently placed within a crown group of teleosts, herein called the Percomorpha. It should be noted that many unexpected, but highly supported relationships were found

  2. Molecular phylogeny of commercially important lobster species from Indian coast inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeena, N S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Radhakrishnan, E V; Kizhakudan, Joe K; Basheer, V S; Asokan, P K; Jena, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lobsters constitute low-volume high-value crustacean fishery resource along Indian coast. For the conservation and management of this declining resource, accurate identification of species and larvae is essential. The objectives of this work were to generate species-specific molecular signatures of 11 commercially important species of lobsters of families Palinuridae and Scyllaridae and to reconstruct a phylogeny to clarify the evolutionary relationships among genera and species included in this study. Partial sequences were generated for all the candidate species from sampling sites along the Indian coast using markers like Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16SrRNA, 12SrRNA, and 18SrRNA genes, and analyzed. The genetic identities of widely distributed Thenus species along the Indian coast to be Thenus unimaculatus and the sub-species of Panulirus homarus to be P. homarus homarus were confirmed. Phylogeny reconstruction using the individual gene and concatenated mtDNA data set were carried out. The overall results suggested independent monophyly of Scyllaridae and Stridentes of Palinuridae. The interspecific divergence was found to be highest for the 12SrRNA compared with other genes. Significant incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear 18SrRNA gene tree topologies was observed. The results hinted an earlier origin for Palinuridae compared with Scyllaridae. The DNA sequence data generated from this study will aid in the correct identification of lobster larvae and will find application in research related to larval transport and distribution.

  3. The 135 kbp mitochondrial genome of Agaricus bisporus is the largest known eukaryotic reservoir of group I introns and plasmid-related sequences.

    PubMed

    Férandon, Cyril; Xu, Jianping; Barroso, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    At 135,005 nt, the mitochondrial genome in Agaricus bisporus represents the largest fungal mitochondrial genome sequenced to date. Its large size is mainly due to the presence of mobile genetic elements, including a total of 43 group I introns, three group II introns, and five DNA fragments that show sequence similarity to linear invertron-like plasmids. The introns are distributed in eight of the 15 protein coding genes. These introns contain a total of 61,092 nt (∼45.3% of the whole mitochondrial genome) and include representatives of most of the group I introns so far found in mitochondrial genomes of Basidiomycota. The plasmid-like sequences include 6730 nt total representing 5.0% of the genome. These sequences showed high-level similarities to two different mitochondrial plasmids reported for basidiomycete mushrooms: the autonomously replicating pEM in Agaricus bitorquis and the integrated linear plasmid sequences in Agrocybe aegerita and Moniliophthora perniciosa. Moreover, the plasmid-related sequences are located within or adjacent to two large (4559 nt) inverted repeats containing also two sets of mitochondrial tRNA genes. Our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution of the A. bisporus mitochondrial genome.

  4. Full mitochondrial genome sequences of two endemic Philippine hornbill species (Aves: Bucerotidae) provide evidence for pervasive mitochondrial DNA recombination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although nowaday it is broadly accepted that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may undergo recombination, the frequency of such recombination remains controversial. Its estimation is not straightforward, as recombination under homoplasmy (i.e., among identical mt genomes) is likely to be overlooked. In species with tandem duplications of large mtDNA fragments the detection of recombination can be facilitated, as it can lead to gene conversion among duplicates. Although the mechanisms for concerted evolution in mtDNA are not fully understood yet, recombination rates have been estimated from "one per speciation event" down to 850 years or even "during every replication cycle". Results Here we present the first complete mt genome of the avian family Bucerotidae, i.e., that of two Philippine hornbills, Aceros waldeni and Penelopides panini. The mt genomes are characterized by a tandemly duplicated region encompassing part of cytochrome b, 3 tRNAs, NADH6, and the control region. The duplicated fragments are identical to each other except for a short section in domain I and for the length of repeat motifs in domain III of the control region. Due to the heteroplasmy with regard to the number of these repeat motifs, there is some size variation in both genomes; with around 21,657 bp (A. waldeni) and 22,737 bp (P. panini), they significantly exceed the hitherto longest known avian mt genomes, that of the albatrosses. We discovered concerted evolution between the duplicated fragments within individuals. The existence of differences between individuals in coding genes as well as in the control region, which are maintained between duplicates, indicates that recombination apparently occurs frequently, i.e., in every generation. Conclusions The homogenised duplicates are interspersed by a short fragment which shows no sign of recombination. We hypothesize that this region corresponds to the so-called Replication Fork Barrier (RFB), which has been described from the chicken

  5. The de novo assembly of mitochondrial genomes of the extinct passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) with next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ming; Lin, Rong-Chien; Chu, Jui-Hua; Yeh, Chia-Fen; Yao, Chiou-Ju; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    The information from ancient DNA (aDNA) provides an unparalleled opportunity to infer phylogenetic relationships and population history of extinct species and to investigate genetic evolution directly. However, the degraded and fragmented nature of aDNA has posed technical challenges for studies based on conventional PCR amplification. In this study, we present an approach based on next generation sequencing to efficiently sequence the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two extinct passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius) using de novo assembly of massive short (90 bp), paired-end or single-end reads. Although varying levels of human contamination and low levels of postmortem nucleotide lesion were observed, they did not impact sequencing accuracy. Our results demonstrated that the de novo assembly of shotgun sequence reads could be a potent approach to sequence mitogenomes, and offered an efficient way to infer evolutionary history of extinct species.

  6. Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the scarce blue-tailed damselfly, Ischnura pumilio.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Carballa, M Olalla; Thompson, David J; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-08-01

    We report the entire mitochondrial genome of the scarce blue-tailed damselfly, Ischnura pumilio (Odonata, Coenagrionidae), using next-generation sequencing on genomic DNA. A de novo assembly provided a single contiguous sequence of 15,250 bp that contained the A + T-rich region and all standard coding regions; gene configuration is similar to other odonates and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12 S and 16 S rRNA) and 22 tRNA genes. We found a unique intergenic spacer in I. pumilio and confirm that the intergenic spacer s5 likely represents a synapomorphy between Anisoptera and Zygoptera. This is the first mitogenome sequence obtained for a member of the Coenagrionidae and demonstrates how next-generation sequencing technology can obtain mtDNA genome sequences without prior sample processing or primer design.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Indian medium carp, Labeo gonius (Hamilton, 1822) and its comparison with other related carp species.

    PubMed

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Kumari, Kavita; Baisvar, Vishwamitra Singh; Rout, Ajaya Kumar; Pakrashi, Sudip; Paria, Prasenjet; Jena, J K

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Labeo gonius is reported using PGM sequencer (Ion Torrent). The complete mitogenome of L. gonius is obtained by the de novo sequences assembly of genomic reads using the Torrent Mapping Alignment Program (TMAP) which is 16 614 bp in length. The mitogenome of L. gonius comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNA genes, and D-loop as control region along with gene order and organization, being similar to most of other fish mitogenomes of NCBI databases. The mitogenome in the present study has 99% similarity to the complete mitogenome sequence of Labeo fimbriatus, as reported earlier. The phylogenetic analysis of Cypriniformes depicted that their mitogenomes are closely related to each other. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. gonius would be helpful in understanding the population genetics, phylogenetics, and evolution of Indian Carps.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Gulf sturgeon, A. o. desotoi and European sturgeon A. sturio (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae) obtained through next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Popović, Danijela; Baca, Mateusz; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of European sturgeon and two subspecies of the North American, Atlantic and Gulf sturgeons were determined using MiSeq Illumina technology. All three genomes show typical vertebrate organization. They possess 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (ribosomal RNA) genes and a non-coding control region. Excluding ND6, all protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand. The whole mitogenome sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KP997216-KP997218.

  9. Sequence variation in mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes of ascaridoid nematodes in cats and dogs from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mikaeili, F; Mirhendi, H; Mohebali, M; Hosseini, M; Sharbatkhori, M; Zarei, Z; Kia, E B

    2015-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the sequence variation in two mitochondrial genes, namely cytochrome c oxidase 1 (pcox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) within and among isolates of Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina. Genomic DNA was extracted from 32 isolates of T. cati, 9 isolates of T. canis and 19 isolates of T. leonina collected from cats and dogs in different geographical areas of Iran. Mitochondrial genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence data were aligned using the BioEdit software and compared with published sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. Based on pairwise comparison, intra-species genetic diversity within Iranian isolates of T. cati, T. canis and T. leonina amounted to 0-2.3%, 0-1.3% and 0-1.0% for pcox1 and 0-2.0%, 0-1.7% and 0-2.6% for pnad1, respectively. Inter-species sequence variation among the three ascaridoid nematodes was significantly higher, being 9.5-16.6% for pcox1 and 11.9-26.7% for pnad1. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the pcox1 and pnad1 genes indicated that there is significant genetic diversity within and among isolates of T. cati, T. canis and T. leonina from different areas of Iran, and these genes can be used for studying genetic variation of ascaridoid nematodes.

  10. [Origin and genetic diversity of Mongolian and Chinese sheep using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-Zhu; Cheng, Shu-Ru; Batsuuri, Lkhagva; Badamdorj, D; Olivier, Hanotte; Han, Jian-Lin

    2005-12-01

    To determine the origin and gene diversity of the Chinese and Mongolian domestic sheep, a partial fragment of mitochondrial DNA D-loop was sequenced for total number of 314 individuals from nine Chinese sheep populations and 11 Mongolian sheep populations. The results show no difference in nucleotide composition between Chinese and Mongolian sheep mtDNA D-loop sequences. However, more variables were identified in Mongolian sheep (26.85% of the sites) than that in Chinese sheep (24.22%). In China, mtDNA haplotype diversity was the highest in Qinghai Tibetan sheep, followed then by Gansu Tibetan sheep, Gansu Alpine Merino, Qinghai Merino, Gannan Tibetan sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep, Tan sheep, Hu sheep and Minxian Black Fur sheep. In Mongolian sheep, mtDNA haplotype diversity was the highest in Bayad and Baidrag populations and the lowest in the Gobi-Altai population. In general, Mongolian sheep have a richer genetic diversity than the Chinese ones with larger number of haplotypes (86.06% (142/165) versus 78.83% (108/137)), higher haplotype diversity (Hd; 0.976 versus 0.936), higher nucleotide diversity (Pi (pi); 0. 036 versus 0.034) and higher average number of nucleotide differences (k; 23.50 versus 22.48). Phylogenetic analysis of the 217 haplotypes identified in both Mongolian and Chinese sheep supported the same origin of their domestication with three distinct maternal lineages defined as major haplotypes A, B and C, of which haplotype A are the commonest in all Chinese sheep populations and in the majority of Mongolian sheep populations (9/11) with an average frequency of 58.73%, followed by haplotype B present in eight of Chinese population and in all Mongolian sheep populations with an average frequency of 24.68%, and haplotype C present in eight Chinese and in 10 Mongolian sheep populations with an average frequency of 16.59%. Further network analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of the 87 haplotypes identified from 91 sequences retrieved from Gen

  11. Description of a species of Fabaeformiscandona (Ostracoda, Crustacea) from Kushiro Marsh, Hokkaido, Japan, with the nearly complete mitochondrial genomic sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hiruta, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background So far, 16 species of non-marine ostracods have been reported from Kushiro Marsh, Kushiro Shitsugen National Park, eastern Hokkaido, Japan (Hiruta and Smith 2001, Smith and Hiruta 2004). Nine of these species are in Candonidae, the second-most diverse family of non-marine ostracods. This family contains ca. 550 species, or around 25% of the total number of non-marine ostracod species (Martens et al. 2008). New information We sampled ostracods in Kushiro Marsh on 27 December 2012 and identified an undescribed species in the family Candonidae, herein described as Fabaeformiscandona kushiroensis sp. nov. This species belongs to the F. acuminata species group and is characterized by the shapes of the elongate, dorsally directed medial and outer lobes on the distal end of each hemipenis. We also determined for this species the sequence of the nearly complete mitochondrial genome, the first record from the order Podocopa. The genome (ca. 17 kbp) contains two ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes, as also found in other arthropods for which the mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. The gene arrangement is similar to the pancrustacean ground pattern, except that in the control region there is an approximately 2 kbp tandem repeat region composed of 220-bp motif sequences. We describe the genetic features of the mitochondrial genome, including nucleotide composition and the secondary structures of tRNAs and rRNAs, and compare them with the genome of Vargula hilgendorfii (Myodocopa, Ostracoda). PMID:26751633

  12. Deep Sequencing of Mixed Total DNA without Barcodes Allows Efficient Assembly of Highly Plastic Ascidian Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Nimrod D.; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Botero-Castro, Fidel; Griggio, Francesca; Mastrototaro, Francesco; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P.; Gissi, Carmela; Huchon, Dorothée

    2013-01-01

    Ascidians or sea squirts form a diverse group within chordates, which includes a few thousand members of marine sessile filter-feeding animals. Their mitochondrial genomes are characterized by particularly high evolutionary rates and rampant gene rearrangements. This extreme variability complicates standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques for molecular characterization studies, and consequently only a few complete Ascidian mitochondrial genome sequences are available. Using the standard PCR and Sanger sequencing approach, we produced the mitochondrial genome of Ascidiella aspersa only after a great effort. In contrast, we produced five additional mitogenomes (Botrylloides aff. leachii, Halocynthia spinosa, Polycarpa mytiligera, Pyura gangelion, and Rhodosoma turcicum) with a novel strategy, consisting in sequencing the pooled total DNA samples of these five species using one Illumina HiSeq 2000 flow cell lane. Each mitogenome was efficiently assembled in a single contig using de novo transcriptome assembly, as de novo genome assembly generally performed poorly for this task. Each of the new six mitogenomes presents a different and novel gene order, showing that no syntenic block has been conserved at the ordinal level (in Stolidobranchia and in Phlebobranchia). Phylogenetic analyses support the paraphyly of both Ascidiacea and Phlebobranchia, with Thaliacea nested inside Phlebobranchia, although the deepest nodes of the Phlebobranchia–Thaliacea clade are not well resolved. The strategy described here thus provides a cost-effective approach to obtain complete mitogenomes characterized by a highly plastic gene order and a fast nucleotide/amino acid substitution rate. PMID:23709623

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence and gene rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of the bell-ring frog, Buergeria buergeri (family Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Sano, Naomi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Sumida, Masayuki

    2004-06-01

    In this study we determined the complete nucleotide sequence (19,959 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA of the rhacophorid frog Buergeria buergeri. The gene content, nucleotide composition, and codon usage of B. buergeri conformed to those of typical vertebrate patterns. However, due to an accumulation of lengthy repetitive sequences in the D-loop region, this species possesses the largest mitochondrial genome among all the vertebrates examined so far. Comparison of the gene organizations among amphibian species (Rana, Xenopus, salamanders and caecilians) revealed that the positioning of four tRNA genes and the ND5 gene in the mtDNA of B. buergeri diverged from the common vertebrate gene arrangement shared by Xenopus, salamanders and caecilians. The unique positions of the tRNA genes in B. buergeri are shared by ranid frogs, indicating that the rearrangements of the tRNA genes occurred in a common ancestral lineage of ranids and rhacophorids. On the other hand, the novel position of the ND5 gene seems to have arisen in a lineage leading to rhacophorids (and other closely related taxa) after ranid divergence. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence data of all mitochondrial genes also supported the gene rearrangement pathway.

  14. Deep sequencing of mixed total DNA without barcodes allows efficient assembly of highly plastic ascidian mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Botero-Castro, Fidel; Griggio, Francesca; Mastrototaro, Francesco; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Gissi, Carmela; Huchon, Dorothée

    2013-01-01

    Ascidians or sea squirts form a diverse group within chordates, which includes a few thousand members of marine sessile filter-feeding animals. Their mitochondrial genomes are characterized by particularly high evolutionary rates and rampant gene rearrangements. This extreme variability complicates standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques for molecular characterization studies, and consequently only a few complete Ascidian mitochondrial genome sequences are available. Using the standard PCR and Sanger sequencing approach, we produced the mitochondrial genome of Ascidiella aspersa only after a great effort. In contrast, we produced five additional mitogenomes (Botrylloides aff. leachii, Halocynthia spinosa, Polycarpa mytiligera, Pyura gangelion, and Rhodosoma turcicum) with a novel strategy, consisting in sequencing the pooled total DNA samples of these five species using one Illumina HiSeq 2000 flow cell lane. Each mitogenome was efficiently assembled in a single contig using de novo transcriptome assembly, as de novo genome assembly generally performed poorly for this task. Each of the new six mitogenomes presents a different and novel gene order, showing that no syntenic block has been conserved at the ordinal level (in Stolidobranchia and in Phlebobranchia). Phylogenetic analyses support the paraphyly of both Ascidiacea and Phlebobranchia, with Thaliacea nested inside Phlebobranchia, although the deepest nodes of the Phlebobranchia-Thaliacea clade are not well resolved. The strategy described here thus provides a cost-effective approach to obtain complete mitogenomes characterized by a highly plastic gene order and a fast nucleotide/amino acid substitution rate.

  15. Presence of two mitochondrial genomes in the mytilid Perumytilus purpuratus: Phylogenetic evidence for doubly uniparental inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Jaime; Pérez, Montse; Toro, Jorge; Astorga, Marcela P.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents evidence, using sequences of ribosomal 16S and COI mtDNA, for the presence of two mitochondrial genomes in Perumytilus purpuratus. This may be considered evidence of doubly uniparental mtDNA inheritance. The presence of the two types of mitochondrial genomes differentiates females from males. The F genome was found in the somatic and gonadal tissues of females and in the somatic tissues of males; the M genome was found in the gonads and mantle of males only. For the mitochondrial 16S region, ten haplotypes were found for the F genome (nucleotide diversity 0.004), and 7 haplotypes for the M genome (nucleotide diversity 0.001), with a distance Dxy of 0.125 and divergence Kxy of 60.33%. For the COI gene 17 haplotypes were found for the F genome (nucleotide diversity 0.009), and 10 haplotypes for the M genome (nucleotide diversity 0.010), with a genetic distance Dxy of 0.184 and divergence Kxy of 99.97%. Our results report the presence of two well-differentiated, sex-specific types of mitochondrial genome (one present in the male gonad, the other in the female gonad), implying the presence of DUI in P. purpuratus. These results indicate that care must be taken in phylogenetic comparisons using mtDNA sequences of P. purpuratus without considering the sex of the individuals. PMID:26273220

  16. Incongruence between primary sequence data and the distribution of a mitochondrial atp1 group II intron among ferns and horsetails.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Niklas; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2005-09-01

    Using DNA sequence data from multiple genes (often from more than one genome compartment) to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships has become routine. Augmenting this approach with genomic structural characters (e.g., intron gain and loss, changes in gene order) as these data become available from comparative studies already has provided critical insight into some long-standing questions about the evolution of land plants. Here we report on the presence of a group II intron located in the mitochondrial atp1 gene of leptosporangiate and marattioid ferns. Primary sequence data for the atp1 gene are newly reported for 27 taxa, and results are presented from maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference for 34 land plants in three data sets: (1) single-gene mitochondrial atp1 (exon+intron sequences); (2) five combined genes (mitochondrial atp1 [exon only]; plastid rbcL, atpB, rps4; nuclear SSU rDNA); and (3) same five combined genes plus morphology. All our phylogenetic analyses corroborate results from previous fern studies that used plastid and nuclear sequence data: the monophyly of euphyllophytes, as well as of monilophytes; whisk ferns (Psilotidae) sister to ophioglossoid ferns (Ophioglossidae); horsetails (Equisetopsida) sister to marattioid ferns (Marattiidae), which together are sister to the monophyletic leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to the results from the primary sequence data, the genomic structural data (atp1 intron distribution pattern) would seem to suggest that leptosporangiate and marattioid ferns are monophyletic, and together they are the sister group to horsetails--a topology that is rarely reconstructed using primary sequence data.

  17. Next-Generation Sequencing of Two Mitochondrial Genomes from Family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) Reveal Novel Patterns of Gene Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Ying; Liu, Jing-Xian; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Animal mitochondrial genomes have provided large and diverse datasets for evolutionary studies. Here, the first two representative mitochondrial genomes from the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) were determined using next-generation sequencing. The sequenced region of these two mitochondrial genomes from the species Auplopus sp. and Agenioideus sp. was 16,746 bp long with an A + T content of 83.12% and 16,596 bp long with an A + T content of 78.64%, respectively. In both species, all of the 37 typical mitochondrial genes were determined. The secondary structure of tRNA genes and rRNA genes were predicted and compared with those of other insects. Atypical trnS1 using abnormal anticodons TCT and lacking D-stem pairings was identified. There were 49 helices belonging to six domains in rrnL and 30 helices belonging to three domains in rrns present. Compared with the ancestral organization, four and two tRNA genes were rearranged in mitochondrial genomes of Auplopus and Agenioideus, respectively. In both species, trnM was shuffled upstream of the trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster, and trnA was translocated from the cluster trnA-trnR-trnN-trnS1-trnE-trnF to the region between nad1 and trnL1, which is novel to the Vespoidea. In Auplopus, the tRNA cluster trnW-trnC-trnY was shuffled to trnW-trnY-trnC. Phylogenetic analysis within Vespoidea revealed that Pompilidae and Mutillidae formed a sister lineage, and then sistered Formicidae. The genomes presented in this study have enriched the knowledge base of molecular markers, which is valuable in respect to studies about the gene rearrangement mechanism, genomic evolutionary processes and phylogeny of Hymenoptera. PMID:27727175

  18. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region of ciscoes (genus Coregonus): taxonomic implications for the Great Lakes species flock.

    PubMed

    Reed, K M; Dorschner, M O; Todd, T N; Phillips, R B

    1998-09-01

    Sequence variation in the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was examined to assess the genetic distinctiveness of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus). Individuals from within the Great Lakes Basin as well as inland lakes outside the basin were sampled. DNA fragments containing the entire D-loop were amplified by PCR from specimens of C. zenithicus and the related species C. artedi, C. hoyi, C. kiyi, and C. clupeaformis. DNA sequence analysis revealed high similarity within and among species and shared polymorphism for length variants. Based on this analysis, the shortjaw cisco is not genetically distinct from other cisco species.

  19. A bumpy ride on the diagnostic bench of massive parallel sequencing, the case of the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Vancampenhout, Kim; Caljon, Ben; Spits, Claudia; Stouffs, Katrien; Jonckheere, An; De Meirleir, Linda; Lissens, Willy; Vanlander, Arnaud; Smet, Joél; De Paepe, Boel; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The advent of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) has revolutionized the field of human molecular genetics, including the diagnostic study of mitochondrial (mt) DNA dysfunction. The analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome using MPS platforms is now common and will soon outrun conventional sequencing. However, the development of a robust and reliable protocol is rather challenging. A previous pilot study for the re-sequencing of human mtDNA revealed an uneven coverage, affecting predominantly part of the plus strand. In an attempt to address this problem, we undertook a comparative study of standard and modified protocols for the Ion Torrent PGM system. We could not improve strand representation by altering the recommended shearing methodology of the standard workflow or omitting the DNA polymerase amplification step from the library construction process. However, we were able to associate coverage bias of the plus strand with a specific sequence motif. Additionally, we compared coverage and variant calling across technologies. The same samples were also sequenced on a MiSeq device which showed that coverage and heteroplasmic variant calling were much improved.

  20. [Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, demographic history, and population structure of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869].

    PubMed

    Shedko, S V; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A; Koshelev, V N; Shedko, M B

    2015-02-01

    The variability of the mtDNA control region (D-loop) was examined in Amur sturgeon endemic to the Amur River. This species is also classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened species. Sequencing of 796- to 812-bp fragments of the D-loop in 112 sturgeon collected in the Lower Amur revealed 73 different genotypes. The sample was characterized by a high level of haplotypic (0.976) and nucleotide (0.0194) diversity. The identified haplotypes split into two well-defined monophyletic groups, BG (n = 39) and SM (n = 34), differing (HKY distance) on average by 3.41% of nucleotide positions upon an average level of intragroup differences of 0.54 and 1.23%, respectively. Moreover, the haplotypes of the SM groups differed by the presence of a 13-14 bp deletion. Most ofthe samples (66 out of 112) carried BG haplotypes. Overall, the pattern of pairwise nucleotide differences and the results of neutrality tests, as well as the results of tests for compliance with the model of sudden demographic expansion or with the model of exponential growth pointed to a past significant increase in the number of Amur sturgeon, which was most clearly manifested in the analysis of data on the BG haplogroup. The constructed Bayesian skyline plots showed that this growth began about 18 to 16 thousand years ago. At present, the effective size of the strongly reduced (due to overharvesting) population of Amur sturgeon may be equal to or even lower than it was before the beginning of this growth during the Last Glacial Maximum. The presence in the mitochondrial gene pool ofAmur sturgeon of two haplogroups, their unequal evolutionary dynamics, and, judging by scanty data, their unequal representation in the Russian and Chinese parts of the Amur River basin point to the possible existence of at least two distinct populations of Amur sturgeon in the past.

  1. Phylogeny of frogs from the genus Physalaemus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Luciana B; Targueta, Cíntia P; Baldo, Diego; Nascimento, Juliana; Garcia, Paulo C A; Andrade, Gilda V; Haddad, Célio F B; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

    2015-11-01

    Although some species groups have been recognized in the leiuperine genus Physalaemus, no phylogenetic analysis has previously been performed. Here, we provide a phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from 41 of the 46 species of Physalaemus. We employed the parsimony criterion using the software TNT and POY and the Bayesian criterion using the software MrBayes. Two major clades were recovered inside the monophyletic Physalaemus: (i) the highly supported Physalaemus signifer Clade, which included P. nattereri and the species previously placed in the P. deimaticus and P. signifer Groups; and (ii) the Physalaemus cuvieri Clade, which included the remaining species of Physalaemus. Five species groups were recognized in the P. cuvieri Clade: the P. biligonigerus Group, the P. cuvieri Group, the P. henselii Group, the P. gracilis Group and the P. olfersii Group. The P. gracilis Species Group was the same as that previously proposed by Nascimento et al. (2005). The P. henselii Group includes P. fernandezae and P. henselii, and was the sister group of a clade that comprised the remaining species of the P. cuvieri Clade. The P. olfersii Group included P. olfersii, P. soaresi, P. maximus, P. feioi and P. lateristriga. The P. biligonigerus Species Group was composed of P. biligonigerus, P. marmoratus, P. santafecinus and P. riograndensis. The P. cuvieri Group inferred here differed from that recognized by Nascimento et al. (2005) only by the inclusion of P. albifrons and the exclusion of P. cicada. The paraphyly of P. cuvieri with respect to P. ephippifer was inferred in all the analyses. Distinct genetic lineages were recognized among individuals currently identified as P. cuvieri and they were congruent with cytogenetic differences reported previously, supporting the hypothesis of occurrence of formally unnamed species.

  2. Evolutionary relationships among the true vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lenk, P; Kalyabina, S; Wink, M; Joger, U

    2001-04-01

    Nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 16S rRNA genes, totaling 946 bp, were used to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of 42 species of the subfamily Viperinae representing 12 of the 13 recognized genera. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood were used as methods for phylogeny reconstruction with and without a posteriori weighting. When representatives of the Causinae were taken as outgroup, five major monophyletic groups were consistently identified: Bitis, Cerastes, Echis, the Atherini (Atheris s.l.), and the Eurasian viperines. Proatheris was affiliated with Atheris, and Adenorhinos clustered within Atheris. The African Bitis consisted of at least three monophyletic groups: (i) the B. gabonica group, (ii) the B. caudalis group, and (iii) the B. cornuta group. B. worthingtoni and B. arietans are not included in any of these lineages. Eurasian viperines could be unambiguously devided into four monophyletic groups: (i) Pseudocerastes and Eristicophis, (ii) European vipers (Vipera s.str.), (iii) Middle East Macrovipera plus Montivipera (Vipera xanthina group), and (iv) North African Macrovipera plus Vipera palaestinae and Daboia russelii. These evolutionary lineages are consistent with historical biogeographical patterns. According to our analyses, the viperines originated in the Oligocene in Africa and successively underwent a first radiation leading to the five basal groups. The radiation might have been driven by the possession of an effective venom apparatus and a foraging startegy (sit-wait-strike) superior in most African biomes and might have been adaptive. The next diversifications led to the Proatheris-Atheris furcation, the basal Bitis splitting, and the emergence of the basal lineages within the Eurasian stock. Thereafter, lineages within Echis, Atheris, and Cerastes evolved. The emergence of three groups within Vipera s.l. might have been forced by the existence of three land masses during the early Miocene in the area of the

  3. Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

    2013-08-01

    Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization

  4. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus.

  5. [Varia