Science.gov

Sample records for mitochondrial complex iii

  1. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial complex III deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complex III is found in cell structures called mitochondria , which convert the energy from food into a ... CYB gene is found in DNA located in mitochondria, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This location may help ...

  2. Suppressors of superoxide production from mitochondrial complex III

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Adam L.; Vargas, Leonardo; Turk, Carolina N.; Baaten, Janine E.; Matzen, Jason T.; Dardov, Victoria J.; Attle, Stephen J.; Li, Jing; Quackenbush, Douglas C.; Goncalves, Renata L. S.; Perevoshchikova, Irina V.; Petrassi, H. Michael; Meeusen, Shelly L.; Ainscow, Edward K.; Brand, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial electron transport drives ATP synthesis but also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are both cellular signals and damaging oxidants. Superoxide production by respiratory complex III is implicated in diverse signaling events and pathologies but its role remains controversial. Using high-throughput screening we identified compounds that selectively eliminate superoxide production by complex III without altering oxidative phosphorylation; they modulate retrograde signaling including cellular responses to hypoxic and oxidative stress. PMID:26368590

  3. Real-time tracking mitochondrial dynamic remodeling with two-photon phosphorescent iridium (III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Diao, JiaJie; Liu, Jiankang; Ji, Liangnian; Long, Jiangang; Chao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial fission and fusion control the shape, size, number, and function of mitochondria in the cells of organisms from yeast to mammals. The disruption of mitochondrial fission and fusion is involved in severe human diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Agents that can real-time track the mitochondrial dynamics are of great importance. However, the short excitation wavelengths and rapidly photo-bleaching properties of commercial mitochondrial dyes render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics. Thus, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior photo-stability under continual light irradiation, deep tissue penetration and at intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds employ low-energy near-infrared light and have emerged as a non-invasive tool for real-time cell imaging. Here, cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir5) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for the real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial fission and fusion. The results indicate that Ir2 is well suited for two-photon phosphorescent tracking of mitochondrial fission and fusion in living cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This study provides a practical use for mitochondrial targeting two-photon phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thiol-based antioxidants elicit mitochondrial oxidation via respiratory complex III

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Ponnuraj, Nagendraprabhu; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Hanafin, William P.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Gaskins, H. Rex

    2015-01-01

    Excessive oxidation is widely accepted as a precursor to deleterious cellular function. On the other hand, an awareness of the role of reductive stress as a similar pathological insult is emerging. Here we report early dynamic changes in compartmentalized glutathione (GSH) redox potentials in living cells in response to exogenously supplied thiol-based antioxidants. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular thiol-disulfide exchange via a genetically encoded biosensor targeted to cytosol and mitochondria revealed unexpectedly rapid oxidation of the mitochondrial matrix in response to GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Oxidation of the probe occurred within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner and was attenuated with the membrane-permeable ROS scavenger tiron. In contrast, the cytosolic sensor did not respond to similar treatments. Surprisingly, the immediate mitochondrial oxidation was not abrogated by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential or inhibition of mitochondrial GSH uptake. After detection of elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS, we systematically inhibited multisubunit protein complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and determined that respiratory complex III is a downstream target of thiol-based compounds. Disabling complex III with myxothiazol completely blocked matrix oxidation induced with GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Our findings provide new evidence of a functional link between exogenous thiol-containing antioxidants and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25994788

  5. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells.

  6. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-11

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells.

  7. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells. PMID:26864567

  8. Low-dose ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial fusion and increases expression of mitochondrial complexes I and III in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Mou-Chieh; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chiu, Shih-Che; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Hsiang, I-Chou; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Linyi

    2015-01-01

    High energy ionizing radiation can cause DNA damage and cell death. During clinical radiation therapy, the radiation dose could range from 15 to 60 Gy depending on targets. While 2 Gy radiation has been shown to cause cancer cell death, studies also suggest a protective potential by low dose radiation. In this study, we examined the effect of 0.2-2 Gy radiation on hippocampal neurons. Low dose 0.2 Gy radiation treatment increased the levels of MTT. Since hippocampal neurons are post-mitotic, this result reveals a possibility that 0.2 Gy irradiation may increase mitochondrial activity to cope with stimuli. Maintaining neural plasticity is an energy-demanding process that requires high efficient mitochondrial function. We thus hypothesized that low dose radiation may regulate mitochondrial dynamics and function to ensure survival of neurons. Our results showed that five days after 0.2 Gy irradiation, no obvious changes on neuronal survival, neuronal synapses, membrane potential of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species levels, and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. Interestingly, 0.2 Gy irradiation promoted the mitochondria fusion, resulting in part from the increased level of a mitochondrial fusion protein, Mfn2, and inhibition of Drp1 fission protein trafficking to the mitochondria. Accompanying with the increased mitochondrial fusion, the expressions of complexes I and III of the electron transport chain were also increased. These findings suggest that, hippocampal neurons undergo increased mitochondrial fusion to modulate cellular activity as an adaptive mechanism in response to low dose radiation. PMID:26415228

  9. Low-dose ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial fusion and increases expression of mitochondrial complexes I and III in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ling; Chen, Wun-Ke; Liu, Szu-Ting; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Mou-Chieh; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chiu, Shih-Che; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Hsiang, I-Chou; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Linyi

    2015-10-13

    High energy ionizing radiation can cause DNA damage and cell death. During clinical radiation therapy, the radiation dose could range from 15 to 60 Gy depending on targets. While 2 Gy radiation has been shown to cause cancer cell death, studies also suggest a protective potential by low dose radiation. In this study, we examined the effect of 0.2-2 Gy radiation on hippocampal neurons. Low dose 0.2 Gy radiation treatment increased the levels of MTT. Since hippocampal neurons are post-mitotic, this result reveals a possibility that 0.2 Gy irradiation may increase mitochondrial activity to cope with stimuli. Maintaining neural plasticity is an energy-demanding process that requires high efficient mitochondrial function. We thus hypothesized that low dose radiation may regulate mitochondrial dynamics and function to ensure survival of neurons. Our results showed that five days after 0.2 Gy irradiation, no obvious changes on neuronal survival, neuronal synapses, membrane potential of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species levels, and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. Interestingly, 0.2 Gy irradiation promoted the mitochondria fusion, resulting in part from the increased level of a mitochondrial fusion protein, Mfn2, and inhibition of Drp1 fission protein trafficking to the mitochondria. Accompanying with the increased mitochondrial fusion, the expressions of complexes I and III of the electron transport chain were also increased. These findings suggest that, hippocampal neurons undergo increased mitochondrial fusion to modulate cellular activity as an adaptive mechanism in response to low dose radiation.

  10. Phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes as multicolor probes for specific mitochondrial imaging and tracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Qiao, Liping; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, four phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes [Ir(C-N)2(PhenSe)](+) (Ir1-Ir4, in which C-N = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy), dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline (dbq), 2-phenylquinoline (2-pq) and 2-phenylpyridine (ppy), PhenSe = 1,10-phenanthrolineselenazole) with tunable emission colors were developed to image mitochondria and track the dynamics of the mitochondrial morphology. In comparison with commercially available mitochondrial trackers, Ir1-Ir4 possess high specificity to mitochondria in live and fixed cells without requiring prior membrane permeabilization or the replacement of the culture medium. Due to the high resistance of Ir1-Ir4 to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the appreciable tolerance to environmental changes, these complexes are applicable for the imaging and tracking of the mitochondrial morphological changes over long periods of time. In addition, Ir2-Ir4 exhibited superior photostability compared to the commercially available mitochondrial trackers. These colorful iridium(III) complexes may contribute to the future development of staining agents for organelle-selective imaging in living cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and functional prediction of mitochondrial complex III and IV mutations associated with glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Rhiannon E.; Keatley, Kathleen; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Meunier, Brigitte; Holt, William V.; An, Qian; Higgins, Samantha C.; Polyzoidis, Stavros; Stephenson, Katie F.; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Fillmore, Helen L.; Pilkington, Geoffrey J.; McGeehan, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with a dismal prognosis. Treatment is hampered by GBM's unique biology, including differential cell response to therapy. Although several mitochondrial abnormalities have been identified, how mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations contribute to GBM biology and therapeutic response remains poorly described. We sought to determine the spectrum of functional complex III and IV mtDNA mutations in GBM. Methods The complete mitochondrial genomes of 10 GBM cell lines were obtained using next-generation sequencing and combined with another set obtained from 32 GBM tissues. Three-dimensional structural mapping and analysis of all the nonsynonymous mutations identified in complex III and IV proteins was then performed to investigate functional importance. Results Over 200 mutations were identified in the mtDNAs, including a significant proportion with very low mutational loads. Twenty-five were nonsynonymous mutations in complex III and IV, 9 of which were predicted to be functional and affect mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Most of the functional candidates were GBM specific and not found in the general population, and 2 were present in the germ-line. Patient-specific maps reveal that 43% of tumors carry at least one functional candidate. Conclusions We reveal that the spectrum of GBM-associated mtDNA mutations is wider than previously thought, as well as novel structural-functional links between specific mtDNA mutations, abnormal mitochondria, and the biology of GBM. These results could provide tangible new prognostic indicators as well as targets with which to guide the development of patient-specific mitochondrially mediated chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:25731774

  12. Differential proteomic profiling unveils new molecular mechanisms associated with mitochondrial complex III deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Morán, María; López-Bernardo, Elia; Cadenas, Susana; Hidalgo, Beatriz; Sánchez, Ricardo; Seneca, Sara; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A.; Ugalde, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed the cellular pathways and metabolic adaptations that take place in primary skin fibroblasts from patients with mutations in BCS1L, a major genetic cause of mitochondrial complex III enzyme deficiency. Mutant fibroblasts exhibited low oxygen consumption rates and intracellular ATP levels, indicating that the main altered molecular event probably is a limited respiration-coupled ATP production through the OXPHOS system. Two-dimensional DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses unambiguously identified 39 proteins whose expression was significantly altered in complex III-deficient fibroblasts. Extensive statistical and cluster analyses revealed a protein profile characteristic for the BCS1L mutant fibroblasts that included alterations in energy metabolism, cell signaling and gene expression regulation, cytoskeleton formation and maintenance, and intracellular stress responses. The physiological validation of the predicted functional adaptations of human cultured fibroblasts to complex III deficiency confirmed the up-regulation of glycolytic enzyme activities and the accumulation of branched-chain among other amino acids, suggesting the activation of anaerobic glycolysis and cellular catabolic states, in particular protein catabolism, together with autophagy as adaptive responses to mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and ATP deficiency. Our data point to an overall metabolic and genetic reprogramming that could contribute to explain the clinical manifestations of complex III deficiency in patients. PMID:25239759

  13. A mouse model of mitochondrial complex III dysfunction induced by myxothiazol

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudi, Mina; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Marjavaara, Sanna; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Levéen, Per; Fellman, Vineta

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Reversible chemical inhibition of complex III in wild type mouse. • Myxothiazol causes decreased complex III activity in mouse liver. • The model is useful for therapeutic trials to improve mitochondrial function. - Abstract: Myxothiazol is a respiratory chain complex III (CIII) inhibitor that binds to the ubiquinol oxidation site Qo of CIII. It blocks electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome b and thus inhibits CIII activity. It has been utilized as a tool in studies of respiratory chain function in in vitro and cell culture models. We developed a mouse model of biochemically induced and reversible CIII inhibition using myxothiazol. We administered myxothiazol intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg to C57Bl/J6 mice every 24 h and assessed CIII activity, histology, lipid content, supercomplex formation, and gene expression in the livers of the mice. A reversible CIII activity decrease to 50% of control value occurred at 2 h post-injection. At 74 h only minor histological changes in the liver were found, supercomplex formation was preserved and no significant changes in the expression of genes indicating hepatotoxicity or inflammation were found. Thus, myxothiazol-induced CIII inhibition can be induced in mice for four days in a row without overt hepatotoxicity or lethality. This model could be utilized in further studies of respiratory chain function and pharmacological approaches to mitochondrial hepatopathies.

  14. [Analysis of UQCRB gene mutation in a child with mitochondrial complex III deficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Hong, Fang; Qian, Guling; Tong, Fan; Zhou, Xuelian; Huang, Xiaolei; Yang, Rulai; Huang, Xinwen

    2017-06-10

    To delineate the clinical, biochemical and genetic mutational characteristics of a child with mitochondrial complex III deficiency. Clinical information and results of auxiliary examination of the patient were analyzed. Next-generation sequencing of the mitochondrial genome and related nuclear genes was carried out. Suspected mutation was confirmed in both parents with Sanger sequencing. Heterozygous deletion was mapped with chromosomal microarray analysis and confirmed with real-time PCR. The patient presented with vomiting, polypnea, fever, metabolic acidosis, hyperlactatemia, hypoglycemia, dysfunction of coagulation and immune system, in addition with increased lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme. Elevation of blood alanine and acylcarnitines as well as urinary ketotic dicarboxylic acid were also noted. The patient also presented development delay, mental retardation and hypotonia. Sequence analysis revealed two mutations in the nuclear gene UQCRB, which included a previously reported frameshift mutation c.306_309delAAAA(p.Arg105Lysfs*22) and a novel large deletion encompassing the entire UQCRB gene. The clinical, biochemical and gene mutation characteristics of a child with mitochondrial complex III deficiency caused by mutations of the UQCRB gene have been delineated.

  15. Disruption of a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial gamma carbonic anhydrase reduces complex I and supercomplex I + III2 levels and alters mitochondrial physiology in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Perales, Mariano; Eubel, Holger; Heinemeyer, Jesco; Colaneri, Alejandro; Zabaleta, Eduardo; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2005-07-08

    Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) of plants includes quite a number of plant-specific subunits, some of which exhibit sequence similarity to bacterial gamma-carbonic anhydrases. A homozygous Arabidopsis knockout mutant carrying a T-DNA insertion in a gene encoding one of these subunits (At1g47260) was generated to investigate its physiological role. Isolation of mitochondria and separation of mitochondrial protein complexes by Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation revealed drastically reduced complex I levels. Furthermore, the mitochondrial I + III2 supercomplex was very much reduced in mutant plants. Remaining complex I had normal molecular mass, suggesting substitution of the At1g47260 protein by one or several of the structurally related subunits of this respiratory protein complex. Immune-blotting experiments using polyclonal antibodies directed against the At1g47260 protein indicated its presence within complex I, the I + III2 supercomplex and smaller protein complexes, which possibly represent subcomplexes of complex I. Changes within the mitochondrial proteome of mutant cells were systematically monitored by fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis using 2D Blue-native/SDS and 2D isoelectric focussing/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Complex I subunits are largely absent within the mitochondrial proteome. Further mitochondrial proteins are reduced in mutant plants, like mitochondrial ferredoxin, others are increased, like formate dehydrogenase. Development of mutant plants was normal under standard growth conditions. However, a suspension cell culture generated from mutant plants exhibited clearly reduced growth rates and respiration. In summary, At1g47260 is important for complex I assembly in plant mitochondria and respiration. A role of At1g47260 in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is supported by micro-array analyses.

  16. Statin-Induced Myopathy Is Associated with Mitochondrial Complex III Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Schirris, Tom J J; Renkema, G Herma; Ritschel, Tina; Voermans, Nicol C; Bilos, Albert; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Brandt, Ulrich; Koopman, Werner J H; Beyrath, Julien D; Rodenburg, Richard J; Willems, Peter H G M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Russel, Frans G M

    2015-09-01

    Cholesterol-lowering statins effectively reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events. Myopathy is the most important adverse effect, but its underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. In C2C12 myoblasts, several statin lactones reduced respiratory capacity and appeared to be strong inhibitors of mitochondrial complex III (CIII) activity, up to 84% inhibition. The lactones were in general three times more potent inducers of cytotoxicity than their corresponding acid forms. The Qo binding site of CIII was identified as off-target of the statin lactones. These findings could be confirmed in muscle tissue of patients suffering from statin-induced myopathies, in which CIII enzyme activity was reduced by 18%. Respiratory inhibition in C2C12 myoblasts could be attenuated by convergent electron flow into CIII, restoring respiration up to 89% of control. In conclusion, CIII inhibition was identified as a potential off-target mechanism associated with statin-induced myopathies.

  17. Systematic expression analysis of the mitochondrial complex III subunits identifies UQCRC1 as biomarker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Jörg; Gromes, Arabella; Poss, Mirjam; Brüggemann, Maria; Schmidt, Doris; Ellinger, Nadja; Tolkach, Yuri; Dietrich, Dimo; Kristiansen, Glen; Müller, Stefan C.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is common in cancer, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain is often affected in carcinogenesis. So far, few is known about the expression of the mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex) subunits in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, the NextBio database was used to determine an expression profile of the mitochondrial complex III subunits based on published microarray studies. We observed that five out of 11 subunits of the complex III were downregulated in at least three microarray studies. The decreased mRNA expression level of UQCRFS1 and UQCRC1 in ccRCC was confirmed using PCR. Low mRNA levels UQCRC1 were also correlated with a shorter period of cancer-specific and overall survival. Furthermore, UQCRFS1 and UQCRC1 were also decreased in ccRCC on the protein level as determined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. UQCRC1 protein expression was also lower in ccRCC than in papillary and chromophobe subtypes. Analyzing gene expression and DNA methylation in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort revealed an inverse correlation of gene expression and DNA methylation, suggesting that DNA hypermethylation is regulating the expression of UQCRC1 and UQCRFS1. Taken together, our data implicate that dysregulated UQCRC1 and UQCRFS1 are involved in impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain function. PMID:27845902

  18. TTC19 Plays a Husbandry Role on UQCRFS1 Turnover in the Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex III.

    PubMed

    Bottani, Emanuela; Cerutti, Raffaele; Harbour, Michael E; Ravaglia, Sabrina; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Giordano, Carla; Fearnley, Ian M; D'Amati, Giulia; Viscomi, Carlo; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Zeviani, Massimo

    2017-07-06

    Loss-of-function mutations in TTC19 (tetra-tricopeptide repeat domain 19) have been associated with severe neurological phenotypes and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III deficiency. We previously demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of TTC19 and its link with complex III biogenesis. Here we provide detailed insight into the mechanistic role of TTC19, by investigating a Ttc19(?/?) mouse model that shows progressive neurological and metabolic decline, decreased complex III activity, and increased production of reactive oxygen species. By using both the Ttc19(?/?) mouse model and a range of human cell lines, we demonstrate that TTC19 binds to the fully assembled complex III dimer, i.e., after the incorporation of the iron-sulfur Rieske protein (UQCRFS1). The in situ maturation of UQCRFS1 produces N-terminal polypeptides, which remain bound to holocomplex III. We show that, in normal conditions, these UQCRFS1 fragments are rapidly removed, but when TTC19 is absent they accumulate within complex III, causing its structural and functional impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Repurposing atovaquone: Targeting mitochondrial complex III and OXPHOS to eradicate cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Marco; Lamb, Rebecca; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Mutti, Luciano; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Cappello, Anna Rita; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Atovaquone is an FDA-approved anti-malarial drug, which first became clinically available in the year 2000. Currently, its main usage is for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and/or toxoplasmosis in immune-compromised patients. Atovaquone is a hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone analogue of ubiquinone, also known as Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10). It is a well-tolerated drug that does not cause myelo-suppression. Mechanistically, it is thought to act as a potent and selective OXPHOS inhibitor, by targeting the CoQ10-dependence of mitochondrial complex III. Here, we show for the first time that atovaquone also has anti-cancer activity, directed against Cancer Stem-like Cells (CSCs). More specifically, we demonstrate that atovaquone treatment of MCF7 breast cancer cells inhibits oxygen-consumption and metabolically induces aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), as well as oxidative stress. Remarkably, atovaquone potently inhibits the propagation of MCF7-derived CSCs, with an IC-50 of 1 μM, as measured using the mammosphere assay. Atovaquone also maintains this selectivity and potency in mixed populations of CSCs and non-CSCs. Importantly, these results indicate that glycolysis itself is not sufficient to maintain the proliferation of CSCs, which is instead strictly dependent on mitochondrial function. In addition to targeting the proliferation of CSCs, atovaquone also induces apoptosis in both CD44+/CD24low/− CSC and ALDH+ CSC populations, during exposure to anchorage-independent conditions for 12 hours. However, it has no effect on oxygen consumption in normal human fibroblasts and, in this cellular context, behaves as an anti-inflammatory, consistent with the fact that it is well-tolerated in patients treated for infections. Future studies in xenograft models and human clinical trials may be warranted, as the IC-50 of atovaquone's action on CSCs (1 μM) is >50 times less than its average serum concentration in humans. PMID:27136895

  20. Synthesis of N-diisopropyl phosphoryl benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline, a new class of mitochondrial complexes I and III inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Andreu, I; Cabedo, N; Tormo, J R; Bermejo, A; Mello, R; Cortes, D

    2000-07-03

    The synthesis of N-(O,O-diisopropylphosphoryl)-benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (3) has been achieved in a 'one pot' procedure from imine (2) and diisopropyl-phosphorochloridate (1) generated in situ (POCl3 + iPrOH). Compound 3 is the first benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline derivative found to be a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial complexes I and III, and therefore it opens a new perspective with this series of compounds as they can be considered as new class of antitumor agents.

  1. Differential effects of buffer pH on Ca2+-induced ROS emission with inhibited mitochondrial complexes I and III

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Daniel P.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Stowe, David F.; Lubbe, Ryan; Aldakkak, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission is a critical component in the etiology of ischemic injury. Complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain are considered the primary sources of ROS emission during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. Several factors modulate ischemic ROS emission, such as an increase in extra-matrix Ca2+, a decrease in extra-matrix pH, and a change in substrate utilization. Here we examined the combined effects of these factors on ROS emission from respiratory complexes I and III under conditions of simulated IR injury. Guinea pig heart mitochondria were suspended in experimental buffer at a given pH and incubated with or without CaCl2. Mitochondria were then treated with either pyruvate, a complex I substrate, followed by rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, or succinate, a complex II substrate, followed by antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor. H2O2 release rate and matrix volume were compared with and without adding CaCl2 and at pH 7.15, 6.9, or 6.5 with pyruvate + rotenone or succinate + antimycin A to simulate conditions that may occur during in vivo cardiac IR injury. We found a large increase in H2O2 release with high [CaCl2] and pyruvate + rotenone at pH 6.9, but not at pHs 7.15 or 6.5. Large increases in H2O2 release rate also occurred at each pH with high [CaCl2] and succinate + antimycin A, with the highest levels observed at pH 7.15. The increases in H2O2 release were associated with significant mitochondrial swelling, and both H2O2 release and swelling were abolished by cyclosporine A, a desensitizer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). These results indicate that ROS production by complex I and by complex III is differently affected by buffer pH and Ca2+ loading with mPTP opening. The study suggests that changes in the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ and pH during IR alter the relative amounts of ROS produced at mitochondrial respiratory complex I and complex III. PMID

  2. [Benign congenital myopathy associated with a partial deficiency of complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain

    PubMed

    Castro-Gago, M; Eirís, J; Pintos, E; Rodrigo, E; Blanco-Barca, O; Campos, Y; Arenas, J

    Isolated or combined enzyme deficiencies of the mitochondrial respiratory chain results in a number of clinical heterogeneous conditions. When presented in the neonatal period or early in the infancy the course is usually severe, although isolated cases with benign evolution have also been described. To describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of a child with a benign form of mitochondrial myopathy due to a combined deficiency of the complexes I and III of the respiratory chain. A 40 days-old male, the second son of a young non-consanguineous couple, presented with axial congenital hypotonia, asymmetrical macrocephaly, mild enlargement of the liver, mild coarsening of facial features, increased CK serum values, persistently elevation of serum lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio and external hydrocephalus. Electromyogram and histological muscle examination were normal but analysis of the respiratory chain disclosed a deficiency of the complexes I and III. From 13 months-age onwards clinical detailed abnormalities progressively ameliorated and also did it serum CK, lactate and external hydrocephalus. We think that on clinical, basic biochemical and histological grounds there are some similarities between this case of congenital unspecific myopathy and benign reversible form of mitochondrial myopathy, arguing in favor of a possible relationship between both conditions.

  3. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Jayasimman; Tomašić, Nikica; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Fellman, Vineta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders. PMID:27809283

  4. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Jayasimman; Tomašić, Nikica; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Fellman, Vineta

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1l(c.232A>G)) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  5. Renal Tubular Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Complex II/III Respiratory Chain Deficiency.

    PubMed

    France, Joel; Ashoor, Isa; Craver, Randall

    2017-06-01

    Defects in the respiratory chain may present with a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. In this "Images in Pathology" discussion we correlate the clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural findings in a 12-year-old male with a complex II/III respiratory chain deficiency and kidney dysfunction.

  6. Organometallic Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes with New Mechanisms of Action: NCI-60 Screening, Mitochondrial Targeting, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Platinum complexes related to cisplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2], are successful anticancer drugs; however, other transition metal complexes offer potential for combating cisplatin resistance, decreasing side effects, and widening the spectrum of activity. Organometallic half-sandwich iridium (IrIII) complexes [Ir(Cpx)(XY)Cl]+/0 (Cpx = biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = phenanthroline (1), bipyridine (2), or phenylpyridine (3)) all hydrolyze rapidly, forming monofunctional G adducts on DNA with additional intercalation of the phenyl substituents on the Cpx ring. In comparison, highly potent complex 4 (Cpx = phenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) does not hydrolyze. All show higher potency toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin, with 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrating higher potency in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) NCI-60 cell-line screen. Use of the NCI COMPARE algorithm (which predicts mechanisms of action (MoAs) for emerging anticancer compounds by correlating NCI-60 patterns of sensitivity) shows that the MoA of these IrIII complexes has no correlation to cisplatin (or oxaliplatin), with 3 and 4 emerging as particularly novel compounds. Those findings by COMPARE were experimentally probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A2780 cells exposed to 1, showing mitochondrial swelling and activation of apoptosis after 24 h. Significant changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization were detected by flow cytometry, and the potency of the complexes was enhanced ca. 5× by co-administration with a low concentration (5 μM) of the γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO). These studies reveal potential polypharmacology of organometallic IrIII complexes, with MoA and cell selectivity governed by structural changes in the chelating ligands. PMID:23618382

  7. Organometallic Iridium(III) anticancer complexes with new mechanisms of action: NCI-60 screening, mitochondrial targeting, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Jessica M; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Qamar, Bushra; Liu, Zhe; Hands-Portman, Ian; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Platinum complexes related to cisplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2], are successful anticancer drugs; however, other transition metal complexes offer potential for combating cisplatin resistance, decreasing side effects, and widening the spectrum of activity. Organometallic half-sandwich iridium (Ir(III)) complexes [Ir(Cp(x))(XY)Cl](+/0) (Cp(x) = biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = phenanthroline (1), bipyridine (2), or phenylpyridine (3)) all hydrolyze rapidly, forming monofunctional G adducts on DNA with additional intercalation of the phenyl substituents on the Cp(x) ring. In comparison, highly potent complex 4 (Cp(x) = phenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) does not hydrolyze. All show higher potency toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin, with 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrating higher potency in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) NCI-60 cell-line screen. Use of the NCI COMPARE algorithm (which predicts mechanisms of action (MoAs) for emerging anticancer compounds by correlating NCI-60 patterns of sensitivity) shows that the MoA of these Ir(III) complexes has no correlation to cisplatin (or oxaliplatin), with 3 and 4 emerging as particularly novel compounds. Those findings by COMPARE were experimentally probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A2780 cells exposed to 1, showing mitochondrial swelling and activation of apoptosis after 24 h. Significant changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization were detected by flow cytometry, and the potency of the complexes was enhanced ca. 5× by co-administration with a low concentration (5 μM) of the γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO). These studies reveal potential polypharmacology of organometallic Ir(III) complexes, with MoA and cell selectivity governed by structural changes in the chelating ligands.

  8. Myofibroblast differentiation and its functional properties are inhibited by nicotine and e-cigarette via mitochondrial OXPHOS complex III

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Lerner, Chad; Sundar, Isaac K.; Rahman, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine is the major stimulant in tobacco products including e-cigarettes. Fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation is a key process during wound healing and is dysregulated in lung diseases. The role of nicotine and e-cigarette derived nicotine on cellular functions including profibrotic response and other functional aspects is not known. We hypothesized that nicotine and e-cigarettes affect myofibroblast differentiation, gel contraction, and wound healing via mitochondria stress through nicotinic receptor-dependent mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, we exposed human lung fibroblasts with various doses of nicotine and e-cigarette condensate and determined myofibroblast differentiation, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), wound healing, and gel contraction at different time points. We found that both nicotine and e-cigarette inhibit myofibroblast differentiation as shown by smooth muscle actin and collagen type I, alpha 1 abundance. Nicotine and e-cigarette inhibited OXPHOS complex III accompanied by increased MitoROS, and this effect was augmented by complex III inhibitor antimycin A. These mitochondrial associated effects by nicotine resulted in inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation. These effects were associated with inhibition of wound healing and gel contraction suggesting that nicotine is responsible for dysregulated repair during injurious responses. Thus, our data suggest that nicotine causes dysregulated repair by inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation via OXPHOS pathway. PMID:28256533

  9. Iminophosphorane-organogold(III) complexes induce cell death through mitochondrial ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Laura; Contel, María; Palomera, Luis; Azaceta, Gemma; Marzo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Gold compounds are being investigated as potential antitumor drugs. Some gold(III) derivatives have shown to induce cell death in solid tumors but their mechanism of action differs from that of cisplatin, since most of these compounds do not bind to DNA. We have explored cellular events triggered by three different iminophosphorane-organo gold(III) compounds in leukemia cells (a neutral compound with two chloride ligands [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}Cl2] 1, and two cationic compounds with either a dithiocarbamate ligand [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}(S2CN-Me2)]PF6 2, or a water-soluble phosphine and a chloride ligand [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}(P{Cp(m-C6H4-SO3Na)2}3) Cl]PF6 3). All three compounds showed higher toxicity against leukemia cells when compared to normal T-lymphocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 induced both necrosis and apoptosis, while 3 was mainly apoptotic. Necrotic cell death induced by 1 and 2 was Bax/Bak- and caspase-independent, while apoptosis induced by 3 was Bax/Bak-dependent. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at the mitochondrial level was a critical step in the antitumor effect of these compounds. PMID:21864808

  10. Opening of the mitoKATP channel and decoupling of mitochondrial complex II and III contribute to the suppression of myocardial reperfusion hyperoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Zhu, Xuehai; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Hu, Keli; Swartz, Harold M; Chen, Yeong-Renn; He, Guanglong

    2010-04-01

    Diazoxide, a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel opener, protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Diazoxide also inhibits mitochondrial complex II-dependent respiration in addition to its preconditioning effect. However, there are no prior studies of the role of diazoxide on post-ischemic myocardial oxygenation. In the current study, we determined the effect of diazoxide on the suppression of post-ischemic myocardial tissue hyperoxygenation in vivo, superoxide (O(2)(-*)) generation in isolated mitochondria, and impairment of the interaction between complex II and complex III in purified mitochondrial proteins. It was observed that diazoxide totally suppressed the post-ischemic myocardial hyperoxygenation. With succinate but not glutamate/malate as the substrate, diazoxide significantly increased ubisemiquinone-dependent O(2)(-*) generation, which was not blocked by 5-HD and glibenclamide. Using a model system, the super complex of succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) hosting complex II and complex III, we also observed that diazoxide impaired complex II and its interaction with complex III with no effect on complex III. UV-visible spectral analysis revealed that diazoxide decreased succinate-mediated ferricytochrome b reduction in SCR. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that diazoxide suppressed the in vivo post-ischemic myocardial hyperoxygenation through opening the mitoK(ATP) channel and ubisemiquinone-dependent O(2)(-*) generation via inhibiting mitochondrial complex II-dependent respiration.

  11. Cytotoxicity of Manganese (III) Complex in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Is Mediated by the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Followed by Mitochondrial Damage.

    PubMed

    Al-Anbaky, Qudes; Al-Karakooly, Zeiyad; Kilaparty, Surya P; Agrawal, Megha; Albkuri, Yahya M; RanguMagar, Ambar B; Ghosh, Anindya; Ali, Nawab

    2016-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) complexes are widely studied because of their important catalytic properties in synthetic and biochemical reactions. A Mn (III) complex of an amidoamine ligand was synthesized using a tetradentate amidoamine ligand. In this study, the Mn (III) complex was evaluated for its biological activity by measuring its cytotoxicity in human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Cytotoxic effects of the Mn (III) complex were determined using established biomarkers in an attempt to delineate the mechanism of action and the utility of the complex as a potential anticancer drug. The Mn (III) complex induces cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by microculture tetrazolium assay, a measure of cytotoxic cell death. Our results demonstrated that cytotoxic effects were significantly increased at higher concentrations of Mn (III) complex and with longer time of treatment. The IC50 (Inhibitor concentration that results in 50% cell death) value of Mn (III) complex in MCF-7 cells was determined to be 2.5 mmol/L for 24 hours of treatment. In additional experiments, we determined the Mn (III) complex-mediated cell death was due to both apoptotic and nonspecific necrotic cell death mechanisms. This was assessed by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and flow cytometry techniques. The Mn (III) complex produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase 1 and ultimately damaging the mitochondrial function as is evident by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment of the cells with free radical scavenger, N, N-dimethylthiourea decreased Mn (III) complex-mediated generation of ROS and attenuated apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the Mn (III) complex-mediated MCF-7 cell death utilizes combined mechanism involving apoptosis and necrosis perhaps due to the generation of ROS.

  12. Mitochondrial selectivity and remarkable photocytotoxicity of a ferrocenyl neodymium(III) complex of terpyridine and curcumin in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tukki; Banerjee, Samya; Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Hussain, Akhtar

    2016-04-21

    A series of four novel neodymium(iii) complexes of the formulation [Nd(R-tpy)(O-O)(NO3)2] (), where R-tpy is 4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (Ph-tpy; , ) and 4'-ferrocenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (Fc-tpy; , ); O-O is the conjugate base of acetylacetone (Hacac; , ) or curcumin (Hcurc; , ), are synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structure of shows that the complex is a discrete mononuclear species with the Nd(iii) centre in a nine coordinate environment provided by a set of O6N3 donor atoms. Complexes and having the simple acac ligand are prepared as control compounds. Complex , possessing an appended ferrocenyl (Fc) and the curcumin moiety, is remarkably photocytotoxic to HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells in visible light giving respective IC50 values of 0.7 μM and 2.1 μM while being significantly less toxic to MCF-10A normal cells (IC50 = 34 μM) and in the dark (IC50 > 50 μM). The phenyl appended complex , lacking a ferrocenyl moiety, is significantly less toxic to both the cell lines when compared with . Complexes and , lacking the photoactive curcumin moiety, do not show any apparent toxicity both in light and in the dark. The cell death is apoptotic in nature and is mediated by the light-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fluorescence imaging experiment with HeLa cells reveals mitochondrial accumulation of complex within 4 h of incubation. The complexes bind to calf thymus (ct) DNA with moderate affinity giving Kb values in the range of 10(4)-10(5) M(-1). The curcumin complexes and cleave plasmid supercoiled DNA to its nicked circular form in visible light via(1)O2 and ˙OH pathways. The presence of the ferrocenyl moiety is likely to be responsible for the enhanced cellular uptake and photocytotoxicity of complex . Thus, the mitochondria targeting complex , being remarkably cytotoxic in light but non-toxic in the dark and to normal cells, is a potential candidate for photochemotherapeutic applications.

  13. Cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives for mitochondrial imaging in living cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Li, Guanying; Guan, Ruilin; Zhang, Pingyu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-04-28

    A new series of cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives (i.e., MitoIr1-MitoIr7) were synthesized and developed to image mitochondria in living cells. In comparison with commercially available mitochondrial trackers, these complexes exhibit a superior capacity to selectively accumulate in mitochondria with no requirement of any membrane permeabilization or replacement of the culture medium. In addition, the excellent photostability under continuous laser irradiation as well as the stable physiological pH resistance of these complexes were confirmed by photobleaching experiments and luminescence measurements. Importantly, MitoIr7, which exhibited both excellent luminescence and high ability to locate in mitochondria, was developed to track the mitochondrial morphological changes over a long period of time.

  14. Mitochondrial Complex I Activity is Conditioned by Supercomplex I-III2-IV Assembly in Brain Cells: Relevance for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fabuel, Irene; Resch-Beusher, Monica; Carabias-Carrasco, Monica; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P

    2017-02-14

    The assembly of complex I (CI) with complexes III (CIII) and IV (CIV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to configure I-III- or I-III-IV-containing supercomplexes (SCs) regulates mitochondrial energy efficiency and reactive oxygen species (mROS) production. However, whether the occurrence of SCs impacts on CI specific activity remains unknown to our knowledge. To investigate this issue, here we determined CI activity in primary neurons and astrocytes, cultured under identical antioxidants-free medium, from two mouse strains (C57Bl/6 and CBA) and Wistar rat, i.e. three rodent species with or without the ability to assemble CIV into SCs. We found that CI activity was 6- or 1.8-fold higher in astrocytes than in neurons, respectively, from rat or CBA mouse, which can form I-III2-IV SC; however, CI activity was similar in the cells from C57Bl/6 mouse, which does not form I-III2-IV SC. Interestingly, CII-III activity, which was comparable in neurons and astrocytes from mice, was about 50% lower in astrocytes when compared with neurons from rat, a difference that was abolished by antioxidants- or serum-containing media. CIV and citrate synthase activities were similar under all conditions studied. Interestingly, in rat astrocytes, CI abundance in I-III2-IV SC was negligible when compared with its abundance in I-III-containing SCs. Thus, CIV-containing SCs formation may determine CI specific activity in astrocytes, which is important to understand the mechanism for CI deficiency observed in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes as Two-Photon Phosphorescent Probes for Specific Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chengzhi; Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Leli; Guan, Ruilin; Ouyang, Cheng; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-08-17

    Five cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives (IrL1-IrL5) were synthesized and developed to image and track mitochondria in living cells under two-photon (750 nm) excitation, with two-photon absorption cross-sections of 48.8-65.5 GM at 750 nm. Confocal microscopy and inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) demonstrated that these complexes selectively accumulate in mitochondria within 5 min, without needing additional reagents for membrane permeabilization, or replacement of the culture medium. In addition, photobleaching experiments and luminescence measurements confirmed the photostability of these complexes under continuous laser irradiation and physiological pH resistance. Moreover, results using 3D multicellular spheroids demonstrate the proficiency of these two-photon luminescent complexes in deep penetration imaging. Two-photon excitation using such novel complexes of iridium(III) for exclusive visualization of mitochondria in living cells may substantially enhance practical applications of bioimaging and tracking. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Complex I function in mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Lenaz, Giorgio; Tioli, Gaia; Falasca, Anna Ida; Genova, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses the functional properties of mitochondrial Complex I originating from its presence in an assembled form as a supercomplex comprising Complex III and Complex IV in stoichiometric ratios. In particular several lines of evidence are presented favouring the concept that electron transfer from Complex I to Complex III is operated by channelling of electrons through Coenzyme Q molecules bound to the supercomplex, in contrast with the hypothesis that the transfer of reducing equivalents from Complex I to Complex III occurs via random diffusion of the Coenzyme Q molecules in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, another property provided by the supercomplex assembly is the control of generation of reactive oxygen species by Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  17. Membrane-surfactant interactions. The role of surfactant in mitochondrial complex III-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Valpuesta, J.M.; Arrondo, J.L.; Barbero, M.C.; Pons, M.; Goni, F.M.

    1986-05-15

    Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) was purified from beef heart mitochondria in the form of protein-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles (about 1:80:100 molar ratio). Detergent may be totally removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the resulting lipoprotein complexes retain full enzyme activity. In order to understand the role of surfactant in the mixed micelles, and the interaction of Triton X-100 with integral membrane proteins and phospholipid bilayers, both the protein-lipid-surfactant mixed micelles and the detergent-free lipoprotein system were examined from the point of view of particle size and ultrastructure, enzyme activity, tryptophan fluorescence quenching, 31P NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NMR and IR spectroscopic studies show that surfactant withdrawal induces a profound change in phospholipid architecture, from a micellar to a lamellar-like phase. However, electron microscopic observations fail to reveal the existence of lipid bilayers in the absence of detergent. We suggest that, under these conditions, the lipid:protein molar ratio (80:1) is too low to permit the formation of lipid bilayer planes, but the relative orientation and mobility of phospholipids with respect to proteins is similar to that of the lamellar phase. Protein conformational changes are also detected as a consequence of surfactant removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates an increase of peptide beta-structure in the absence of Triton X-100; changes in the amide II/amide I intensity ratio are also detected, although the precise meaning of these observations is unclear.

  18. Mitochondrial function in flying honeybees (Apis mellifera): respiratory chain enzymes and electron flow from complex III to oxygen.

    PubMed

    Suarez, R K; Staples, J F; Lighton, J R; Mathieu-Costello, O

    2000-03-01

    The biochemical bases for the high mass-specific metabolic rates of flying insects remain poorly understood. To gain insights into mitochondrial function during flight, metabolic rates of individual flying honeybees were measured using respirometry, and their thoracic muscles were fixed for electron microscopy. Mitochondrial volume densities and cristae surface densities, combined with biochemical data concerning cytochrome content per unit mass, were used to estimate respiratory chain enzyme densities per unit cristae surface area. Despite the high content of respiratory enzymes per unit muscle mass, these are accommodated by abundant mitochondria and high cristae surface densities such that enzyme densities per unit cristae surface area are similar to those found in mammalian muscle and liver. These results support the idea that a unit area of mitochondrial inner membrane constitutes an invariant structural unit. Rates of O(2) consumption per unit cristae surface area are much higher than those estimated in mammals as a consequence of higher enzyme turnover rates (electron transfer rates per enzyme molecule) during flight. Cytochrome c oxidase, in particular, operates close to its maximum catalytic capacity (k(cat)). Thus, high flux rates are achieved via (i) high respiratory enzyme content per unit muscle mass and (ii) the operation of these enzymes at high fractional velocities.

  19. Enhancing effects of intracellular ascorbic acid on peroxynitrite-induced U937 cell death are mediated by mitochondrial events resulting in enhanced sensitivity to peroxynitrite-dependent inhibition of complex III and formation of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed Central

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Fiorani, Mara; Cantoni, Orazio

    2004-01-01

    A short-term pre-exposure to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) promotes U937 cell death upon exposure to otherwise non-toxic levels of peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Toxicity is mediated by a saturable mechanism and cell death takes place as a consequence of mitochondrial permeability transition. The following lines of evidence are consistent with the notion that the enhancing effects of DHA were related to mitochondrial events resulting in inhibition of complex III upon exposure to otherwise inactive concentrations of ONOO-. First, DHA, as well as bona fide complex III inhibitors, similarly enhanced toxicity and subsequent formation of H2O2 induced by ONOO- via a rotenone- or catalase-sensitive mechanism. Secondly, bona fide complex III inhibitors were ineffective in DHA-pre-loaded cells. In addition, respiration-deficient cells were resistant to toxicity elicited by ONOO- and their supplementation with increasing concentrations of DHA, although resulting in the accumulation of vitamin C levels identical with those observed in respiration-proficient cells, failed to affect ONOO- toxicity. Finally, oxygen-consumption experiments demonstrated that pre-exposure to DHA promotes the ONOO--dependent inhibition of complex III. In conclusion, the above results collectively demonstrate that increasing the intracellular accumulation of vitamin C promotes mitochondrial events leading to ONOO--dependent formation of H2O2 and resulting in a rapid necrotic response. PMID:14627438

  20. A sustained deficiency of mitochondrial respiratory complex III induces an apoptotic cell death through the p53-mediated inhibition of pro-survival activities of the activating transcription factor 4.

    PubMed

    Evstafieva, A G; Garaeva, A A; Khutornenko, A A; Klepikova, A V; Logacheva, M D; Penin, A A; Novakovsky, G E; Kovaleva, I E; Chumakov, P M

    2014-11-06

    Generation of energy in mitochondria is subjected to physiological regulation at many levels, and its malfunction may result in mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with different environmental influences or certain genetic conditions, and can be artificially induced by inhibitors acting at different steps of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). We found that a short-term (5 h) inhibition of ETC complex III with myxothiazol results in the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α and upregulation of mRNA for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and several ATF4-regulated genes. The changes are characteristic for the adaptive integrated stress response (ISR), which is known to be triggered by unfolded proteins, nutrient and metabolic deficiency, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, after a prolonged incubation with myxothiazol (13-17 h), levels of ATF4 mRNA and ATF4-regulated transcripts were found substantially suppressed. The suppression was dependent on the p53 response, which is triggered by the impairment of the complex III-dependent de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines by mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. The initial adaptive induction of ATF4/ISR acted to promote viability of cells by attenuating apoptosis. In contrast, the induction of p53 upon a sustained inhibition of ETC complex III produced a pro-apoptotic effect, which was additionally stimulated by the p53-mediated abrogation of the pro-survival activities of the ISR. Interestingly, a sustained inhibition of ETC complex I by piericidine did not induce the p53 response and stably maintained the pro-survival activation of ATF4/ISR. We conclude that a downregulation of mitochondrial ETC generally induces adaptive pro-survival responses, which are specifically abrogated by the suicidal p53 response triggered by the genetic risks of the pyrimidine nucleotide deficiency.

  1. Grape seed extract targets mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress leading to cytoprotective autophagy and apoptotic death in human head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Deep, Gagan; Lopert, Pamela; Patel, Manisha; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2015-12-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major killer worldwide and innovative measures are urgently warranted to lower the morbidity and mortality caused by this malignancy. Aberrant redox and metabolic status in HNSCC cells offer a unique opportunity to specifically target cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) to target the redox and bioenergetic alterations in HNSCC cells. GSE treatment decreased the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity, increased the mitochondrial superoxide levels and depleted the levels of cellular antioxidant (glutathione), thus resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in human HNSCC Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Polyethylene glycol-SOD addition reversed the GSE-mediated apoptosis without restoring complex III activity. Along with redox changes, GSE inhibited the extracellular acidification rate (representing glycolysis) and oxygen consumption rate (indicating oxidative phosphorylation) leading to metabolic stress in HNSCC cells. Molecular studies revealed that GSE activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and suppressed Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1/S6K signaling in both Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Interestingly, GSE increased the autophagic load specifically in FaDu cells, and autophagy inhibition significantly augmented the apoptosis in these cells. Consistent with in vitro results, in vivo analyses also showed that GSE feeding in nude mice activated AMPK and induced-autophagy in FaDu xenograft tumor tissues. Overall, these findings are innovative as we for the first time showed that GSE targets ETC complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress, thereby, causing autophagy and apoptotic death in HNSCC cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Grape seed extract targets mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress leading to cytoprotective autophagy and apoptotic death in human head and neck cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Deep, Gagan; Lopert, Pamela; Patel, Manisha; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major killer worldwide and innovative measures are urgently warranted to lower the morbidity and mortality caused by this malignancy. Aberrant redox and metabolic status in HNSCC cells offer a unique opportunity to specifically target cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) to target the redox and bioenergetic alterations in HNSCC cells. GSE treatment decreased the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity, increased the mitochondrial superoxide levels and depleted the levels of cellular antioxidant (glutathione), thus resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in human HNSCC Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Polyethylene glycol-SOD addition reversed the GSE-mediated apoptosis without restoring complex III activity. Along with redox changes, GSE inhibited the extracellular acidification rate (representing glycolysis) and oxygen consumption rate (indicating oxidative phosphorylation) leading to metabolic stress in HNSCC cells. Molecular studies revealed that GSE activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and suppressed Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1/S6K signaling in both Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Interestingly, GSE increased the autophagic load specifically in FaDu cells, and autophagy inhibition significantly augmented the apoptosis in these cells. Consistent with in vitro results, in vivo analyses also showed that GSE feeding in nude mice activated AMPK and induced-autophagy in FaDu xenograft tumor tissues. Overall, these findings are innovative as we for the first time showed that GSE targets ETC complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress, thereby, causing autophagy and apoptotic death in HNSCC cells. PMID:25557495

  3. Proteomic analysis of brain mitochondrial proteome and mitochondrial complexes.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We describe various complementary techniques to achieve multidimensional mitochondrial proteome fractionation and analysis. Previously described methods for 2D-DIGE/mass spectrometry and 1D-SDS-PAGE/Western techniques and protein complex analysis by BN-PAGE/Western and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation/SDS-PAGE/mass spectrometry are optimized to characterize the brain mitochondrial proteome. This approach allows for a comprehensive identification of mitochondrial proteomic differences between health and disease conditions.

  4. Arrangement of electron transport chain components in bovine mitochondrial supercomplex I1III2IV1

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Thorsten; Mills, Deryck J; Popot, Jean-Luc; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The respiratory chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane contains three large multi-enzyme complexes that together establish the proton gradient for ATP synthesis, and assemble into a supercomplex. A 19-Å 3D map of the 1.7-MDa amphipol-solubilized supercomplex I1III2IV1 from bovine heart obtained by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy reveals an amphipol belt replacing the membrane lipid bilayer. A precise fit of the X-ray structures of complex I, the complex III dimer, and monomeric complex IV indicates distances of 13 nm between the ubiquinol-binding sites of complexes I and III, and of 10–11 nm between the cytochrome c binding sites of complexes III and IV. The arrangement of respiratory chain complexes suggests two possible pathways for efficient electron transfer through the supercomplex, of which the shorter branch through the complex III monomer proximal to complex I may be preferred. PMID:21909073

  5. Arrangement of electron transport chain components in bovine mitochondrial supercomplex I1III2IV1.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Thorsten; Mills, Deryck J; Popot, Jean-Luc; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2011-09-09

    The respiratory chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane contains three large multi-enzyme complexes that together establish the proton gradient for ATP synthesis, and assemble into a supercomplex. A 19-Å 3D map of the 1.7-MDa amphipol-solubilized supercomplex I(1)III(2)IV(1) from bovine heart obtained by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy reveals an amphipol belt replacing the membrane lipid bilayer. A precise fit of the X-ray structures of complex I, the complex III dimer, and monomeric complex IV indicates distances of 13 nm between the ubiquinol-binding sites of complexes I and III, and of 10-11 nm between the cytochrome c binding sites of complexes III and IV. The arrangement of respiratory chain complexes suggests two possible pathways for efficient electron transfer through the supercomplex, of which the shorter branch through the complex III monomer proximal to complex I may be preferred.

  6. Anticancer Gold(III) Porphyrins Target Mitochondrial Chaperone Hsp60.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Liu, Yungen; Lai, Yau-Tsz; Tong, Ka-Chung; Fung, Yi-Man; Lok, Chun-Nam; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-22

    Identification of the molecular target(s) of anticancer metal complexes is a formidable challenge since most of them are unstable toward ligand exchange reaction(s) or biological reduction under physiological conditions. Gold(III) meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (gold-1 a) is notable for its high stability in biological milieux and potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. Herein, extensive chemical biology approaches employing photo-affinity labeling, click chemistry, chemical proteomics, cellular thermal shift, saturation-transfer difference NMR, protein fluorescence quenching, and protein chaperone assays were used to provide compelling evidence that heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a mitochondrial chaperone and potential anticancer target, is a direct target of gold-1 a in vitro and in cells. Structure-activity studies with a panel of non-porphyrin gold(III) complexes and other metalloporphyrins revealed that Hsp60 inhibition is specifically dependent on both the gold(III) ion and the porphyrin ligand.

  7. Iron(III)-salen damages DNA and induces apoptosis in human cell via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Woldemariam, Getachew A; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2008-04-01

    We synthesized a water soluble Fe(III)-salen complex and investigated its biochemical effects on DNA in vitro and on cultured human cells. We showed that Fe(III)-salen produces free radicals in the presence of reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and induces DNA damage in vitro. Interestingly, upon treatment with Fe(III)-salen at concentration as low as 10microM, HEK293 human cells showed morphological changes, nuclear fragmentation, and nuclear condensation that are typical features of apoptotic cell death. The cytotoxicity measurement showed that IC(50) of Fe(III)-salen is 2.0microM for HEK293 cells. Furthermore, treatment with Fe(III)-salen resulted in translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol affecting mitochondrial membrane permeability. Our results demonstrated that Fe(III)-salen not only damages DNA in vitro, but also induces apoptosis in human cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  8. The mitochondrial contact site complex, a determinant of mitochondrial architecture

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Max; Körner, Christian; Walther, Dirk; Mokranjac, Dejana; Kaesmacher, Johannes; Welsch, Ulrich; Griffith, Janice; Mann, Matthias; Reggiori, Fulvio; Neupert, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles with a complex architecture. They are bounded by an envelope consisting of the outer membrane and the inner boundary membrane (IBM). Narrow crista junctions (CJs) link the IBM to the cristae. OMs and IBMs are firmly connected by contact sites (CS). The molecular nature of the CS remained unknown. Using quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry we identified a novel complex, the mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex, formed by a set of mitochondrial membrane proteins that is essential for the formation of CS. MICOS is preferentially located at the CJs. Upon loss of one of the MICOS subunits, CJs disappear completely or are impaired, showing that CJs require the presence of CS to form a superstructure that links the IBM to the cristae. Loss of MICOS subunits results in loss of respiratory competence and altered inheritance of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:22009199

  9. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  10. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  11. Mitochondrial complex I-linked disease.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most frequently encountered single mitochondrial single enzyme deficiency in patients with a mitochondrial disorder. Although specific genotype-phenotype correlations are very difficult to identify, the majority of patients present with symptoms caused by leukodystrophy. The poor genotype-phenotype correlations can make establishing a diagnosis a challenge. The classical way to establish a complex I deficiency in patients is by performing spectrophotometric measurements of the enzyme in a muscle biopsy or other patient-derived material (liver or heart biopsy, cultured skin fibroblasts). Complex I is encoded by both the mtDNA and nuclear DNA and pathogenic mutations have been identified in the majority of the 44 genes encoding the structural subunits of complex I. In recent years, the increasing possibilities for diagnostic molecular genetic tests of large gene panels, exomes, and even entire genomes has led to the identification of many novel genetic defects causing complex I deficiency. Complex I mutations not only result in a reduced enzyme activity but also induce secondary effects at the cellular level, such as elevated reactive oxygen species production, altered membrane potential and mitochondrial morphology. At this moment there is no cure for complex I deficiency and the treatment options for complex I patients are restricted to symptomatic treatment. Recent developments, amongst others based on the treatment of the secondary effects of complex I deficiency, have shown to be promising as new therapeutic strategies in vitro and have entered clinical trials. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  12. Mitochondrial impairment by PPAR agonists and statins identified via immunocaptured OXPHOS complex activities and respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Dykens, James A.; Bernal, Autumn; Capaldi, Roderick A.; Will, Yvonne

    2007-09-15

    Mitochondrial impairment is increasingly implicated in the etiology of toxicity caused by some thiazolidinediones, fibrates, and statins. We examined the effects of members of these drug classes on respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria using a phosphorescent oxygen sensitive probe and on the activity of individual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes using a recently developed immunocapture technique. Of the six thiazolidinediones examined, ciglitazone, troglitazone, and darglitazone potently disrupted mitochondrial respiration. In accord with these data, ciglitazone and troglitazone were also potent inhibitors of Complexes II + III, IV, and V, while darglitazone predominantly inhibited Complex IV. Of the six statins evaluated, lovastatin, simvastatin, and cerivastatin impaired mitochondrial respiration the most, with simvastatin and lovastatin impairing multiple OXPHOS Complexes. Within the class of fibrates, gemfibrozil more potently impaired respiration than fenofibrate, clofibrate, or ciprofibrate. Gemfibrozil only modestly inhibited Complex I, fenofibrate inhibited Complexes I, II + III, and V, and clofibrate inhibited Complex V. Our findings with the two complementary methods indicate that (1) some members of each class impair mitochondrial respiration, whereas others have little or no effect, and (2) the rank order of mitochondrial impairment accords with clinical adverse events observed with these drugs. Since the statins are frequently co-prescribed with the fibrates or thiazolidinediones, various combinations of these three drug classes were also analyzed for their mitochondrial effects. In several cases, the combination additively uncoupled or inhibited respiration, suggesting that some combinations are more likely to yield clinically relevant drug-induced mitochondrial side effects than others.

  13. Mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex generates reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Fiskum, Gary; Chinopoulos, Christos; Lorenzo, Beverly J; Browne, Susan E; Patel, Mulchand S; Beal, M Flint

    2004-09-08

    Mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to contribute to cell death caused by a multitude of pathological conditions. The molecular sites of mitochondrial ROS production are not well established but are generally thought to be located in complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain. We measured H(2)O(2) production, respiration, and NADPH reduction level in rat brain mitochondria oxidizing a variety of respiratory substrates. Under conditions of maximum respiration induced with either ADP or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone,alpha-ketoglutarate supported the highest rate of H(2)O(2) production. In the absence of ADP or in the presence of rotenone, H(2)O(2) production rates correlated with the reduction level of mitochondrial NADPH with various substrates, with the exception of alpha-ketoglutarate. Isolated mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC) complexes produced superoxide and H(2)O(2). NAD(+) inhibited ROS production by the isolated enzymes and by permeabilized mitochondria. We also measured H(2)O(2) production by brain mitochondria isolated from heterozygous knock-out mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld). Although this enzyme is a part of both KGDHC and PDHC, there was greater impairment of KGDHC activity in Dld-deficient mitochondria. These mitochondria also produced significantly less H(2)O(2) than mitochondria isolated from their littermate wild-type mice. The data strongly indicate that KGDHC is a primary site of ROS production in normally functioning mitochondria.

  14. Identification of the Mitochondrial Heme Metabolism Complex

    PubMed Central

    Medlock, Amy E.; Shiferaw, Mesafint T.; Marcero, Jason R.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Phillips, John D.; Dailey, Harry A.

    2015-01-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for most organisms and all metazoans. While the individual enzymes involved in synthesis and utilization of heme are fairly well known, less is known about the intracellular trafficking of porphyrins and heme, or regulation of heme biosynthesis via protein complexes. To better understand this process we have undertaken a study of macromolecular assemblies associated with heme synthesis. Herein we have utilized mass spectrometry with coimmunoprecipitation of tagged enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway in a developing erythroid cell culture model to identify putative protein partners. The validity of these data obtained in the tagged protein system is confirmed by normal porphyrin/heme production by the engineered cells. Data obtained are consistent with the presence of a mitochondrial heme metabolism complex which minimally consists of ferrochelatase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase and aminolevulinic acid synthase-2. Additional proteins involved in iron and intermediary metabolism as well as mitochondrial transporters were identified as potential partners in this complex. The data are consistent with the known location of protein components and support a model of transient protein-protein interactions within a dynamic protein complex. PMID:26287972

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a class of mitochondrially-targeted gadolinium(III) agents.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Daniel E; Aitken, Jade B; de Jonge, Martin D; Issa, Fatiah; Harris, Hugh H; Rendina, Louis M

    2014-12-08

    A structure-activity relationship study of a library of novel bifunctional Gd(III) complexes covalently linked to arylphosphonium cations is reported. Such complexes have been designed for potential application in binary cancer therapies such as neutron capture therapy and photon activation therapy. A positive correlation was found between lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of the complexes. Mitochondria uptake was determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Gd uptake was determined by means of quantification using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging. A negative correlation between lipophilicity and tumour selectivity of the Gd(III) complexes was demonstrated. This study highlights the delicate balance required to minimise in vitro cytotoxicity and optimise in vitro tumour selectivity and mitochondrial localisation for this new class of mitochondrially-targeted binary therapy agents. We also report the highest in vitro tumour selectivity for any Gd agent reported to date, with a T/N (tumour/normal cell) ratio of up to 23.5±6.6.

  16. Mitochondrial lipid transport and biosynthesis: A complex balance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how mitochondrial lipids reach inner membrane–localized metabolic enzymes for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis. Aaltonen et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201602007) and Miyata et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201601082) now report roles for two mitochondrial complexes, Ups2–Mdm35 and mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system, in the biosynthesis and transport of mitochondrial lipids. PMID:27354376

  17. Complex I generated, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide is released from the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Muller, Florian L; Jang, Youngmok C; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shirasawa, Takuji; Richardson, Arlan; Van Remmen, Holly

    2012-06-08

    Mitochondrial complex I has previously been shown to release superoxide exclusively towards the mitochondrial matrix, whereas complex III releases superoxide to both the matrix and the cytosol. Superoxide produced at complex III has been shown to exit the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC). To test whether complex I-derived, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide can be released to the cytosol, we measured superoxide generation in mitochondria isolated from wild type and from mice genetically altered to be deficient in MnSOD activity (TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl)). Under experimental conditions that produce superoxide primarily by complex I (glutamate/malate plus rotenone, GM+R), MnSOD-deficient mitochondria release ∼4-fold more superoxide than mitochondria isolated from wild type mice. Exogenous CuZnSOD completely abolished the EPR-derived GM+R signal in mitochondria isolated from both genotypes, evidence that confirms mitochondrial superoxide release. Addition of the VDAC inhibitor DIDS significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide release (∼75%) in mitochondria from either genotype respiring on GM+R. Conversely, inhibition of potential inner membrane sites of superoxide exit, including the matrix face of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the inner membrane anion channel did not reduce mitochondrial superoxide release in the presence of GM+R in mitochondria isolated from either genotype. These data support the concept that complex I-derived mitochondrial superoxide release does indeed occur and that the majority of this release occurs through VDACs.

  18. Protective Role of Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin III against UVB-Induced Apoptosis of Epidermal Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jin Young; Park, Sujin; Park, Jiyoung; Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Kim, Sin Ri; Woo, Hyun Ae; Lim, Kyung Min; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2017-06-01

    UVB light induces generation of reactive oxygen species, ultimately leading to skin cell damage. Mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species in UVB-irradiated skin cells, with increased levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species having been implicated in keratinocyte apoptosis. Peroxiredoxin III (PrxIII) is the most abundant and potent H2O2-removing enzyme in the mitochondria of most cell types. Here, the protective role of PrxIII against UVB-induced apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes was investigated. Mitochondrial H2O2 levels were differentiated from other types of ROS using mitochondria-specific fluorescent H2O2 indicators. Upon UVB irradiation, PrxIII-knockdown HaCaT human keratinocytes and PrxIII-deficient (PrxIII(-/-)) mouse primary keratinocytes exhibited enhanced accumulation of mitochondrial H2O2 compared with PrxIII-expressing controls. Keratinocytes lacking PrxIII were subsequently sensitized to apoptosis through mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cardiolipin oxidation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Increased UVB-induced epidermal tissue damage in PrxIII(-/-) mice was attributable to increased caspase-dependent keratinocyte apoptosis. Our findings show that mitochondrial H2O2 is a key mediator in UVB-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and that PrxIII plays a critical role in protecting epidermal keratinocytes against UVB-induced apoptosis through eliminating mitochondrial H2O2. These findings support the concept that reinforcing mitochondrial PrxIII defenses may help prevent UVB-induced skin damage such as inflammation, sunburn, and photoaging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Methamphetamine-induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex II: roles of glutamate and peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey M; Quinton, Maria S; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2005-10-01

    High-dose methamphetamine (METH) is associated with long-term deficits in dopaminergic systems. Although the mechanism(s) which contributes to these deficits is not known, glutamate and peroxynitrite are likely to play a role. These factors are hypothesized to inhibit mitochondrial function, increasing the free radical burden and decreasing neuronal energy supplies. Previous studies suggest a role for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) in mediating toxicity of METH. The purpose of the present studies was to determine whether METH administration selectively inhibits complex II of the ETC in rats. High-dose METH administration (10 mg/kg every 2 h x 4) rapidly (within 1 h) decreased complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) activity by approximately 20-30%. In addition, decreased activity of complex II-III, but not complex I-III, of the mitochondrial ETC was also observed 24 h after METH. This inhibition was not due to direct inhibition by METH or METH-induced hyperthermia and was specific to striatal brain regions. METH-induced decreases in complex II-III were prevented by MK-801 and the peroxynitrite scavenger 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-sulphonatophenyl) porphinato iron III. These findings provide the first evidence that METH administration, via glutamate receptor activation and peroxynitrite formation, selectively alters a specific site of the ETC.

  20. Luminescence of europium (III) complexes for visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Pozharov, Mikhail V.; Korolovich, Vladimir F.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Kirdyanova, Anna N.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.; Zakharova, Tamara V.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.

    2016-04-01

    With the purpose to develop bright non-toxic luminescent label for theranostic application we have studied complexation of lanthanide dipicolinates (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylates) by sodium alginate and effect of thermal exposure of synthesized micro-capsules on their luminescent properties. Synthesized micro-capsules are stable in acidic medium but dissolve at pH ~ 4 due to transformation of cationic europium dipicolinate complex to anionic. Luminescence studies have shown that emission spectra of europium(III)-alginate complexes (both chloride and dipicolinate) contain two intensive bands characteristic to Eu3+ ion (5D0 --> 7F1 (590 nm) and 5D0 --> 7F1 (612 nm)). We have also found that at 160ºC europium(III)- alginate micro-capsules decompose to black, soot-like substance, therefore, their thermal treatment must be performed in closed environment (i.e., sealed ampoules).

  1. Cancer Cell Mitochondria Targeting by Pancratistatin Analogs is Dependent on Functional Complex II and III

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dennis; Pignanelli, Christopher; Tarade, Daniel; Gilbert, Tyler; Noel, Megan; Mansour, Fadi; Adams, Scott; Dowhayko, Alexander; Stokes, Kyle; Vshyvenko, Sergey; Hudlicky, Tomas; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced mitochondrial stability and decreased dependence on oxidative phosphorylation confer an acquired resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells, but may present opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The compound pancratistatin (PST) has been shown to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, its low availability in nature has hindered its clinical advancement. We synthesized PST analogs and a medium-throughput screen was completed. Analogs SVTH-7, -6, and -5 demonstrated potent anti-cancer activity greater than PST and several standard chemotherapeutics. They disrupted mitochondrial function, activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and reduced growth of tumor xenografts in vivo. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic effects of SVTH-7 on cancer cells and mitochondria were abrogated with the inhibition of mitochondrial complex II and III, suggesting mitochondrial or metabolic vulnerabilities may be exploited by this analog. This work provides a scaffold for characterizing distinct mitochondrial and metabolic features of cancer cells and reveals several lead compounds with high therapeutic potential. PMID:28220885

  2. Cancer Cell Mitochondria Targeting by Pancratistatin Analogs is Dependent on Functional Complex II and III.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dennis; Pignanelli, Christopher; Tarade, Daniel; Gilbert, Tyler; Noel, Megan; Mansour, Fadi; Adams, Scott; Dowhayko, Alexander; Stokes, Kyle; Vshyvenko, Sergey; Hudlicky, Tomas; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-02-21

    Enhanced mitochondrial stability and decreased dependence on oxidative phosphorylation confer an acquired resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells, but may present opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The compound pancratistatin (PST) has been shown to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, its low availability in nature has hindered its clinical advancement. We synthesized PST analogs and a medium-throughput screen was completed. Analogs SVTH-7, -6, and -5 demonstrated potent anti-cancer activity greater than PST and several standard chemotherapeutics. They disrupted mitochondrial function, activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and reduced growth of tumor xenografts in vivo. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic effects of SVTH-7 on cancer cells and mitochondria were abrogated with the inhibition of mitochondrial complex II and III, suggesting mitochondrial or metabolic vulnerabilities may be exploited by this analog. This work provides a scaffold for characterizing distinct mitochondrial and metabolic features of cancer cells and reveals several lead compounds with high therapeutic potential.

  3. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Desler, Claus; Hickson, Ian D; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-04-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly slower than the preceding mitochondrial BER steps. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria improved the rate of overall BER, increased cell survival after menadione induced oxidative stress and reduced autophagy following the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy.

  4. Mitophagy: a complex mechanism of mitochondrial removal.

    PubMed

    Novak, Ivana

    2012-09-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics and turnover are crucial for cellular homeostasis and differentiation. The removal of damaged mitochondria that could contribute to cellular dysfunction or death is achieved through the process of mitochondrial autophagy, i.e., mitophagy. Moreover, mitophagy is responsible for removal of mitochondria during terminal differentiation of red blood cells and T cells. Recent work is elucidating how mitochondria are recognized for selective mitophagy either by PINK1 and Parkin or mitophagic receptors Nix and Bnip3 and their accompanying modulators. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy reveals their role of cargo recognition through polyubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins, while Nix functions as a regulated mitophagy receptor. These recognized modes of capture by the autophagy machinery operate at different efficiencies, from partial to complete elimination of mitochondria. It is critical to understand that the distinct regulatory mechanisms involve not only autophagy machinery, but also proteins associated with mitochondrial fusion and fission and therefore, regulation of mitochondrial morphology. The end result is either finely tuned quality control of damaged mitochondria, or mitochondrial clearance during development- induced mitophagy. In this article, known mechanisms and future directions for deciphering the challenge of mitophagy regulation will be discussed.

  5. Helical lanthanide(III) complexes with chiral nonaaza macrocycle.

    PubMed

    Gregoliński, Janusz; Starynowicz, Przemysław; Hua, KimNgan T; Lunkley, Jamie L; Muller, Gilles; Lisowski, Jerzy

    2008-12-31

    The chiral nonaazamacrocyclic amine L, which is a reduction product of the 3 + 3 Schiff base macrocycle, wraps around the lanthanide(III) ions to form enantiopure helical complexes. These Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) complexes have been isolated in enantiopure form and have been characterized by spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystal structures of the Ln(III) complexes with L show that the thermodynamic product of the complexation of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is the (M)-helical complex in the case of Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III). In contrast, the (P)-helical complex is the thermodynamic product in the case of Yb(III) and Lu(III). The NMR and CD spectra show that the (M)-helicity for the kinetic complexation product of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is preferred for all investigated lanthanide(III) ions, while the preferred helicity of the thermodynamic product is (M) for the early lanthanide(III) ions and (P) for the late lanthanide(III) ions. In the case of the late lanthanide(III) ions, a slow inversion of helicity between the kinetic (M)-helical product and the thermodynamic (P)-helical product is observed in solution. For Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) both forms have been isolated in pure form and characterized by NMR and CD. The analysis of 2D NMR spectra of the Lu(III) complex reveals the NOE correlations that prove that the helical structure is retained in solution. The NMR spectra also reveal large isotopic effect on the 1H NMR shifts of paramagnetic Ln(III) complexes, related to NH/ND exchange. Photophysical measurements show that L(RRRRRR) appears to favor an efficient 3pipi*-to-Ln energy transfer process taking place for Eu(III) and Tb(III), but these Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-containing complexes with L(RRRRRR) lead to small luminescent quantum yields due to an incomplete intersystem crossing (isc) transfer, a weak efficiency of the luminescence sensitization by the ligand, and

  6. Mitochondrial H2O2 signaling is controlled by the concerted action of peroxiredoxin III and sulfiredoxin: Linking mitochondrial function to circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sue Goo; Kil, In Sup

    2016-08-04

    Mitochondria produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during energy metabolism in most mammalian cells as well as during the oxidation of cholesterol associated with the synthesis of steroid hormones in steroidogenic cells. Some of the H2O2 produced in mitochondria is released into the cytosol, where it serves as a key regulator of various signaling pathways. Given that mitochondria are equipped with several H2O2-eliminating enzymes, however, it had not been clear how mitochondrial H2O2 can escape destruction by these enzymes for such release. Peroxiredoxin III (PrxIII) is the most abundant and efficient H2O2-eliminating enzyme in mitochondria of most cell types. We found that PrxIII undergoes reversible inactivation through hyperoxidation of its catalytic cysteine residue to cysteine sulfinic acid, and that release of mitochondrial H2O2 likely occurs as a result of such PrxIII inactivation. The hyperoxidized form of PrxIII (PrxIII-SO2H) is reduced and reactivated by sulfiredoxin (Srx). We also found that the amounts of PrxIII-SO2H and Srx undergo antiphasic circadian oscillation in mitochondria of the adrenal gland, heart, and brown adipose tissue of mice maintained under normal conditions. Cytosolic Srx was found to be imported into mitochondria via a mechanism that requires formation of a disulfide-linked complex with heat shock protein 90, which is likely promoted by H2O2 released from mitochondria. The imported Srx was found to be degraded by Lon protease in a manner dependent on PrxIII hyperoxidation state. The coordinated import and degradation of Srx underlie Srx oscillation and consequent PrxIII-SO2H oscillation in mitochondria. The rhythmic change in the amount of PrxIII-SO2H suggests that mitochondrial release of H2O2 is also likely a circadian event that conveys temporal information on steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland and on energy metabolism in heart and brown adipose tissue to cytosolic signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Mitochondrial H2O2 signaling is controlled by the concerted action of peroxiredoxin III and sulfiredoxin: Linking mitochondrial function to circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sue Goo; Kil, In Sup

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during energy metabolism in most mammalian cells as well as during the oxidation of cholesterol associated with the synthesis of steroid hormones in steroidogenic cells. Some of the H2O2 produced in mitochondria is released into the cytosol, where it serves as a key regulator of various signaling pathways. Given that mitochondria are equipped with several H2O2-eliminating enzymes, however, it had not been clear how mitochondrial H2O2 can escape destruction by these enzymes for such release. Peroxiredoxin III (PrxIII) is the most abundant and efficient H2O2-eliminating enzyme in mitochondria of most cell types. We found that PrxIII undergoes reversible inactivation through hyperoxidation of its catalytic cysteine residue to cysteine sulfinic acid, and that release of mitochondrial H2O2 likely occurs as a result of such PrxIII inactivation. The hyperoxidized form of PrxIII (PrxIII-SO2H) is reduced and reactivated by sulfiredoxin (Srx). We also found that the amounts of PrxIII-SO2H and Srx undergo antiphasic circadian oscillation in mitochondria of the adrenal gland, heart, and brown adipose tissue of mice maintained under normal conditions. Cytosolic Srx was found to be imported into mitochondria via a mechanism that requires formation of a disulfide-linked complex with heat shock protein 90, which is likely promoted by H2O2 released from mitochondria. The imported Srx was found to be degraded by Lon protease in a manner dependent on PrxIII hyperoxidation state. The coordinated import and degradation of Srx underlie Srx oscillation and consequent PrxIII-SO2H oscillation in mitochondria. The rhythmic change in the amount of PrxIII-SO2H suggests that mitochondrial release of H2O2 is also likely a circadian event that conveys temporal information on steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland and on energy metabolism in heart and brown adipose tissue to cytosolic signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. In vitro import and assembly of the nucleus-encoded mitochondrial subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox3).

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Miriam; Rubalcava-Gracia, Diana; González-Halphen, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The cox3 gene, encoding subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox3) is in mitochondrial genomes except in chlorophycean algae, where it is localized in the nucleus. Therefore, algae like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Polytomella sp. and Volvox carteri, synthesize the Cox3 polypeptide in the cytosol, import it into mitochondria, and integrate it into the cytochrome c oxidase complex. In this work, we followed the in vitro internalization of the Cox3 precursor by isolated, import-competent mitochondria of Polytomella sp. In this colorless alga, the precursor Cox3 protein is synthesized with a long, cleavable, N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) of 98 residues. In an import time course, a transient Cox3 intermediate was identified, suggesting that the long MTS is processed more than once. The first processing step is sensitive to the metalo-protease inhibitor 1,10-ortophenantroline, suggesting that it is probably carried out by the matrix-located Mitochondrial Processing Protease. Cox3 is readily imported through an energy-dependent import pathway and integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane, becoming resistant to carbonate extraction. Furthermore, the imported Cox3 protein was assembled into cytochrome c oxidase, as judged by the presence of a labeled band co-migrating with complex IV in Blue Native Electrophoresis. A model for the biogenesis of Cox3 in chlorophycean algae is proposed. This is the first time that the in vitro mitochondrial import of a cytosol-synthesized Cox3 subunit is described.

  9. Glucose Modulates Respiratory Complex I Activity in Response to Acute Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cannino, Giuseppe; El-Khoury, Riyad; Pirinen, Marja; Hutz, Bettina; Rustin, Pierre; Jacobs, Howard T.; Dufour, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Proper coordination between glycolysis and respiration is essential, yet the regulatory mechanisms involved in sensing respiratory chain defects and modifying mitochondrial functions accordingly are unclear. To investigate the nature of this regulation, we introduced respiratory bypass enzymes into cultured human (HEK293T) cells and studied mitochondrial responses to respiratory chain inhibition. In the absence of respiratory chain inhibitors, the expression of alternative respiratory enzymes did not detectably alter cell physiology or mitochondrial function. However, in permeabilized cells NDI1 (alternative NADH dehydrogenase) bypassed complex I inhibition, whereas alternative oxidase (AOX) bypassed complex III or IV inhibition. In contrast, in intact cells the effects of the AOX bypass were suppressed by growth on glucose, whereas those produced by NDI1 were unaffected. Moreover, NDI1 abolished the glucose suppression of AOX-driven respiration, implicating complex I as the target of this regulation. Rapid Complex I down-regulation was partly released upon prolonged respiratory inhibition, suggesting that it provides an “emergency shutdown” system to regulate metabolism in response to dysfunctions of the oxidative phosphorylation. This system was independent of HIF1, mitochondrial superoxide, or ATP synthase regulation. Our findings reveal a novel pathway for adaptation to mitochondrial dysfunction and could provide new opportunities for combatting diseases. PMID:23007390

  10. The Assembly Pathway of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex I.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Baertling, Fabian; Kownatzki, Daniel; Wessels, Hans J; Arnold, Susanne; Brandt, Ulrich; Nijtmans, Leo

    2017-01-10

    Mitochondrial complex I is the largest integral membrane enzyme of the respiratory chain and consists of 44 different subunits encoded in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Its biosynthesis is a highly complicated and multifaceted process involving at least 14 additional assembly factors. How these subunits assemble into a functional complex I and where the assembly factors come into play is largely unknown. Here, we applied a dynamic complexome profiling approach to elucidate the assembly of human mitochondrial complex I and its further incorporation into respiratory chain supercomplexes. We delineate the stepwise incorporation of all but one subunit into a series of distinct assembly intermediates and their association with known and putative assembly factors, which had not been implicated in this process before. The resulting detailed and comprehensive model of complex I assembly is fully consistent with recent structural data and the remarkable modular architecture of this multiprotein complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The endogenous mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate regulates mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels: implications for ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Wojtovich, Andrew P; Brookes, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) affords cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, and while the molecular mechanisms of IPC are debated, the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (mK(ATP)) has emerged as a candidate effector for several IPC signaling pathways. The molecular identity of this channel is unknown, but significant pharmacologic overlap exists between mK(ATP) and mitochondrial respiratory complex II (succinate dehydrogenase). In this investigation, we utilized isolated cardiac mitochondria, Langendorff perfused hearts, and a variety of biochemical methods, to make the following observations: (i) The competitive complex II inhibitor malonate is formed in mitochondria under conditions resembling IPC. (ii) IPC leads to a reversible inhibition of complex II that has likely been missed in previous investigations due to the use of saturating concentrations of succinate. (iii) Malonate opens mK(ATP) channels even when mitochondria are respiring on complex I-linked substrates, suggesting an effect of this inhibitor on the mK(ATP) channel independent of complex II inhibition. Together, these observations suggest that complex II inhibition by endogenously formed malonate may represent an important activation pathway for mK(ATP) channels during IPC.

  12. Immunolocalisation pattern of complex I-V in ageing human retina: Correlation with mitochondrial ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Nag, Tapas Chandra; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2016-11-01

    Earlier studies reported accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations in ageing and age-related macular degeneration. To know about the mitochondrial status with age, we examined immunoreactivity (IR) to markers of mitochondria (anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1) and complex I-V (that mediate oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS) in donor human retinas (age: 19-94years; N=26; right eyes). In all samples, at all ages, IR to anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1 was prominent in photoreceptor cells. Between second and seventh decade of life, strong IR to complex I-V was present in photoreceptors over macular to peripheral retina. With progressive ageing, the photoreceptors showed a decrease in complex I-IR (subunit NDUFB4) at eighth decade, and a weak or absence of IR in 10 retinas between ninth and tenth decade. Patchy IR to complex III and complex IV was detected at different ages. IR to ND1 (complex I) and complex II and V remained unaltered with ageing. Nitrosative stress (evaluated by IR to a nitro-tyrosine antibody) was found in photoreceptors. Superoxide dismutase-2 was found upregulated in photoreceptors with ageing. Mitochondrial ultrastructure was examined in two young retinas with intact complex IR and six aged retinas whose counterparts showed weak to absence of IR. Observations revealed irregular, photoreceptor inner segment mitochondria in aged maculae and mid-peripheral retina between eighth and ninth decade; many cones possessed autophagosomes with damaged mitochondria, indicating age-related alterations. A trend in age-dependent reduction of complex I-IR was evident in aged photoreceptors, whereas patchy complex IV-IR (subunits I and II) was age-independent, suggesting that the former is prone to damage with ageing perhaps due to oxidative stress. These changes in OXPHOS system may influence the energy budget of human photoreceptors, affecting their viability.

  13. Optical properties of the Eu(III)-La(III)-complex-doped polyolefine film and rod samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogreb, Roman; Popov, Oleg; Lirtsman, Vlad; Pyshkin, Oleg; Kazachkov, Alexander; Musin, Albina; Finkelshtein, Binyamin; Shmukler, Yuri; Davidov, Dan; Bormashenko, Edward

    2005-04-01

    The work is devoted to luminescent properties of trivalent lanthanide complexes dispersed in thermoplastic host matrices. Polyethylene-based film and polypropylene-based rod both doped with these complexes were manufactured using an extrusion technique. Two kinds of dopants were used: Eu(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)) and Eu(III)-La(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)-La(III)). Comparison was made between these samples regarding absorption, excitation, emission and a lifetime of luminescence. Dependence of emission intensity on the excitation energy was determined. Emission spectra of the films were studied at room and helium temperatures. Optical properties of Eu(III) samples are different from Eu(III)-La(III) samples. Significant difference in spectra of these two types of samples may be attributed to the La(III) action.

  14. Review: quantifying mitochondrial dysfunction in complex diseases of aging.

    PubMed

    Horan, Martin P; Pichaud, Nicolas; Ballard, J William O

    2012-10-01

    There is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial respiratory malfunction is associated with aging-associated complex diseases. However, progress in our understanding of these diseases has been hampered by the sensitivity and throughput of systems employed to quantify dysfunction and inherent limitations of the biological systems studied. In this review, we describe and contrast two methodologies that have been developed for measuring mitochondrial function to address the need for improved sensitivity and increased throughput. We then consider the utility of each methodology in studying three biological systems: isolated mitochondria, cultured cells, and cell fibers and tissues. Finally, we discuss the application of each methodology in the study of mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and aging-associated autophagy impairment and mitochondrial malfunction. We conclude that the methodologies are complementary, and researchers may need to examine multiple biological systems to unravel complex diseases of aging.

  15. Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Ghaffar, Hamdy M Abdel; El Husseiny, Rabee M R

    2015-12-01

    The present study is an unsubstantiated qualitative assessment of the abused drugs-tramadol and clonazepam. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes were influential at therapeutic or at progressively increasing doses. The study comprised of a total of 70 healthy male rats, aged 3 months. According to the drug intake regimen, animals were divided into seven groups: control, tramadol therapeutic, clonazepam therapeutic, combination therapeutic, tramadol abuse, clonazepam abuse, and combination abuse group. At the end of the experiment, brain mitochondrial ETC complexes (I, II, III, and IV) were evaluated. Histopathological examinations were also performed on brain tissues. The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss. Tramadol abuse group and combination abuse group showed significant decrease in the activities of I, III, and IV complexes but not in the activity of complex II. In conclusion, tramadol but not clonazepam has been found to partially inhibit the activities of respiratory chain complexes I, III, and IV but not the activity of complex II and such inhibition occurred only at doses that exceeded the maximum recommended adult human daily therapeutic doses. This result explains the clinical and histopathological effects of tramadol, such as seizures and red neurons (marker for apoptosis), respectively. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. MINOS is plus: a Mitofilin complex for mitochondrial membrane contacts.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Johannes M

    2011-10-18

    Cristae junctions mark the boundaries of respiratory compartments in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this issue of Developmental Cell, von der Malsburg et al. (2011) identify a complex, MINOS, that organizes cristae junctions. Mitofilin/Fcj1, the central component of the MINOS complex, also connects the inner membrane to outer membrane protein import machinery.

  17. Assembly and Function of the RNA Editing Complex in Trypanosoma brucei Requires Band III Protein

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Catherine E.; O'Hearn, Sean F.; Sollner-Webb, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Trypanosome RNA editing, the posttranscriptional insertion and deletion of U residues in mitochondrial transcripts, is catalyzed by a protein complex containing seven distinct proteins. In this study, we cloned the gene for band III, a 555-amino-acid protein with two separate zinc finger motifs. We prepared antibodies that showed band III protein cofractionates with the previously characterized band IV protein throughout the purification of the editing complex and is not found free or in other protein associations; therefore, it is a true constituent of the editing complex. Double-stranded RNA interference efficiently depleted band III protein and demonstrated that band III expression is essential for growth of procyclic trypanosomes and for RNA editing. These depleted cell extracts were deficient specifically in guide RNA-directed endonuclease cleavage at both U deletion and U insertion sites and in the activity of the band IV ligase, but they retained the 3′-U-exonuclease and terminal-U-transferase activities as well as band V ligase of the editing complex. Loss of band III protein also resulted in almost complete loss of the band IV ligase protein and altered sedimentation of the band V ligase. These data indicate that band III is either the RNA editing endonuclease or a factor critical for cleavage activity in the editing complex. They also demonstrate that band III is required for proper assembly of the editing complex. PMID:11940676

  18. Building a complex complex: Assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Luke E; Dibley, Marris G; Stroud, David A; Ryan, Michael T

    2017-08-07

    Mitochondrial complex I is the primary entry point for electrons into the electron transport chain, required for the bulk of cellular ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Complex I consists of 45 subunits, which are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Currently, at least 15 assembly factors are known to be required for the complete maturation of complex I. Mutations in the genes encoding subunits and assembly factors lead to complex I deficiency, which can manifest as mitochondrial disease. The current model of complex I assembly suggests that the enzyme is built by the association of a set of smaller intermediate modules containing specific conserved core subunits and additional accessory subunits. Each module must converge in a spatially and temporally orchestrated fashion to allow assembly of the mature holoenzyme to occur. This review outlines the current understanding of complex I biogenesis, with an emphasis on the assembly factors that facilitate the building of this architectural giant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutations in the UQCC1-Interacting Protein, UQCC2, Cause Human Complex III Deficiency Associated with Perturbed Cytochrome b Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyeratne, Xiaonan W.; van den Brand, Mariël A. M.; Leenders, Anne M.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Reljić, Boris; Compton, Alison G.; Frazier, Ann E.; Bruno, Damien L.; Christodoulou, John; Endo, Hitoshi; Ryan, Michael T.; Nijtmans, Leo G.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Thorburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is responsible for generating the majority of cellular ATP. Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase) is the third of five OXPHOS complexes. Complex III assembly relies on the coordinated expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, with 10 subunits encoded by nuclear DNA and one by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Complex III deficiency is a debilitating and often fatal disorder that can arise from mutations in complex III subunit genes or one of three known complex III assembly factors. The molecular cause for complex III deficiency in about half of cases, however, is unknown and there are likely many complex III assembly factors yet to be identified. Here, we used Massively Parallel Sequencing to identify a homozygous splicing mutation in the gene encoding Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Reductase Complex Assembly Factor 2 (UQCC2) in a consanguineous Lebanese patient displaying complex III deficiency, severe intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction. We prove causality of the mutation via lentiviral correction studies in patient fibroblasts. Sequence-profile based orthology prediction shows UQCC2 is an ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex III assembly factor, Cbp6p, although its sequence has diverged substantially. Co-purification studies show that UQCC2 interacts with UQCC1, the predicted ortholog of the Cbp6p binding partner, Cbp3p. Fibroblasts from the patient with UQCC2 mutations have deficiency of UQCC1, while UQCC1-depleted cells have reduced levels of UQCC2 and complex III. We show that UQCC1 binds the newly synthesized mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b subunit of complex III and that UQCC2 patient fibroblasts have specific defects in the synthesis or stability of cytochrome b. This work reveals a new cause for complex III deficiency that can assist future patient diagnosis, and provides insight into human complex III assembly by establishing that UQCC1

  20. Lanthanide(III) and Yttrium(III) Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III) Complex on Germination of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Shenoy, Rashmi V.; Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Patil, Manjula S.; Patil, Siddappa A.; Hanchinal, Rayappa R.; Desai, Srinivas A.; Lohithaswa, H.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA) are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [Ln3(BIA)2(NO3)7(H2O)4] · 3H2O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(II), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Y(III). The effect of La(III) complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods. PMID:17497017

  1. Complex III deficiency due to an in-frame MT-CYB deletion presenting as ketotic hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mari; Goldstein, Jennifer; Young, Sarah P; Bossen, Edward H; Shoffner, John; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2015-09-01

    Complex III deficiency due to a MT-CYB mutation has been reported in patients with myopathy. Here, we describe a 15-year-old boy who presented with metabolic acidosis, ketotic hypoglycemia and carnitine deficiency. Electron transport chain analysis and mitochondrial DNA sequencing on muscle tissue lead to the eventual diagnosis of complex III deficiency. This case demonstrates the critical role of muscle biopsies in a myopathy work-up, and the clinical efficacy of supplement therapy.

  2. Complex III deficiency due to an in-frame MT-CYB deletion presenting as ketotic hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mari; Goldstein, Jennifer; Young, Sarah P.; Bossen, Edward H.; Shoffner, John; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2015-01-01

    Complex III deficiency due to a MT-CYB mutation has been reported in patients with myopathy. Here, we describe a 15-year-old boy who presented with metabolic acidosis, ketotic hypoglycemia and carnitine deficiency. Electron transport chain analysis and mitochondrial DNA sequencing on muscle tissue lead to the eventual diagnosis of complex III deficiency. This case demonstrates the critical role of muscle biopsies in a myopathy work-up, and the clinical efficacy of supplement therapy. PMID:26937408

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the hypertensive rat brain: respiratory complexes exhibit assembly defects in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Hao, Li; Xiang, Wang; Ton, Dong; Semchuk, Paul; Sander, Joerg; Ellison, Michael J; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos

    2008-02-01

    The central nervous system plays a critical role in the normal control of arterial blood pressure and in its elevation in virtually all forms of hypertension. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly associated with the development of hypertension. Therefore, we examined whether mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in the brain in hypertension and characterized it at the molecular scale. Mitochondria from whole brain and brain stem from 12-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats with elevated blood pressure (190+/-5 mm Hg) were compared against those from age-matched normotensive (134+/-7 mm Hg) Wistar Kyoto rats (n=4 in each group). Global differential analysis using 2D electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry-based protein identification suggested a downregulation of enzymes involved in cellular energetics in hypertension. Targeted differential analysis of mitochondrial respiratory complexes using the classical blue-native SDS-PAGE/Western method and a complementary combination of sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation/tandem mass spectrometry revealed previously unknown assembly defects in complexes I, III, IV, and V in hypertension. Interestingly, targeted examination of the brain stem, a regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis and systemic blood pressure, further showed the occurrence of mitochondrial complex I dysfunction, elevated reactive oxygen species production, decreased ATP synthesis, and impaired respiration in hypertension. Our findings suggest that in already-hypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats, the brain respiratory complexes exhibit previously unknown assembly defects. These defects impair the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This mitochondrial dysfunction localizes to the brain stem and is, therefore, likely to contribute to the development, as well as to pathophysiological complications, of hypertension.

  4. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD.

  5. Mitochondrial respiratory complex I probed by delayed luminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Irina; Ionescu, Diana; Privitera, Simona; Scordino, Agata; Mocanu, Maria Magdalena; Musumeci, Francesco; Grasso, Rosaria; Gulino, Marisa; Iftime, Adrian; Tofolean, Ioana Teodora; Garaiman, Alexandru; Goicea, Alexandru; Irimia, Ruxandra; Dimancea, Alexandru; Ganea, Constanta

    2013-12-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in ultraweak photon-induced delayed photon emission [delayed luminescence (DL)] of human leukemia Jurkat T cells was probed by using complex I targeting agents like rotenone, menadione, and quercetin. Rotenone, a complex I-specific inhibitor, dose-dependently increased the mitochondrial level of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), decreased clonogenic survival, and induced apoptosis. A strong correlation was found between the mitochondrial levels of NADH and oxidized flavin mononucleotide (FMNox) in rotenone-, menadione- and quercetin-treated cells. Rotenone enhanced DL dose-dependently, whereas quercetin and menadione inhibited DL as well as NADH or FMNox. Collectively, the data suggest that DL of Jurkat cells originates mainly from mitochondrial complex I, which functions predominantly as a dimer and less frequently as a tetramer. In individual monomers, both pairs of pyridine nucleotide (NADH/reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) sites and flavin (FMN-a/FMN-b) sites appear to bind cooperatively their specific ligands. Enhancement of delayed red-light emission by rotenone suggests that the mean time for one-electron reduction of ubiquinone or FMN-a by the terminal Fe/S center (N2) is 20 or 284 μs, respectively. All these findings suggest that DL spectroscopy could be used as a reliable, sensitive, and robust technique to probe electron flow within complex I in situ.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biologically Active Lanthanide (III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostova, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Georgieva, I.; Rastogi, V. K.; Kiefer, W.

    2008-11-01

    The complexation ability and the binding mode of the ligand coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) are elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques as well as DFT quantum chemical calculations were used for characterization of the binding mode and the structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of HCCA. The metal—ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different Ln—CCA structures using B3LYP/6-31G(d) method combined with a large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanide ion. The energies obtained predict bidentate coordination of CCA- to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA- and Ln(III) complexes based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal—ligand binding mode. The natural bonding analysis predicts strongly ionic character of the Ln(III)-CCA bonding in the- complexes studied. With the relatively resistant tumor cell line K-562 we obtained very interesting in-vitro results which are in accordance with our previously published data concerning the activity of lanthanide(III) complexes with other coumarin derivatives.

  7. Rabies virus phosphoprotein interacts with mitochondrial Complex I and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kammouni, Wafa; Wood, Heidi; Saleh, Ali; Appolinario, Camila M; Fernyhough, Paul; Jackson, Alan C

    2015-08-01

    Our previous studies in an experimental model of rabies showed neuronal process degeneration in association with severe clinical disease. Cultured adult rodent dorsal root ganglion neurons infected with challenge virus standard (CVS)-11 strain of rabies virus (RABV) showed axonal swellings and reduced axonal growth with evidence of oxidative stress. We have shown that CVS infection alters a variety of mitochondrial parameters and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Complex I activity vs. mock infection. We have hypothesized that a RABV protein targets mitochondria and triggers dysfunction. Mitochondrial extracts of mouse neuroblastoma cells were analyzed with a proteomics approach. We have identified peptides belonging to the RABV nucleocapsid protein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and glycoprotein (G), and our data indicate that the extract was most highly enriched with P. P was also detected by immunoblotting in RABV-infected purified mitochondrial extracts and also in Complex I immunoprecipitates from the extracts but not in mock-infected extracts. A plasmid expressing P in cells increased Complex I activity and increased ROS generation, whereas expression of other RABV proteins did not. We have analyzed recombinant plasmids encoding various P gene segments. Expression of a peptide from amino acid 139-172 increased Complex I activity and ROS generation similar to expression of the entire P protein, whereas peptides that did not contain this region did not increase Complex I activity or induce ROS generation. These results indicate that a region of the RABV P interacts with Complex I in mitochondria causing mitochondrial dysfunction, increased generation of ROS, and oxidative stress.

  8. Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinzi; Luo, Xiaoting; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Sumien, Nathalie; Chen, Zhenglan; Rutledge, Margaret A; Jing, Siqun; Forster, Michael J; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2017-09-01

    It is well established that NADH/NAD(+) redox balance is heavily perturbed in diabetes, and the NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance is a major source of oxidative stress in diabetic tissues. In mitochondria, complex I is the only site for NADH oxidation and NAD(+) regeneration and is also a major site for production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Yet how complex I responds to the NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance and any potential consequences of such response in diabetic pancreas have not been investigated. We report here that pancreatic mitochondrial complex I showed aberrant hyperactivity in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Further studies focusing on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes indicate that complex I hyperactivity could be attenuated by metformin. Moreover, complex I hyperactivity was accompanied by increased activities of complexes II to IV, but not complex V, suggesting that overflow of NADH via complex I in diabetes could be diverted to ROS production. Indeed in diabetic pancreas, ROS production and oxidative stress increased and mitochondrial ATP production decreased, which can be attributed to impaired pancreatic mitochondrial membrane potential that is responsible for increased cell death. Additionally, cellular defense systems such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sirtuin 3, and NQO1 were found to be compromised in diabetic pancreas. Our findings point to the direction that complex I aberrant hyperactivity in pancreas could be a major source of oxidative stress and β cell failure in diabetes. Therefore, inhibiting pancreatic complex I hyperactivity and attenuating its ROS production by various means in diabetes might serve as a promising approach for anti-diabetic therapies.

  9. Severe respiratory complex III defect prevents liver adaptation to prolonged fasting.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Laura S; L'hermitte-Stead, Caroline; Lesimple, Pierre; Gilleron, Mylène; Filaut, Sandrine; Jardel, Claude; Haack, Tobias B; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Azzouz, Hatem; Tebib, Neji; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Touati, Guy; Prokisch, Holger; Lombès, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Next generation sequencing approaches have tremendously improved the diagnosis of rare genetic diseases. It may however be faced with difficult clinical interpretation of variants. Inherited enzymatic diseases provide an invaluable possibility to evaluate the function of the defective enzyme in human cell biology. This is the case for respiratory complex III, which has 11 structural subunits and requires several assembly factors. An important role of complex III in liver function is suggested by its frequent impairment in human cases of genetic complex III defects. We report the case of a child with complex III defect and acute liver dysfunction with lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and hyperammonemia. Mitochondrial activities were assessed in liver and fibroblasts using spectrophotometric assays. Genetic analysis was done by exome followed by Sanger sequencing. Functional complementation of defective fibroblasts was performed using lentiviral transduction followed by enzymatic analyses and expression assays. Homozygous, truncating, mutations in LYRM7 and MTO1, two genes encoding essential mitochondrial proteins were found. Functional complementation of the complex III defect in fibroblasts demonstrated the causal role of LYRM7 mutations. Comparison of the patient's clinical history to previously reported patients with complex III defect due to nuclear DNA mutations, some actually followed by us, showed striking similarities allowing us to propose common pathophysiology. Profound complex III defect in liver does not induce actual liver failure but impedes liver adaptation to prolonged fasting leading to severe lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and hyperammonemia, potentially leading to irreversible brain damage. The diagnosis of rare genetic disease has been tremendously accelerated by the development of high throughput sequencing technology. In this paper we report the investigations that have led to identify LYRM7 mutations causing severe hepatic defect of respiratory

  10. Photoactivatable green fluorescent protein-based visualization and quantification of mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial network complexity in living cells.

    PubMed

    Karbowski, Mariusz; Cleland, Megan M; Roelofs, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Technological improvements in microscopy and the development of mitochondria-specific imaging molecular tools have illuminated the dynamic rearrangements of these essential organelles. These rearrangements are mainly the result of two opposing processes: mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial fission. Consistent with this, in addition to mitochondrial motility, these two processes are major factors determining the overall degree of continuity of the mitochondrial network, as well as the average size of mitochondria within the cell. In this chapter, we detail the use of advanced confocal microscopy and mitochondrial matrix-targeted photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (mito-PAGFP) for the investigation of mitochondrial dynamics. We focus on direct visualization and quantification of mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial network complexity in living mammalian cells. These assays were instrumental in important recent discoveries within the field of mitochondrial biology, including the role of mitochondrial fusion in the activation of mitochondrial steps in apoptosis, participation of Bcl-2 family proteins in mitochondrial morphogenesis, and stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. We present some basic directions that should be helpful in designing mito-PAGFP-based experiments. Furthermore, since analyses of mitochondrial fusion using mito-PAGFP-based assays rely on time-lapse imaging, critical parameters of time-lapse microscopy and cell preparation are also discussed.

  11. Acetogenins from Annonaceae, inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Polo, M C; González, M C; Estornell, E; Sahpaz, S; Cortes, D

    1996-05-01

    One-hundred and twenty-eight different linear, epoxy, mono-tetrahydrofuran, bis-tetrahydrofuran or tri-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins have been isolated from the Annonaceae. These new secondary metabolites are potent cytotoxic inhibitors of the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I of the respiratory chain).

  12. Parkinson's disease in relation to pesticide exposure and nuclear encoded mitochondrial complex I gene variants.

    PubMed

    Corder, Elizabeth H; Mellick, George D

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder thought to result from the integrated effects of genetic background and exposure to neuronal toxins. Certain individual nuclear-encoded mitochondrial complex I gene polymorphisms were found to be associated with approximately 2-fold risk variation in an Australian case-control sample. We further characterized this sample of 306 cases and 321 controls to determine the mutual information contained in the 22 SNPs and, additionally, level of pesticide exposure: five distinct risk sets were identified using grade-of-membership analysis. Of these, one was robust to pesticide exposure (I), three were vulnerable (II, III, IV), and another (V) denoted low risk for unexposed persons. Risk for individual subjects varied > 16-fold according to level of membership in the vulnerable groups. We conclude that inherited variation in mitochondrial complex I genes and pesticide exposure together modulate risk for PD.

  13. Parallel Structural Evolution of Mitochondrial Ribosomes and OXPHOS Complexes

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluis, Eli O.; Bauerschmitt, Heike; Becker, Thomas; Mielke, Thorsten; Frauenfeld, Jens; Berninghausen, Otto; Neupert, Walter; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Beckmann, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The five macromolecular complexes that jointly mediate oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria consist of many more subunits than those of bacteria, yet, it remains unclear by which evolutionary mechanism(s) these novel subunits were recruited. Even less well understood is the structural evolution of mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes): while it was long thought that their exceptionally high protein content would physically compensate for their uniquely low amount of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), this hypothesis has been refuted by structural studies. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 73S mitoribosome from Neurospora crassa, together with genomic and proteomic analyses of mitoribosome composition across the eukaryotic domain. Surprisingly, our findings reveal that both structurally and compositionally, mitoribosomes have evolved very similarly to mitochondrial OXPHOS complexes via two distinct phases: A constructive phase that mainly acted early in eukaryote evolution, resulting in the recruitment of altogether approximately 75 novel subunits, and a reductive phase that acted during metazoan evolution, resulting in gradual length-reduction of mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and OXPHOS proteins. Both phases can be well explained by the accumulation of (slightly) deleterious mutations and deletions, respectively, in mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and OXPHOS proteins. We argue that the main role of the newly recruited (nuclear encoded) ribosomal- and OXPHOS proteins is to provide structural compensation to the mutationally destabilized mitochondrially encoded components. While the newly recruited proteins probably provide a selective advantage owing to their compensatory nature, and while their presence may have opened evolutionary pathways toward novel mitochondrion-specific functions, we emphasize that the initial events that resulted in their recruitment was nonadaptive in nature. Our framework is supported by population genetic

  14. Parallel Structural Evolution of Mitochondrial Ribosomes and OXPHOS Complexes.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Eli O; Bauerschmitt, Heike; Becker, Thomas; Mielke, Thorsten; Frauenfeld, Jens; Berninghausen, Otto; Neupert, Walter; Herrmann, Johannes M; Beckmann, Roland

    2015-04-09

    The five macromolecular complexes that jointly mediate oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria consist of many more subunits than those of bacteria, yet, it remains unclear by which evolutionary mechanism(s) these novel subunits were recruited. Even less well understood is the structural evolution of mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes): while it was long thought that their exceptionally high protein content would physically compensate for their uniquely low amount of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), this hypothesis has been refuted by structural studies. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 73S mitoribosome from Neurospora crassa, together with genomic and proteomic analyses of mitoribosome composition across the eukaryotic domain. Surprisingly, our findings reveal that both structurally and compositionally, mitoribosomes have evolved very similarly to mitochondrial OXPHOS complexes via two distinct phases: A constructive phase that mainly acted early in eukaryote evolution, resulting in the recruitment of altogether approximately 75 novel subunits, and a reductive phase that acted during metazoan evolution, resulting in gradual length-reduction of mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and OXPHOS proteins. Both phases can be well explained by the accumulation of (slightly) deleterious mutations and deletions, respectively, in mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and OXPHOS proteins. We argue that the main role of the newly recruited (nuclear encoded) ribosomal- and OXPHOS proteins is to provide structural compensation to the mutationally destabilized mitochondrially encoded components. While the newly recruited proteins probably provide a selective advantage owing to their compensatory nature, and while their presence may have opened evolutionary pathways toward novel mitochondrion-specific functions, we emphasize that the initial events that resulted in their recruitment was nonadaptive in nature. Our framework is supported by population genetic

  15. Epigenetics and migraine; complex mitochondrial interactions contributing to disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Roos-Araujo, Deidré; Stuart, Shani; Lea, Rod A; Haupt, Larisa M; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2014-06-10

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as one of the top twenty most debilitating diseases in the developed world. Current therapies are only effective for a proportion of sufferers and new therapeutic targets are desperately needed to alleviate this burden. Recently the role of epigenetics in the development of many complex diseases including migraine has become an emerging topic. By understanding the importance of acetylation, methylation and other epigenetic modifications, it then follows that this modification process is a potential target to manipulate epigenetic status with the goal of treating disease. Bisulphite sequencing and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation have been used to demonstrate the presence of methylated cytosines in the human D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), proving that the mitochondrial genome is methylated. For the first time, it has been shown that there is a difference in mtDNA epigenetic status between healthy controls and those with disease, especially for neurodegenerative and age related conditions. Given co-morbidities with migraine and the suggestive link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the lowered threshold for triggering a migraine attack, mitochondrial methylation may be a new avenue to pursue. Creative thinking and new approaches are needed to solve complex problems and a systems biology approach, where multiple layers of information are integrated is becoming more important in complex disease modelling.

  16. Amyloid-beta leads to impaired cellular respiration, energy production and mitochondrial electron chain complex activities in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rhein, V; Baysang, G; Rao, S; Meier, F; Bonert, A; Müller-Spahn, F; Eckert, A

    2009-09-01

    Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it has been recently proposed that mitochondria are involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Here we investigated the specific effects of Abeta on mitochondrial function under physiological conditions. Mitochondrial respiratory functions and energy metabolism were analyzed in control and in human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) stably transfected human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Mitochondrial respiratory capacity of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) in vital cells was measured with a high-resolution respirometry system (Oxygraph-2k). In addition, we determined the individual activities of mitochondrial complexes I-IV that compose ETC and ATP cellular levels. While the activities of complexes I and II did not change between cell types, complex IV activity was significantly reduced in APP cells. In contrast, activity of complex III was significantly enhanced in APP cells, as compensatory response in order to balance the defect of complex IV. However, this compensatory mechanism could not prevent the strong impairment of total respiration in vital APP cells. As a result, the respiratory control ratio (state3/state4) together with ATP production decreased in the APP cells in comparison with the control cells. Chronic exposure to soluble Abeta protein may result in an impairment of energy homeostasis due to a decreased respiratory capacity of mitochondrial electron transport chain which, in turn, may accelerate neurons demise.

  17. Nd(III)-induced rice mitochondrial dysfunction investigated by spectroscopic and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cai-Fen; Lv, Long; Chen, Xin-You; Fu, Bo-Qiao; Lei, Ke-Lin; Qin, Cai-Qin; Liu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    The production capacity and yield of neodymium (Nd) in China have ranked the first in the world. Because of its unique biophysical and biochemical properties, Nd compounds have entered into the agricultural environment greatly to promote plant growth. Mitochondria play a crucial role in respiration and metabolism during the growth of plants. However, little is known about the mechanism by which Nd act at the mitochondrial level in plant cells. In this study, rice mitochondrial swelling, collapsed transmembrane potential and decreased membrane fluidity were examined to be important factors for mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening induced by Nd(III). The protection of cyclosporin A (CsA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) could confirm that Nd(III) could trigger mPTP opening. Additionally, mitochondrial membrane breakdown observed by TEM and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) could also elucidate the mPTP opening from another point of view. At last, the study showed that Nd(III) could restrain the mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxide, so it might interact with anionic lipid too. This detection will be conductive to the safe application of Nd compounds in agriculture and food industry.

  18. Respiratory chain complex I deficiency caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Swalwell, Helen; Kirby, Denise M; Blakely, Emma L; Mitchell, Anna; Salemi, Renato; Sugiana, Canny; Compton, Alison G; Tucker, Elena J; Ke, Bi-Xia; Lamont, Phillipa J; Turnbull, Douglass M; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W; Thorburn, David R

    2011-01-01

    Defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are associated with a diverse spectrum of clinical phenotypes, and may be caused by mutations in either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)). Isolated complex I deficiency is the most common enzyme defect in mitochondrial disorders, particularly in children in whom family history is often consistent with sporadic or autosomal recessive inheritance, implicating a nuclear genetic cause. In contrast, although a number of recurrent, pathogenic mtDNA mutations have been described, historically, these have been perceived as rare causes of paediatric complex I deficiency. We reviewed the clinical and genetic findings in a large cohort of 109 paediatric patients with isolated complex I deficiency from 101 families. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations were found in 29 of 101 probands (29%), 21 in MTND subunit genes and 8 in mtDNA tRNA genes. Nuclear gene defects were inferred in 38 of 101 (38%) probands based on cell hybrid studies, mtDNA sequencing or mutation analysis (nuclear gene mutations were identified in 22 probands). Leigh or Leigh-like disease was the most common clinical presentation in both mtDNA and nuclear genetic defects. The median age at onset was higher in mtDNA patients (12 months) than in patients with a nuclear gene defect (3 months). However, considerable overlap existed, with onset varying from 0 to >60 months in both groups. Our findings confirm that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a significant cause of complex I deficiency in children. In the absence of parental consanguinity, we recommend whole mitochondrial genome sequencing as a key approach to elucidate the underlying molecular genetic abnormality. PMID:21364701

  19. Inactivation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes and manganese superoxide dismutase during sepsis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitigates injury.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naeem K; Parajuli, Nirmala; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Mayeux, Philip R

    2014-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of sepsis and leads to a high mortality rate. Human and animal studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure; however, the specific mitochondrial targets damaged during sepsis remain elusive. We used a clinically relevant cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) murine model of sepsis and assessed renal mitochondrial function using high-resolution respirometry, renal microcirculation using intravital microscopy, and renal function. CLP caused a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial complex I and II/III respiration and reduced ATP. By 4 h after CLP, activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was decreased by 50% and inhibition was sustained through 36 h. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We then evaluated whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO could reverse renal mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuate sepsis-induced AKI. Mito-TEMPO (10 mg/kg) given at 6 h post-CLP decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels, protected complex I and II/III respiration, and restored MnSOD activity by 18 h. Mito-TEMPO also improved renal microcirculation and glomerular filtration rate. Importantly, even delayed therapy with a single dose of Mito-TEMPO significantly increased 96-h survival rate from 40% in untreated septic mice to 80%. Thus, sepsis causes sustained inactivation of three mitochondrial targets that can lead to increased mitochondrial superoxide. Importantly, even delayed therapy with Mito-TEMPO alleviated kidney injury, suggesting that it may be a promising approach to treat septic AKI.

  20. Tafenoquine, an antiplasmodial 8-aminoquinoline, targets leishmania respiratory complex III and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; Manzano, José Ignacio; Castanys, Santiago; Rivas, Luis; Gamarro, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    Tafenoquine (TFQ), an 8-aminoquinoline analogue of primaquine, which is currently under clinical trial (phase IIb/III) for the treatment and prevention of malaria, may represent an alternative treatment for leishmaniasis. In this work, we have studied the mechanism of action of TFQ against Leishmania parasites. TFQ impaired the overall bioenergetic metabolism of Leishmania promastigotes, causing a rapid drop in intracellular ATP levels without affecting plasma membrane permeability. TFQ induced mitochondrial dysfunction through the inhibition of cytochrome c reductase (respiratory complex III) with a decrease in the oxygen consumption rate and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. This was accompanied by ROS production, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels and concomitant nuclear DNA fragmentation. We conclude that TFQ targets Leishmania mitochondria, leading to an apoptosis-like death process.

  1. Tafenoquine, an Antiplasmodial 8-Aminoquinoline, Targets Leishmania Respiratory Complex III and Induces Apoptosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luis; Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; Manzano, José Ignacio; Castanys, Santiago; Rivas, Luis; Gamarro, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Tafenoquine (TFQ), an 8-aminoquinoline analogue of primaquine, which is currently under clinical trial (phase IIb/III) for the treatment and prevention of malaria, may represent an alternative treatment for leishmaniasis. In this work, we have studied the mechanism of action of TFQ against Leishmania parasites. TFQ impaired the overall bioenergetic metabolism of Leishmania promastigotes, causing a rapid drop in intracellular ATP levels without affecting plasma membrane permeability. TFQ induced mitochondrial dysfunction through the inhibition of cytochrome c reductase (respiratory complex III) with a decrease in the oxygen consumption rate and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. This was accompanied by ROS production, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and concomitant nuclear DNA fragmentation. We conclude that TFQ targets Leishmania mitochondria, leading to an apoptosis-like death process. PMID:20837758

  2. Cell-permeable succinate prodrugs bypass mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ehinger, Johannes K.; Piel, Sarah; Ford, Rhonan; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander; Morota, Saori; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Cornell, Clive; Moss, Steven J.; Metzsch, Carsten; Hansson, Magnus J.; Fliri, Hans; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most prevalent defect in the respiratory chain in paediatric mitochondrial disease. This heterogeneous group of diseases includes serious or fatal neurological presentations such as Leigh syndrome and there are very limited evidence-based treatment options available. Here we describe that cell membrane-permeable prodrugs of the complex II substrate succinate increase ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration in CI-deficient human blood cells, fibroblasts and heart fibres. Lactate accumulation in platelets due to rotenone-induced CI inhibition is reversed and rotenone-induced increase in lactate:pyruvate ratio in white blood cells is alleviated. Metabolomic analyses demonstrate delivery and metabolism of [13C]succinate. In Leigh syndrome patient fibroblasts, with a recessive NDUFS2 mutation, respiration and spare respiratory capacity are increased by prodrug administration. We conclude that prodrug-delivered succinate bypasses CI and supports electron transport, membrane potential and ATP production. This strategy offers a potential future therapy for metabolic decompensation due to mitochondrial CI dysfunction. PMID:27502960

  3. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S

    2014-07-15

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH(*), ΔS(*) and ΔG(*) were estimated from the DTG curves.

  4. Luminescense properties of new complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with heterotopic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patroniak, Violetta; Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Grochowska, Agnieszka M.; Stefankiewicz, Artur R.

    2006-07-01

    As a result of coordination between ligands L and L' and europium(III) and terbium(III) ions, the new architectures were formed. The formulae of the complexes have been assigned on the basis of the spectroscopic data in solution and microanalyses. The europium complexes show excellent luminescence properties with high quantum yield ( 1b-Eu 3L2) and effective intramolecular energy transfer from the ligand to the Eu(III) ions.

  5. Luminescense properties of new complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with heterotopic ligands.

    PubMed

    Patroniak, Violetta; Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Grochowska, Agnieszka M; Stefankiewicz, Artur R

    2006-07-01

    As a result of coordination between ligands L and L' and europium(III) and terbium(III) ions, the new architectures were formed. The formulae of the complexes have been assigned on the basis of the spectroscopic data in solution and microanalyses. The europium complexes show excellent luminescence properties with high quantum yield (1b-Eu(3)L(2)) and effective intramolecular energy transfer from the ligand to the Eu(III) ions.

  6. Novel, highly photoluminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) tetrazolate-2-pyridine-1-oxide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietraszkiewicz, Marek; Mal, Suraj; Pietraszkiewicz, Oksana

    2012-07-01

    Tetrazole-2-pyridine-1-oxide was prepared from 2-cyanopyridine and sodium azide, followed by oxidation with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. This ligand forms neutral 1:3 complexes with Eu(III) and Tb(III) cations. The complexes are photoluminescent in solution, with photoluminescence quantum yields 13% and 31%, respectively.

  7. Hexaammine Complexes of Cr(III) and Co(III): A Spectral Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, D. R.; Pavlis, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are provided for experiments containing complex ions with octahedral symmetry, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride and hexaamminechromium(III) nitrate, so students can interpret fully the ultra violet/visible spectra of the complex cations in terms of the ligand field parameters, 10 "Dq," the Racah interelectron repulsion parameters, "B,"…

  8. Hexaammine Complexes of Cr(III) and Co(III): A Spectral Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, D. R.; Pavlis, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are provided for experiments containing complex ions with octahedral symmetry, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride and hexaamminechromium(III) nitrate, so students can interpret fully the ultra violet/visible spectra of the complex cations in terms of the ligand field parameters, 10 "Dq," the Racah interelectron repulsion parameters, "B,"…

  9. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  10. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  11. Deficiency of subunits of Complex I and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, T; Tanaka, M; Nishikimi, M; Suzuki, H; Ozawa, T; Kobayashi, M; Wada, Y

    1988-03-01

    Enzymic activities of the respiratory chain and content of immunochemically detectable subunits in NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) were measured in mitochondria from the skeletal muscles of 4 patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS). The rotenone-sensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity was extremely decreased, ranging from 0% to 27% of the control value. In all patients, the content of subunits of Complex I was also reduced in parallel with the rotenone-sensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity. It is suggested that the variation in the degree of deficiency of Complex I subunits could explain the clinical heterogeneity of patients with MELAS.

  12. Luminescent xerogels obtained through embedding Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Corneliu S.; Marcotte, Nathalie; Secula, Marius S.; Popa, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    The paper reports the preparation of two luminescent xerogels through embedding in a silica matrix of Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes using succinimide (SI) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHSI) as ligands. In the first stage, Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes with N-hydroxysuccinimide and succinimide were prepared at 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. Strong luminescent emission was observed only in case of Eu(III)-SI and Tb(III)-NHSI complexes while the Eu(III)-NHSI and Tb(III)-SI complexes exhibited none or weak photoluminescent properties. In the second stage, the selected highly luminescent complexes were embedded in silica matrices via a sol-gel procedure leading to the formation of xerogels with transparent-glassy aspect which keep the remarkable photoluminescence properties of the free complexes. The selected, highly luminescent free complexes and their correspondent silica xerogels were investigated through thermal analysis, powder XRD, SEM, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Their excellent photoluminescent properties and excitation spectra, conveniently located in UV-A region, might recommend these materials for applications in optoelectronic devices where photonic conversion layers are required.

  13. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-06

    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  14. Isoflurane Selectively Inhibits Distal Mitochondrial Complex I in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Suthammarak, Wichit; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) is a possible target of volatile anesthetics (VAs). Complex I enzymatic activities are inhibited by VAs, and dysfunction of complex I can lead to hypersensitivity to VAs in worms and in people. Mutant analysis in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans suggests that VAs may specifically interfere with complex I function at the binding site for its substrate ubiquinone. We hypothesized that isoflurane inhibits electron transport by competing with ubiquinone for binding to complex I. METHODS Wildtype and mutant C. elegans were used to study the effects of isoflurane on isolated mitochondria. Enzymatic activities of the ETC were assayed and dose-response curves determined using established techniques. Two-dimensional native gels of mitochondrial proteins were performed after exposure of mitochondria to isoflurane. RESULTS Complex I is the most sensitive component of the ETC to isoflurane inhibition; however the proximal portion of complex I (the flavoprotein) is relatively insensitive to isoflurane. Isoflurane and quinone do not compete for a common binding site on complex I. The absolute rate of complex I enzymatic activity in vitro does not predict immobilization of the animal by isoflurane. Isoflurane had no measurable effect on stability of mitochondrial supercomplexes. Reduction of ubiquinone by complex I displayed positive cooperative kinetics not disrupted by isoflurane. CONCLUSIONS Isoflurane directly inhibits complex I at a site distal to the flavoprotein subcomplex. However, we have excluded our original hypothesis that isoflurane and ubiquinone compete for a common hydrophobic binding site on complex I. In addition, immobilization of the nematode by isoflurane is not due to limiting absolute amounts of complex I electron transport as measured in isolated mitochondria. PMID:21467554

  15. Impaired translocation and activation of mitochondrial Akt1 mitigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Ying; Deng, Wu; Chen, Yumay; Fan, Weiwei; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Jope, Richard S; Wallace, Douglas C; Wang, Ping H

    2013-06-01

    Insulin can translocate Akt to mitochondria in cardiac muscle. The goals of this study were to define sub-mitochondrial localization of the translocated Akt, to dissect the effects of insulin on Akt isoform translocation, and to determine the direct effect of mitochondrial Akt activation on Complex V activity in normal and diabetic myocardium. The translocated Akt sequentially localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix. To confirm Akt translocation, in vitro import assay showed rapid entry of Akt into mitochondria. Akt isoforms were differentially regulated by insulin stimulation, only Akt1 translocated into mitochondria. In the insulin-resistant Type 2 diabetes model, Akt1 translocation was blunted. Mitochondrial activation of Akt1 increased Complex V activity by 24% in normal myocardium in vivo and restored Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium. Basal mitochondrial Complex V activity was lower by 22% in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium. Insulin-stimulated Complex V activity was not impaired in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium, due to compensatory translocation of Akt2 to mitochondria. Akt1 is the primary isoform that relayed insulin signaling to mitochondria and modulated mitochondrial Complex V activity. Activation of mitochondrial Akt1 enhanced ATP production and increased phosphocreatine in cardiac muscle cells. Dysregulation of this signal pathway might impair mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic myocardium.

  16. Mechanisms of Sb(III) Photooxidation by the Excitation of Organic Fe(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2016-07-05

    Organic Fe(III) complexes are widely distributed in the aqueous environment, which can efficiently generate free radicals under light illumination, playing a significant role in heavy metal speciation. However, the potential importance of the photooxidation of Sb(III) by organic Fe(III) complexes remains unclear. Therefore, the photooxidation mechanisms of Sb(III) were comprehensively investigated in Fe(III)-oxalate, Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-fulvic acid (FA) solutions by kinetic measurements and modeling. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) was observed in an Fe(III)-oxalate solution over the pH range of 3 to 7. The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as an ·OH scavenger quenched the Sb(III) oxidation, suggesting that ·OH is an important oxidant for Sb(III). However, the incomplete quenching of Sb(III) oxidation indicated the existence of other oxidants, presumably an Fe(IV) species in irradiated Fe(III)-oxalate solution. In acidic solutions, ·OH may be formed by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4) with H2O2, but a hypothetical Fe(IV) species may be generated by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4)2(2-) with H2O2 at higher pH. Kinetic modeling provides a quantitative explanation of the results. Evidence for the existence of ·OH and hypothetical Fe(IV) was also observed in an irradiated Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-FA system. This study demonstrated an important pathway of Sb(III) oxidation in surface waters.

  17. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  18. Mobility and recalcitrance of organo-chromium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Puzon, Geoffrey J; Tokala, Ranjeet K; Zhang, Hua; Yonge, David; Peyton, Brent M; Xun, Luying

    2008-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a major industrial pollutant. Bioremediation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is a viable clean-up approach. However, Cr(VI) bioreduction also produces soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes, and little is known about their behavior in the environment. When tested with soil columns, citrate-Cr(III) showed little sorption to soil; malate-Cr(III) had limited partitioning with soil; and histidine-Cr(III) exhibited significant interaction with soil. It appears that the mobility varies depending on the organic ligand. Further, Ralstonia eutropha JMP 134 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pAO1 readily degraded malate, citrate, and histidine, but not the corresponding organo-Cr(III) complexes. The recalcitrance is not due to toxicity, but the complexes are likely to cause hindrance to enzymes, as malate dehydrogenase and amino acid oxidase could not use malate-Cr(III) and histidine-Cr(III), respectively. The data are in agreement with the reports of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes in the environment.

  19. Accessory subunits are integral for assembly and function of human mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Stroud, David A; Surgenor, Elliot E; Formosa, Luke E; Reljic, Boris; Frazier, Ann E; Dibley, Marris G; Osellame, Laura D; Stait, Tegan; Beilharz, Traude H; Thorburn, David R; Salim, Agus; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-10-06

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is composed of 45 subunits in humans, making it one of the largest known multi-subunit membrane protein complexes. Complex I exists in supercomplex forms with respiratory chain complexes III and IV, which are together required for the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient used for the synthesis of ATP. Complex I is also a major source of damaging reactive oxygen species and its dysfunction is associated with mitochondrial disease, Parkinson's disease and ageing. Bacterial and human complex I share 14 core subunits that are essential for enzymatic function; however, the role and necessity of the remaining 31 human accessory subunits is unclear. The incorporation of accessory subunits into the complex increases the cellular energetic cost and has necessitated the involvement of numerous assembly factors for complex I biogenesis. Here we use gene editing to generate human knockout cell lines for each accessory subunit. We show that 25 subunits are strictly required for assembly of a functional complex and 1 subunit is essential for cell viability. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cell lines revealed that loss of each subunit affects the stability of other subunits residing in the same structural module. Analysis of proteomic changes after the loss of specific modules revealed that ATP5SL and DMAC1 are required for assembly of the distal portion of the complex I membrane arm. Our results demonstrate the broad importance of accessory subunits in the structure and function of human complex I. Coupling gene-editing technology with proteomics represents a powerful tool for dissecting large multi-subunit complexes and enables the study of complex dysfunction at a cellular level.

  20. Xanthohumol induces generation of reactive oxygen species and triggers apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chu, Wei; Wei, Peng; Liu, Ying; Wei, Taotao

    2015-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a prenylflavonoid extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus). It possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, and offers therapeutic benefits for treatment of metabolic syndromes. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects remain to be elucidated, together with its cellular target. Here, we provide evidence that xanthohumol directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation, triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, and induces apoptosis. In addition, we show that as a result of the inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xanthohumol exposure causes a rapid decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, we showed that xanthohumol up-regulates the glycolytic capacity in cells, and thus compensates cellular ATP generation. Dissection of the multiple steps of aerobic respiration by extracellular flux assays revealed that xanthohumol specifically inhibits the activity of mitochondrial complex I, but had little effect on that of complex II, III and IV. Inhibition of complex I by xanthohumol caused the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. We also found that isoxanthohumol, the structural isomer of xanthohumol, is inactive to cells, suggesting that the reactive 2-hydroxyl group of xanthohumol is crucial for its targeting to the mitochondrial complex I. Together, the remodeling of cell metabolism revealed here has therapeutic potential for the use of xanthohumol.

  1. Plant mitochondrial Complex I composition and assembly: A review.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanian, Nitya; Remacle, Claire; Hamel, Patrice Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the mitochondrial inner membrane, oxidative phosphorylation generates ATP via the operation of several multimeric enzymes. The proton-pumping Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and most complicated enzyme required in this process. Complex I is an L-shaped enzyme consisting of more than 40 subunits, one FMN molecule and eight Fe-S clusters. In recent years, genetic and proteomic analyses of Complex I mutants in various model systems, including plants, have provided valuable insights into the assembly of this multimeric enzyme. Assisted by a number of key players, referred to as "assembly factors", the assembly of Complex I takes place in a sequential and modular manner. Although a number of factors have been identified, their precise function in mediating Complex I assembly still remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current knowledge of plant Complex I composition and assembly derived from studies in plant model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Complex I is highly conserved and comprises a significant number of subunits also present in mammalian and fungal Complexes I. Plant Complex I also contains additional subunits absent from the mammalian and fungal counterpart, whose function in enzyme activity and assembly is not clearly understood. While 14 assembly factors have been identified for human Complex I, only two proteins, namely GLDH and INDH, have been established as bona fide assembly factors for plant Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  2. Luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes having acetylide ligands

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Mark E.; Bossi, Alberto; Djurovich, Peter Ivan

    2014-09-02

    The present invention relates to phosphorescent (triplet-emitting) organometallic materials. The phosphorescent materials of the present invention comprise Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes for use as triplet light-emitting materials. The Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes comprise at least one cyclometallating ligand and at least one alkynyl ligand bonded to the iridium. Also provided is an organic light emitting device comprising an anode, a cathode and an emissive layer between the anode and the cathode, wherein the emissive layer comprises a Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complex as a triplet emitting material.

  3. Compromised liver mitochondrial function and complex activity in low feed efficient broilers are associated with higher oxidative stress and differential protein expression.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Pumford, N R; Tang, Z X; Lassiter, K; Ojano-Dirain, C; Wing, T; Cooper, M; Bottje, W

    2005-06-01

    Variations in broiler growth and efficiency have been explained in part by differences in mitochondrial function and biochemistry in broilers. To further our knowledge in this regard, 2 experiments were carried out to determine the relationships of a) mitochondrial function and activities of various electron transport chain (ETC) complexes; b) production of H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), and its association with protein oxidation; and c) mitochondrial protein expression in liver of a single line male broilers with low or high feed efficiency (FE, n = 5 to 8 per group). Mitochondrial function and complex activities were measured polarographically and spectrophotometrically, respectively. H2O2 was measured fluorimetrically, whereas oxidized protein (carbonyls) and specific mitochondrial proteins were analyzed using Western blots. Mitochondrial function (ETC coupling) and activities of ETC complexes (I, II, III, and IV) were higher in high FE compared with low FE broilers. H2O2 and protein carbonyls were higher in the livers of low FE broilers than in high FE broilers. Whereas the expression of 4 immunoreactive proteins [NAD3 (complex I), subunit VII (complex III), cytochrome c oxidase subunits (COX) II, and COX IVb (complex IV)] were higher in low FE liver mitochondria and 2 proteins [subunit 70 (complex II) and a-ATP synthase (complex V)] were higher in high FE birds, there were no differences between groups in the expression of 18 other mitochondrial proteins. In conclusion, increases in oxidative stress in low FE broilers were caused by or may contribute to differences in mitochondrial function (ETC coupling and complex activities) or the differential expression of steady-state levels of some mitochondrial proteins in the liver. Understanding the role of oxidative stress in Low FE broilers will provide clues in understanding the cellular basis of feed efficiency.

  4. Modulation of active Cr(III) complexes by bath preparation to adjust Cr(III) electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ming-yong; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    The preparation process of the Cr(III) bath was studied based on a perspective of accelerating the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and electrodeposition showed that active Cr(III) complexes in the bath prepared at room temperature in several days were rare for depositing chromium. The increase of heating temperature, time, and pH value during the bath preparation promoted the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The chromium deposition rate increased with the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increasing. Increasing the heating temperature from 60 to 96°C, the chromium deposition rate increased from 0.40 to 0.71 μm/min. When the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increased, the grain size of Cr coatings increased, and the carbon content of the coating decreased. It is deduced that Cr(H2O)4(OH)L2+ (L is an organic ligand, and its valence is omitted) is a primary active Cr(III) complex.

  5. Gold(III) complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Maia, Pedro Ivo da Silva; Deflon, Victor M; Abram, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    A number of gold(III) compounds has been designed with the objective of overcoming the disadvantages associated with the platinum-based drugs for cancer treatment. Compounds of a remarkable structural manifold show significant antiproliferative effects in vitro against a number of cancer cells, including cisplatin resistant ones. The target of most of them is, unlike that of cisplatin, not the DNA. Although the mechanisms of action displayed by the gold compounds in biological media are still under investigation, many studies show evidence that the cellular targets are mitochondria-based. Recent advances in gold(III) medicinal chemistry also recommend such compounds for other pharmacological applications such as the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. The radioactive isotopes (198)Au and (199)Au present potential in radiotherapy.

  6. Complexation of Cm(III)/Eu(III) with Silicate in Basic Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R; Xia, Yuanxian; Qafoku, Odeta; Yantasee, Wassana; Cho, Herman M

    2005-12-01

    The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with dissolved silica was studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in basic solutions over a range of total silica concentrations and ionic strengths (NaNO3). In highly basic solutions, both the fluorescence spectra and lifetime data indicate the formation of Eu(III)/Cm(III) complexes with oligomeric silicates as well as hydroxide groups and/or nitrate in the presence of concentrated NaNO3. At high silica concentration the inner-sphere complexation caused the shift of the fluorescence spectral maximum for Cm(III)(aq) from 594 nm to up to 607 nm and a significant increase of the hypersensitive 5D0 → 7F2 band around 615 nm relative to the non-hypersensitive 5D0 → 7F1 band at 592 nm for Eu(III). At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime increased from 68 s to up to 202 s for Cm(III) in 0.1 M NaNO3 and from 115 s to 1.8 ms for Eu(III) in 3.0 M and 5.0 M NaNO3, consistent with the removal of 6 or more water molecules upon silicate complexation. Linear correlations between the spectral intensity of Cm(III) complexes and the concentrations of the dissolved silicates suggest that Cm(III) complexation with the silicate dimer, Si2O2(OH)22-, may play a role.

  7. Acute and Chronic Treatments with Quetiapine Increase Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Activity in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Ignácio, Zuleide M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; da Luz, Jaine R; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Rebelo, Joyce; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have found that the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial energy metabolism are impaired in major depressive disorder (MDD). Classic antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics can alter the function of enzymes involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that, in addition to having a therapeutic benefit in treating MDD, appears to exert antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of quetiapine on the activity of enzyme complexes I to IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) in brain regions involved with MDD. After a single dose or serial injections over 14 days of quetiapine (20, 40, and 80 mg) were administered, isolates from the pre- frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens were analyzed for enzyme activity levels. The enzyme activity varied according to the dose, brain region, and acute or chronic dosing protocols. In general, complexes I-III activity was increased, especially after acute administration. Acute administration also increased the activity of complex IV and CK in the amygdala while complex I was inhibited in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that quetiapine produces an increase in respiratory chain complex activity, which may be underlying its efficacy against psychiatric disorders and neuronal damage.

  8. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox state are unaltered in Trypanosoma cruzi isolates with compromised mitochondrial complex I subunit genes.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Julio César; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Mendonça, Marco Aurélio G; de Oliveira, Thays C; Gadelha, Fernanda R; Zingales, Bianca

    2009-06-01

    In trypanosomatids the involvement of mitochondrial complex I in NADH oxidation has long been debated. Here, we took advantage of natural Trypanosoma cruzi mutants which present conspicuous deletions in ND4, ND5 and ND7 genes coding for complex I subunits to further investigate its functionality. Mitochondrial bioenergetics of wild type and complex I mutants showed no significant differences in oxygen consumption or respiratory control ratios in the presence of NADH-linked substrates or FADH(2)-generating succinate. No correlation could be established between mitochondrial membrane potentials and ND deletions. Since release of reactive oxygen species occurs at complex I, we measured mitochondrial H(2)O(2) formation induced by different substrates. Significant differences not associated to ND deletions were observed among the parasite isolates, demonstrating that these mutations are not important for the control of oxidant production. Our data support the notion that complex I has a limited function in T. cruzi.

  9. A novel interaction between DNA ligase III and DNA polymerase gamma plays an essential role in mitochondrial DNA stability.

    PubMed

    De, Ananya; Campbell, Colin

    2007-02-15

    The data in the present study show that DNA polymerase gamma and DNA ligase III interact in mitochondrial protein extracts from cultured HT1080 cells. An interaction was also observed between the two recombinant proteins in vitro. Expression of catalytically inert versions of DNA ligase III that bind DNA polymerase gamma was associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number and integrity. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type DNA ligase III had no effect on mitochondrial DNA copy number or integrity. Experiments revealed that wild-type DNA ligase III facilitates the interaction of DNA polymerase gamma with a nicked DNA substrate in vitro, and that the zinc finger domain of DNA ligase III is required for this activity. Mitochondrial protein extracts prepared from cells overexpressing a DNA ligase III protein that lacked the zinc finger domain had reduced base excision repair activity compared with extracts from cells overexpressing the wild-type protein. These data support the interpretation that the interaction of DNA ligase III and DNA polymerase gamma is required for proper maintenance of the mammalian mitochondrial genome.

  10. Monophyly of clade III nematodes is not supported by phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The orders Ascaridida, Oxyurida, and Spirurida represent major components of zooparasitic nematode diversity, including many species of veterinary and medical importance. Phylum-wide nematode phylogenetic hypotheses have mainly been based on nuclear rDNA sequences, but more recently complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene sequences have provided another source of molecular information to evaluate relationships. Although there is much agreement between nuclear rDNA and mtDNA phylogenies, relationships among certain major clades are different. In this study we report that mtDNA sequences do not support the monophyly of Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Spirurida (clade III) in contrast to results for nuclear rDNA. Results from mtDNA genomes show promise as an additional independently evolving genome for developing phylogenetic hypotheses for nematodes, although substantially increased taxon sampling is needed for enhanced comparative value with nuclear rDNA. Ultimately, topological incongruence (and congruence) between nuclear rDNA and mtDNA phylogenetic hypotheses will need to be tested relative to additional independent loci that provide appropriate levels of resolution. Results For this comparative phylogenetic study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three nematode species, Cucullanus robustus (13,972 bp) representing Ascaridida, Wellcomia siamensis (14,128 bp) representing Oxyurida, and Heliconema longissimum (13,610 bp) representing Spirurida. These new sequences were used along with 33 published nematode mitochondrial genomes to investigate phylogenetic relationships among chromadorean orders. Phylogenetic analyses of both nucleotide and amino acid sequence datasets support the hypothesis that Ascaridida is nested within Rhabditida. The position of Oxyurida within Chromadorea varies among analyses; in most analyses this order is sister to the Ascaridida plus Rhabditida clade, with representative Spirurida forming a distinct clade

  11. Monophyly of clade III nematodes is not supported by phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Park, Joong-Ki; Sultana, Tahera; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kang, Seokha; Kim, Hyong Kyu; Min, Gi-Sik; Eom, Keeseon S; Nadler, Steven A

    2011-08-03

    The orders Ascaridida, Oxyurida, and Spirurida represent major components of zooparasitic nematode diversity, including many species of veterinary and medical importance. Phylum-wide nematode phylogenetic hypotheses have mainly been based on nuclear rDNA sequences, but more recently complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene sequences have provided another source of molecular information to evaluate relationships. Although there is much agreement between nuclear rDNA and mtDNA phylogenies, relationships among certain major clades are different. In this study we report that mtDNA sequences do not support the monophyly of Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Spirurida (clade III) in contrast to results for nuclear rDNA. Results from mtDNA genomes show promise as an additional independently evolving genome for developing phylogenetic hypotheses for nematodes, although substantially increased taxon sampling is needed for enhanced comparative value with nuclear rDNA. Ultimately, topological incongruence (and congruence) between nuclear rDNA and mtDNA phylogenetic hypotheses will need to be tested relative to additional independent loci that provide appropriate levels of resolution. For this comparative phylogenetic study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three nematode species, Cucullanus robustus (13,972 bp) representing Ascaridida, Wellcomia siamensis (14,128 bp) representing Oxyurida, and Heliconema longissimum (13,610 bp) representing Spirurida. These new sequences were used along with 33 published nematode mitochondrial genomes to investigate phylogenetic relationships among chromadorean orders. Phylogenetic analyses of both nucleotide and amino acid sequence datasets support the hypothesis that Ascaridida is nested within Rhabditida. The position of Oxyurida within Chromadorea varies among analyses; in most analyses this order is sister to the Ascaridida plus Rhabditida clade, with representative Spirurida forming a distinct clade, however, in one case

  12. Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial proteins Cbp6 and Mss51 function at a post-translational step of respiratory complex biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Inge; Fox, Thomas D.; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain contain a few key subunits encoded by the mitochondrial genome. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fifteen mRNA-specific translational activators control mitochondrial translation, of which five are conserved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. These include homologs of Cbp3, Cbp6 and Mss51 that participate in translation and the post-translational steps leading to the assembly of respiratory complexes III and IV. In this study we show that in contrast to budding yeast, Cbp3, Cbp6 and Mss51 from S. pombe are not required for the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, but fulfill post-translational functions, thus probably accounting for their conservation. PMID:22349564

  13. Cyclometalated iridium(III)-guanidinium complexes as mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Xing-Dong; Kong, Xia; He, Shu-Fen; Chen, Jia-Xi; Sun, Jing; Chen, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Jin-Wu; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2017-09-29

    Guanidinium-functionalized molecules are commonly studied for their use as pharmaceutically active compounds and drugs carriers. Herein, four cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing guanidinium ligands have been synthesized and characterized as potential anticancer agents. These complexes exhibit moderate antitumor activity in HeLa, MCF-7, HepG2, CNE-2, and A549 human tumor cells. Interestingly, all complexes showed higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin against a cisplatin-resistant cell line A549R, and less cytotoxicity on the nontumorigenic LO2 cells. Intracellular distribution studies suggest that these complexes are selectively localized in the mitochondria. Mechanism studies indicate that these complexes arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and can influence mitochondrial integrity, inducing cancer cell death through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Bis-histidine-coordinated hemes in four-helix bundles: how the geometry of the bundle controls the axial imidazole plane orientations in transmembrane cytochromes of mitochondrial complexes II and III and related proteins.

    PubMed

    Berry, Edward A; Walker, F Ann

    2008-05-01

    Early investigation of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of bis-histidine-coordinated membrane-bound ferriheme proteins led to the description of a spectral signal that had only one resolved feature. These became known as "highly anisotropic low-spin" or "large g(max)" ferriheme centers. Extensive work with small-molecule model heme complexes showed that this spectroscopic signature occurs in bis-imidazole ferrihemes in which the planes of the imidazole ligands are nearly perpendicular, deltaphi = 57-90 degrees. In the last decade protein crystallographic studies have revealed the atomic structures of a number of examples of bis-histidine heme proteins. A frequent characteristic of these large g(max) ferrihemes in membrane-bound proteins is the occurrence of the heme within a four-helix bundle with a left-handed twist. The histidine ligands occur at the same level on two diametrically opposed helices of the bundle. These ligands have the same side-chain conformation and ligate heme iron on the bundle axis, resulting in a quasi-twofold symmetric structure. The two non-ligand-bearing helices also obey this symmetry, and have a conserved small residue, usually glycine, where the edge of the heme ring makes contact with the helix backbones. In many cases this small residue is preceded by a threonine or serine residue whose side-chain hydroxyl oxygen acts as a hydrogen-bond acceptor from the N(delta1) atom of the heme-ligating histidine. The deltaphi angle is thus determined by the common histidine side-chain conformation and the crossing angle of the ligand-bearing helices, in some cases constrained by hydrogen bonds to the serine/threonine residues on the non-ligand-bearing helices.

  15. New Samarium(III), Gadolinium(III), and Dysprosium(III) Complexes of Coumarin-3-Carboxylic Acid as Antiproliferative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kostova, Irena; Momekov, Georgi; Stancheva, Peya

    2007-01-01

    New complexes of samarium(III), gadolinium(III), and dysprosium(III) with coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) were prepared by the reaction of the ligand with respective metal nitrates in ethanol. The structures of the final complexes were determined by means of physicochemical data, elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectra. The metal-ligand binding mode in the new Ln(III) complexes of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid was elucidated. The vibrational study gave evidence for bidentate coordination of CCA− to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen atoms. The complexes were tested for antiproliferative activitiy on the chronic myeloid leukemia-derived K-562, overexpressing the BCR-ABL fusion protein. Cytotoxicity towards tumor cells was determined for a broad concentration range. The samarium salt exerted a very weak antiproliferative effect on these cells. This is in contrast to the lanthanide complexes, especially samarium complex, which exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. The present study confirms our previous observations that the lanthanide complexes of coumarins exhibit antiproliferative activity towards K-562 cell line. PMID:18274603

  16. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4‧-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  17. DJ-1 Null Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells Exhibit Defects in Mitochondrial Function and Structure: Involvement of Mitochondrial Complex I Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jun Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Soung Jung; Seo, Kang Sik; Han, Jeong Su; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jong Il; Park, Seung Kiel; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung Doo; Shong, Minho; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2012-01-01

    DJ-1 is a Parkinson's disease-associated gene whose protein product has a protective role in cellular homeostasis by removing cytosolic reactive oxygen species and maintaining mitochondrial function. However, it is not clear how DJ-1 regulates mitochondrial function and why mitochondrial dysfunction is induced by DJ-1 deficiency. In a previous study we showed that DJ-1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells exhibit defective mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I activity. In the present article we investigated the role of DJ-1 in complex I formation by using blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-dimensional gel analysis to assess native complex status. On the basis of these experiments, we concluded that DJ-1 null cells have a defect in the assembly of complex I. Concomitant with abnormal complex I formation, DJ-1 null cells show defective supercomplex formation. It is known that aberrant formation of the supercomplex impairs the flow of electrons through the channels between respiratory chain complexes, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. We took two approaches to study these mitochondrial defects. The first approach assessed the structural defect by using both confocal microscopy with MitoTracker staining and electron microscopy. The second approach assessed the functional defect by measuring ATP production, O2 consumption, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, we showed that the assembly defect as well as the structural and functional abnormalities in DJ-1 null cells could be reversed by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of DJ-1, demonstrating the specificity of DJ-1 on these mitochondrial properties. These mitochondrial defects induced by DJ-1mutation may be a pathological mechanism for the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:22403686

  18. Does the mitochondrial transcription-termination complex play an essential role in controlling differential transcription of the mitochondrial DNA?

    PubMed

    Selwood, S P; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z M; Lightowlers, R N

    2000-02-01

    The mechanism of mitochondrial transcription is well documented although the method of regulation remains obscure. The mitochondrial transcription-termination complex, mTERF, holds a key position in determining the fate of heavy-strand promotor-initiated transcripts and has been suggested as a candidate in the regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription. We report here the first example of a modulation of mTERF-complex binding activity concomitant with a differential mtDNA transcription rate. We suggest that these observations are indicative of a method of intra-organellar transcriptional fine tuning.

  19. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W; Hrebícek, Martin; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2015-02-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6-8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12-13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W.; Hrebícek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6–8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12–13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25567323

  1. Rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction by addition of copper(II) or iron(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Acosta, Juan M; Bajicoff, Sofía; Paredes-Fleitas, Paola; Boveris, Alberto; Repetto, Marisa G

    2017-01-01

    Increased copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) levels in liver and brain are associated to oxidative stress and damage with increased phospholipid oxidation process. The aim of this work was to assess the toxic effects of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) addition to rat liver mitochondria by determining mitochondrial respiration in states 3 (active respiration) and 4 (resting respiration), and phospholipid peroxidation. Both, Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) produced decreases in O2 consumption in a concentration-dependent manner in active state 3: both ions by 42% with malate-glutamate as complex I substrate (concentration for half maximal response (C50) 60μM Cu(2+) and 1.25mM Fe(3+)), and with succinate as complex II substrate: 64-69% with C50 of 50μM Cu(2+) and with C50 of 1.25mM of Fe(3+). Respiratory control decreased with Cu(2+) (C50 50μM) and Fe(3+) (C50 1.25-1-75mM) with both substrates. Cu(2+) produced a 2-fold increase and Fe(3+) a 5-fold increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content from 25μM Cu(2+) (C50 40μM) and from 100μM Fe(3+) (C50 1.75mM). Supplementations with Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) ions induce mitochondrial dysfunction with phospholipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria. Although is proved that a Fenton/Haber Weiss mechanism of oxidative damage occurs in metal-ion induced mitochondrial toxicity, slightly different responses to the metal ions suggest some differences in the mechanism of intracellular toxicity. The decreased rates of mitochondrial respiration and the alteration of mitochondrial function by phospholipid and protein oxidations lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular dyshomeostasis and cell death.

  2. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number and the activities of electron transport chain complexes and pyruvate dehydrogenase in the frontal cortex from subjects with autism.

    PubMed

    Gu, F; Chauhan, V; Kaur, K; Brown, W T; LaFauci, G; Wegiel, J; Chauhan, A

    2013-09-03

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress may contribute to the etiology of autism. This is the first study to compare the activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes (I-V) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), as well as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in the frontal cortex tissues from autistic and age-matched control subjects. The activities of complexes I, V and PDH were most affected in autism (n=14) being significantly reduced by 31%, 36% and 35%, respectively. When 99% confidence interval (CI) of control group was taken as a reference range, impaired activities of complexes I, III and V were observed in 43%, 29% and 43% of autistic subjects, respectively. Reduced activities of all five ETC complexes were observed in 14% of autistic cases, and the activities of multiple complexes were decreased in 29% of autistic subjects. These results suggest that defects in complexes I and III (sites of mitochondrial free radical generation) and complex V (adenosine triphosphate synthase) are more prevalent in autism. PDH activity was also reduced in 57% of autistic subjects. The ratios of mtDNA of three mitochondrial genes ND1, ND4 and Cyt B (that encode for subunits of complexes I and III) to nuclear DNA were significantly increased in autism, suggesting a higher mtDNA copy number in autism. Compared with the 95% CI of the control group, 44% of autistic children showed higher copy numbers of all three mitochondrial genes examined. Furthermore, ND4 and Cyt B deletions were observed in 44% and 33% of autistic children, respectively. This study indicates that autism is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain.

  3. Brain region-specific deficit in mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Abha; Gu, Feng; Essa, Musthafa M.; Wegiel, Jerzy; Kaur, Kulbir; Brown, William Ted; Chauhan, Ved

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in generation of free radicals, ATP formation, and in apoptosis. We studied the levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, that is, complexes I, II, III, IV, and V, in brain tissue samples from the cerebellum and the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: Group A (children, ages 4–10 years) and Group B (adults, ages 14–39 years). In Group A, we observed significantly lower levels of complexes III and V in the cerebellum (p < 0.05), of complex I in the frontal cortex (p < 0.05), and of complexes II (p < 0.01), III (p<0.01), and V (p < 0.05) in the temporal cortex of children with autism as compared to age-matched control subjects, while none of the five ETC complexes was affected in the parietal and occipital cortices in subjects with autism. In the cerebellum and temporal cortex, no overlap was observed in the levels of these ETC complexes between subjects with autism and control subjects. In the frontal cortex of Group A, a lower level of ETC complexes was observed in a subset of autism cases, that is, 60% (3/5) for complexes I, II, and V, and 40% (2/5) for complexes III and IV. A striking observation was that the levels of ETC complexes were similar in adult subjects with autism and control subjects (Group B). A significant increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides, an oxidative stress marker, was also observed in the cerebellum and temporal cortex in the children with autism. These results suggest that the expression of ETC complexes is decreased in the cerebellum and the frontal and temporal regions of the brain in children with autism, which may lead to abnormal energy metabolism and oxidative stress. The deficits observed in the levels of ETC complexes in children with autism may readjust to normal levels by adulthood. PMID:21250997

  4. β-phenethylamine--a phenylalanine derivative in brain--contributes to oxidative stress by inhibiting mitochondrial complexes and DT-diaphorase: an in silico study.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Muhammed K; Paul, Rajib; Borah, Anupom

    2013-08-01

    Till date, the mode of action of β-PEA on neurons is not well illustrated. We tested the hypothesis that β-PEA has the ability to cause oxidative stress by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme DT-diaphorase and mitochondrial complexes (Complex-I and complex-III). Using molecular docking as a tool, we here studied and compared the inhibitory capacity of β-PEA on DT-diaphorase and mitochondrial complexes. Three-dimensional structures of mitochondrial complexes and DT-diaphorase and their ligands were downloaded from the respective data banks, and free energy of binding (docking scores) were determined. The present finding demonstrated for the first time that β-PEA potentiates reactive oxygen species generation by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme DT-diaphorase, in addition to the mitochondrial complex-I and complex-III. As lowering of cellular antioxidant molecules is evident in many neurodegenerative disorders, β-PEA-induced lowering of DT-diaphorase activity may have the capability to cause neurodegeneration, which may be potentiated by its ability to inhibit mitochondrial complexes. Thus, β-PEA-due to its cumulative actions-may be more potent in causing neurodegeneration as compared to other endogenous neurotoxins. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bimetallic Reductive Elimination from Dinuclear Pd(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Powers, David C.; Benitez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Goddard, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, we reported C–halogen reductive elimination reactions from dinuclear Pd(III) complexes and implicated dinuclear intermediates in Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed C–H oxidation chemistry. Herein, we report results of a thorough experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanism of reductive elimination from such dinuclear Pd(III) complexes, which establish the role of each metal during reductive elimination. Our results implicate reductive elimination from a complex in which the dinuclear core is intact and suggest that redox synergy between both metals is responsible for the facile reductive elimination reactions observed. PMID:20858006

  6. Type III CRISPR complexes from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Szychowska, Marta; Siwek, Wojciech; Pawolski, Damian; Kazrani, Asgar Abbas; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Bochtler, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen-specific acquired immunity in bacteria is mediated by the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas systems. Thermus thermophilus strain HB8 contains CRISPR systems of several major subtypes (type I, IIIA and IIIB), and has become a widely studied model for CRISPR biology. We have selected two highly expressed CRISPR spacers, crRNA 2.1 and crRNA 2.2, and have enriched endogenous T. thermophilus proteins that co-purify with these crRNAs. Mass spectroscopy indicates that the chromatography protocol enriches predominantly Csm complex subunits, but also Cmr subunits. After several chromatographic steps, size exclusion chromatography indicated a molecular mass of the crRNA associated complex of 265±69 kDa. In agreement with earlier work, crRNAs of different lengths (containing the selected spacers) were observed. Most of these were completely lost when several T. thermophilus csm genes were ablated.

  7. Phosphorescence bioimaging using cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    You, Youngmin

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in the development of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes have made it possible to implement the phosphorescence modality in bioimaging applications. A variety of phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes have been synthesized and assessed in the context of in vitro and in vivo imaging, especially in subcellular organelle staining and the sensing of biologically important analytes. The examples presented here demonstrate that Ir(III) complexes provide attractive alternatives to fluorescent organic compounds in the construction of biolabels and biosensors. The complexes are particularly advantageous with respect to fluorescent compounds in their compatibility with time-gated bioimaging techniques that completely eliminate background signals due to autofluorescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific 'carbonic anhydrase domain' of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe 'life without complex I'. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Life without complex I: proteome analyses of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Eubel, Holger; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) is of particular importance for the respiratory chain in mitochondria. It is the major electron entry site for the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) and therefore of great significance for mitochondrial ATP generation. We recently described an Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant lacking the genes encoding the carbonic anhydrases CA1 and CA2, which both form part of a plant-specific ‘carbonic anhydrase domain’ of mitochondrial complex I. The mutant lacks complex I completely. Here we report extended analyses for systematically characterizing the proteome of the ca1ca2 mutant. Using various proteomic tools, we show that lack of complex I causes reorganization of the cellular respiration system. Reduced electron entry into the respiratory chain at the first segment of the mETC leads to induction of complexes II and IV as well as alternative oxidase. Increased electron entry at later segments of the mETC requires an increase in oxidation of organic substrates. This is reflected by higher abundance of proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Proteins involved in the light reaction of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and photorespiration are clearly reduced, contributing to the significant delay in growth and development of the double-mutant. Finally, enzymes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species and stress symptoms are much induced. These together with previously reported insights into the function of plant complex I, which were obtained by analysing other complex I mutants, are integrated in order to comprehensively describe ‘life without complex I’. PMID:27122571

  10. Mutations in the mitochondrial cysteinyl-tRNA synthase gene, CARS2, lead to a severe epileptic encephalopathy and complex movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Curtis R; Scharer, Gunter H; Friederich, Marisa W; Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Creadon-Swindell, Geralyn; Collins, Abigail E; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Coster, Rudy Van; Powell, Christopher A; Swanson, Michael A; Minczuk, Michal; Van Hove, Johan L K; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial disease is often suspected in cases of severe epileptic encephalopathy especially when a complex movement disorder, liver involvement and progressive developmental regression are present. Although mutations in either mitochondrial DNA or POLG are often present, other nuclear defects in mitochondrial DNA replication and protein translation have been associated with a severe epileptic encephalopathy. We identified a proband with an epileptic encephalopathy, complex movement disorder and a combined mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme deficiency. The child presented with neurological regression, complex movement disorder and intractable seizures. A combined deficiency of mitochondrial complexes I, III and IV was noted in liver tissue, along with increased mitochondrial DNA content in skeletal muscle. Incomplete assembly of complex V, using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis and complex I, using western blotting, suggested a disorder of mitochondrial transcription or translation. Exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous mutations in CARS2, a mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Both mutations affect highly conserved amino acids located within the functional ligase domain of the cysteinyl-tRNA synthase. A specific decrease in the amount of charged mt-tRNA(Cys) was detected in patient fibroblasts compared with controls. Retroviral transfection of the wild-type CARS2 into patient skin fibroblasts led to the correction of the incomplete assembly of complex V, providing functional evidence for the role of CARS2 mutations in disease aetiology. Our findings indicate that mutations in CARS2 result in a mitochondrial translational defect as seen in individuals with mitochondrial epileptic encephalopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Loss of Pink1 modulates synaptic mitochondrial bioenergetics in the rat striatum prior to motor symptoms: concomitant complex I respiratory defects and increased complex II-mediated respiration.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Kelly L; Villeneuve, Lance M; Purnell, Phillip R; Ottemann, Brendan M; Emanuel, Katy; Fox, Howard S

    2016-12-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (Pink1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, cause a recessive inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pink1 deletion in rats results in a progressive PD-like phenotype, characterized by significant motor deficits starting at 4 months of age. Despite the evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, the pathogenic mechanism underlying disease due to Pink1-deficiency remains obscure. Striatal synaptic mitochondria from 3-month-old Pink1-deficient rats were characterized using bioenergetic and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based proteomic analyses. Striatal synaptic mitochondria from Pink1-deficient rats exhibit decreased complex I-driven respiration and increased complex II-mediated respiration compared with wild-type rats. MS-based proteomics revealed 69 of the 811 quantified mitochondrial proteins were differentially expressed between Pink1-deficient rats and controls. Down-regulation of several electron carrier proteins, which shuttle electrons to reduce ubiquinone at complex III, in the Pink1-knockouts suggests disruption of the linkage between fatty acid, amino acid, and choline metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory system. These results suggest that complex II activity is increased to compensate for loss of electron transfer mechanisms due to reduced complex I activity and loss of electron carriers within striatal nerve terminals early during disease progression. This may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Structural Basis for Recruitment of Mitochondrial Fission Complexes By Fis1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Chan, D.C.

    2009-06-04

    Mitochondrial fission controls mitochondrial shape and physiology, including mitochondrial remodeling in apoptosis. During assembly of the yeast mitochondrial fission complex, the outer membrane protein Fis1 recruits the dynamin-related GTPase Dnm1 to mitochondria. Fis1 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain and interacts with Dnm1 via the molecular adaptors Mdv1 and Caf4. By using crystallographic analysis of adaptor-Fis1 complexes, we show that these adaptors use two helices to bind to both the concave and convex surfaces of the Fis1 TPR domain. Fis1 therefore contains two interaction interfaces, a binding mode that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously for TPR domains. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that both binding interfaces are important for binding of Mdv1 and Caf4 to Fis1 and for mitochondrial fission activity in vivo. Our results reveal how Fis1 recruits the mitochondrial fission complex and will facilitate efforts to manipulate mitochondrial fission.

  13. Mitochondrial network complexity and pathological decrease in complex I activity are tightly correlated in isolated human complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Werner J H; Visch, Henk-Jan; Verkaart, Sjoerd; van den Heuvel, Lambertus W P J; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M

    2005-10-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest multisubunit assembly of the oxidative phosphorylation system, and its malfunction is associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes ranging from highly progressive, often early lethal, encephalopathies to neurodegenerative disorders in adult life. The changes in mitochondrial structure and function that are at the basis of the clinical symptoms are poorly understood. Video-rate confocal microscopy of cells pulse-loaded with mitochondria-specific rhodamine 123 followed by automated analysis of form factor (combined measure of length and degree of branching), aspect ratio (measure of length), and number of revealed marked differences between primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from 13 patients with an isolated complex I deficiency. These differences were independent of the affected subunit, but plotting of the activity of complex I, normalized to that of complex IV, against the ratio of either form factor or aspect ratio to number revealed a linear relationship. Relatively small reductions in activity appeared to be associated with an increase in form factor and never with a decrease in number, whereas relatively large reductions occurred in association with a decrease in form factor and/or an increase in number. These results demonstrate that complex I activity and mitochondrial structure are tightly coupled in human isolated complex I deficiency. To further prove the relationship between aberrations in mitochondrial morphology and pathological condition, fibroblasts from two patients with a different mutation but a highly fragmented mitochondrial phenotype were fused. Full restoration of the mitochondrial network demonstrated that this change in mitochondrial morphology was indeed associated with human complex I deficiency.

  14. Sparkle/PM3 Parameters for the Modeling of Neodymium(III), Promethium(III), and Samarium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2007-07-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to neodymium(III), promethium(III), and samarium(III) complexes. The unsigned mean error, for all Sparkle/PM3 interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.074 Å for Nd(III); 0.057 Å for Pm(III); and 0.075 Å for Sm(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.076 Å, 0.059 Å, and 0.075 Å, respectively, indicating they are all comparable models. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective potential calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Hence, the choice of which model to utilize will depend on the assessment of the effect of either AM1 or PM3 on the quantum chemical description of the organic ligands. Finally, we present a preliminary attempt to verify the geometry prediction consistency of Sparkle/PM3. Since lanthanide complexes are usually flexible, we randomly generated 200 different input geometries for the samarium complex QIPQOV which were then fully optimized by Sparkle/PM3. A trend appeared in that, on average, the lower the total energy of the local minima found, the lower the unsigned mean errors, and the higher the accuracy of the model. These preliminary results do indicate that attempting to find, with Sparkle/PM3, a global minimum for the geometry of a given complex, with the understanding that it will tend to be closer to the experimental geometry, appears to be warranted. Therefore, the sparkle model is seemingly a trustworthy semiempirical quantum chemical model for the prediction of lanthanide complexes geometries.

  15. A well-defined terminal vanadium(III) oxo complex.

    PubMed

    King, Amanda E; Nippe, Michael; Atanasov, Mihail; Chantarojsiri, Teera; Wray, Curtis A; Bill, Eckhard; Neese, Frank; Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J

    2014-11-03

    The ubiquity of vanadium oxo complexes in the V+ and IV+ oxidation states has contributed to a comprehensive understanding of their electronic structure and reactivity. However, despite being predicted to be stable by ligand-field theory, the isolation and characterization of a well-defined terminal mononuclear vanadium(III) oxo complex has remained elusive. We present the synthesis and characterization of a unique terminal mononuclear vanadium(III) oxo species supported by the pentadentate polypyridyl ligand 2,6-bis[1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethyl]pyridine (PY5Me2). Exposure of [V(II)(NCCH3)(PY5Me2)](2+) (1) to either dioxygen or selected O-atom-transfer reagents yields [V(IV)(O)(PY5Me2)](2+) (2). The metal-centered one-electron reduction of this vanadium(IV) oxo complex furnishes a stable, diamagnetic [V(III)(O)(PY5Me2)](+) (3) species. The vanadium(III) oxo species is unreactive toward H- and O-atom transfer but readily reacts with protons to form a putative vanadium hydroxo complex. Computational results predict that further one-electron reduction of the vanadium(III) oxo species will result in ligand-based reduction, even though pyridine is generally considered to be a poor π-accepting ligand. These results have implications for future efforts toward low-valent vanadyl chemistry, particularly with regard to the isolation and study of formal vanadium(II) oxo species.

  16. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with isatin thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K; Pandey, Om P

    2005-09-01

    Ten new lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes of the general formula Na[La(L)2H2O] (Ln=La(III) or Pr(III); LH2=thiosemicarbazones) derived from the condensation of isatin with 4-phenyl thiosemicarbazide, 4-(4-chlorophenyl) thiosemicarbazide, 4-(2-nitrophenyl) thiosemicarbazide, 4-(2-bromophenyl) thiosemicarbazide and 4-(2-methylphenyl) thiosemicarbazide, have been synthesized in methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The XRD spectra of the complexes were monitored to verify complex formation. The complexes have also been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. Thermal studies of these complexes have been carried out in the temperature range 25-800 degrees C using TG, DTG and DTA techniques. All these complexes decompose gradually with the formation of Ln2O3 as the end product. The Judd-ofelt intensity parameter, oscillator strength, transition probability, stimulated emission cross section for different transitions of Pr3+ for 4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones have been calculated.

  17. Ketones prevent synaptic dysfunction induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Vallejo, Johana; Rho, Jong M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Ketones have previously shown beneficial effects in models of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly against associated mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. However, evidence of a synaptic protective effect of ketones remains lacking. We tested the effects of ketones on synaptic impairment induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) inhibitors using electrophysiological, reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging and biochemical techniques. MRC inhibitors dose-dependently suppressed both population spike (PS) and field potential amplitudes in the CA1 hippocampus. Pre-treatment with ketones strongly prevented changes in the PS, whereas partial protection was seen in the field potential. Rotenone (Rot; 100 nmol/L), a MRC I inhibitor, suppressed synaptic function without altering ROS levels and PS depression by Rot was unaffected by antioxidants. In contrast, antioxidant-induced PS recovery against the MRC II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 1 mmol/L) was similar to the synaptic protective effects of ketones. Ketones also suppressed ROS generation induced by 3-NP. Finally, ketones reversed the decreases in ATP levels caused by Rot and 3-NP. In summary, our data demonstrate that ketones can preserve synaptic function in CA1 hippocampus induced by MRC dysfunction, likely through an antioxidant action and enhanced ATP generation. PMID:20374433

  18. DJ-1 binds to mitochondrial complex I and maintains its activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Takuya; Ishimori, Chikako; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Taira, Takahiro; Kim, Yun-chul; Maita, Hiroshi; Maita, Chinatsu; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.

    2009-12-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by neuronal cell death, and oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be responsible for onset of PD. DJ-1, a causative gene product of a familial form of Parkinson's disease, PARK7, plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress. The possible mitochondrial function of DJ-1 has been proposed, but its exact function remains unclear. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to NDUFA4 and ND1, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-encoding subunits of mitochondrial complex I, respectively, and was colocalized with complex I and that complex I activity was reduced in DJ-1-knockdown NIH3T3 and HEK293 cells. These findings suggest that DJ-1 is an integral mitochondrial protein and that DJ-1 plays a role in maintenance of mitochondrial complex I activity.

  19. DJ-1 binds to mitochondrial complex I and maintains its activity.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuya; Ishimori, Chikako; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Taira, Takahiro; Kim, Yun-chul; Maita, Hiroshi; Maita, Chinatsu; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M

    2009-12-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by neuronal cell death, and oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be responsible for onset of PD. DJ-1, a causative gene product of a familial form of Parkinson's disease, PARK7, plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress. The possible mitochondrial function of DJ-1 has been proposed, but its exact function remains unclear. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to NDUFA4 and ND1, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-encoding subunits of mitochondrial complex I, respectively, and was colocalized with complex I and that complex I activity was reduced in DJ-1-knockdown NIH3T3 and HEK293 cells. These findings suggest that DJ-1 is an integral mitochondrial protein and that DJ-1 plays a role in maintenance of mitochondrial complex I activity.

  20. The carbonic anhydrase domain of plant mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Senkler, Jennifer; Zabaleta, Eduardo; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) consists of several functional domains which independently arose during evolution. In higher plants, it contains an additional domain which includes proteins resembling gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. The Arabidopsis genome codes for five complex I-integrated gamma-type carbonic anhydrases (γCA1, γCA2, γCA3, γCAL1, γCAL2), but only three copies of this group of proteins form an individual extra domain. Biochemical analyses revealed that the domain is composed of one copy of either γCAL1 or γCAL2 plus two copies of the γCA1/γCA2 proteins. Thus, the carbonic anhydrase domain can have six distinct subunit configurations. Single and double mutants with respect to the γCA/γCAL proteins were employed to genetically dissect the function of the domain. New insights into complex I biology in plants will be reviewed and discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Tracing the tail of ubiquinone in mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Heike; Nasiri, Hamid R; Niedergesäß, Vanessa; Kerscher, Stefan; Schwalbe, Harald; Brandt, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest and most complicated component of the respiratory electron transfer chain. Despite its central role in biological energy conversion the structure and function of this membrane integral multiprotein complex is still poorly understood. Recent insights into the structure of complex I by X-ray crystallography have shown that iron-sulfur cluster N2, the immediate electron donor for ubiquinone, resides about 30Å above the membrane domain and mutagenesis studies suggested that the active site for the hydrophobic substrate is located next to this redox-center. To trace the path for the hydrophobic tail of ubiquinone when it enters the peripheral arm of complex I, we performed an extensive structure/function analysis of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica monitoring the interaction of site-directed mutants with five ubiquinone derivatives carrying different tails. The catalytic activity of a subset of mutants was strictly dependent on the presence of intact isoprenoid moieties in the tail. Overall a consistent picture emerged suggesting that the tail of ubiquinone enters through a narrow path at the interface between the 49-kDa and PSST subunits. Most notably we identified a set of methionines that seems to form a hydrophobic gate to the active site reminiscent to the M-domains involved in the interaction with hydrophobic targeting sequences with the signal recognition particle of the endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, two of the amino acids critical for the interaction with the ubiquinone tail are different in bovine complex I and we could show that one of these exchanges is responsible for the lower sensitivity of Y. lipolytica complex I towards the inhibitor rotenone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CK2 involvement in ESCRT-III complex phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Mauro; Raiborg, Camilla; Hanson, Phyllis I; Campsteijn, Coen; Stenmark, Harald; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2014-03-01

    The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway is a mechanism for delivering transmembrane proteins into the lumen of the lysosome for degradation. ESCRT-III is the final complex in the pathway that assembles on endosomes and executes membrane scission of intraluminal vesicles. In addition, proteins of this complex are involved in other topologically similar processes such as cytokinesis, virus egress and autophagy. Here we show that protein kinase CK2α is involved in the phosphorylation of the ESCRT-III subunits CHMP3 and CHMP2B, as well as of VPS4B/SKD1, an ATPase that mediates ESCRT-III disassembly. This phosphorylation is observed both in vitro and in cells. While we do not observe recruitment of CK2α to endosomes, we demonstrate the localization of CK2α to midbodies during cytokinesis. Phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutants of ESCRT-III proteins can still bind endosomes and localize to midbodies, indicating that CK2α does not regulate ESCRT-III localization. Finally, we analyzed two cellular functions where CHMP3, CHMP2B and VPS4 are known to be involved, epidermal growth factor degradation and cytokinetic abscission. We demonstrate that the former is impaired by CK2α downregulation whereas the latter is not affected. Taken together, our results indicate that CK2α regulates the function of ESCRT-III proteins in MVB sorting.

  3. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and respiratory complex activity in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Michael; Osterholt, Moritz; Lunkenbein, Anne; Schrepper, Andrea; Amorim, Paulo; Doenst, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the development of pressure overload-induced heart failure. We used our previously described rat model where transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induces compensated hypertrophy after 2 weeks, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction at 6 and 10 weeks, and heart failure with systolic dysfunction after 20 weeks. We measured mitochondrial ROS production rates, ROS damage and assessed the therapeutic potential of in vivo antioxidant therapies. In compensated hypertrophy (2 weeks of TAC) ROS production rates were normal at both mitochondrial ROS production sites (complexes I and III). Complex I ROS production rates increased with the appearance of diastolic dysfunction (6 weeks of TAC) and remained high thereafter. Surprisingly, maximal ROS production at complex III peaked at 6 weeks of pressure overload. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity (state 3 respiration) was elevated 2 and 6 weeks after TAC, decreased after this point and was significantly impaired at 20 weeks, when contractile function was also impaired and ROS damage was found with increased hydroxynonenal. Treatment with the ROS scavenger α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone or the uncoupling agent dinitrophenol significantly reduced ROS production rates at 6 weeks. Despite the decline in ROS production capacity, no differences in contractile function between treated and untreated animals were observed. Increased ROS production occurs early in the development of heart failure with a peak at the onset of diastolic dysfunction. However, ROS production may not be related to the onset of contractile dysfunction. PMID:24951621

  4. Cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complex protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul

    2012-01-01

    It has become appreciated over the last several years that protein phosphorylation within the cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complexes is extensive. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation and the balance of energy metabolism in the heart, the potential regulatory effect of these classical signaling events on mitochondrial function is of interest. However, the functional impact of protein phosphorylation and the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for it are relatively unknown. Exceptions include the well-characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase regulatory system. The first task of this review is to update the current status of protein phosphorylation detection primarily in the matrix and evaluate evidence linking these events with enzymatic function or protein processing. To manage the scope of this effort, we have focused on the pathways involved in energy metabolism. The high sensitivity of modern methods of detecting protein phosphorylation and the low specificity of many kinases suggests that detection of protein phosphorylation sites without information on the mole fraction of phosphorylation is difficult to interpret, especially in metabolic enzymes, and is likely irrelevant to function. However, several systems including protein translocation, adenine nucleotide translocase, cytochrome c, and complex IV protein phosphorylation have been well correlated with enzymatic function along with the classical dehydrogenase systems. The second task is to review the current understanding of the kinase/phosphatase system within the matrix. Though it is clear that protein phosphorylation occurs within the matrix, based on 32P incorporation and quantitative mass spectrometry measures, the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for this process is ill-defined. An argument is presented that remnants of the much more labile bacterial protein phosphoryl transfer system may be present in the matrix and that the

  5. Gadolinium(III) complexes as MRI contrast agents: ligand design and properties of the complexes.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Petr; Kotek, Jan; Kubícek, Vojtech; Lukes, Ivan

    2008-06-21

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a commonly used diagnostic method in medicinal practice as well as in biological and preclinical research. Contrast agents (CAs), which are often applied are mostly based on Gd(III) complexes. In this paper, the ligand types and structures of their complexes on one side and a set of the physico-chemical parameters governing properties of the CAs on the other side are discussed. The solid-state structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of open-chain and macrocyclic ligands and their structural features are compared. Examples of tuning of ligand structures to alter the relaxometric properties of gadolinium(III) complexes as a number of coordinated water molecules, their residence time (exchange rate) or reorientation time of the complexes are given. Influence of the structural changes of the ligands on thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness/lability of their lanthanide(III) complexes is discussed.

  6. Photophysics of Fe(III)-tartrate and Fe(III)-citrate complexes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakov, Ivan P.; Kolomeets, Alexander V.; Plyusnin, Victor F.; Melnikov, Alexey A.; Kompanets, Victor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Tkachenko, Nikolai; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-03-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy was used to determine the photophysical processes of Fe(III) complexes with citric and tartaric acids ([Fe(Cit)] and [Fe(tart)]+) in aqueous solutions. The excitation of the complexes in the charge transfer bands is followed by formation of an intermediate absorbance decaying with two characteristic times. The shorter time constant (0.2, 0.4 ps) is ascribed to vibrational cooling and solvent relaxation of Frank-Condon excited state of corresponding complex and the second time constant (1.4, 40 ps) is assigned to superposition of internal conversion to the ground state and formation of the long-lived Fe(II) radical complex. The competition of these processes determines the quantum yield of photolysis of Fe(III)-carboxylates.

  7. A Ruthenium(III)-Oxyl Complex Bearing Strong Radical Character.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Okajima, Toshihiro; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Takahiko

    2016-11-02

    Proton-coupled electron-transfer oxidation of a Ru(II) -OH2 complex, having an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, gives a Ru(III) -O(.) species, which has an electronically equivalent structure of the Ru(IV) =O species, in an acidic aqueous solution. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex was characterized by spectroscopic methods and DFT calculations. The oxidation state of the Ru center was shown to be close to +3; the Ru-O bond showed a lower-energy Raman scattering at 732 cm(-1) and the Ru-O bond length was estimated to be 1.77(1) Å. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex exhibits high reactivity in substrate oxidation under catalytic conditions; particularly, benzaldehyde and the derivatives are oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid through C-H abstraction from the formyl group by the Ru(III) -O(.) complex bearing a strong radical character as the active species. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mice lacking TR4 nuclear receptor develop mitochondrial myopathy with deficiency in complex I.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Lee, Yi-Fen; Chou, Samuel; Uno, Hideo; Li, Gonghui; Brookes, Paul; Massett, Michael P; Wu, Qiao; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Chawnshang

    2011-08-01

    The estimated incidence of mitochondrial diseases in humans is approximately 1:5000 to 1:10,000, whereas the molecular mechanisms for more than 50% of human mitochondrial disease cases still remain unclear. Here we report that mice lacking testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4(-/-)) suffered mitochondrial myopathy, and histological examination of TR4(-/-) soleus muscle revealed abnormal mitochondrial accumulation. In addition, increased serum lactate levels, decreased mitochondrial ATP production, and decreased electron transport chain complex I activity were found in TR4(-/-) mice. Restoration of TR4 into TR4(-/-) myoblasts rescued mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Further real-time PCR quantification and promoter studies found TR4 could modulate complex I activity via transcriptionally regulating the complex I assembly factor NDUFAF1, and restoration of NDUFAF1 level in TR4(-/-) myoblasts increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Together, these results suggest that TR4 plays vital roles in mitochondrial function, which may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of mitochondrial myopathy, and targeting TR4 via its ligands/activators may allow us to develop better therapeutic approaches.

  9. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  10. A common mechanism links differently acting complex II inhibitors to cardioprotection: modulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Bleier, Lea; Brandt, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the effect of different cardioprotective complex II inhibitors on the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because ROS seem to be essential for signaling during preconditioning to prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury. Despite different binding sites and concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition-ranging from nanomolar for the Q site inhibitor atpenin A5 to millimolar for the succinate analog malonate-all inhibitors modulated ROS production in the same ambivalent fashion: they promoted the generation of superoxide at the Q(o) site of complex III under conditions of "oxidant-induced reduction" but attenuated ROS generated at complex I due to reverse electron transfer. All inhibitors showed these ambivalent effects independent of the presence of K(+). These findings suggest a direct modulation of mitochondrial ROS generation during cardioprotection via complex II inhibition and question the recently proposed role of complex II as a regulatory component of the putative mitochondrial K(ATP) channel.

  11. Metabolites from invasive pests inhibit mitochondrial complex II: A potential strategy for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Guerra, Flora; Felline, Serena; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; Mollo, Ernesto; Zara, Vincenzo; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2016-05-13

    The red pigment caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea can be accumulated and transferred along the trophic chain, with detrimental consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite increasing research efforts to understand how caulerpin modifies fish physiology, little is known on the effects of algal metabolites on mammalian cells. Here we report for the first time the mitochondrial targeting activity of both caulerpin, and its closely related derivative caulerpinic acid, by using as experimental model rat liver mitochondria, a system in which bioenergetics mechanisms are not altered. Mitochondrial function was tested by polarographic and spectrophotometric methods. Both compounds were found to selectively inhibit respiratory complex II activity, while complexes I, III, and IV remained functional. These results led us to hypothesize that both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in cell lines with defects in mitochondrial complex I. Ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells are a good example of cell lines with a defective complex I function on which these molecules seem to have a toxic effect on proliferation. This provided novel insight toward the potential use of metabolites from invasive Caulerpa species for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-resistant cells. -- Highlights: •Novel insight toward the potential use of the algal metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. •Caulerpin and caulerpinic acid inhibit respiratory complex II activity. •Both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells.

  12. Assessment of Fe(III) and Eu(III) complexation by silicate in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, James T.; Byrne, Robert H.

    2017-04-01

    Prior investigations of Eu3+ complexation by silicate have led to predictions that rare earth silicate complexes (REESiO(OH)32+) are the dominant species of REEs in deep waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The proposed importance of REE-silicate complexes has been used as a foundation to explain oceanic REE profiles. In the present work, we examine the significance of rare earth element complexation by silicate ions. As one fundamental means of assessing prior depictions of REE-silicate formation constant behavior, our work examines the comparative stability constant behavior of Eu(III) and Fe(III). Plots of Eu(III) complexation constants against Fe(III) formation constants, in conjunction with experimental determinations of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation constants, indicate that previously published EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constants are substantially overestimated. Assessment of prior EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constant determinations reveals that results obtained in the presence and absence of silicic acid polymerization are inconsistent. Much larger EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constants are obtained in the presence of polymeric silica. Reanalysis of complexation results obtained under conditions of minimal silicate polymerization leads to a EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constant that is smaller than previously published estimates by as much as a factor of ∼25. The dramatically reduced magnitude of Siβ1(Eu) relative to previously published results indicates that the role of silicate complexation in oceanic REE cycling is much less significant than previously proposed. The spectrophotometric investigations of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation in the present study yield the first characterization of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation constant behavior as a function of ionic strength:

  13. Does As(III) interact with Fe(II), Fe(III) and organic matter through ternary complexes?

    PubMed

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Demangeat, Edwige; Gruau, Gérard

    2016-05-15

    Up until now, only a small number of studies have been dedicated to the binding processes of As(III) with organic matter (OM) via ionic Fe(III) bridges; none was interested in Fe (II). Complexation isotherms were carried out with As(III), Fe(II) or Fe(III) and Leonardite humic acid (HA). Although PHREEQC/Model VI, implemented with OM thiol groups, reproduced the experimental datasets with Fe(III), the poor fit between the experimental and modeled Fe(II) data suggested another binding mechanism for As(III) to OM. PHREEQC/Model VI was modified to take various possible As(III)-Fe(II)-OM ternary complex conformations into account. The complexation of As(III) as a mononuclear bidentate complex to a bidentate Fe(II)-HA complex was evidenced. However, the model needed to be improved since the distribution of the bidentate sites appeared to be unrealistic with regards to the published XAS data. In the presence of Fe(III), As(III) was bound to thiol groups which are more competitive with regards to the low density of formed Fe(III)-HA complexes. Based on the new data and previously published results, we propose a general scheme describing the various As(III)-Fe-MO complexes that are able to form in Fe and OM-rich waters.

  14. Dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase is physically associated with the respiratory complex and its loss leads to mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fang, JingXian; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Yagi, Mikako; Matsumoto, Shinya; Amamoto, Rie; Takazaki, Shinya; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kang, Dongchon

    2012-01-01

    Some mutations of the DHODH (dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase) gene lead to postaxial acrofacial dysostosis or Miller syndrome. Only DHODH is localized at mitochondria among enzymes of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. Since the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is coupled to the mitochondrial RC (respiratory chain) via DHODH, impairment of DHODH should affect the RC function. To investigate this, we used siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown and observed that DHODH knockdown induced cell growth retardation because of G2/M cell-cycle arrest, whereas pyrimidine deficiency usually causes G1/S arrest. Inconsistent with this, the cell retardation was not rescued by exogenous uridine, which should bypass the DHODH reaction for pyrimidine synthesis. DHODH depletion partially inhibited the RC complex III, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species). We observed that DHODH physically interacts with respiratory complexes II and III by IP (immunoprecipitation) and BN (blue native)/SDS/PAGE analysis. Considering that pyrimidine deficiency alone does not induce craniofacial dysmorphism, the DHODH mutations may contribute to the Miller syndrome in part through somehow altered mitochondrial function. PMID:23216091

  15. Mitochondrial ATP-Pi exchange complex and the site of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Y; Hanstein, W G; Galante, Y; Stiggall, D L

    1975-07-01

    Five enzyme complexes, which are concerned with electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, have been isolated from beef heart mitochondria. Enzyme complexes I, II, III and IV are the electron transfer complexes discovered in 1961. Complex V is an energy-conserving complex. It catalyzes ATP-Pi exchange and ATP hydrolysis. The exchange reaction is sensitive to uncouplers, rutamycin, valinomycin plus K-+, dicyclorexylcarboditmide, arsenate, azide, and adenylyl imidodiphosphate. It is also specific for ATP; ITP, GTP and UTP are essentially ineffective. Studies with the photoaffinity labeling uncoupler, 2-azido-4-nitrophenol (NPA), have shown that the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding sites are located exclusively in complex V. Complexes I, III and IV, which carry the three coupling sites of the respiratory chain, had negligible capacity for the binding of NPA, whereas the uncoupler-binding capacity of complex V appeared to be increased two- to threefold as compared to mitochondria. Complexes I, II, III, IV and V are obtained from the same batch of mitochondria by a simple fractionation procedure, which employs cholate, deoxycholate, ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate. Studies with NPA have shown that mitochondria contain per milligram protein about 0.6 nmole of uniformly reacting uncoupler binding site. All of the uncouplers tested appeared to interact competitively with this site. Photoaffinity labeling with tritiated NPA has shown that a major portion of NPA binds to a polypeptide of molecular weight between 26,000 and 30,000. Other studies on the mechanism of uncoupling have shown that picrate is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler. It cannot uncouple mitochondria. However, it is an effective uncoupler of ATP synthesis and ATP-induced transhydrogenation or reverse electron transfer when used in conjunction with sonicated submitochondrial particles, which have an inside-out orientation of the inner membrane with respect to the medium. In these particles, picrate

  16. A novel agent exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells by targeting mitochondrial complex II

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guozhen; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Wang, Li; Li, Chuwen; Shan, Luchen; Xu, Changjiang; Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Yuqiang; Di, Lijun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain, including mitochondrial complex II, has emerged as a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, a novel conjugate of danshensu (DSS) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), DT-010, was synthesized. Our results showed that DT-010 is more potent than its parental compounds separately or in combination, in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing cytotoxicity and promoting cell cycle arrest. It also inhibited the growth of 4T1 breast cancer cells in vivo. DT-010 suppressed the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial function in MCF-7 cells, including basal respiration, ATP turnover, maximal respiration. Treatment with DT-010 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ATP production. DT-010 also promoted ROS generation, while treatment with ROS scavenger, NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine), reversed DT-010-induced cytotoxicity. Further study showed that DT-010 suppressed succinate-induced mitochondrial respiration and impaired mitochondrial complex II enzyme activity indicating that DT-010 may inhibit mitochondrial complex II. Overall, our results suggested that the antitumor activity of DT-010 is associated with inhibition of mitochondrial complex II, which triggers ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in breast cancer cells. PMID:27081033

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of new dithiocarbamate complexes from Sb(III) and Bi(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, Nur Amirah; Baba, Ibrahim

    2013-11-27

    Twenty new antimony and bismuth dithiocarbamate complexes which employed ten different type of amines have been successfully synthesized. The synthesized complexes with metal to dithiocarbamate ratio at 1:3. Elemental analysis of the complexes gave the general formula of MCl[S{sub 2}CNR’R”]{sub 2} where M = Sb(III), Bi(III); R’ = methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec-butyl, benzyl; R” = ethanol, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl. The complexes were analysed by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of five-coordinated antimony (III) complex have been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies on SbCl[S{sub 2}CN(C{sub 4}H{sub 9})(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 2} adopted a triclinic system with a space group P1 with a = 10.0141(8) Å, b = 10.1394(7) Å, c = 11.8665(9) Å, α = 67.960°, β =87.616°, γ = 80.172°.

  18. A novel mitochondrial MTND5 frameshift mutation causing isolated complex I deficiency, renal failure and myopathy.

    PubMed

    Alston, Charlotte L; Morak, Monika; Reid, Christopher; Hargreaves, Iain P; Pope, Simon A S; Land, John M; Heales, Simon J; Horvath, Rita; Mundy, Helen; Taylor, Robert W

    2010-02-01

    Isolated complex I deficiency is the most commonly reported enzyme defect in paediatric mitochondrial disorders, and may arise due to mutations in nuclear-encoded structural or assembly genes, or the mitochondrial genome. We present the clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic data in a young girl whose clinical picture is dominated by chronic renal failure, myopathy and persistent lactic acidosis. An isolated complex I deficiency in muscle was identified due to a novel mutation (m.12425delA) in the MTND5 gene. This single nucleotide deletion is heteroplasmic and detectable in several tissues from the proband but not her mother, suggesting a de novo mutation event. The description of the first frameshift mutation in a mitochondrial complex I gene affirms mitochondrial DNA mutations as an important cause of isolated complex I deficiency in children and the importance of whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in the diagnostic work-up to elucidate the underlying molecular genetic abnormality and provide important genetic advice.

  19. Low energy costs of F1Fo ATP synthase reversal in colon carcinoma cells deficient in mitochondrial complex IV.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Alexander V; Andreev, Dmitry E; Baranov, Pavel V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial polarisation is paramount for a variety of cellular functions. Under ischemia, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and proton gradient (ΔpH) are maintained via a reversal of mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase (mATPase), which can rapidly deplete ATP and drive cells into energy crisis. We found that under normal conditions in cells with disassembled cytochrome c oxidase complex (COX-deficient HCT116), mATPase maintains ΔΨm at levels only 15-20% lower than in WT cells, and for this utilises relatively little ATP. For a small energy expenditure, mATPase enables mitochondrial ΔpH, protein import, Ca(2+) turnover, and supports free radical detoxication machinery enlarged to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Whereas in COX-deficient cells the main source of ATP is glycolysis, the ΔΨm is still maintained upon inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocators with bongkrekic acid and carboxyatractyloside, indicating that the role of ANTs is redundant, and matrix substrate level phosphorylation alone or in cooperation with ATP-Mg/Pi carriers can continuously support the mATPase activity. Intriguingly, we found that mitochondrial complex III is active, and it contributes not only to free radical production, but also to ΔΨm maintenance and energy budget of COX-deficient cells. Overall, this study demonstrates that F1Fo ATP synthase can support general mitochondrial and cellular functions, working in extremely efficient 'energy saving' reverse mode and flexibly recruiting free radical detoxication and ATP producing / transporting pathways.

  20. Mesencephalic complex I deficiency does not correlate with parkinsonism in mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders.

    PubMed

    Palin, Eino J H; Paetau, Anders; Suomalainen, Anu

    2013-08-01

    Genetic evidence from recessively inherited Parkinson's disease has indicated a clear causative role for mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. This role has long been discussed based on findings that toxic inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complex I caused parkinsonism and that tissues of patients with Parkinson's disease show complex I deficiency. Disorders of mitochondrial DNA maintenance are a common cause of inherited neurodegenerative disorders, and lead to mitochondrial DNA deletions or depletion and respiratory chain defect, including complex I deficiency. However, parkinsonism associates typically with defects of catalytic domain of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Surprisingly, however, not all mutations affecting DNA polymerase gamma manifest as parkinsonism, but, for example, spacer region mutations lead to spinocerebellar ataxia and/or severe epilepsy. Furthermore, defective Twinkle helicase, a close functional companion of DNA polymerase gamma in mitochondrial DNA replication, results in infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia, epilepsy or adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy, but not typically parkinsonism. Here we sought for clues for this specificity in the neurological manifestations of mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders by studying mesencephalic neuropathology of patients with DNA polymerase gamma or Twinkle defects, with or without parkinsonism. We show here that all patients with mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders had neuronopathy in substantia nigra, most severe in DNA polymerase gamma-associated parkinsonism. The oculomotor nucleus was also affected, but less severely. In substantia nigra, all patients had a considerable decrease of respiratory chain complex I, but other respiratory chain enzymes were not affected. Complex I deficiency did not correlate with parkinsonism, age, affected gene or inheritance. We conclude that the cell number in substantia nigra correlated well with parkinsonism in DNA polymerase gamma

  1. Acid induced acetylacetonato replacement in biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ming

    2012-04-07

    Biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with an ancillary acetylacetone ligand, Ir(L)(2)(acac), (L = 2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine (btp), 1-phenylisoquinoline (piq), 2-phenylbenzothiazole (bt), 2-phenylpyridine (ppy), acac = deprotonated acetylacetone), demonstrate spectroscopic changes in their UV-Vis absorption and luminescent emission under acidic conditions. Such changes were found to be the same as those observed when certain mercury salts exist in the systems. Because some iridium(III) complexes have sulfur-containing ligands (i.e., btp and bt), a question was then raised as for whether or not the spectroscopic changes are associated with the specific affinity of Hg(2+) to the sulfur atom. Extensive studies performed in this work unambiguously proved that the observed spectroscopic changes were solely the results of the acid induced departure of acac and the follow-up coordination of solvent acetonitrile to the iridium(III) center and that the generally anticipated Hg(2+)-S affinity and its effect on the photophysical properties of iridium(III) luminophores did not play a role.

  2. Iron(III) and aluminium(III) complexes with substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids.

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Zoroddu, M Antonietta

    2013-11-01

    The chelating properties toward iron(III) and aluminium(III) of variously substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids have been evaluated, together with the effect of methoxy and nitro substituents in ortho and para position with respect to the phenolic group. The protonation and iron and aluminium complex formation equilibria have been studied by potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The overall results highlight that salicyl-aldehydes present good chelating properties toward iron(III), with pFe ranging from 14.2 with nitro to 15.7 with methoxy substituent, being ineffective toward aluminium; the pFe values for salicylic acids are generally lower than those for salicyl-aldehydes, and about 4 units higher than the corresponding pAl values. The effect of the two substituents on the chelating properties of the ligands can be rationalized in terms of the Swain-Lupton treatment which accounts for the field and resonance effects. The structural characterization of the 1:2 iron complex with p-nitro salicylic acid shows that iron(III) ion exhibits an octahedral surrounding where two salicylate chelating ligands supply two O-phenolate and two O-carboxylate donor atoms in a roughly equatorial plane. The trans-apical sites are occupied by two aqua ligands. © 2013.

  3. Role of Mitochondrial Complex IV in Age-Dependent Obesity.

    PubMed

    Soro-Arnaiz, Ines; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Torres-Capelli, Mar; Meléndez-Rodríguez, Florinda; Veiga, Sónia; Veys, Koen; Sebastian, David; Elorza, Ainara; Tello, Daniel; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Cogliati, Sara; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Balsa, Eduardo; Fuertes, Esther; Romanos, Eduardo; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio; De Bock, Katrien; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-09-13

    Aging is associated with progressive white adipose tissue (WAT) enlargement initiated early in life, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here we show that mitochondrial complex IV (CIV) activity and assembly are already repressed in white adipocytes of middle-aged mice and involve a HIF1A-dependent decline of essential CIV components such as COX5B. At the molecular level, HIF1A binds to the Cox5b proximal promoter and represses its expression. Silencing of Cox5b decreased fatty acid oxidation and promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. Moreover, local in vivo Cox5b silencing in WAT of young mice increased the size of adipocytes, whereas restoration of COX5B expression in aging mice counteracted adipocyte enlargement. An age-dependent reduction in COX5B gene expression was also found in human visceral adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings establish a pivotal role for CIV dysfunction in progressive white adipocyte enlargement during aging, which can be restored to alleviate age-dependent WAT expansion.

  4. Oxalate complexation with aluminum(III) and iron(III) at moderately elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R.; Clark, D.L.; Bennett, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    To add to our understanding of the weathering of rocks in organic rich environments such as sedimentary brines and oil field waters, we have examined the temperature dependent complexation of aluminum with oxalate. Raman vibrational studies show that even the association constant for the highly charged Al(ox){sub 3}{sup 3{minus}} unexpectedly increases with moderate temperature increases to 80{degrees}C. To evaluate the potential importance of these Al-oxalate species in complex natural systems, temperature dependent competition experiments Fe(III) and Al(III) for oxalate have been initiated. Similar to aluminum, ferric oxalates show increases in association constants at higher temperatures. In competition experiments, the first association constant for Fe(ox){sup +} increases faster than that for Al(ox){sup +} to 90{degrees}C.

  5. Oxalate complexation with aluminum(III) and iron(III) at moderately elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R.; Clark, D.L. ); Bennett, P.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    To add to our understanding of the weathering of rocks in organic rich environments such as sedimentary brines and oil field waters, we have examined the temperature dependent complexation of aluminum with oxalate. Raman vibrational studies show that even the association constant for the highly charged Al(ox){sub 3}{sup 3{minus}} unexpectedly increases with moderate temperature increases to 80{degrees}C. To evaluate the potential importance of these Al-oxalate species in complex natural systems, temperature dependent competition experiments Fe(III) and Al(III) for oxalate have been initiated. Similar to aluminum, ferric oxalates show increases in association constants at higher temperatures. In competition experiments, the first association constant for Fe(ox){sup +} increases faster than that for Al(ox){sup +} to 90{degrees}C.

  6. A Comprehensive Genomic Analysis Reveals the Genetic Landscape of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Nyuzuki, Hiromi; Moriyama, Yohsuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Hirata, Tomoko; Yatsuka, Yukiko; Yamashita-Sugahara, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kato, Hidemasa; Okuda, Akihiko; Tamaru, Shunsuke; Borna, Nurun Nahar; Banshoya, Kengo; Aigaki, Toshiro; Sato-Miyata, Yukiko; Ohnuma, Kohei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nagao, Asuteka; Maehata, Hazuki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nagasaki, Masao; Yasuda, Jun; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Fushimi, Takuya; Shimura, Masaru; Kaiho-Ichimoto, Keiko; Harashima, Hiroko; Yamazaki, Taro; Mori, Masato; Murayama, Kei; Ohtake, Akira; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders have the highest incidence among congenital metabolic disorders characterized by biochemical respiratory chain complex deficiencies. It occurs at a rate of 1 in 5,000 births, and has phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in about 1,500 nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins may cause mitochondrial dysfunction of energy production and mitochondrial disorders. More than 250 genes that cause mitochondrial disorders have been reported to date. However exact genetic diagnosis for patients still remained largely unknown. To reveal this heterogeneity, we performed comprehensive genomic analyses for 142 patients with childhood-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies. The approach includes whole mtDNA and exome analyses using high-throughput sequencing, and chromosomal aberration analyses using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We identified 37 novel mutations in known mitochondrial disease genes and 3 mitochondria-related genes (MRPS23, QRSL1, and PNPLA4) as novel causative genes. We also identified 2 genes known to cause monogenic diseases (MECP2 and TNNI3) and 3 chromosomal aberrations (6q24.3-q25.1, 17p12, and 22q11.21) as causes in this cohort. Our approaches enhance the ability to identify pathogenic gene mutations in patients with biochemically defined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies in clinical settings. They also underscore clinical and genetic heterogeneity and will improve patient care of this complex disorder. PMID:26741492

  7. The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation JE Royland, SH Warren, S Jeffay, MR Hoopes, HP Nichols, ES Hunter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC The importance of mitochondrial funct...

  8. Yeast mitochondrial protein-protein interactions reveal diverse complexes and disease-relevant functional relationships.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ke; Musso, Gabriel; Vlasblom, James; Jessulat, Matthew; Deineko, Viktor; Negroni, Jacopo; Mosca, Roberto; Malty, Ramy; Nguyen-Tran, Diem-Hang; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Minic, Zoran; Freywald, Tanya; Phanse, Sadhna; Xiang, Qian; Freywald, Andrew; Aloy, Patrick; Zhang, Zhaolei; Babu, Mohan

    2015-02-06

    Although detailed, focused, and mechanistic analyses of associations among mitochondrial proteins (MPs) have identified their importance in varied biological processes, a systematic understanding of how MPs function in concert both with one another and with extra-mitochondrial proteins remains incomplete. Consequently, many questions regarding the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of human disease remain unanswered. To address this, we compiled all existing mitochondrial physical interaction data for over 1200 experimentally defined yeast MPs and, through bioinformatic analysis, identified hundreds of heteromeric MP complexes having extensive associations both within and outside the mitochondria. We provide support for these complexes through structure prediction analysis, morphological comparisons of deletion strains, and protein co-immunoprecipitation. The integration of these MP complexes with reported genetic interaction data reveals substantial crosstalk between MPs and non-MPs and identifies novel factors in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial organization, membrane structure, and mitochondrial lipid homeostasis. More than one-third of these MP complexes are conserved in humans, with many containing members linked to clinical pathologies, enabling us to identify genes with putative disease function through guilt-by-association. Although still remaining incomplete, existing mitochondrial interaction data suggests that the relevant molecular machinery is modular, yet highly integrated with non-mitochondrial processes.

  9. The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Impact of Mitochondrial Complex Inhibition on mESC Differentiation JE Royland, SH Warren, S Jeffay, MR Hoopes, HP Nichols, ES Hunter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC The importance of mitochondrial funct...

  10. A Comprehensive Genomic Analysis Reveals the Genetic Landscape of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Masakazu; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Kishita, Yoshihito; Nyuzuki, Hiromi; Moriyama, Yohsuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Hirata, Tomoko; Yatsuka, Yukiko; Yamashita-Sugahara, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Kato, Hidemasa; Okuda, Akihiko; Tamaru, Shunsuke; Borna, Nurun Nahar; Banshoya, Kengo; Aigaki, Toshiro; Sato-Miyata, Yukiko; Ohnuma, Kohei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nagao, Asuteka; Maehata, Hazuki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nagasaki, Masao; Yasuda, Jun; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Fushimi, Takuya; Shimura, Masaru; Kaiho-Ichimoto, Keiko; Harashima, Hiroko; Yamazaki, Taro; Mori, Masato; Murayama, Kei; Ohtake, Akira; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders have the highest incidence among congenital metabolic disorders characterized by biochemical respiratory chain complex deficiencies. It occurs at a rate of 1 in 5,000 births, and has phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in about 1,500 nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins may cause mitochondrial dysfunction of energy production and mitochondrial disorders. More than 250 genes that cause mitochondrial disorders have been reported to date. However exact genetic diagnosis for patients still remained largely unknown. To reveal this heterogeneity, we performed comprehensive genomic analyses for 142 patients with childhood-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies. The approach includes whole mtDNA and exome analyses using high-throughput sequencing, and chromosomal aberration analyses using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We identified 37 novel mutations in known mitochondrial disease genes and 3 mitochondria-related genes (MRPS23, QRSL1, and PNPLA4) as novel causative genes. We also identified 2 genes known to cause monogenic diseases (MECP2 and TNNI3) and 3 chromosomal aberrations (6q24.3-q25.1, 17p12, and 22q11.21) as causes in this cohort. Our approaches enhance the ability to identify pathogenic gene mutations in patients with biochemically defined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies in clinical settings. They also underscore clinical and genetic heterogeneity and will improve patient care of this complex disorder.

  11. Luminescent iridium(III) complexes as novel protein staining agents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Junli; Fei, Hao; Zhou, Ming

    2012-05-01

    This article reports a new class of luminescent metal complexes, biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with an ancillary bathophenanthroline disulfonate ligand, for staining protein bands that are separated by electrophoresis. The performances of these novel staining agents have been studied in comparison with tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate) ruthenium(II) tetrasodium salt (i.e. RuBPS) using a commercially available imaging system. The staining agents showed different limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, and protein-to-protein variations. The overall performances of all three stains were found to be better than or equivalent to RuBPS under the experimental conditions.

  12. Ubisemiquinone is the electron donor for superoxide formation by complex III of heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Turrens, J F; Alexandre, A; Lehninger, A L

    1985-03-01

    Much evidence indicates that superoxide is generated from O2 in a cyanide-sensitive reaction involving a reduced component of complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, particularly when antimycin A is present. Although it is generally believed that ubisemiquinone is the electron donor to O2, little experimental evidence supporting this view has been reported. Experiments with succinate as electron donor in the presence of antimycin A in intact rat heart mitochondria, which contain much superoxide dismutase but little catalase, showed that myxothiazol, which inhibits reduction of the Rieske iron-sulfur center, prevented formation of hydrogen peroxide, determined spectrophotometrically as the H2O2-peroxidase complex. Similarly, depletion of the mitochondria of their cytochrome c also inhibited formation of H2O2, which was restored by addition of cytochrome c. These observations indicate that factors preventing the formation of ubisemiquinone also prevent H2O2 formation. They also exclude ubiquinol, which remains reduced under these conditions, as the reductant of O2. Since cytochrome b also remains fully reduced when myxothiazol is added to succinate- and antimycin A-supplemented mitochondria, reduced cytochrome b may also be excluded as the reductant of O2. These observations, which are consistent with the Q-cycle reactions, by exclusion of other possibilities leave ubisemiquinone as the only reduced electron carrier in complex III capable of reducing O2 to O2-.

  13. The electronic spectra of mu-peroxodicobalt(III) complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miskowski, Vincent M.

    1987-01-01

    Problems found in the determination of the electronic spectra of mu-peroxodicobalt(III) complexes are considered, and the common formation of different mu-peroxocomplexes upon oxygenation of Co(II)-ligand solutions is discussed. Three classes of spectra have been identified: (1) planar single bridged complexes; (2) nonplanar single-bridged complexes with a dihedral angle near 145 deg; and (3) dibridged mu-OH(-),O2(2-) complexes with a dihedral angle near 60 deg. All of the peroxide ligand-to-metal charge-transfer spectra are found to be consistent with a simple model that assumes a sinusoidal dependence of pi-asterisk O2(2-) energies and sigma-overlaps upon the dihedral angle.

  14. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist or N-acetylcysteine combined with omeprazol protect against mitochondrial complex II inhibition in a rat model of gastritis.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Petronilho, Fabricia C; Araújo, João H; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Cardoso, Mariane R; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L

    2011-03-01

    The pathophysiology of gastritis involves an imbalance between gastric acid attack and mucosal defence. In addition, the gastric mucosal injury results in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Several studies have shown the association of mitochondrial disorders with gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity in the stomach of rats with gastritis induced by indomethacin (IDM) and treated with omeprazole (OM), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095. Adult male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 7 days with OM, NAC, RC-3095, combination of OM plus RC-3095, OM plus NAC and water (control). The animals were then submitted to fasting for 24 hr; IDM was administered. The rats were killed 6 hr later, and the stomachs were used for evaluation of macroscopic damage and respiratory chain activity. Our results showed that complex I and IV activities were not affected by administration of IDM. On the other hand, complex II and III activities were inhibited. In addition, OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC did not reverse complex II activity inhibition. However, the complex III activity inhibition was reversed only with the combined use of OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC. Our results are in agreement with previous studies indicating mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal tract disease and we suggest that GRPR antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy in gastritis.

  15. Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst enhances activities of heart mitochondrial enzymes and respiratory chain complexes in the aged rat.

    PubMed

    Sudheesh, N P; Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2009-10-01

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative damage at multiple cellular levels, decline in cellular energy production and enhanced free radical status. The effect of the medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum on the activities of tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle enzymes and mitochondrial complexes I-IV of the electron transport chain in aged rats were investigated. The activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV were determined in heart of aged male Wistar rats orally administrated with 70% ethanolic extract (50 and 250 mg/kg) of G. lucidum. DL-alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) was taken as the positive control. Administration of the G. lucidum, once daily for 15 days, was significantly (P < 0.05) effective to enhance the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex IV activities in aged rats. The profound activity of the extract can be correlated to the significant antioxidant property of G. lucidum. The results of the study revealed that G. lucidum is effective to ameliorate the age associated decline of cellular energy status.

  16. Complexation and molecular modeling studies of europium(III)-gallic acid-amino acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Khan, Imran; Coutinho, João A P

    2016-04-01

    With many metal-based drugs extensively used today in the treatment of cancer, attention has focused on the development of new coordination compounds with antitumor activity with europium(III) complexes recently introduced as novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this work is to design new Eu(III) complexes with gallic acid, an antioxida'nt phenolic compound. Gallic acid was chosen because it shows anticancer activity without harming health cells. As antioxidant, it helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage that implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. In this work, the formation of binary and ternary complexes of Eu(III) with gallic acid, primary ligand, and amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was studied by glass electrode potentiometry in aqueous solution containing 0.1M NaNO3 at (298.2 ± 0.1) K. Their overall stability constants were evaluated and the concentration distributions of the complex species in solution were calculated. The protonation constants of gallic acid and amino acids were also determined at our experimental conditions and compared with those predicted by using conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. The geometries of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes were characterized by the density functional theory (DFT). The spectroscopic UV-visible and photoluminescence measurements are carried out to confirm the formation of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes in aqueous solutions.

  17. Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Felici, Roberta; Lapucci, Andrea; Cavone, Leonardo; Pratesi, Sara; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are devastating genetic diseases for which efficacious therapies are still an unmet need. Recent studies report that increased availability of intracellular NAD obtained by inhibition of the NAD-consuming enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 or supplementation with the NAD-precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) ameliorates energetic derangement and symptoms in mouse models of mitochondrial disorders. Whether these pharmacological approaches also improve bioenergetics of human cells harboring mitochondrial defects is unknown. It is also unclear whether the same signaling cascade is prompted by PARP-1 inhibitors and NR supplementation to improve mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we show that human fibroblasts mutant for the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 (NDUFS1) subunit of respiratory complex I have similar ATP, NAD, and mitochondrial content compared with control cells, but show reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, mutant cells also show increased transcript levels of mitochondrial DNA but not nuclear DNA respiratory complex subunits, suggesting activation of a compensatory response. At variance with prior work in mice, however, NR supplementation, but not PARP-1 inhibition, increased intracellular NAD content in NDUFS1 mutant human fibroblasts. Conversely, PARP-1 inhibitors, but not NR supplementation, increased transcription of mitochondrial transcription factor A and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes constitutively induced in mutant cells. Still, both NR and PARP-1 inhibitors restored mitochondrial membrane potential and increased organelle content as well as oxidative activity of NDUFS1-deficient fibroblasts. Overall, data provide the first evidence that in human cells harboring a mitochondrial respiratory defect exposure to NR or PARP-1, inhibitors activate different signaling pathways that are not invariantly prompted by NAD increases, but equally able to improve energetic

  18. The complex interplay between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo; del Campo, Andrea; Pennanen, Christian; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Iglewski, Myriam; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, capable of undergoing constant fission and fusion events, forming networks. These dynamic events allow the transmission of chemical and physical messengers and the exchange of metabolites within the cell. In this article we review the signaling mechanisms controlling mitochondrial fission and fusion, and its relationship with cell bioenergetics, especially in the heart. Furthermore we also discuss how defects in mitochondrial dynamics might be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic cardiac diseases. PMID:21258852

  19. Ocsyn and mitochondrial-canalicular complexes in vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Vautrin, Jean; Travo, Cécile; Boyer, Catherine; Ventéo, Stéphanie; Favre, Daniel; Dechesne, Claude J

    2006-12-01

    Ocsyn, a syntaxin-interacting protein characterized by Safieddine et al. [Safieddine, S., Ly, C.D., Wang, Y.-X., Kachar, B., Petralia, R.S., Wenthold, R.J., 2002. Ocsyn, a novel syntaxin-interacting protein enriched in the subapical region of inner hair cells. Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 20, 343-353] in the guinea pig organ of Corti was primarily identified in organelles located at the subapical region of inner hair cells. They proposed that in cochlear inner hair cells, ocsyn was involved in protein trafficking associated to recycling endosomes. Ocsyn happens to be highly homologous to syntabulin with an almost identical syntaxin-binding domain. Syntabulin is believed to attach syntaxin-containing vesicles to kinesin for their axonal transport along microtubules. The present study shows the distribution of ocsyn in guinea pig and rat vestibular hair cells using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Ocsyn was characterized by intense immunolabeled spots distributed exclusively in type I and II vestibular hair cells. The subcuticular region under the cuticular plate exhibited particularly densely packed spots. In the neck region of the sensory cells, where microtubules are abundant, there was no colocalization of ocsyn and alpha-tubulin. Ocsyn labeled spots were also present in the medial and basal hair cell regions, particularly in the supranuclear and infranuclear regions. Mitochondria are particularly numerous in these three regions (subcuticular, supranuclear and infranuclear). Double labeling of ocsyn and cytochrome c showed that ocsyn was present in the same zones that mitochondria. This, together with the great similarity of ocsyn and syntabulin, suggest that, akin to syntabulin, ocsyn is involved in addressing organelles. We propose that ocsyn is involved in the formation of the canalicular-mitochondrial complexes depicted by Spicer et al. [Spicer, S.S., Thomopoulos, G.N., Schulte, B.A., 1999. Novel membranous structures in apical and basal compartments of

  20. Photoperiod Affects the Phenotype of Mitochondrial Complex I Mutants.

    PubMed

    Pétriacq, Pierre; de Bont, Linda; Genestout, Lucie; Hao, Jingfang; Laureau, Constance; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Rzigui, Touhami; Queval, Guillaume; Gilard, Françoise; Mauve, Caroline; Guérard, Florence; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Marion, Jessica; Fresneau, Chantal; Brown, Spencer; Danon, Antoine; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Berthomé, Richard; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Cornic, Gabriel; Pineau, Bernard; Gakière, Bertrand; De Paepe, Rosine

    2017-01-01

    Plant mutants for genes encoding subunits of mitochondrial complex I (CI; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), the first enzyme of the respiratory chain, display various phenotypes depending on growth conditions. Here, we examined the impact of photoperiod, a major environmental factor controlling plant development, on two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CI mutants: a new insertion mutant interrupted in both ndufs8.1 and ndufs8.2 genes encoding the NDUFS8 subunit and the previously characterized ndufs4 CI mutant. In the long day (LD) condition, both ndufs8.1 and ndufs8.2 single mutants were indistinguishable from Columbia-0 at phenotypic and biochemical levels, whereas the ndufs8.1 ndufs8.2 double mutant was devoid of detectable holo-CI assembly/activity, showed higher alternative oxidase content/activity, and displayed a growth retardation phenotype similar to that of the ndufs4 mutant. Although growth was more affected in ndufs4 than in ndufs8.1 ndufs8.2 under the short day (SD) condition, both mutants displayed a similar impairment of growth acceleration after transfer to LD compared with the wild type. Untargeted and targeted metabolomics showed that overall metabolism was less responsive to the SD-to-LD transition in mutants than in the wild type. The typical LD acclimation of carbon and nitrogen assimilation as well as redox-related parameters was not observed in ndufs8.1 ndufs8 Similarly, NAD(H) content, which was higher in the SD condition in both mutants than in Columbia-0, did not adjust under LD We propose that altered redox homeostasis and NAD(H) content/redox state control the phenotype of CI mutants and photoperiod acclimation in Arabidopsis.

  1. Cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with deoxyribose substituents.

    PubMed

    Maity, Ayan; Choi, Jung-Suk; Teets, Thomas S; Deligonul, Nihal; Berdis, Anthony J; Gray, Thomas G

    2013-11-18

    Fundamental study of enzymatic nucleoside transport suffers for lack of optical probes that can be tracked noninvasively. Nucleoside transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins that mediate the salvage of nucleosides and their passage across cell membranes. The substrate recognition site is the deoxyribose sugar, often with little distinction among nucleobases. Reported here are nucleoside analogues in which emissive, cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes are "clicked" to C-1 of deoxyribose in place of canonical nucleobases. The resulting complexes show visible luminescence at room temperature and 77 K with microsecond-length triplet lifetimes. A representative complex is crystallographically characterized. Transport and luminescence are demonstrated in cultured human carcinoma (KB3-1) cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Mitochondrial complex I dysfunction induced by cocaine and cocaine plus morphine in brain and liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa; Silva, Lisbeth; Silva, Ana Maria; Moreno, António J; Oliveira, Catarina R; Santos, Maria S

    2013-06-07

    Mitochondrial function and energy metabolism are affected in brains of human cocaine abusers. Cocaine is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac and hepatic tissues, but its effects on brain bioenergetics are less documented. Furthermore, the combination of cocaine and opioids (speedball) was also shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. In this work, we compared the effects of cocaine and/or morphine on the bioenergetics of isolated brain and liver mitochondria, to understand their specific effects in each tissue. Upon energization with complex I substrates, cocaine decreased state-3 respiration in brain (but not in liver) mitochondria and decreased uncoupled respiration and mitochondrial potential in both tissues, through a direct effect on complex I. Morphine presented only slight effects on brain and liver mitochondria, and the combination cocaine+morphine had similar effects to cocaine alone, except for a greater decrease in state-3 respiration. Brain and liver mitochondrial respirations were differentially affected, and liver mitochondria were more prone to proton leak caused by the drugs or their combination. This was possibly related with a different dependence on complex I in mitochondrial populations from these tissues. In summary, cocaine and cocaine+morphine induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in isolated brain and liver mitochondria, with specific effects in each tissue.

  3. Analysis of the mitochondrial encoded subunits of complex I in 20 patients with a complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, Ann; Lissens, Willy; Van Coster, Rudy; De Meirleir, Linda; Smet, Joél; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Liebaers, Inge; Seneca, Sara

    2004-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I deficiency is a frequently diagnosed enzyme defect of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in humans. However, in many patients, with complex I deficiency and clinical symptoms suggestive of mitochondrial disease, often no genetic defect can be found after investigation of the most common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. In this study, 20 patients were selected with a biochemically documented complex I defect and no common mtDNA mutation. We used the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) method with primers encompassing all mitochondrial encoded fragments, to search in a systematic manner for mutations in the mitochondrial genome of complex I. In our group of patients, we were able to detect a total of 96 nucleotide changes. We were not able to find any disease causing mutation in the mitochondrial encoded subunits of complex I. These results suggested that the complex I deficiency in this group of patients is most probably caused by a defect in one of the nuclear encoded structural genes of complex I, or in one of the genes involved in proper assembly of the enzyme.

  4. Quantum Calculations of Electron Tunneling in Respiratory Complex III.

    PubMed

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2015-11-19

    The most detailed and comprehensive to date study of electron transfer reactions in the respiratory complex III of aerobic cells, also known as bc1 complex, is reported. In the framework of the tunneling current theory, electron tunneling rates and atomistic tunneling pathways between different redox centers were investigated for all electron transfer reactions comprising different stages of the proton-motive Q-cycle. The calculations reveal that complex III is a smart nanomachine, which under certain conditions undergoes conformational changes gating electron transfer, or channeling electrons to specific pathways. One-electron tunneling approximation was adopted in the tunneling calculations, which were performed using hybrid Broken-Symmetry (BS) unrestricted DFT/ZINDO levels of theory. The tunneling orbitals were determined using an exact biorthogonalization scheme that uniquely separates pairs of tunneling orbitals with small overlaps out of the remaining Franck-Condon orbitals with significant overlap. Electron transfer rates in different redox pairs show exponential distance dependence, in agreement with the reported experimental data; some reactions involve coupled proton transfer. Proper treatment of a concerted two-electron bifurcated tunneling reaction at the Q(o) site is given.

  5. Evidence for a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III-thrombin complex formation in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Lefèbvre, P

    1990-03-01

    In the presence of increased levels of fibrinopeptide A, decreased antithrombin III biological activity, and thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels are seen in diabetic patients. Induced-hyperglycaemia in diabetic and normal subjects decreased antithrombin III activity and thrombin-antithrombin III levels, and increased fibrinopeptide A plasma levels, while antithrombin III concentration did not change; heparin was shown to reduced these phenomena. In diabetic patients, euglycaemia induced by insulin infusion restored antithrombin III activity, thrombin-antithrombin III complex and fibrinopeptide A concentrations; heparin administration had the same effects. These data stress the role of a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III activity in precipitating thrombin hyperactivity in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Pyridinophane platform for stable lanthanide(III) complexation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Goretti; Bastida, Rufina; Macías, Alejandro; Pérez-Lourido, Paulo; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Valencia, Laura

    2013-05-20

    A detailed investigation of the solid state and solution structures of lanthanide(III) complexes with the macrocyclic ligand 2,11,20-triaza[3.3.3](2,6)pyridinophane (TPP) is reported. The solid state structures of 14 different Ln(3+) complexes have been determined using X-ray crystallography. The ligand is coordinating to the Ln(3+) ion by using its six nitrogen atoms, while nitrate or triflate anions and water molecules complete the metal coordination environments. The structure of the complexes in solution has been investigated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as by DFT calculations (TPSSh model) performed in aqueous solution. The structures obtained from these calculations for the complexes with the lightest Ln(3+) ions (La-Sm) are in very good agreement with those determined by the analysis of the Ln(3+)-induced paramagnetic shifts. A structural change occurs across the lanthanide series at Sm(3+); the complexes of the large Ln(3+) ions (La-Nd) are chiral due to the nonplanar conformation of the macrocycle, and present effective C3v symmetries in solution as a consequence of a fast interconversion of two enantiomeric forms with C3 symmetry. The activation free energy for this enantiomerization process, as estimated by using DFT calculations, amounts to 33.0 kJ·mol(-1). The TPP ligand in the complexes of the heaviest Ln(3+) ions (Eu-Lu) presents a half-chair conformation, which results in C(s) symmetries in solution.

  7. Exceptional Oxygen Sensing Properties of New Blue Light-Excitable Highly Luminescent Europium(III) and Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Borisov, Sergey M.; Fischer, Roland; Saf, Robert; Klimant, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    New europium(III) and gadolinium(III) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyphenalenone antenna combine efficient absorption in the blue part of the spectrum and strong emission in polymers at room temperature. The Eu(III) complexes show characteristic red luminescence whereas the Gd(III) dyes are strongly phosphorescent. The luminescence quantum yields are about 20% for the Eu(III) complexes and 50% for the Gd(III) dyes. In contrast to most state-of-the-art Eu(III) complexes the new dyes are quenched very efficiently by molecular oxygen. The luminescence decay times of the Gd(III) complexes exceed 1 ms which ensures exceptional sensitivity even in polymers of moderate oxygen permeability. These sensors are particularly suitable for trace oxygen sensing and may be good substitutes for Pd(II) porphyrins. The photophysical and sensing properties can be tuned by varying the nature of the fourth ligand. The narrow-band emission of the Eu(III) allows efficient elimination of the background light and autofluorescence and is also very attractive for use e.g. in multi-analyte sensors. The highly photostable indicators incorporated in nanoparticles are promising for imaging applications. Due to the straightforward preparation and low cost of starting materials the new dyes represent a promising alternative to the state-of-the-art oxygen indicators particularly for such applications as e.g. food packaging. PMID:27158252

  8. Adsorption and mobility of Cr(III)-organic acid complexes in soils.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinhua; Guo, Jing; Mao, Jingdong; Lan, Yeqing

    2011-09-15

    The soluble Cr(III) is likely to be complexed with organic ligands in ligand-rich soil. Cr(VI) chemical reduction by organic acids and bioreduction by microorganisms can produce soluble Cr(III)-organic acids complexes. Thus, it is of great significance to investigate the absorption and mobility of Cr(III)-organic acid complexes in soils. In this study, Cr(III)-EDTA and Cr(III)-cit were prepared and purified, and then were examined for adsorption and mobility. The results demonstrated that Cr(III) was strongly bound to soil, while Cr(III)-organic acid complexes had no or slight interaction with soils since Cr(III)-EDTA and Cr(III)-cit complexes mainly existed as the forms of [Cr(III)-EDTA](-) and [Cr(III)-cit], respectively, under the tested conditions with initial pH 4.0-9.0. The adsorption of Cr(III) increased but that of Cr(III)-organic acid complexes decreased with the content of soil organic matter. Compared with Cr(III)-EDTA, the mobility of Cr(III)-cit in soil columns was reduced, due to the specific adsorption between soils and Cr(III)-cit which contained one free hydroxyl group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parkinson's disease-associated mutant VPS35 causes mitochondrial dysfunction by recycling DLP1 complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhang; Wang, Xinglong; Fujioka, Hisashi; Hoppel, Charles; Whone, Alan L; Caldwell, Maeve A; Cullen, Peter J; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a critical step during the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and increasing evidence suggests abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and quality control as important underlying mechanisms. The VPS35 gene, which encodes a key component of the membrane protein-recycling retromer complex, is the third autosomal-dominant gene associated with PD. However, how VPS35 mutations lead to neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that PD-associated VPS35 mutations caused mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death in cultured neurons in vitro, in mouse substantia nigra neurons in vivo and in human fibroblasts from an individual with PD who has the VPS35(D620N) mutation. VPS35-induced mitochondrial deficits and neuronal dysfunction could be prevented by inhibition of mitochondrial fission. VPS35 mutants showed increased interaction with dynamin-like protein (DLP) 1, which enhanced turnover of the mitochondrial DLP1 complexes via the mitochondria-derived vesicle-dependent trafficking of the complexes to lysosomes for degradation. Notably, oxidative stress increased the VPS35-DLP1 interaction, which we also found to be increased in the brains of sporadic PD cases. These results revealed a novel cellular mechanism for the involvement of VPS35 in mitochondrial fission, dysregulation of which is probably involved in the pathogenesis of familial, and possibly sporadic, PD.

  10. Mitochondrial epileptic encephalopathy, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria and variable complex V deficiency associated with TIMM50 mutations.

    PubMed

    Shahrour, M A; Staretz-Chacham, O; Dayan, D; Stephen, J; Weech, A; Damseh, N; Pri Chen, H; Edvardson, S; Mazaheri, S; Saada, A; Hershkovitz, E; Shaag, A; Huizing, M; Abu-Libdeh, B; Gahl, W A; Azem, A; Anikster, Y; Vilboux, T; Elpeleg, O; Malicdan, M C

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial encephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that, usually carry grave prognosis. Recently a homozygous mutation, Gly372Ser, in the TIMM50 gene, was reported in an abstract form, in three sibs who suffered from intractable epilepsy and developmental delay accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. We now report on four patients from two unrelated families who presented with severe intellectual disability and seizure disorder, accompanied by slightly elevated lactate level, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria and variable deficiency of mitochondrial complex V. Using exome analysis we identified two homozygous missense mutations, Arg217Trp and Thr252Met, in the TIMM50 gene. The TIMM50 protein is a subunit of TIM23 complex, the mitochondrial import machinery. It serves as the major receptor in the intermembrane space, binding to proteins which cross the mitochondrial inner membrane on their way to the matrix. The mutations, which affected evolutionary conserved residues and segregated with the disease in the families, were neither present in large cohorts of control exome analyses nor in our ethnic specific exome cohort. Given the phenotypic similarity, we conclude that missense mutations in TIMM50 are likely manifesting by severe intellectual disability and epilepsy accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria and variable mitochondrial complex V deficiency. 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is emerging as an important biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction, in particular for mitochondrial membrane defects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Complex I Dysfunction Redirects Cellular and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Garmier, Marie; Carroll, Adam J.; Delannoy, Etienne; Vallet, Corinne; Day, David A.; Small, Ian D.; Millar, A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is a major avenue for reduced NAD oxidation linked to oxidative phosphorylation in plants. However, the plant enzyme has structural and functional features that set it apart from its counterparts in other organisms, raising questions about the physiological significance of this complex in plants. We have developed an experimental model in which rotenone, a classic complex I inhibitor, has been applied to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell suspension cultures in order to dissect early metabolic adjustments involved in cell acclimation to mitochondrial dysfunction. Rotenone induced a transitory decrease in cellular respiration (0–4 h after treatment). Cell respiration then progressively recovered and reached a steady state at 10 to 12 h after treatment. Complex I inhibition by rotenone did not induce obvious oxidative stress or cell death but affected longer term cell growth. Integrated analyses of gene expression, the mitochondrial proteome, and changes in primary metabolism indicated that rotenone treatment caused changes in mitochondrial function via alterations in specific components. A physical disengagement of glycolytic activities associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane was observed, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle was altered. Amino acid and organic acid pools were also modified by rotenone treatment, with a marked early decrease of 2-oxoglutarate, aspartate, and glutamine pools. These data demonstrate that, in Arabidopsis cells, complex I inhibition by rotenone induces significant remodeling of metabolic pathways involving the mitochondria and other compartments and point to early metabolic changes in response to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:18784283

  12. A role for human mitochondrial complex II in the production of reactive oxygen species in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Alasdair; Bowman, Amy; Boulton, Sarah Jayne; Manning, Philip; Birch-Machin, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major generator of cellular oxidative stress, thought to be an underlying cause of the carcinogenic and ageing process in many tissues including skin. Previous studies of the relative contributions of the respiratory chain (RC) complexes I, II and III towards production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have focussed on rat tissues and certainly not on human skin which is surprising as this tissue is regularly exposed to UVA in sunlight, a potent generator of cellular oxidative stress. In a novel approach we have used an array of established specific metabolic inhibitors and DHR123 fluorescence to study the relative roles of the mitochondrial RC complexes in cellular ROS production in 2 types of human skin cells. These include additional enhancement of ROS production by exposure to physiological levels of UVA. The effects within epidermal and dermal derived skin cells are compared to other tissue cell types as well as those harbouring a compromised mitochondrial status (Rho-zero A549). The results show that the complex II inhibitor, TTFA, was the only RC inhibitor to significantly increase UVA-induced ROS production in both skin cell types (P<0.05) suggesting that the role of human skin complex II in terms of influencing ROS production is more important than previously thought particularly in comparison to liver cells. Interestingly, two-fold greater maximal activity of complex II enzyme was observed in both skin cell types compared to liver (P<0.001). The activities of RC enzymes appear to decrease with increasing age and telomere length is correlated with ageing. Our study showed that the level of maximal complex II activity was higher in the MRC5/hTERT (human lung fibroblasts transfected with telomerase) cells than the corresponding wild type cells (P=0.0012) which can be considered (in terms of telomerase activity) as models of younger and older cells respectively. PMID:25460738

  13. Preparation of new fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite nanohybrids using the tricationic Pr(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) complexes with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi; Dinari, Mohammad; Hadadzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-25

    New fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite (LCs-C) nanohybrids have been prepared by the intercalation reaction of Cloisite Na(+) with the tricationic lanthanide complexes (1-3), [M(PQ)3(DMF)2(H2O)2](3+) (M=Pr(III) (1), Gd(III) (2), and Dy(III) (3); PQ=9,10-phenanthrenequinone), in aqueous solutions. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the modified clays (LCs-C) showed an increase in the interlayer distance (d) as compared to the pure Cloisite Na(+). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology of the modified clays and the results were demonstrated a homogeneous morphology for the nanohybrids. The thermal behavior of the LCs-C nanohybrids was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Solid-state fluorescence properties of the LCs-C nanohybrids were also investigated. The results show that all tricationic complexes have a significant fluorescence at room temperature when the complexes are adsorbed onto Cloisite.

  14. Synthesis of square-planar aluminum(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Emily J; Myers, Thomas W; Berben, Louise A

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis of two four-coordinate and square planar (SP) complexes of aluminum(III) is presented. Reaction of a phenyl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine ligand that is reduced by two electrons, Na2((Ph)I2P(2-)), with AlCl3 afforded five-coordinate [((Ph)I2P(2-))Al(THF)Cl] (1). Square-planar [((Ph)I2P(2-))AlCl] (2) was obtained by performing the same reaction in diethyl ether followed by lyphilization of 2 from benzene. The four-coordinate geometry index for 2, τ4, is 0.22, where 0 would be a perfectly square-planar molecule. The analogous aluminum hydride complex, [((Ph)I2P(2-))AlH] (3), is also square-planar, and was characterized crystallographically and has τ4=0.13. Both 2 and 3 are Lewis acidic and bind 2,6-lutidine.

  15. Luminescent chiral lanthanide(III) complexes as potential molecular probes

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    This perspective gives an introduction into the design of luminescent lanthanide(III)-containing complexes possessing chiral properties and used to probe biological materials. The first part briefly describes general principles, focusing on the optical aspect (i.e. lanthanide luminescence, sensitization processes) of the most emissive trivalent lanthanide ions, europium and terbium, incorporated into molecular luminescent edifices. This is followed by a short discussion on the importance of chirality in the biological and pharmaceutical fields. The second part is devoted to the assessment of the chiroptical spectroscopic tools available (typically circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence) and the strategies used to introduce a chiral feature into luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes (chiral structure resulting from a chiral arrangement of the ligand molecules surrounding the luminescent center or presence of chiral centers in the ligand molecules). Finally, the last part illustrates these fundamental principles with recent selected examples of such chiral luminescent lanthanide-based compounds used as potential probes of biomolecular substrates. PMID:19885510

  16. Lack of cytochrome c in Arabidopsis decreases stability of Complex IV and modifies redox metabolism without affecting Complexes I and III.

    PubMed

    Welchen, Elina; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Lewejohann, Dagmar; Gonzalez, Daniel H; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2012-07-01

    We studied the role of cytochrome c (CYTc), which mediates electron transfer between Complexes III and IV, in cellular events related with mitochondrial respiration, plant development and redox homeostasis. We analyzed single and double homozygous mutants in both CYTc-encoding genes from Arabidopsis: CYTC-1 and CYTC-2. While individual mutants were similar to wild-type, knock-out of both genes produced an arrest of embryo development, showing that CYTc function is essential at early stages of plant development. Mutants in which CYTc levels were extremely reduced respective to wild-type had smaller rosettes with a pronounced decrease in parenchymatic cell size and an overall delay in development. Mitochondria from these mutants had lower respiration rates and a relative increase in alternative respiration. Furthermore, the decrease in CYTc severely affected the activity and the amount of Complex IV, without affecting Complexes I and III. Reactive oxygen species levels were reduced in these mutants, which showed induction of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. Ascorbic acid levels were not affected, suggesting that a small amount of CYTc is enough to support its normal synthesis. We postulate that, in addition to its role as an electron carrier between Complexes III and IV, CYTc influences Complex IV levels in plants, probably reflecting a role of this protein in Complex IV stability. This double function of CYTc most likely explains why it is essential for plant survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel isoform of the human mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFV3.

    PubMed

    Dibley, Marris G; Ryan, Michael T; Stroud, David A

    2017-01-01

    Human mitochondrial complex I is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Complex I is composed of 45 subunits, seven encoded by mitochondrial DNA, while the remainder are encoded by nuclear DNA. All nuclear-encoded subunits are thought to be expressed as a single isoform. Here we reveal subunit NDUFV3 to be present in both the canonical 10 kDa and a novel 50 kDa isoform, generated through alternative splicing. Both isoforms assemble into complex I and their levels vary in different tissues. While the 50 kDa isoform appears to be dominant in HEK293T cells, we find either isoform alone is sufficient for assembly of mature complex I. NDUFV3 represents the first known complex I subunit present in two functional isoforms. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Low feed efficient broilers within a single genetic line exhibit higher oxidative stress and protein expression in breast muscle with lower mitochondrial complex activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Pumford, N R; Tang, Z X; Lassiter, K; Wing, T; Cooper, M; Bottje, W

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of low or high feed efficiency (FE) on a) protein oxidation, b) the activities of various respiratory chain complexes, and c) expression of various mitochondrial proteins in male broilers within a single genetic line. Tissue homogenate or mitochondria were isolated from breast muscle of broilers with high (0.80 +/- 0.01) and low FE (0.62 +/- 0.02). The complex activities were measured spectrophotometrically, and the levels of oxidized protein (carbonyl) and immunoreactive mitochondrial proteins were analyzed using Western blots. Protein carbonyl levels were higher in low FE compared with high FE broilers breast muscle, which indicated enhanced protein oxidation in low FE mitochondria. Activities of all respiratory chain complexes (I, II, III, IV) were higher in high FE compared with low FE broilers for breast mitochondria. Whereas the expression of immunoreactive proteins was higher in low FE muscle mitochondria for 5 mitochondrial proteins [core I, cyt c1, cyt b (complex III), COX II (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, complex IV), and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT1)], there were no differences between groups in the expression of 9 other respiratory chain protein subunits associated with complexex I, II, III, IV, and V. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein band of 47 kDa that was expressed at a higher level in low FE compared with high FE mitochondria. The differential expression of certain mitochondrial proteins and the 47-kDa band might be a compensatory response either to the lower complex activities or increased protein oxidation observed in low FE birds.

  19. Sparkle/AM1 Parameters for the Modeling of Samarium(III) and Promethium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2006-01-01

    The Sparkle/AM1 model is extended to samarium(III) and promethium(III) complexes. A set of 15 structures of high crystallographic quality (R factor < 0.05 Å), with ligands chosen to be representative of all samarium complexes in the Cambridge Crystallographic Database 2004, CSD, with nitrogen or oxygen directly bonded to the samarium ion, was used as a training set. In the validation procedure, we used a set of 42 other complexes, also of high crystallographic quality. The results show that this parametrization for the Sm(III) ion is similar in accuracy to the previous parametrizations for Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III). On the other hand, promethium is an artificial radioactive element with no stable isotope. So far, there are no promethium complex crystallographic structures in CSD. To circumvent this, we confirmed our previous result that RHF/STO-3G/ECP, with the MWB effective core potential (ECP), appears to be the most efficient ab initio model chemistry in terms of coordination polyhedron crystallographic geometry predictions from isolated lanthanide complex ion calculations. We thus generated a set of 15 RHF/STO-3G/ECP promethium complex structures with ligands chosen to be representative of complexes available in the CSD for all other trivalent lanthanide cations, with nitrogen or oxygen directly bonded to the lanthanide ion. For the 42 samarium(III) complexes and 15 promethium(III) complexes considered, the Sparkle/AM1 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the Ln(III) ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.07 and 0.06 Å, respectively, a level of accuracy comparable to present day ab initio/ECP geometries, while being hundreds of times faster.

  20. C11orf83, a Mitochondrial Cardiolipin-Binding Protein Involved in bc1 Complex Assembly and Supercomplex Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Michelangelo; Raemy, Etienne; Vaz, Frédéric Maxime; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Bairoch, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondria may contain up to 1,500 different proteins, and many of them have neither been confidently identified nor characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that C11orf83, which was lacking experimental characterization, is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein facing the intermembrane space. This protein is specifically associated with the bc1 complex of the electron transport chain and involved in the early stages of its assembly by stabilizing the bc1 core complex. C11orf83 displays some overlapping functions with Cbp4p, a yeast bc1 complex assembly factor. Therefore, we suggest that C11orf83, now called UQCC3, is the functional human equivalent of Cbp4p. In addition, C11orf83 depletion in HeLa cells caused abnormal crista morphology, higher sensitivity to apoptosis, a decreased ATP level due to impaired respiration and subtle, but significant, changes in cardiolipin composition. We showed that C11orf83 binds to cardiolipin by its α-helices 2 and 3 and is involved in the stabilization of bc1 complex-containing supercomplexes, especially the III2/IV supercomplex. We also demonstrated that the OMA1 metalloprotease cleaves C11orf83 in response to mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting a role in the selection of cells with damaged mitochondria for their subsequent elimination by apoptosis, as previously described for OPA1. PMID:25605331

  1. Synthesis of supramolecular iron (III) complexes by cluster aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, Elisa Joy

    2000-12-01

    Biologically, iron is a ubiquitous and versatile metal, found in the active sites of proteins responsible for both oxygen and electron transport. Multinuclear iron-oxo proteins are either dinuclear, or contain many iron atoms; the [Fe2O] unit occurs in hemerythrin (Hr), ribonucleotide reductase, purple acid phosphatase (POP) and methane monooxygenase (MMO), whereas ferritin (Ft) can store up to 4500 iron atoms. Iron storage and transport are essential for protecting biological organisms from free iron, since free Fe(II) ions, will react with dioxygen to form destructive organic radicals, and free Fe(III) ions form insoluble iron hydroxide aggregates under physiological conditions. The tendency of iron to form molecular aggregates in systems containing water or alcohol, together with the fact that each iron atom possesses a large number of unpaired electrons (5 for high-spin FeIII) often results in products possessing large spin ground states (S). The current record-holder for iron is a Fe19 complex, with at least 33 unpaired electrons in the ground state (S = 33/2). Hence, iron is also important in the rapidly developing field of molecular magnetic materials. For these two reasons, the preparation of iron clusters with new topologies and properties has become a major goal of many synthetic inorganic groups, including our own. In this thesis work, synthetic and spectroscopic methods of inorganic coordination chemistry were used to achieve two different goals: firstly, to synthesize dinuclear iron complexes with the use of tetradentate ligands in order to study the magnetic interactions between the two metal centers; and secondly, to identify reactions and characterize the products whereby pre-formed iron oxide clusters undergo aggregation reactions to produce higher nuclearity products. The tetradentate ligands investigated were a bis-(beta-diketone) ligand L and a bis-bpy ligand L'. The reactions involving L and Fe(III) reagents produced complexes with a triple

  2. Investigating complex I deficiency in Purkinje cells and synapses in patients with mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Chrysostomou, Alexia; Grady, John P.; Laude, Alex; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cerebellar ataxia is common in patients with mitochondrial disease, and despite previous neuropathological investigations demonstrating vulnerability of the olivocerebellar pathway in patients with mitochondrial disease, the exact neurodegenerative mechanisms are still not clear. We use quantitative quadruple immunofluorescence to enable precise quantification of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein expression in Purkinje cell bodies and their synaptic terminals in the dentate nucleus. Methods We investigated NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13 protein expression in 12 clinically and genetically defined patients with mitochondrial disease and ataxia and 10 age‐matched controls. Molecular genetic analysis was performed to determine heteroplasmy levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in Purkinje cell bodies and inhibitory synapses. Results Our data reveal that complex I deficiency is present in both Purkinje cell bodies and their inhibitory synapses which surround dentate nucleus neurons. Inhibitory synapses are fewer and enlarged in patients which could represent a compensatory mechanism. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy demonstrated similarly high levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in cell bodies and synapses. Conclusions This is the first study to use a validated quantitative immunofluorescence technique to determine complex I expression in neurons and presynaptic terminals, evaluating the distribution of respiratory chain deficiencies and assessing the degree of morphological abnormalities affecting synapses. Respiratory chain deficiencies detected in Purkinje cell bodies and their synapses and structural synaptic changes are likely to contribute to altered cerebellar circuitry and progression of ataxia. PMID:26337858

  3. Nitric oxide, complex I, and the modulation of mitochondrial reactive species in biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Carreras, María C; Franco, María C; Peralta, Jorge G; Poderoso, Juan J

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondria are the specialized organelles for energy metabolism but also participate in the production of O(2) active species, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and thermogenesis. Classically, regulation of mitochondrial energy functions was based on the ADP/ATP ratio, which dynamically stimulates the transition between resting and maximal O(2) uptake. However, in the last years, NO was identified as a physiologic regulator of electron transfer and ATP synthesis by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase. Additionally, NO stimulates the mitochondrial production of O(2) active species, primarily O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2), and, depending on NO matrix concentration, of ONOO(-), which is responsible for the nitrosylation and nitration of mitochondrial components. By this means, alteration in mitochondrial complexes restricts energy output, further increases O(2) active species and changes cell signaling for proliferation and apoptosis through redox effects on specific pathways. These mechanisms are prototypically operating in prevalent generalized diseases like sepsis with multiorgan failure or limited neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Complex I appears to be highly susceptible to ONOO(-) effects and nitration, which defines an acquired group of mitochondrial disorders, in addition to the genetically induced syndromes. Increase of mitochondrial NO may follow over-expression of nNOS, induction and translocation of iNOS, and activation and/or increased content of the newly described mtNOS. Likewise, mtNOS is important in the modulation of O(2) uptake and cell signaling, and in mitochondrial pathology, including the effects of aging, dystrophin deficiency, hypoxia, inflammation and cancer.

  4. Cerium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes as scavengers of X/XO-derived superoxide radical.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Irena; Traykova, Maria

    2006-09-01

    The cerium (III) and neodymium (III) complexes with 3,3'-benzylidenebis[4-hydroxycoumarin] were synthesized and characterized by different analytical and spectral methods. The synthesis of these complexes is taken into consideration with cytotoxic screening and study of their antioxidant effect. Their cytotoxicity toward cancerous cell cultures correlated with the weakness of the coordinative bond between the cation and organic ligand and with the capability to scavenge superoxide radicals as well. On the basis of the data reported by us earlier and our new results, it was proposed that cerium (III) complex with 3,3'-benzylidenebis[4-hydroxycoumarin] might induce intracellular acidification along with control over the extracellular oxidative stress.

  5. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex: molecular components, structure and physiopathological implications

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Pinton, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Although it has long been known that mitochondria take up Ca2+, the molecular identities of the channels and transporters involved in this process were revealed only recently. Here, we discuss the recent work that has led to the characterization of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex, which includes the channel-forming subunit MCU (mitochondrial calcium uniporter) and its regulators MICU1, MICU2, MCUb, EMRE, MCUR1 and miR-25. We review not only the biochemical identities and structures of the proteins required for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake but also their implications in different physiopathological contexts. PMID:24366263

  6. Isolated respiratory chain enzyme deficiency in patients with a mitochondrial (encephalo-) myopathy: Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial complex and IV genes

    SciTech Connect

    Vries, D. de; Coo, I. de; Buddiger, P.

    1994-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of four enzyme complexes. Deficiencies of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) are frequently found in muscle biopsies from patients with a mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy. Mutations in the mitochondrial-encoded subunits have been observed in a number of different mitochondrial (encephalo-)myophathies. We screened eight mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy patients with an isolated complex I deficiency for mutations in the ND genes by direct sequencing. No abnormality was detected. We also studied 9 mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy patients and an isolated complex IV deficiency. In the muscle biopsy of one patient a novel heteroplasmic mutation (T {r_arrow} C) at nucleotide position 6681 was found in the mitochondrial COX I gene. This mutation led to the substitution of a conserved Tyr for His. As this mutation changed the secondary structure of the protein and was not found in the healthy mother, we consider it likely that this mutation is pathological. In the other patients no abnormality was detected. Therefore, mutations in the mitochondrially-encoded subunits are not a frequent cause of isolated respiratory chain enzyme deficiency.

  7. Six-coordinate lanthanide complexes: slow relaxation of magnetization in the dysprosium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Na, Bo; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Wang, Bing-Wu; Gao, Chen; Gao, Song; Cheng, Peng

    2014-11-24

    A series of six-coordinate lanthanide complexes {(H3O)[Ln(NA)2]⋅H2O}n (H2NA=5-hydroxynicotinic acid; Ln=Gd(III) (1⋅Gd); Tb(III) (2⋅Tb); Dy(III) (3⋅Dy); Ho(III) (4⋅Ho)) have been synthesized from aqueous solution and fully characterized. Slow relaxation of the magnetization was observed in 3⋅Dy. To suppress the quantum tunneling of the magnetization, 3⋅Dy diluted by diamagnetic Y(III) ions was also synthesized and magnetically studied. Interesting butterfly-like hysteresis loops and an enhanced energy barrier for the slow relaxation of magnetization were observed in diluted 3⋅Dy. The energy barrier (Δ(τ)) and pre-exponential factor (τ0) of the diluted 3⋅Dy are 75 K and 4.21×10(-5) s, respectively. This work illustrates a successful way to obtain low-coordination-number lanthanide complexes by a framework approach to show single-ion-magnet-like behavior.

  8. Soluble, Prefibrillar α-Synuclein Oligomers Promote Complex I-dependent, Ca2+-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Luth, Eric S.; Stavrovskaya, Irina G.; Bartels, Tim; Kristal, Bruce S.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    α-Synuclein (αSyn) aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction both contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Although recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial association of αSyn may disrupt mitochondrial function, it is unclear what aggregation state of αSyn is most damaging to mitochondria and what conditions promote or inhibit the effect of toxic αSyn species. Because the neuronal populations most vulnerable in PD are characterized by large cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations that burden mitochondria, we examined mitochondrial Ca2+ stress in an in vitro system comprising isolated mitochondria and purified recombinant human αSyn in various aggregation states. Using fluorimetry to simultaneously measure four mitochondrial parameters, we observed that soluble, prefibrillar αSyn oligomers, but not monomeric or fibrillar αSyn, decreased the retention time of exogenously added Ca2+, promoted Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, and accelerated cytochrome c release. Inhibition of the permeability transition pore rescued these αSyn-induced changes in mitochondrial parameters. Interestingly, the mitotoxic effects of αSyn were specifically dependent upon both electron flow through complex I and mitochondrial uptake of exogenous Ca2+. Our results suggest that soluble prefibrillar αSyn oligomers recapitulate several mitochondrial phenotypes previously observed in animal and cell models of PD: complex I dysfunction, altered membrane potential, disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis, and enhanced cytochrome c release. These data reveal how the association of oligomeric αSyn with mitochondria can be detrimental to the function of cells with high Ca2+-handling requirements. PMID:24942732

  9. Mono- and bis-tolylterpyridine iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Lindsay M.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Mann, Kent R.

    2012-01-20

    The first structure report of trichlorido[4'-(p-tolyl)-2,2':6',2{double_prime}-terpyridine]iridium(III) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate, [IrCl{sub 3}(C{sub 22}H{sub 17}N{sub 3})] {center_dot} C{sub 2}H{sub 6}OS, (I), is presented, along with a higher-symmetry setting of previously reported bis[4'-(p-tolyl)-2,2':6',2{double_prime}-terpyridine]iridium(III) tris(hexafluoridophosphate) acetonitrile disolvate, [Ir(C{sub 22}H{sub 17}N{sub 3})2](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} {center_dot} 2C{sub 2}H{sub 3}N, (II) [Yoshikawa, Yamabe, Kanehisa, Kai, Takashima & Tsukahara (2007). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. pp. 1911-1919]. For (I), the data were collected with synchrotron radiation and the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecule is disordered over three positions, one of which is an inversion center. The previously reported structure of (II) is presented in the more appropriate C2/c space group. The iridium complex and one PF{sub 6}{sup -} anion lie on twofold axes in this structure, making half of the molecule unique.

  10. The Silver Complexes of Porphyrins, Corroles, and Carbaporphyrins: Silver in the Oxidation States II and III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Studies in relation to the silver complexes of porphyrins, corroles and carbaporphyrins are presented especially with relation to silver in the oxidation states II and III. It is seen that the Ag(sub III) complex was electrochemically readily and reversibly reduced to the corresponding Ag(sub II) complex, thus indicating that the complex could be…

  11. The Silver Complexes of Porphyrins, Corroles, and Carbaporphyrins: Silver in the Oxidation States II and III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Studies in relation to the silver complexes of porphyrins, corroles and carbaporphyrins are presented especially with relation to silver in the oxidation states II and III. It is seen that the Ag(sub III) complex was electrochemically readily and reversibly reduced to the corresponding Ag(sub II) complex, thus indicating that the complex could be…

  12. Analysis of gold(I/III)-complexes by HPLC-ICP-MS demonstrates gold(III) stability in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Ta, Christine; Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joël; Pring, Allan; Lenehan, Claire E

    2014-05-20

    Understanding the form in which gold is transported in surface- and groundwaters underpins our understanding of gold dispersion and (bio)geochemical cycling. Yet, to date, there are no direct techniques capable of identifying the oxidation state and complexation of gold in natural waters. We present a reversed phase ion-pairing HPLC-ICP-MS method for the separation and determination of aqueous gold(III)-chloro-hydroxyl, gold(III)-bromo-hydroxyl, gold(I)-thiosulfate, and gold(I)-cyanide complexes. Detection limits for the gold species range from 0.05 to 0.30 μg L(-1). The [Au(CN)2](-) gold cyanide complex was detected in five of six waters from tailings and adjacent monitoring bores of working gold mines. Contrary to thermodynamic predictions, evidence was obtained for the existence of Au(III)-complexes in circumneutral, hypersaline waters of a natural lake overlying a gold deposit in Western Australia. This first direct evidence for the existence and stability of Au(III)-complexes in natural surface waters suggests that Au(III)-complexes may be important for the transport and biogeochemical cycling of gold in surface environments. Overall, these results show that near-μg L(-1) enrichments of Au in environmental waters result from metastable ligands (e.g., CN(-)) as well as kinetically controlled redox processes leading to the stability of highly soluble Au(III)-complexes.

  13. Anionic carbonato and oxalato cobalt(III) nitrogen mustard complexes.

    PubMed

    Craig, Peter R; Brothers, Penelope J; Clark, George R; Wilson, William R; Denny, William A; Ware, David C

    2004-02-21

    Synthetic approaches to cobalt(III) complexes [Co(L)(L')2] containing the bidentate dialkylating nitrogen mustard N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (L = dce) together with anionic ancilliary ligands (L') which are either carbonato (CO3(2-)), oxalato (ox2-), bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamato (bhedtc-), 2-pyridine carboxylato (pico-) or 2-pyrazine carboxylato (pyzc-) were investigated. Synthetic routes were developed using the related amines N,N-diethyl-1,2-ethanediamine (dee) and 1,2-ethanediamine (en). The complexes [Co(CO3)2(L)]- (L = dee 1, dce 2), [Co(ox)2(L)]- (L = dee 3, dce 4), [Co(bhedtc)2(dee)]+ 5, [Co(bhedtc)2(en)]+ 6, mer-[Co(pico)3], mer-[Co(pyzc)]3 7 and [Co(pico)2(dee)]+ 8 were prepared and were characterised by IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C[1H] NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. [Co(bhedtc)2(en)]BPh4 6b and trans(O)-[Co(pico)2(dee)]ClO4 8 were characterised by X-ray crystallography. In vitro biological tests were carried out on complexes 1-4 in order to assess the degree to which coordination of the mustard to cobalt attenuated its cytotoxicity, and the differential toxicity in air vs. nitrogen.

  14. Detailed analysis of the human mitochondrial contact site complex indicate a hierarchy of subunits.

    PubMed

    Ott, Christine; Dorsch, Eva; Fraunholz, Martin; Straub, Sebastian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial inner membrane folds into cristae, which significantly increase its surface and are important for mitochondrial function. The stability of cristae depends on the mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex. In human mitochondria, the inner membrane MICOS complex interacts with the outer membrane sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) complex, to form the mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging complex (MIB). We have created knockdown cell lines of most of the MICOS and MIB components and have used them to study the importance of the individual subunits for the cristae formation and complex stability. We show that the most important subunits of the MIB complex in human mitochondria are Mic60/Mitofilin, Mic19/CHCHD3 and an outer membrane component Sam50. We provide additional proof that ApoO indeed is a subunit of the MICOS and MIB complexes and propose the name Mic23 for this protein. According to our results, Mic25/CHCHD6, Mic27/ApoOL and Mic23/ApoO appear to be periphery subunits of the MICOS complex, because their depletion does not affect cristae morphology or stability of other components.

  15. Chemical and biological reduction of Mn (III)-pyrophosphate complexes: Potential importance of dissolved Mn (III) as an environmental oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Joel E.; Luther, George W., III; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1995-03-01

    Dissolved Mn (III) is a strong oxidant which could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic environments, but little is known about this form of Mn. Mn(III) was shown to form a stable complex with pyrophosphate which is easily measured by uv-vis spectrophotometry. The Mn(III)-pyrophosphate complex was produced at concentrations of 5 μM to 10 mM Mn at neutral pH. Inorganic electron donors, Fe(II) and sulfide, abiotically reduced Mn(III)-pyrophosphate in seconds with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and near 1:2 reductant:Mn (III), respectively. Shewanella putrefaciens strain MR-1 catalyzed the reduction of Mn(III)-pyrophosphate with formate or lactate as electron donors. Reduction of Mn(III) catalyzed by MR-1 was inhibited under aerobic conditions but only slightly under anaerobic conditions upon addition of the alternate electron acceptor, nitrate. MR-1 catalyzed reduction was also inhibited by metabolic inhibitors including formaldehyde, tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2- n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), but not antimycin A. When formate or lactate served as electron donor for Mn(III) reduction, carbon oxidation to CO 2 was coupled to the respiration of Mn (III). Using the incorporation of 3H-leucine into the TCA-insoluble fraction of culture extracts, it was shown that Mn (III) reduction was coupled to protein synthesis in MR-1. These data indicate that Mn (III) complexes may be produced under conditions found in aquatic environments and that the reduction of Mn(III) can be coupled to the cycling of Fe, S, and C.

  16. Mutation of C20orf7 Disrupts Complex I Assembly and Causes Lethal Neonatal Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugiana, Canny; Pagliarini, David J.; McKenzie, Matthew; Kirby, Denise M.; Salemi, Renato; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Hutchison, Wendy M.; Vascotto, Katherine A.; Smith, Stacey M.; Newbold, Robert F.; Christodoulou, John; Calvo, Sarah; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Ryan, Michael T.; Thorburn, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and largest multimeric complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Human complex I comprises seven subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA and 38 nuclear-encoded subunits that are assembled together in a process that is only partially understood. To date, mutations causing complex I deficiency have been described in all 14 core subunits, five supernumerary subunits, and four assembly factors. We describe complex I deficiency caused by mutation of the putative complex I assembly factor C20orf7. A candidate region for a lethal neonatal form of complex I deficiency was identified by homozygosity mapping of an Egyptian family with one affected child and two affected pregnancies predicted by enzyme-based prenatal diagnosis. The region was confirmed by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, and 11 candidate genes encoding potential mitochondrial proteins were sequenced. A homozygous missense mutation in C20orf7 segregated with disease in the family. We show that C20orf7 is peripherally associated with the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane and that silencing its expression with RNAi decreases complex I activity. C20orf7 patient fibroblasts showed an almost complete absence of complex I holoenzyme and were defective at an early stage of complex I assembly, but in a manner distinct from the assembly defects caused by mutations in the assembly factor NDUFAF1. Our results indicate that C20orf7 is crucial in the assembly of complex I and that mutations in C20orf7 cause mitochondrial disease. PMID:18940309

  17. Oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by aminopolycarboxylatocobaltate(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, G S; Mitchel, G L; Blackmer, G L; Holwerda, R A

    1978-01-01

    Rate parameters are reported for the oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)-(k(25.0 degrees) = 17.9 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0, Mu 0.5 M) and Co(CyDTA)-(k(25.1 degrees) = 17.0 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.7 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0 mu 0.5 M). The first order Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- dependences observed over wide concentration ranges contrast with the saturation behavior reported previously for Co(EDTA)- as the oxidant. It is concluded that the- CH3 and -(CH2)4-substituents of PDTA and CyDTA, respectively, prevent the alkylated derivatives of Co(EDTA)- from hydrogen bonding with the reduced blue protein, causing precursor complex formation constants to fall far below that of 149M(-1) (25.1 degrees) observed for the EDTA complex. The similarity between deltaH not equal to and deltaS not equal to values for the oxidation of stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- indicates that the size of alkyl substituents linked to the carbon atoms of the EDTA ethylenediamine backbone has little influence on activation requirements for Cu(I) to Co(III) electron transfer. The electron transfer reactivity of aminopolycarboxylatocobalt(III) complexes with cuprous stellacyanin therefore appears to be linked to the accessibility of one or more of the ligated acetate groups to outer-sphere contact with the type 1 Cu(I) center. Saturation in kobsd vs. [oxidant] plots found for the reactions of Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- with stellacyanin at pH 6 and at pH 7 in the presence of EDTA is attributed to the formation of "dead-end" oxidant-protein complexes.

  18. Formation of Gold(III) Alkyls from Gold Alkoxide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The gold(III) methoxide complex (C∧N∧C)AuOMe (1) reacts with tris(p-tolyl)phosphine in benzene at room temperature under O abstraction to give the methylgold product (C∧N∧C)AuMe (2) together with O=P(p-tol)3 ((C∧N∧C) = [2,6-(C6H3tBu-4)2pyridine]2–). Calculations show that this reaction is energetically favorable (ΔG = −32.3 kcal mol–1). The side products in this reaction, the Au(II) complex [Au(C∧N∧C)]2 (3) and the phosphorane (p-tol)3P(OMe)2, suggest that at least two reaction pathways may operate, including one involving (C∧N∧C)Au• radicals. Attempts to model the reaction by DFT methods showed that PPh3 can approach 1 to give a near-linear Au–O–P arrangement, without phosphine coordination to gold. The analogous reaction of (C∧N∧C)AuOEt, on the other hand, gives exclusively a mixture of 3 and (p-tol)3P(OEt)2. Whereas the reaction of (C∧N∧C)AuOR (R = But, p-C6H4F) with P(p-tol)3 proceeds over a period of hours, compounds with R = CH2CF3, CH(CF3)2 react almost instantaneously, to give 3 and O=P(p-tol)3. In chlorinated solvents, treatment of the alkoxides (C∧N∧C)AuOR with phosphines generates [(C∧N∧C)Au(PR3)]Cl, via Cl abstraction from the solvent. Attempts to extend the synthesis of gold(III) alkoxides to allyl alcohols were unsuccessful; the reaction of (C∧N∧C)AuOH with an excess of CH2=CHCH2OH in toluene led instead to allyl alcohol isomerization to give a mixture of gold alkyls, (C∧N∧C)AuR′ (R′ = −CH2CH2CHO (10), −CH2CH(CH2OH)OCH2CH=CH2 (11)), while 2-methallyl alcohol affords R′ = CH2CH(Me)CHO (12). The crystal structure of 11 was determined. The formation of Au–C instead of the expected Au–O products is in line with the trend in metal–ligand bond dissociation energies for Au(III): M–H > M–C > M–O.

  19. Honokiol induces superoxide production by targeting mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingmei; Liao, Kai; Wang, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    Honokiol, a compound extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has antifungal activities by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and triggering apoptosis in Candida albicans. However, the mechanism of honokiol-induced oxidative stress is poorly understood. The present investigation was designed to determine the specific mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generation component. We found that honokiol induced mitochondrial ROS accumulation, mainly superoxide anions (O2•-) measured by fluorescent staining method. The mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (C I) inhibitor rotenone completely blocked O2•- production and provided the protection from the killing action of honokiol. Moreover, respiratory activity and the C I enzyme activity was significantly reduced after honokiol treatment. The differential gene-expression profile also showed that genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation were upregulated. The present work shows that honokiol may bind to mitochondrial respiratory chain C I, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, accompanied by increased cellular superoxide anion and oxidative stress. This work not only provides insights on the mechanism by which honokiol interferes with fungal cell, demonstrating previously unknown effects on mitochondrial physiology, but also raises a note of caution on the use of M. officinalis as a Chinese medicine due to the toxic for mitochondria and suggests the possibility of using honokiol as chemosensitizer.

  20. Steatotic livers are susceptible to normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury from mitochondrial Complex-I dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Michael JJ; Premkumar, Rakesh; Hickey, Anthony JR; Jiang, Yannan; Delahunt, Brett; Phillips, Anthony RJ; Bartlett, Adam SJR

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC, 10-min ischemia/10-min reperfusion) on steatotic liver mitochondrial function after normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 8-wk with either control chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet inducing > 60% mixed steatosis. Three groups (n = 10/group) for each dietary state were tested: (1) the IRI group underwent 60 min partial hepatic ischemia and 4 h reperfusion; (2) the IPC group underwent IPC prior to same standard IRI; and (3) sham underwent the same surgery without IRI or IPC. Hepatic mitochondrial function was analyzed by oxygraphs. Mitochondrial Complex-I, Complex-II enzyme activity, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and histological injury were measured. RESULTS: Steatotic-IRI livers had a greater increase in ALT (2476 ± 166 vs 1457 ± 103 IU/L, P < 0.01) and histological injury following IRI compared to the lean liver group. Steatotic-IRI demonstrated lower Complex-I activity at baseline [78.4 ± 2.5 vs 116.4 ± 6.0 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001] and following IRI [28.0 ± 6.2 vs 104.3 ± 12.6 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001]. Steatotic-IRI also demonstrated impaired Complex-I function post-IRI compared to the lean liver IRI group. Complex-II activity was unaffected by hepatic steatosis or IRI. Lean liver mitochondrial function was unchanged following IRI. IPC normalized ALT and histological injury in steatotic livers but had no effect on overall steatotic liver mitochondrial function or individual mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. CONCLUSION: Warm IRI impairs steatotic liver Complex-I activity and function. The protective effects of IPC in steatotic livers may not be mediated through mitochondria. PMID:27217699

  1. MICOS coordinates with respiratory complexes and lipids to establish mitochondrial inner membrane architecture

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jonathan R; Mourier, Arnaud; Yamada, Justin; McCaffery, J Michael; Nunnari, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    The conserved MICOS complex functions as a primary determinant of mitochondrial inner membrane structure. We address the organization and functional roles of MICOS and identify two independent MICOS subcomplexes: Mic27/Mic10/Mic12, whose assembly is dependent on respiratory complexes and the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin, and Mic60/Mic19, which assembles independent of these factors. Our data suggest that MICOS subcomplexes independently localize to cristae junctions and are connected via Mic19, which functions to regulate subcomplex distribution, and thus, potentially also cristae junction copy number. MICOS subunits have non-redundant functions as the absence of both MICOS subcomplexes results in more severe morphological and respiratory growth defects than deletion of single MICOS subunits or subcomplexes. Mitochondrial defects resulting from MICOS loss are caused by misdistribution of respiratory complexes in the inner membrane. Together, our data are consistent with a model where MICOS, mitochondrial lipids and respiratory complexes coordinately build a functional and correctly shaped mitochondrial inner membrane. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07739.001 PMID:25918844

  2. Impaired Mitochondrial Dynamics and Mitophagy in Neuronal Models of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Saffari, Afshin; Wahlster, Lara; Di Nardo, Alessia; Turner, Daria; Lewis, Tommy L; Conrad, Christopher; Rothberg, Jonathan M; Lipton, Jonathan O; Kölker, Stefan; Hoffmann, Georg F; Han, Min-Joon; Polleux, Franck; Sahin, Mustafa

    2016-10-18

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurodevelopmental disease caused by TSC1 or TSC2 mutations and subsequent activation of the mTORC1 kinase. Upon mTORC1 activation, anabolic metabolism, which requires mitochondria, is induced, yet at the same time the principal pathway for mitochondrial turnover, autophagy, is compromised. How mTORC1 activation impacts mitochondrial turnover in neurons remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate impaired mitochondrial homeostasis in neuronal in vitro and in vivo models of TSC. We find that Tsc1/2-deficient neurons accumulate mitochondria in cell bodies, but are depleted of axonal mitochondria, including those supporting presynaptic sites. Axonal and global mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is impaired, suggesting that decreased turnover may act upstream of impaired mitochondrial metabolism. Importantly, blocking mTORC1 or inducing mTOR-independent autophagy restores mitochondrial homeostasis. Our study clarifies the complex relationship between the TSC-mTORC1 pathway, autophagy, and mitophagy, and defines mitochondrial homeostasis as a therapeutic target for TSC and related diseases.

  3. Perturbation in mitochondrial network dynamics and in complex I dependent cellular respiration in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Marina; Brenner-Lavie, Hanit; Ari, Shunit Gal-Ben; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Ben-Shachar, Dorit

    2011-05-15

    Mitochondria have been suggested to be involved in the pathology of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. However, the mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction is unclear. Mitochondrial network dynamics, which reflects cellular metabolic state, is important for embryonic development, synapse formation, and neurodegeneration. This study aimed to investigate mitochondrial network dynamics and its plausible association with abnormal cellular oxygen consumption in schizophrenia. Viable Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes (lymphoblastoids) from DSM-IV diagnosed patients with schizophrenia (n = 17), BD (n = 15), and healthy control subjects (n = 15) were assessed for mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial dynamics, and relevant protein levels by oxygraph, confocal microscopy, and immunoblotting, respectively. Respiration of schizophrenia-derived lymphoblastoids was significantly lower compared with control subjects, and was twice as sensitive to dopamine (DA)-induced inhibition. Unlike DA, haloperidol inhibited complex I-driven respiration to a similar extent in both schizophrenia and the control cells. Both drugs interact with complex I but at different sites. At the site of DA interaction, we found alterations in protein levels of three subunits of complex I in schizophrenia. In addition, we observed structural and connectivity perturbations in the mitochondrial network, associated with alterations in the profusion protein OPA1, which was similarly reduced in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex specimens. None of these alterations were observed in the BD cells, which were similar to control cells. We show impaired mitochondrial network dynamics associated with reduced cellular respiration and complex I abnormalities in schizophrenia but not in BD. If these findings represent disease-specific alterations, they may become an endophenotype biomarker for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. A hexadentate bis(thiosemicarbazonato) ligand: rhenium(V), iron(III) and cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Brett M; White, Jonathan M; Donnelly, Paul S

    2010-03-21

    A new 1,3-diaminopropane bridged bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligand (H(4)L) has been synthesised. The new hexadentate ligand is capable of forming six coordinate complexes with rhenium(V), iron(III) and cobalt(III). In the case of the iron(III) and cobalt(III) complexes the ligand doubly deprotonates to give the monocations [Fe(III)(H(2)L)](+) and [Co(III)(H(2)L)](+) in which the metal ion is in a distorted octahedral environment. In the rhenium(V) complex the ligand loses four protons by deprotonation of both secondary amine nitrogen atoms to give [Re(V)(L)](+) with the metal ion in a distorted trigonal prismatic coordination environment. [Re(V)(L)](+) represents a rare example of a rhenium(V) complex that does not contain one of the ReO(3+), ReN(2+) or Re(NPh)(2+) cores. The new ligand and metal complexes have been characterised by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry and microanalysis. The electrochemistry of [Fe(III)(H(2)L)](+), [Co(III)(H(2)L)](+) and [Re(V)(L)](+) has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry with each complex undergoing a single electron reduction event. It is possible to prepare the rhenium(V) complex from ReOCl(3)(PPh(3))(2) or directly from [ReO(4)](-) with the addition of a reductant, which suggests the new ligand may be of interest in the development of rhenium radiopharmaceuticals.

  5. Structural insight into the TRIAP1/PRELI-like domain family of mitochondrial phospholipid transfer complexes.

    PubMed

    Miliara, Xeni; Garnett, James A; Tatsuta, Takashi; Abid Ali, Ferdos; Baldie, Heather; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Simpson, Peter; Yague, Ernesto; Langer, Thomas; Matthews, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The composition of the mitochondrial membrane is important for its architecture and proper function. Mitochondria depend on a tightly regulated supply of phospholipid via intra-mitochondrial synthesis and by direct import from the endoplasmic reticulum. The Ups1/PRELI-like family together with its mitochondrial chaperones (TRIAP1/Mdm35) represent a unique heterodimeric lipid transfer system that is evolutionary conserved from yeast to man. Work presented here provides new atomic resolution insight into the function of a human member of this system. Crystal structures of free TRIAP1 and the TRIAP1-SLMO1 complex reveal how the PRELI domain is chaperoned during import into the intermembrane mitochondrial space. The structural resemblance of PRELI-like domain of SLMO1 with that of mammalian phoshatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) suggest that they share similar lipid transfer mechanisms, in which access to a buried phospholipid-binding cavity is regulated by conformationally adaptable loops.

  6. Structural insight into the TRIAP1/PRELI-like domain family of mitochondrial phospholipid transfer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miliara, Xeni; Garnett, James A; Tatsuta, Takashi; Abid Ali, Ferdos; Baldie, Heather; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Simpson, Peter; Yague, Ernesto; Langer, Thomas; Matthews, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the mitochondrial membrane is important for its architecture and proper function. Mitochondria depend on a tightly regulated supply of phospholipid via intra-mitochondrial synthesis and by direct import from the endoplasmic reticulum. The Ups1/PRELI-like family together with its mitochondrial chaperones (TRIAP1/Mdm35) represent a unique heterodimeric lipid transfer system that is evolutionary conserved from yeast to man. Work presented here provides new atomic resolution insight into the function of a human member of this system. Crystal structures of free TRIAP1 and the TRIAP1–SLMO1 complex reveal how the PRELI domain is chaperoned during import into the intermembrane mitochondrial space. The structural resemblance of PRELI-like domain of SLMO1 with that of mammalian phoshatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) suggest that they share similar lipid transfer mechanisms, in which access to a buried phospholipid-binding cavity is regulated by conformationally adaptable loops. PMID:26071602

  7. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Natalia P.; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Salazar, Julio; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Nunez, Marco T.

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters are involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given that

  8. Lipids of Sarcina lutea III. Composition of the Complex Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Charles K.; Albro, Phillip W.; Grindey, Gerald B.

    1965-01-01

    Huston, Charles K. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Phillip W. Albro, and Gerald B. Grindey. Lipids of Sarcina lutea. III. Composition of the complex lipids. J. Bacteriol. 89:768–775. 1965.—The complex lipids from a strain of Sarcina lutea were isolated and separated into fractions on diethylaminoethyl cellulose acetate and silicic acid columns. These fractions were monitored in several thin-layer chromatography systems. The various lipid types were characterized by their behavior in thin-layer systems and by an analysis of their hydrolysis products. The fatty acid composition of the column fractions was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. A number of components (13) were separated by thin-layer chromatography and characterized. The major components were polyglycerol phosphatide (17.0%), lipoamino acids (15.1%), phosphatidyl glycerol (13.8%), and an incompletely characterized substance (15.0%). Minor constituents included phosphatidyl inositol (5.5%), phosphatidic acid (4.2%), phosphatidyl serine (2.0%), and phosphatidyl choline (1.0%). No phosphatidyl ethanolamine was observed. PMID:14273659

  9. Mitochondrial Targeting of Vitamin E Succinate Enhances Its Pro-apoptotic and Anti-cancer Activity via Mitochondrial Complex II*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lan-Feng; Jameson, Victoria J. A.; Tilly, David; Cerny, Jiri; Mahdavian, Elahe; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Stursa, Jan; Witting, Paul K.; Stantic, Bela; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Kluckova, Katarina; Dyason, Jeffrey C.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Salvatore, Brian A.; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Coster, Mark J.; Ralph, Stephen J.; Smith, Robin A. J.; Neuzil, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex II (CII) has been recently identified as a novel target for anti-cancer drugs. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES) is modified so that it is preferentially localized to mitochondria, greatly enhancing its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activity. Using genetically manipulated cells, MitoVES caused apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CII-proficient malignant cells but not their CII-dysfunctional counterparts. MitoVES inhibited the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of CII with IC50 of 80 μm, whereas the electron transfer from CII to CIII was inhibited with IC50 of 1.5 μm. The agent had no effect either on the enzymatic activity of CI or on electron transfer from CI to CIII. Over 24 h, MitoVES caused stabilization of the oxygen-dependent destruction domain of HIF1α fused to GFP, indicating promotion of the state of pseudohypoxia. Molecular modeling predicted the succinyl group anchored into the proximal CII ubiquinone (UbQ)-binding site and successively reduced interaction energies for serially shorter phytyl chain homologs of MitoVES correlated with their lower effects on apoptosis induction, ROS generation, and SDH activity. Mutation of the UbQ-binding Ser68 within the proximal site of the CII SDHC subunit (S68A or S68L) suppressed both ROS generation and apoptosis induction by MitoVES. In vivo studies indicated that MitoVES also acts by causing pseudohypoxia in the context of tumor suppression. We propose that mitochondrial targeting of VES with an 11-carbon chain localizes the agent into an ideal position across the interface of the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix, optimizing its biological effects as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:21059645

  10. Mitochondrial targeting of vitamin E succinate enhances its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activity via mitochondrial complex II.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lan-Feng; Jameson, Victoria J A; Tilly, David; Cerny, Jiri; Mahdavian, Elahe; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Stursa, Jan; Witting, Paul K; Stantic, Bela; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Kluckova, Katarina; Dyason, Jeffrey C; Ledvina, Miroslav; Salvatore, Brian A; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Coster, Mark J; Ralph, Stephen J; Smith, Robin A J; Neuzil, Jiri

    2011-02-04

    Mitochondrial complex II (CII) has been recently identified as a novel target for anti-cancer drugs. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES) is modified so that it is preferentially localized to mitochondria, greatly enhancing its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activity. Using genetically manipulated cells, MitoVES caused apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CII-proficient malignant cells but not their CII-dysfunctional counterparts. MitoVES inhibited the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of CII with IC(50) of 80 μM, whereas the electron transfer from CII to CIII was inhibited with IC(50) of 1.5 μM. The agent had no effect either on the enzymatic activity of CI or on electron transfer from CI to CIII. Over 24 h, MitoVES caused stabilization of the oxygen-dependent destruction domain of HIF1α fused to GFP, indicating promotion of the state of pseudohypoxia. Molecular modeling predicted the succinyl group anchored into the proximal CII ubiquinone (UbQ)-binding site and successively reduced interaction energies for serially shorter phytyl chain homologs of MitoVES correlated with their lower effects on apoptosis induction, ROS generation, and SDH activity. Mutation of the UbQ-binding Ser(68) within the proximal site of the CII SDHC subunit (S68A or S68L) suppressed both ROS generation and apoptosis induction by MitoVES. In vivo studies indicated that MitoVES also acts by causing pseudohypoxia in the context of tumor suppression. We propose that mitochondrial targeting of VES with an 11-carbon chain localizes the agent into an ideal position across the interface of the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix, optimizing its biological effects as an anti-cancer drug.

  11. Involvement of DNA ligase III and ribonuclease H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Ruhanen, Heini; Ushakov, Kathy; Yasukawa, Takehiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis operates in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, but the factors involved in lagging strand synthesis are largely uncharacterised. We investigated the effect of knockdown of the candidate proteins in cultured human cells under conditions where mtDNA appears to replicate chiefly via coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to restore the copy number of mtDNA to normal levels after transient mtDNA depletion. DNA ligase III knockdown attenuated the recovery of mtDNA copy number and appeared to cause single strand nicks in replicating mtDNA molecules, suggesting the involvement of DNA ligase III in Okazaki fragment ligation in human mitochondria. Knockdown of ribonuclease (RNase) H1 completely prevented the mtDNA copy number restoration, and replication intermediates with increased single strand nicks were readily observed. On the other hand, knockdown of neither flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) nor DNA2 affected mtDNA replication. These findings imply that RNase H1 is indispensable for the progression of mtDNA synthesis through removing RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. In the nucleus, Okazaki fragments are ligated by DNA ligase I, and the RNase H2 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing. This study thus proposes that the mitochondrial replication system utilises distinct proteins, DNA ligase III and RNase H1, for Okazaki fragment maturation.

  12. Optimizing millisecond time scale near-infrared emission in polynuclear chrome(III)-lanthanide(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Aboshyan-Sorgho, Lilit; Nozary, Homayoun; Aebischer, Annina; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G; Morgantini, Pierre-Yves; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Hauser, Andreas; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Petoud, Stéphane; Piguet, Claude

    2012-08-01

    This work illustrates a simple approach for optimizing long-lived near-infrared lanthanide-centered luminescence using trivalent chromium chromophores as sensitizers. Reactions of the segmental ligand L2 with stoichiometric amounts of M(CF(3)SO(3))(2) (M = Cr, Zn) and Ln(CF(3)SO(3))(3) (Ln = Nd, Er, Yb) under aerobic conditions quantitatively yield the D(3)-symmetrical trinuclear [MLnM(L2)(3)](CF(3)SO(3))(n) complexes (M = Zn, n = 7; M = Cr, n = 9), in which the central lanthanide activator is sandwiched between the two transition metal cations. Visible or NIR irradiation of the peripheral Cr(III) chromophores in [CrLnCr(L2)(3)](9+) induces rate-limiting intramolecular intermetallic Cr→Ln energy transfer processes (Ln = Nd, Er, Yb), which eventually produces lanthanide-centered near-infrared (NIR) or IR emission with apparent lifetimes within the millisecond range. As compared to the parent dinuclear complexes [CrLn(L1)(3)](6+), the connection of a second strong-field [CrN(6)] sensitizer in [CrLnCr(L2)(3)](9+) significantly enhances the emission intensity without perturbing the kinetic regime. This work opens novel exciting photophysical perspectives via the buildup of non-negligible population densities for the long-lived doubly excited state [Cr*LnCr*(L2)(3)](9+) under reasonable pumping powers.

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active compounds derived from oxalyldihydrazide and benzil, and their Cr(III), Fe(III) and Mn(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, D P; Kumar, Ramesh; Singh, Jitender

    2009-04-01

    A new series of complexes have been synthesized by template condensation of oxalyldihydrazide and benzil in methanolic medium in the presence of trivalent chromium, manganese and iron salts forming complexes of the type [M(C(32)H(24)N(8)O(4))X]X(2) where M = Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) and X = Cl(-1), NO(3)(-1), CH(3)COO(-1). The complexes have been characterized with the help of elemental analyses, conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, NMR, infrared and far infrared spectral studies. On the basis of these studies, a five coordinate square pyramidal geometry has been proposed for all these complexes. The biological activities of the metal complexes have been tested in vitro against a number of pathogenic bacteria to assess their inhibiting potential. Some of these complexes have been found to exhibit remarkable antibacterial activities.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain with aging Involvement of complex I, reactive oxygen species and cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, G; Matera, M; Casanova, G; Ruggiero, F M; Paradies, G

    2008-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a key factor in brain aging process. Mitochondrial respiration is an important site of ROS production and hence a potential contributor to brain functional changes with aging. In this study we examined the effect of aging on complex I activity, oxygen consumption, ROS production and phospholipid composition in rat brain mitochondria. The activity of complex I was reduced by 30% in brain mitochondria from 24 months aged rats relative to young animals. These changes in complex I activity were associated with parallel changes in state 3 respiration. H(2)O(2) generation was significantly increased in mitochondria isolated from aged rats. The mitochondrial content of cardiolipin, a phospholipid required for optimal activity of complex I, decreased by 31% as function of aging, while there was a significant increase in the level of peroxidized cardiolipin. The age-related decrease in complex I activity in brain mitochondria could be reversed by exogenously added cardiolipin. This effect of cardiolipin could not be replaced by other phospholipids. It is proposed that aging causes brain mitochondrial complex I dysfunction which can be attributed to ROS-induced cardiolipin oxidation. These findings may prove useful in elucidating the mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction associated with brain aging.

  15. Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Yongliang, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

  16. Chromium(III) complexes of naturally occurring ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shahawi, M. S.

    1995-02-01

    Chromium(III) complexes prepared from CrCl 3Py 3 and anhydrous CrCl 3 with L(-)-threonine, nicotinic acid, glycine, D(-)-penicillamine, L(-)-cysteine and L(-)-cystine have been characterized. The magnetic moments (3.4-4.05 B.M.) are close to the spin only value for a d3 chromium(III) ion in octahedral or pseudo octahedral symmetry. In the electronic spectra two sharp peaks are observed at (15.9-19.8) × 10 3 and (22.0-26.7) × 10 3 cm -1 and are assigned to d-d transitions in the pseudo octahedral configuration. The parameters ( Dq, B, β35) and the interelectronic repulsion parameter with the ionic charge, Z∗, are calculated and place the ligand in the middle of the spectrochemical series. In the circular dichroism spectra three Cotton effects are observed in the forbidden band of the optically active chelates and are assigned to the 2E( 2Eg), 2A 2( 2T 1g) and2E( 2T 1g) while that in the spin allowed band are a result of the splitting of the 4A 2g( 4T 2g) to 4A 1( 4T 2g) and4E( 4T 2g) transitions. The structure of threonine, cystine and cysteine chelates are likely to be fac since strong and well defined Cotton effects are observed. The Cotton effects of penicillamine chelates are weak suggesting formation of the mer structure. Prolonged heating or bubbling air through the solution of CrCl 3Py 3 containing L(-)-threonine, glycine or nicotinic acid for several hours enhances chromium(VI) formation.

  17. Photoluminescent red, green and blue monoliths of new Eu(III), Tb(III) and Y(III) complexes embedded in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Corneliu S.; Popa, Marcel; Sutiman, Daniel; Horlescu, Petronela

    2014-07-01

    Large transparent photoluminescent monoliths were prepared by embedding newly synthesized Eu(III), Tb(III) and Y(III) complexes with 2-(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)pyridine ligand in silica matrices through a modified sol-gel process. The remarkable luminescent properties of the free complexes were preserved in silica matrix, resulting in red, green and blue monoliths with a shape that may be tailored during the gelation process according to specific applications. Prior to embedment, the complexes prepared at 1/3 metal to ligand ratio were investigated through elemental analysis, thermal analysis, FT-IR, mass and fluorescence spectroscopy while the obtained silica monoliths were supplementary investigated through SEM and fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission peaks are located at 612 nm for the monolithic silica embedded Eu(III) complex, at 542 nm for the monolithic silica embedded Tb(III) complex and at 482 nm respectively for the silica monolith containing the Y(III) complex. Their excellent photoluminescent properties may recommend them as photonic conversion materials in various optoelectronic applications.

  18. Cerium(III), europium(III), and ytterbium(III) complexes with alcohol donor groups as chemical exchange saturation transfer agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Morrow, Janet R

    2009-08-03

    Lanthanide(III) complexes of macrocycles 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (THED) and (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (S-THP) were studied as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. The four hyperfine-shifted alcohol protons of these Ln(III) complexes gave rise to a single (1)H resonance in wet d(3)-acetonitrile that was separated from the bulk water resonance (Delta omega) by 8 ppm (Ce), 2 ppm (Nd), 7 ppm (Eu), or 17 ppm (Yb). A CEST peak corresponding to the alcohol protons was observed for all Ln(THED)(3+) or Ln(S-THP)(3+) complexes except Nd(III) at low water concentrations (<1%). In 100% aqueous buffered solutions, the CEST hydroxyl peak is observed for the Eu(III), Ce(III), and Yb(III) complexes over a range of pH values. The optimal pH range for the CEST effect of each complex is related to the pK(a) of the hydroxyl/water ligands of the complex. Optimum pH values for the CEST effect from alcohol proton exchange are pH = 6.0 for Ce(S-THP)(3+), pH = 4.5 for Eu(THED)(3+), and pH = 3.0 for Yb(S-THP)(3+).

  19. Effects of enhancing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with reducing equivalents and ubiquinone on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity and complex I-IV damage in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2004-03-15

    The effects of increasing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), by enhancing electron transport chain components, were evaluated on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) toxicity in brain neuroblastoma cells. Although glucose is a direct energy source, ultimately nicotinamide and flavin reducing equivalents fuel ATP produced through OXPHOS. The findings indicate that cell respiration/mitochondrial O(2) consumption (MOC) (in cells not treated with MPP+) is not controlled by the supply of glucose, coenzyme Q(10) (Co-Q(10)), NADH+, NAD or nicotinic acid. In contrast, MOC in whole cells is highly regulated by the supply of flavins: riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), where cell respiration reached up to 410% of controls. In isolated mitochondria, FAD and FMN drastically increased complex I rate of reaction (1300%) and (450%), respectively, having no effects on complex II or III. MPP+ reduced MOC in whole cells in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated mitochondria, MPP+ exerted mild inhibition at complex I, negligible effects on complexes II-III, and extensive inhibition of complex IV. Kinetic analysis of complex I revealed that MPP+ was competitive with NADH, and partially reversible by FAD and FMN. Co-Q(10) potentiated complex II ( approximately 200%), but not complex I or III. Despite positive influence of flavins and Co-Q(10) on complexes I-II function, neither protected against MPP+ toxicity, indicating inhibition of complex IV as the predominant target. The nicotinamides and glucose prevented MPP+ toxicity by fueling anaerobic glycolysis, evident by accumulation of lactate in the absence of MOC. The data also define a clear anomaly of neuroblastoma, indicating a preference for anaerobic conditions, and an adverse response to aerobic. An increase in CO(2), CO(2)/O(2) ratio, mitochondrial inhibition or O(2) deprivation was not directly toxic, but activated metabolism through glycolysis prompting depletion of glucose

  20. 1,2,4-Diazaphospholide complexes of lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii): synthesis, X-ray structural characterization, and magnetic susceptibility studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minggang; Wang, Lixia; Li, Pangpang; Ma, Jianping; Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-07-05

    A few heteroleptic, charge-separated heterobimetallic, and polymeric alkali metalate complexes of 1,2,4-diazaphospholide lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii) were simply prepared via the metathesis reaction of MCl3 (THF)m (m = 1-2) and K[3,5-R2dp] ([3,5-R2dp](-) = 3,5-di-substituent-1,2,4-diazaphospholide; R = tBu, Ph) in a varied ratio (1 : 3, 1 : 4, and 1 : 5, respectively) at room temperature in tetrahydrofuran. All the complexes were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (31)P{(1)H}, IR, and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis despite their paramagnetism (excluding La(iii) complexes). The structures of the complexes were found to feature varied coordination modes. The magnetic properties of several compounds were studied by magnetic susceptibility, and the complexes presented the magnetic moments close to or lower than the theoretical values for the free ions in the trivalent oxidation states (Pr(3+), Nd(3+)).

  1. Redox reactions of V(III) and Cr(III)picolinate complexes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayakumar, C. K.; Dey, G. R.; Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P. N.

    1996-12-01

    Reactions of e aq-, H-atoms, OH, (CH 3) 2COH, and CO 2- radicals with V(III)picolinate and Cr(III)picolinate have been studied by the pulse radiolysis technique. The spectra of V(II)picolinate, V(IV)picolinate, Cr(II)picolinate, OH adduct of Cr(III)picolinate and Cr(IV)picolinate have been obtained and the rate constants of the reactions of various radicals with V(III) and Cr(III)picolinate have been determined. The implications of these results to the chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor systems are discussed.

  2. A spectrophotometric study of Nd(III), Sm(III) and Er(III) complexation in sulfate-bearing solutions at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdisov, Art. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2008-11-01

    The speciation of Nd(III), Sm(III), and Er(III) in sulfate-bearing solutions has been determined spectrophotometrically at temperatures from 25 to 250 °C and a pressure of 100 bars. The data obtained earlier on the speciation of Nd in sulfate-bearing solutions ( Migdisov et al., 2006) have been re-evaluated and corrected using a more appropriate activity model and are compared with the corresponding data for Sm(III) and Er(III) and new data for Nd(III). Based on this comparison, the dominant species in the solution are interpreted to be REESO4+ and REE(SO)2-, with the latter complex increasing in importance at higher temperature. Equilibrium constants were calculated for the following reactions:

  3. Highly luminescent charge-neutral europium(iii) and terbium(iii) complexes with tridentate nitrogen ligands.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, Kuppusamy; Schäfer, Bernhard; Lebedkin, Sergei; Karmazin, Lydia; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario

    2015-09-21

    We report on the synthesis of tridentate-nitrogen pyrazole-pyridine-tetrazole (L(1)H) and pyrazole-pyridine-triazole (L(2)H) ligands and their complexation with lanthanides (Ln = Gd(iii), Eu(iii) and Tb(iii)) resulting in stable, charge-neutral complexes Ln(L(1))3 and Ln(L(2))3, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complexes with L(1) ligands revealed tricapped trigonal coordination geometry around the lanthanide ions. All complexes show bright photoluminescence (PL) in the solid state, indicating efficient sensitization of the lanthanide emission via the triplet states of the ligands. In particular, the terbium complexes show high PL quantum yields of 65 and 59% for L(1) and L(2), respectively. Lower PL efficiencies of the europium complexes (7.5 and 9%, respectively) are attributed to large energy gaps between the triplet states of the ligands and accepting levels of Eu(iii). The triplet state energy can be reduced by introducing an electron withdrawing (EW) group at the 4 position of the pyridine ring. Such substitution of L(1)H with a carboxylic ester (COOMe) EW group leads to a europium complex with increased PL quantum yield of 31%. A comparatively efficient PL of the complexes dissolved in ethanol indicates that the lanthanide ions are shielded against nonradiative deactivation via solvent molecules.

  4. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency complicated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Hashimura, Yuya; Morioka, Ichiro; Hisamatsu, Chieko; Yokoyama, Naoki; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Yokozaki, Hiroshi; Murayama, Kei; Ohtake, Akira; Itoh, Kyoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-07-01

    A female infant born at 36 weeks gestational age with birthweight 2135 g, and who developed respiratory disorder, hyperlactacidemia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after birth, was admitted to hospital at 3 days of age. After admission, bilious emesis, abdominal distention, and passage disorder of the gastrointestinal tract were resistant to various drugs. Exploratory laparotomy was performed at 93 days of age, but no organic lesions were identified and normal Meissner/Auerbach nerve plexus was confirmed, which led to a clinical diagnosis of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO). She was diagnosed with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency on histopathology of the abdominal rectus muscle and enzyme activity measurement. This is the first report of a neonate with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency with intractable CIPO. CIPO can occur in neonates with mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder, necessitating differential diagnosis from Hirschsprung disease.

  5. Characterization of the Structure and DNA Complexity of Mung Bean Mitochondrial Nucleoids

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Hsiao, Lin-June; Cheng, Ning; Litvinchuk, Alexandra; Dai, Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopic images of mitochondrial nucleoids isolated from mung bean seedlings revealed a relatively homogeneous population of particles, each consisting of a chromatin-like structure associated with a membrane com-ponent. Association of F-actin with mitochondrial nucleoids was also observed. The mitochondrial nucleoid structure identified in situ showed heterogeneous genomic organization. After pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a large proportion of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA remained in the well, whereas the rest migrated as a 50-200 kb smear zone. This PFGE migration pattern was not af-fected by high salt, topoisomerase I or latrunculin B treatments; however, the mobility of a fraction of the fast-moving DNA decreased conspicuously following an in-gel ethidium-enhanced UV-irradiation treatment, suggesting that molecules with intricately compact structures were present in the 50-200 kb region. Approximately 70% of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA molecules examined via electron microscopy were open circles, supercoils, complex forms, and linear molecules with interspersed sigma-shaped structures and/or loops. Increased sensitivity of mtDNA to DNase I was found after mitochondrial nucleoids were pretreated with high salt. This result indicates that some loosely bound or peripheral DNA binding proteins protected the mtDNA from DNase I degradation. PMID:21347700

  6. Temperature dependence of blue phosphorescent cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sajoto, Tissa; Djurovich, Peter I; Tamayo, Arnold B; Oxgaard, Jonas; Goddard, William A; Thompson, Mark E

    2009-07-22

    The photophysical properties for a series of facial (fac) cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (fac-Ir(C--N)(3) (C--N = 2-phenylpyridyl (ppy), 2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl (F2ppy), 1-phenylpyrazolyl (ppz), 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyrazolyl) (F2ppz), and 1-(2-(9,9'-dimethylfluorenyl))pyrazolyl (flz)), fac-Ir(C--N)(2)(C--N') (C--N = ppz or F2ppz and C--N' = ppy or F2ppy), and fac-Ir(C--C')(3) (C--C' = 1-phenyl-3-methylbenzimidazolyl (pmb)) have been studied in dilute 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF) solution in a temperature range of 77-378 K. Photoluminescent quantum yields (Phi) for the 10 compounds at room temperature vary between near zero and unity, whereas all emit with high efficiency at low temperature (77 K). The quantum yield for fac-Ir(ppy)(3) (Phi = 0.97) is temperature-independent. For the other complexes, the temperature-dependent data indicates that the luminescent efficiency is primarily determined by thermal deactivation to a nonradiative state. Activation energies and rate constants for both radiative and nonradiative processes were obtained using a Boltzmann analysis of the temperature-dependent luminescent decay data. Activation energies to the nonradiative state are found to range between 1600 and 4800 cm(-1). The pre-exponential factors for deactivation are large for complexes with C--N ligands (10(11)-10(13) s(-1)) and significantly smaller for fac-Ir(pmb)(3) (10(9) s(-1)). The kinetic parameters for decay and results from density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the triplet state are consistent with a nonradiative process involving Ir-N (Ir-C for fac-Ir(pmb)(3)) bond rupture leading to a five-coordinate species that has triplet metal-centered ((3)MC) character. Linear correlations are observed between the activation energy and the energy difference calculated for the emissive and (3)MC states. The energy level for the (3)MC state is estimated to lie between 21,700 and 24,000 cm(-1) for the fac-Ir(C--N)(3) complexes and at 28,000 cm(-1) for

  7. Post-translational oxidative modification and inactivation of mitochondrial complex I in epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kristen; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip; Patel, Manisha

    2012-08-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage have been implicated in the etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy, but whether or not they have a functional impact on mitochondrial processes during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) is unknown. One consequence of increased steady-state mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels is protein post-translational modification (PTM). We hypothesize that complex I (CI), a protein complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is a target for oxidant-induced PTMs, such as carbonylation, leading to impaired function during epileptogenesis. The goal of this study was to determine whether oxidative modifications occur and what impact they have on CI enzymatic activity in the rat hippocampus in response to kainate (KA)-induced epileptogenesis. Rats were injected with a single high dose of KA or vehicle and evidence for CI modifications was measured during the acute, latent, and chronic stages of epilepsy. Mitochondrial-specific carbonylation was increased acutely (48 h) and chronically (6 week), coincident with decreased CI activity. Mass spectrometry analysis of immunocaptured CI identified specific metal catalyzed carbonylation to Arg76 within the 75 kDa subunit concomitant with inhibition of CI activity during epileptogenesis. Computational-based molecular modeling studies revealed that Arg76 is in close proximity to the active site of CI and carbonylation of the residue is predicted to induce substantial structural alterations to the protein complex. These data provide evidence for the occurrence of a specific and irreversible oxidative modification of an important mitochondrial enzyme complex critical for cellular bioenergetics during the process of epileptogenesis.

  8. Cryo-EM structure of respiratory complex I reveals a link to mitochondrial sulfur metabolism.

    PubMed

    D'Imprima, Edoardo; Mills, Deryck J; Parey, Kristian; Brandt, Ulrich; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Zickermann, Volker; Vonck, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is a 1MDa membrane protein complex with a central role in aerobic energy metabolism. The bioenergetic core functions are executed by 14 central subunits that are conserved from bacteria to man. Despite recent progress in structure determination, our understanding of the function of the ~30 accessory subunits associated with the mitochondrial complex is still limited. We have investigated the structure of complex I from the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica by cryo-electron microscopy. Our density map at 7.9Å resolution closely matches the 3.6-3.9Å X-ray structure of the Yarrowia lipolytica complex. However, the cryo-EM map indicated an additional subunit on the side of the matrix arm above the membrane surface, pointing away from the membrane arm. The density, which is not present in any previously described complex I structure and occurs in about 20 % of the particles, was identified as the accessory sulfur transferase subunit ST1. The Yarrowia lipolytica complex I preparation is active in generating H2S from the cysteine derivative 3-mercaptopyruvate, catalyzed by ST1. We thus provide evidence for a link between respiratory complex I and mitochondrial sulfur metabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New yellow-emitting phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2012-12-01

    We have synthesized a new yellow iridium complex Iridium(III) bis[2-phenylbenzothiazolato-N,C2']-(1-phenylicosane-1,3-dionate) (bt)2Ir(bsm), based on the benzothiazole derivative. The synthesized molecule was identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of (bt)Ir2(bsm) in CH2Cl2 solution were found at 273 nm and 559 nm, respectively. The complex was used as a dopant into a hole-transporting layer (HTL) in a multilayered organic light emitting device (OLED) structure: ITO/doped-HTL/EL/ETL/M. ITO was a transparent anode of In2O3:SnO2, M- a metallic Al cathode, HTL- 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) incorporated in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL- electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL- electron-transporting layer of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3). The electroluminescent (EL) spectra of OLEDs were basically the sum of the emissions of BAlq at 496 nm and the emission of (bt)2Ir(bsm) at 559 nm. With increasing (bt)2Ir(bsm) concentration, the relative electroluminescent intensity of greenish-blue emission (at 496 nm) decreased, while the yellow (at 559 nm) - increased and CIE coordinates of the device shifted from (0.21, 0.33) at 0 wt % to (0.40, 0.48) at 8 wt % of the dopant. It was found that OLED with 0.5 wt % (bt)2Ir(bsm) had the best performance and stable color chromaticity at various voltages.

  10. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(μ-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed.

  11. QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology.

    PubMed

    Guarani, Virginia; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Paulo, Joao A; Huttlin, Edward L; Fröhlich, Florian; Gygi, Steven P; Van Vactor, David; Harper, J Wade

    2015-05-21

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) dynamically regulate mitochondrial membrane architecture. Through systematic proteomic analysis of human MICOS, we identified QIL1 (C19orf70) as a novel conserved MICOS subunit. QIL1 depletion disrupted CJ structure in cultured human cells and in Drosophila muscle and neuronal cells in vivo. In human cells, mitochondrial disruption correlated with impaired respiration. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed upon QIL1 depletion in flies. Using quantitative proteomics, we show that loss of QIL1 resulted in MICOS disassembly with the accumulation of a MIC60-MIC19-MIC25 sub-complex and degradation of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27. Additionally, we demonstrated that in QIL1-depleted cells, overexpressed MIC10 fails to significantly restore its interaction with other MICOS subunits and SAMM50. Collectively, our work uncovers a previously unrecognized subunit of the MICOS complex, necessary for CJ integrity, cristae morphology, and mitochondrial function and provides a resource for further analysis of MICOS architecture.

  12. QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology

    PubMed Central

    Guarani, Virginia; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Paulo, Joao A; Huttlin, Edward L; Fröhlich, Florian; Gygi, Steven P; Van Vactor, David; Harper, J Wade

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) dynamically regulate mitochondrial membrane architecture. Through systematic proteomic analysis of human MICOS, we identified QIL1 (C19orf70) as a novel conserved MICOS subunit. QIL1 depletion disrupted CJ structure in cultured human cells and in Drosophila muscle and neuronal cells in vivo. In human cells, mitochondrial disruption correlated with impaired respiration. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed upon QIL1 depletion in flies. Using quantitative proteomics, we show that loss of QIL1 resulted in MICOS disassembly with the accumulation of a MIC60-MIC19-MIC25 sub-complex and degradation of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27. Additionally, we demonstrated that in QIL1-depleted cells, overexpressed MIC10 fails to significantly restore its interaction with other MICOS subunits and SAMM50. Collectively, our work uncovers a previously unrecognized subunit of the MICOS complex, necessary for CJ integrity, cristae morphology, and mitochondrial function and provides a resource for further analysis of MICOS architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06265.001 PMID:25997101

  13. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity in mice: a possible mechanism underlying neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Zhang, Steven F; Jordán, Joaquín; Starkov, Anatoly A; Aguirre, Norberto

    2010-05-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that such neurotoxicity is due to oxidative stress but the source of free radicals remains unknown. Inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes by MDMA was assessed as a possible source. Activities of mitochondrial complexes after MDMA were evaluated spectrophotometrically. In situ visualization of superoxide production in the striatum was assessed by ethidium fluorescence and striatal dopamine levels were determined by HPLC as an index of dopaminergic toxicity. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of mice, an effect accompanied by an increased production of superoxide radicals and the inhibition of endogenous aconitase. alpha-Lipoic acid prevented superoxide generation and long-term toxicity independent of any effect on complex I inhibition. These effects of alpha-lipoic acid were also associated with a significant increase of striatal glutathione levels. The relevance of glutathione was supported by reducing striatal glutathione content with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, which exacerbated MDMA-induced dopamine deficits, effects suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, partially prevented MDMA-induced dopamine depletions, an effect reversed by L-arginine but not D-arginine. Finally, a direct relationship between mitochondrial complex I inhibition and long-term dopamine depletions was found in animals treated with MDMA in combination with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I following MDMA could be the source of free radicals responsible for oxidative stress and the consequent neurotoxicity of this drug in mice.

  14. Enhanced activity of galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase and ascorbate-glutathione cycle in mitochondria from complex III deficient Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zsigmond, Laura; Tomasskovics, Bálint; Deák, Veronika; Rigó, Gábor; Szabados, László; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Szarka, András

    2011-08-01

    The mitochondrial antioxidant homeostasis was investigated in Arabidopsis ppr40-1 mutant, which presents a block of electron flow at complex III. The activity of the ascorbate biosynthetic enzyme, L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.2.3) (GLDH) was elevated in mitochondria isolated from mutant plants. In addition increased activities of the enzymes of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle and elevated glutathione (GSH) level were observed in the mutant mitochondria. Lower ascorbate and ascorbate plus dehydroascorbate contents were detected at both cellular and mitochondrial level. Moreover, the more oxidized mitochondrial redox status of ascorbate in the ppr40-1 mutant indicated that neither the enhanced activity of GLDH nor Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle could compensate for the enhanced ascorbate consumption in the absence of a functional respiratory chain.

  15. Folate Deficiency Triggered Apoptosis of Synoviocytes: Role of Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated via NADPH Oxidase/Mitochondrial Complex II and Calcium Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Jin-Yi; Huang, Chin-Chin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chuang, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hong, Chang-Zern; Yeh, Rang-Hui; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of literature has documented that osteoarthritis (OA) is veritably associated with oxidative stress-mediated chondrocyte death and matrix degradation, yet the possible involvement of synoviocyte abnormality as causative factor of OA has not been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, we conduct the current studies to insight into how synoviocytes could respond to an episode of folate-deprived (FD) condition. First, when HIG-82 synoviocytes were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature mediated through FD-evoked overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and drastically released of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentrations. Next, we uncovered that FD-evoked ROS overproduction could only be strongly suppressed by either mitochondrial complex II inhibitors (TTFA and carboxin) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors (AEBSF and apocynin), but not by mitochondrial complex I inhibitor (rotenone) and mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A). Interestingly, this selective inhibition of FD-evoked ROS by mitochondrial complex II and NOX inhibitors was found to correlate excellently with the suppression of cytosolic Ca2+ release and reduced the magnitude of the apoptotic TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, we present the first evidence here that FD-triggered ROS overproduction in synoviocytes is originated from mitochondrial complex II and NOX. Both elevated ROS in tandem with cytosolic Ca2+ overload serve as final arbitrators for apoptotic lethality of synoviocytes cultivated under FD condition. Thus, folate supplementation may be beneficial to patients with OA.

  16. Complex I assembly into supercomplexes determines differential mitochondrial ROS production in neurons and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Le Douce, Juliette; Logan, Angela; James, Andrew M.; Bonvento, Gilles; Murphy, Michael P.; Bolaños, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons depend on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation, whereas astrocytes do not, a distinctive feature that is essential for neurotransmission and neuronal survival. However, any link between these metabolic differences and the structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is unknown. Here, we investigated this issue and found that, in neurons, mitochondrial complex I is predominantly assembled into supercomplexes, whereas in astrocytes the abundance of free complex I is higher. The presence of free complex I in astrocytes correlates with the severalfold higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by astrocytes compared with neurons. Using a complexomics approach, we found that the complex I subunit NDUFS1 was more abundant in neurons than in astrocytes. Interestingly, NDUFS1 knockdown in neurons decreased the association of complex I into supercomplexes, leading to impaired oxygen consumption and increased mitochondrial ROS. Conversely, overexpression of NDUFS1 in astrocytes promoted complex I incorporation into supercomplexes, decreasing ROS. Thus, complex I assembly into supercomplexes regulates ROS production and may contribute to the bioenergetic differences between neurons and astrocytes. PMID:27799543

  17. Mitochondrial gamma carbonic anhydrases are required for complex I assembly and plant reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Braun, Hans-Peter; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in plants contains an extra domain that is made up from proteins homologous to prokaryotic gamma-carbonic anhydrases (γCA). This domain has been suggested to participate in complex I assembly or to support transport of mitochondrial CO2 to the chloroplast. Here, we generated mutants lacking CA1 and CA2 - two out of three CA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Double mutants were characterized at the developmental and physiological levels. Furthermore, the composition and activity of the mETC were determined, and mutated CA versions were used for complementation assays. Embryo development of double mutants was strongly delayed and seed development stopped before maturation. Mutant plants could only be rescued on sucrose media, showed severe stress symptoms and never produced viable seeds. By contrast, callus cultures were only slightly affected in growth. Complex I was undetectable in the double mutants, but complex II and complex IV were upregulated concomitant with increased oxygen consumption in mitochondrial respiration. Ectopic expression of inactive CA variants was sufficient to complement the mutant phenotype. Data indicate that CA proteins are structurally required for complex I assembly and that reproductive development is dependent on the presence of complex I. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Eukaryotic LYR Proteins Interact with Mitochondrial Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Angerer, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine) motif proteins (LYRMs) of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6) or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1) of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM) independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria. PMID:25686363

  19. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial complex I: a perspective on the Ndi1 therapy.

    PubMed

    Marella, Mathieu; Seo, Byoung Boo; Yagi, Takao; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial impairment has been collecting more and more attention as a contributing factor to the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Above all, the NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, complex I, of the respiratory chain seems to be most culpable. Complex I dysfunction is translated to an increased production of reactive oxygen species and a decreased energy supply. In the brain, the dopaminergic neurons are one of the most susceptible cells. Their death is directly linked to the disease apparition. Developing an effective gene therapy is challenged by harmful actions of reactive oxygen species. To overcome this problem a therapeutic candidate must be able to restore the NADH-quinone oxidoreductase activity regardless of how complex I is impaired. Here we discuss the potency of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase, the Ndi1 protein, to reinstate the mitochondrial respiratory chain compensating for disabled complex I and the benefit Ndi1 brings toward retardation of Parkinson's disease.

  20. Mitochondria-targeting cyclometalated iridium(III)-PEG complexes with tunable photodynamic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Steve Po-Yam; Lau, Chris Tsan-Shing; Louie, Man-Wai; Lam, Yun-Wah; Cheng, Shuk Han; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2013-10-01

    We present a new class of phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) complexes [Ir(N(^)C)2(bpy-CONH-PEG)](PF6) (bpy-CONH-PEG = 4-(N-(2-(ω-methoxypoly-(1-oxapropyl))ethyl)aminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine, number average molecular weight (Mn) = 5272.23, weight average molecular weight (Mw) = 5317.38, polydispersity index (PDI) = 1.009; HN(^)C = 2-phenylpyridine, Hppy (1a), 2-((1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl)pyridine, Hpppy (2a), 2-phenylquinoline, Hpq (3a), 2-phenylbenzothiazole, Hbt (4a), 2-(1-naphthyl)benzothiazole, Hbsn (5a)). The photophysical, photochemical, and biological properties of these complexes have been compared with those of their PEG-free counterparts [Ir(N(^)C)2(bpy-CONH-Et)](PF6) (bpy-CONH-Et = 4-(N-ethylaminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine; HN(^)C = Hppy (1b), Hpppy (2b), Hpq (3b), Hbt (4b), Hbsn (5b)). Upon irradiation, all the complexes exhibited intense and long-lived green to orange-red emission under ambient conditions. The emission was phosphorescence in nature and can be quenched by O2 with the generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). The quantum yields for (1)O2 production of the complexes in aerated DMSO (0.24-0.83) were found to be dependent on the excited-state lifetimes of the complexes, which can be altered using different cyclometalating ligands (N(^)C). Cell-based assays indicated that the PEG complexes were noncytotoxic in the dark (IC50 > 300 μM); however, most of them became significantly cytotoxic upon irradiation (IC50 = 3.4 - 23.2 μM). Laser-scanning confocal microscopy images revealed localization of complex 3a in the mitochondrial region of HeLa cells and the induction of rapid necrotic cell death upon light activation. Additionally, the lack of dark toxicity and potential application of the PEG complexes as a visualizing reagent have been demonstrated using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Half-sandwich" Schiff-base Ir(III) complexes as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Mou, Ze-Dong; Deng, Ning; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiaying; Cen, Juan; Zhang, Xia

    2017-09-29

    A series of "half-sandwich" Schiff-base Ir(III) complexes were synthesized and investigated for their in vitro activities against the leukemia K562 cell line. These compounds demonstrated antiproliferative activities against K562 cells with IC50 values of 0.26-4.77 μM. In particular, compound 10c showed cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines/sublines and stronger activities than cisplatin in K562, K562/A02, MCF-7, MCF-7/ADM, and A549 cells. Mechanism studies illustrated that compound 10c increased the level of reactive oxygen species and induced apoptosis of K562 cells. This compound effectively decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the protein level of Bcl-2. It also increased the protein levels of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and led to release of cytochrome c in K562 cells, indicating that the apoptosis induced by compound 10c was mediated by the intrinsic mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complexes by inhalation of combustion smoke and carbon monoxide, in vivo, in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung M; Hallberg, Lance M; Greeley, George H; Englander, Ella W

    2010-08-01

    Combustion smoke contains gases and particulates, which act via hypoxia and cytotoxicity producing mechanisms to injure cells and tissues. While carbon monoxide (CO) is the major toxicant in smoke, its toxicity is exacerbated in the presence of other compounds. Here, we examined modulations of mitochondrial and cytosolic energy metabolism by inhalation of combustion smoke versus CO, in vivo, in the rat brain. Measurements revealed reduced activities of respiratory chain (RC) complexes, with greater inhibition by smoke than equivalent CO in ambient air. In the case of RC complex IV, inhibition by CO and smoke was similar--suggesting that complex IV inhibition is primarily by the action of CO. In contrast, inhibition of complexes I and III was greater by smoke. Increases in cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase activities accompanied inhibition of RC complexes, likely reflecting compensatory increases in cytosolic energy production. Together, the data provide new insights into the mechanisms of smoke inhalation-induced perturbations of brain energetics, which impact neuronal function and contribute to the development of neuropathologies in survivors of exposures to CO and combustion smoke.

  3. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Moreadith, R W; Batshaw, M L; Ohnishi, T; Kerr, D; Knox, B; Jackson, D; Hruban, R; Olson, J; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-01-01

    We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the least in kidney mitochondria. Enzymatic assays on isolated mitochondria ruled out defects in complexes II, III, and IV of the respiratory chain. Further studies showed that the defect was localized in the inner membrane mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). When ferricyanide was used as an artificial electron acceptor, complex I activity was normal, indicating that electrons from NADH could reduce the flavin mononucleotide cofactor. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on liver submitochondrial particles showed an almost total loss of the iron-sulfur clusters characteristic of complex I, whereas normal signals were noted for other mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters. This infant is presented as the first reported case of congenital lactic acidosis caused by a deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Images PMID:6432847

  4. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Moreadith, R W; Batshaw, M L; Ohnishi, T; Kerr, D; Knox, B; Jackson, D; Hruban, R; Olson, J; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-09-01

    We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to oxidize the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked substrate, succinate, was normal. The most pronounced deficiency was in skeletal muscle, the least in kidney mitochondria. Enzymatic assays on isolated mitochondria ruled out defects in complexes II, III, and IV of the respiratory chain. Further studies showed that the defect was localized in the inner membrane mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). When ferricyanide was used as an artificial electron acceptor, complex I activity was normal, indicating that electrons from NADH could reduce the flavin mononucleotide cofactor. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on liver submitochondrial particles showed an almost total loss of the iron-sulfur clusters characteristic of complex I, whereas normal signals were noted for other mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters. This infant is presented as the first reported case of congenital lactic acidosis caused by a deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  5. A Single Adaptable Cochaperone-Scaffold Complex Delivers Nascent Iron-Sulfur Clusters to Mammalian Respiratory Chain Complexes I-III.

    PubMed

    Maio, Nunziata; Kim, Ki Soon; Singh, Anamika; Rouault, Tracey A

    2017-04-04

    The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster of the Rieske protein, UQCRFS1, is essential for Complex III (CIII) activity, though the mechanism for Fe-S cluster transfer has not previously been elucidated. Recent studies have shown that the co-chaperone HSC20, essential for Fe-S cluster biogenesis of SDHB, directly binds LYRM7, formerly described as a chaperone that stabilizes UQCRFS1 prior to its insertion into CIII. Here we report that a transient subcomplex involved in CIII assembly, composed of LYRM7 bound to UQCRFS1, interacts with components of an Fe-S transfer complex, consisting of HSC20, its cognate chaperone HSPA9, and the holo-scaffold ISCU. Binding of HSC20 to the LYR motif of LYRM7 in a pre-assembled UQCRFS1-LYRM7 intermediate in the mitochondrial matrix facilitates Fe-S cluster transfer to UQCRFS1. The five Fe-S cluster subunits of Complex I also interact with HSC20 to acquire their clusters, highlighting the crucial role of HSC20 in the assembly of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Magnetic interactions in CuII-LnIII cyclic tetranuclear complexes: is it possible to explain the occurrence of SMM behavior in CuII-TbIII and CuII-DyIII complexes?

    PubMed

    Hamamatsu, Takefumi; Yabe, Kazuya; Towatari, Masaaki; Osa, Shutaro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Re, Nazzareno; Pochaba, Andrzej; Mrozinski, Jerzy; Gallani, Jean-Louis; Barla, Alessandro; Imperia, Paolo; Paulsen, Carley; Kappler, Jean-Paul

    2007-05-28

    An extensive series of tetranuclear CuII2LnIII2 complexes [CuIILLnIII(hfac)2]2 (with LnIII being all lanthanide(III) ions except for the radioactive PmIII) has been prepared in order to investigate the nature of the CuII-LnIII magnetic interactions and to try to answer the following question: What makes the CuII2TbIII2 and CuII2DyIII2 complexes single molecule magnets while the other complexes are not? All the complexes within this series possess a similar cyclic tetranuclear structure, in which the CuII and LnIII ions are arrayed alternately via bridges of ligand complex (CuIIL). Regular SQUID magnetometry measurements have been performed on the series. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities from 2 to 300 K and the field-dependent magnetizations from 0 to 5 T at 2 K have been measured for the CuII2LnIII2 and NiII2LnIII2 complexes, with the NiII2LnIII2 complex containing diamagnetic NiII ions being used as a reference for the evaluation of the CuII-LnIII magnetic interactions. These measurements have revealed that the interactions between CuII and LnIII ions are very weakly antiferromagnetic if Ln=Ce, Nd, Sm, Yb, ferromagnetic if Ln=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and negligible if Ln=La, Eu, Pr, Lu. With the same goal of better understanding the evolution of the intramolecular magnetic interactions, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has also been measured on CuII2TbIII2, CuII2DyIII2, and NiII2TbIII2 complexes, either at the L- and M-edges of the metal ions or at the K-edge of the N and O atoms. Last, the CuII2TbIII2 complex exhibiting SMM behavior has received a closer examination of its low temperature magnetic properties down to 0.1 K. These particular measurements have revealed the unusual very slow setting-up of a 3D order below 0.6 K.

  7. Thiocyanato Chromium (III) Complexes: Separation by Paper Electrophoresis and Estimate of Stability Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment wherein the student can demonstrate the existence of all the thiocyanato chromium complexes, estimate the stepwise formation constants, demonstrate the robustness of chromium III complexes, and show the principles of paper electrophoresis. (GS)

  8. Cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine dibenzocyclooctyne complexes as the first phosphorescent bioorthogonal probes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing; Chan, Bruce Ting-Ngok; Liu, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Li, Steve Po-Yam; Tang, Tommy Siu-Ming

    2013-05-14

    We report the synthesis, photophysical behavior, and biological properties of new cyclometalated iridium(iii) polypyridine complexes appended with a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) moiety; these complexes have been utilized as the first phosphorescent bioorthogonal probes for azide-modified biomolecules.

  9. Thiocyanato Chromium (III) Complexes: Separation by Paper Electrophoresis and Estimate of Stability Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment wherein the student can demonstrate the existence of all the thiocyanato chromium complexes, estimate the stepwise formation constants, demonstrate the robustness of chromium III complexes, and show the principles of paper electrophoresis. (GS)

  10. Reactions and structural characterization of gold(III) complexes with amino acids, peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Glišić, Biljana Đ; Rychlewska, Urszula; Djuran, Miloš I

    2012-06-21

    The present review article highlights recent findings in the field of gold(III) complexes with amino acids, peptides and proteins. The first section of this article provides an overview of the gold(III) reactions with amino acids, such as glycine, alanine, histidine, cysteine and methionine. The second part of the review is mainly focused on the results achieved in the mechanistic studies of the reactions between gold(III) and different peptides and structural characterization of gold(III)-peptide complexes as the final products in these reactions. The last section of this article deals with the reactions of gold(III) complexes with proteins as primary targets for cytotoxic gold compounds. Systematic summaries of these results contribute to the future development of gold(III) complexes as potential antitumor agents and also have importance in relation to the severe toxicity of gold-based drugs.

  11. Polymer thin films containing Eu(III) complex as lanthanide lasing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo; Kawai, Hideki; Yasuda, Naoki; Nagamura, Toshihiko

    2003-10-01

    Direct evidence of lanthanide(III) lasing using Eu(III) complex in polymer thin films (threshold level <0.05 mJ) is reported. The thin film consists of polystyrene containing Eu(III) complexes based on two criteria: (1) Higher emission quantum yield of Eu(III) complexes, which increases the rs (energy density), and (2) faster radiation rate at large B (Einstein coefficient). The microcavity was constructed by coating a glass substrate with a film having a high refractive index. The film thickness was found to be 1.71 mm. The threshold level for laser transmission was found to be <0.05 mJ.

  12. Increased hepatic mitochondrial FA oxidation reduces plasma and liver TG levels and is associated with regulation of UCPs and APOC-III in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Carine; Bjørndal, Bodil; Rossmann, Christine Renate; Tusubira, Deusdedit; Svardal, Asbjørn; Røsland, Gro Vatne; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Hallström, Seth; Berge, Rolf Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial function, APOC-III, and LPL are potential targets for triglyceride (TG)-lowering drugs. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment with the compound 2-(tridec-12-yn-1-ylthio)acetic acid (1-triple TTA), the hepatic mitochondrial FA oxidation increased more than 5-fold in male Wistar rats. Gene expression analysis in liver showed significant downregulation of APOC-III and upregulation of LPL and the VLDL receptor. This led to lower hepatic (53%) and plasma (73%) TG levels. Concomitantly, liver-specific biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function (mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase activity, and cytochrome c and TFAM gene expression) were elevated. Interestingly, 1-triple TTA lowered plasma acetylcarnitine levels, whereas the concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate was increased. The hepatic energy state was reduced in 1-triple TTA-treated rats, as reflected by increased AMP/ATP and decreased ATP/ADP ratios, whereas the energy state remained unchanged in muscle and heart. The 1-triple TTA administration induced gene expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)2 and UCP3 in liver. In conclusion, the 1-triple TTA-mediated clearance of blood TG may result from lowered APOC-III production, increased hepatic LPL gene expression, mitochondrial FA oxidation, and (re)uptake of VLDL facilitating drainage of FAs to the liver for β-oxidation and production of ketone bodies as extrahepatic fuel. The possibility that UCP2 and UCP3 mediate a moderate degree of mitochondrial uncoupling should be considered. PMID:28473603

  13. Flunarizine and cinnarizine inhibit mitochondrial complexes I and II: possible implication for parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Veitch, K; Hue, L

    1994-01-01

    Cinnarizine and flunarizine are piperazine derivatives with calcium antagonist and anticonvulsant properties and are used widely in the treatment of vertigo and circulatory disorders. They have been implicated recently in the aggravation, or even the induction, of parkinsonism in elderly patients. Because the aetiology of parkinsonism has been suggested as having a mitochondrial component, we have investigated the effects of both compounds on mitochondrial respiration and on the activities of the individual respiratory chain complexes. In intact mitochondria from rat liver, both drugs inhibited respiration rates, with substrates entering at Complex I (glutamate/malate) and Complex II (succinate). These effects could be explained by potent inhibitions (Ki 3-10 microM) of both complexes. Complex I is inhibited at a site near the ubiquinone-binding site, which is not competitive with respect to ubiquinone, whereas the inhibition of Complex II is apparently caused by competition with ubiquinone. Furthermore, the inhibition of NADH oxidation by flunarizine in submitochondrial particles caused an NADH-dependent generation of superoxide. These inhibitory properties of both compounds could be significant factors in the aggravation or induction of parkinsonism in elderly patients, in whom mitochondrial function already may be impaired.

  14. The mitochondrial receptor complex: Mom22 is essential for cell viability and directly interacts with preproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hönlinger, A; Kübrich, M; Moczko, M; Gärtner, F; Mallet, L; Bussereau, F; Eckerskorn, C; Lottspeich, F; Dietmeier, K; Jacquet, M

    1995-01-01

    A multisubunit complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane is responsible for targeting and membrane translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins. This receptor complex contains two import receptors, a general insertion pore and the protein Mom22. It was unknown if Mom22 directly interacts with preproteins, and two views existed about the possible functions of Mom22: a central role in transfer of preproteins from both receptors to the general insertion pore or a more limited function dependent on the presence of the receptor Mom19. For this report, we identified and cloned Saccharomyces cerevisiae MOM22 and investigated whether it plays a direct role in targeting of preproteins. A preprotein accumulated at the mitochondrial outer membrane was cross-linked to Mom22. The cross-linking depended on the import stage of the preprotein. Overexpression of Mom22 suppressed the respiratory defect of yeast cells lacking Mom19 and increased preprotein import into mom19 delta mitochondria, demonstrating that Mom22 can function independently of Mom19. Overexpression of Mom22 even suppressed the lethal phenotype of a double deletion of the two import receptors known so far (mom19 delta mom72 delta). Deletion of the MOM22 gene was lethal for yeast cells, identifying Mom22 as one of the few mitochondrial membrane proteins essential for fermentative growth. These results suggest that Mom22 plays an essential role in the mitochondrial receptor complex. It directly interacts with preproteins in transit and can perform receptor-like activities. PMID:7760834

  15. Differential inhibition/inactivation of mitochondrial complex I implicates its alteration in malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Bera, S; Ghosal, S; Ray, S; Basu, A; Ray, M

    2011-09-01

    Methylglyoxal strongly inhibited mitochondrial respiration of a wide variety of malignant tissues including sarcoma of mice, whereas no such significant effect was noted on mitochondrial respiration of normal tissues with the exception of cardiac cells. This inhibition by methylglyoxal was found to be at the level of mitochondrial complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) of the electron transport chain. L-Lactaldehyde, which is structurally and metabolically related to methylglyoxal, could protect against this inhibition. NADH dehydrogenase of submitochondrial particles of malignant and cardiac cells was inhibited by methylglyoxal. This enzyme of these cells was also inactivated by methylglyoxal. The possible involvement of lysine residue(s) for the activity of NADH dehydrogenase was also investigated by using lysine-specific reagents trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PP). Inactivation of NADH dehydrogenase by both TNBS and PP convincingly demonstrated the involvement of lysine residue(s) for the activity of the sarcoma and cardiac enzymes, whereas both TNBS and PP failed to inactivate the enzymes of skeletal muscle and liver. Together these studies demonstrate a specific effect of methylglyoxal on mitochondrial complex I of malignant cells and importantly some distinct alteration of this complex in cancer cells.

  16. Autoantibodies to mitochondrial 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, M; Sato, S; Ihn, H; Tamaki, T; Kikuchi, K; Soma, Y; Tamaki, K

    1996-08-01

    Sera from patients with localized scleroderma frequently produce cytoplasmic staining by indirect immunofluorescence, although the antigen remains to be determined. We studied the prevalence, antigen specificity and associated clinical characteristics of anti-cytoplasmic antibodies in localized scleroderma. Serum samples from 60 patients with localized scleroderma were examined by indirect immunofluorescence analysis and immunoblotting. By immunofluorescence analysis on HEp-2 cell substrate, seven of 60 (12%) patients were shown to be positive for anti-cytoplasmic antibodies. Among these, six patients with generalized morphea had anti-mitochondrial antibodies as shown by immunoblotting: they showed reactivity with the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), with protein X, and with the E2 component of alpha-oxo-glutarate dehydrogenase complex, while two of them showed reactivity with PDC-E1 alpha. One of these patients who was positive for anti-PDC-E1 alpha antibody showed laboratory abnormalities, suggesting the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis. The age of disease onset was significantly higher in these six patients than in those without anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Furthermore, five of them were classified into generalized morphea with multiple plaque lesions but without linear lesions (multiple plaque type). These observations suggest that major antigens for anti-cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with localized scleroderma are mitochondrial enzymes, 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes. Patients with anti-mitochondrial antibodies may comprise a unique subset of localized scleroderma designated multiple plaque type of generalized morphea of older onset.

  17. Modulation of homochiral Dy(III) complexes: single-molecule magnets with ferroelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Li; Chen, Chun-Lai; Gao, Yu-Liang; Liu, Cai-Ming; Feng, Xiang-Li; Gui, Yang-Hai; Fang, Shao-Ming

    2012-11-12

    Homochiral Dy(III) complexes: by changing the ligand-to-metal ratio, enantiomeric pairs of a Dy(III) complex of different nuclearity could be obtained. The mono- and dinuclear complexes exhibit characteristics of single-molecule magnets and different slow magnetic relaxation processes. In addition, the dinuclear complexes exhibit ferroelectric behavior, thus representing the first chiral polynuclear lanthanide-based single-molecule magnets with ferroelectric properties.

  18. Methods to increase the luminescence of lanthanide (III) macrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliano, John R.; Leif, Robert C.; Vallarino, Lidia M.; Williams, Steven A.

    2000-04-01

    Simultaneous detection of both a Eu(III) and a Sm(III) Quantum Dye is now possible because the enhanced luminescence of the Eu(III) and Sm(III) macrocycles occurs in the same solution and with excitation at the same wavelengths between 350 to 370 nm. Since DAPI is also excited between 350 to 370 nm, it is possible to use common excitation optics and a single dichroic mirror for measuring two molecular species and DNA. The narrow emissions of these macrocycles can be detected with negligible overlap between themselves or with DAPI-stained DNA. This will permit precise pixel by pixel ratio measurements of the Eu(III) macrocycle to Sm(III) macrocycle, and of each macrocycle to DNA> This technology should be applicable to antibodies, FISH, comparative genomic hybridization, and chromosome painting. Cofluorescence of the Tb(III)-macrocycle has also been obtained under different conditions. The luminescence of these lanthanide macrocycles can be observed with conventional fluorescence instrumentation previously unattainable low levels. Thus, it will be possible to employ narrow bandwidth lanthanide luminescent tags to identify three molecular species with a conventional microscope.

  19. Preparation and characterization of a novel Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide-iron (III) complex.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Lei; Meng, Yongbin; Liu, Ying; Li, Jian; Zu, Yuangang; Zhu, Minghua

    2016-12-01

    Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide-iron (III) complex (APS-iron) was synthesized and characterized. Based on single factor and response surface optimization experiments of APS-iron (III) complex synthesis, the optimum conditions of APS-iron (III) complex were obtained as follows: the reaction temperature 89.46°C, pH 8.16, reaction time 46.04min and ratio of catalyst to APS 0.75, respectively. The reaction temperature was the most significant factor, followed by pH, reaction time and the ratio of catalyst to APS in the four reaction parameters. The highest iron content (19.32%) of APS-iron (III) complex was obtained at the optimum conditions, which was characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), antioxidant activities of the APS-iron (III) complex and iron release of APS-iron (III) complex in vitro assay. The results indicated the APS-iron (III) complex had good bioavailability and antioxidant activities in vitro assays. So, it was potential for APS-iron (III) complex as a candidate for iron supplements.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and DNA-binding properties of La(III) complex of chrysin.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi-Bo; Yang, Nan; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Tang, Ning

    2003-11-01

    A novel La(III) complex of chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) was synthesized and characterized by UV, IR, 1H NMR, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and elementary analyses. The interactions of the La(III) complex and chrysin with calf thymus DNA were investigated by spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. The intrinsic binding constants of La(III) complex and chrysin are 1.29 x 10(6) and 5.44 x 10(5) M(-1), respectively. Experimental results indicated that La(III) complex and chrysin can both bind to DNA by intercalation modes, but the binding affinity of La(III) complex is much higher than that of chrysin. Comparative antitumor activities of La(III) complex and chrysin were tested by MTT and SRB methods. The results show that at the concentration of 10 microM for chrysin and La(III) complex, the inhibitory ratios of La(III) complex against the tested tumor cells were higher than those of chrysin.

  1. Phosphorescent Imaging of Living Cells Using a Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dik-Lung; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Fu, Wai-Chung; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Fong, Wang-Fun; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2013-01-01

    A cell permeable cyclometalated iridium(III) complex has been developed as a phosphorescent probe for cell imaging. The iridium(III) solvato complex [Ir(phq)2(H2O]2)] preferentially stains the cytoplasm of both live and dead cells with a bright luminescence. PMID:23457478

  2. Activation of Type I and III Interferon Response by Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal MAVS and Inhibition by Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Silke; Reuter, Antje; Eberle, Florian; Einhorn, Evelyne; Binder, Marco; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Sensing viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) triggers the innate immune system of the host cell and activates immune signaling cascades such as the RIG-I/IRF3 pathway. Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as IPS-1, Cardif, and VISA) is the crucial adaptor protein of this pathway localized on mitochondria, peroxisomes and mitochondria-associated membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of MAVS leads to the production of type I and type III interferons (IFN) as well as IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). To refine the role of MAVS subcellular localization for the induction of type I and III IFN responses in hepatocytes and its counteraction by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), we generated various functional and genetic knock-out cell systems that were reconstituted to express mitochondrial (mito) or peroxisomal (pex) MAVS, exclusively. Upon infection with diverse RNA viruses we found that cells exclusively expressing pexMAVS mounted sustained expression of type I and III IFNs to levels comparable to cells exclusively expressing mitoMAVS. To determine whether viral counteraction of MAVS is affected by its subcellular localization we employed infection of cells with HCV, a major causative agent of chronic liver disease with a high propensity to establish persistence. This virus efficiently cleaves MAVS via a viral protease residing in its nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) and this strategy is thought to contribute to the high persistence of this virus. We found that both mito- and pexMAVS were efficiently cleaved by NS3 and this cleavage was required to suppress activation of the IFN response. Taken together, our findings indicate comparable activation of the IFN response by pex- and mitoMAVS in hepatocytes and efficient counteraction of both MAVS species by the HCV NS3 protease. PMID:26588843

  3. Photofunctional triplet excited states of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes: beyond electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    You, Youngmin; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-11-07

    The development of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes has enabled important breakthroughs in electroluminescence because such complexes permit the efficient population of triplet excited states that give rise to luminescent transitions. The triplet states of Ir(III) complexes are advantageous over those of other transition metal complexes in that their electronic transitions and charge-transfer characteristics are tunable over wide ranges. These favorable properties suggest that Ir(III) complexes have significant potential in a variety of photofunctions other than electroluminescence. In this critical review, we describe recent photonic applications of novel Ir(III) complexes. Ir(III) complexes have been shown to affect the exciton statistics in the active layers of organic photovoltaic cells, thereby improving the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies. Nonlinear optical applications that take advantage of the strong charge-transfer properties of triplet transitions are also discussed. The tunability of the electrochemical potentials facilitates the development of efficient photocatalysis in the context of water photolysis or organic syntheses. The photoredox reactivities of Ir(III) complexes have been employed in studies of charge migration along DNA chains. The photoinduced cytotoxicity of Ir(III) complexes on live cells suggests that the complexes may be useful in photodynamic therapy. Potential biological applications of the complexes include phosphorescence labeling and sensing. Intriguing platforms based on cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes potentially provide novel protein tagging and ratiometric detection. We envision that future research into the photofunctionality of Ir(III) complexes will provide important breakthroughs in a variety of photonic applications.

  4. Fluorescence and DNA-binding properties of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2011-09-01

    The binding of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline, [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)), to DNA has been investigated by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. The complexes show absorption decreasing in charge transfer band, fluorescence decrement when bound to DNA. The binding constant Kb has been determined by absorption measurement for both complexes and found to be (6.76 ± 0.12) × 10 4 for 1 and (1.83 ± 0.15) × 10 4 M -1, for 2. The fluorescence of [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)) has been studied in detail. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that DNA has the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) and Pr(III) complexes through the static quenching procedure. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer constant kSV are determined. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ H°) and entropy change (Δ S°), are calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The experimental data suggest that the complexes bind to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Major groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)) with DNA.

  5. Fluorescence and DNA-binding properties of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2011-09-01

    The binding of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline, [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)), to DNA has been investigated by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. The complexes show absorption decreasing in charge transfer band, fluorescence decrement when bound to DNA. The binding constant Kb has been determined by absorption measurement for both complexes and found to be (6.76±0.12)×10(4) for 1 and (1.83±0.15)×10(4)M(-1), for 2. The fluorescence of [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)) has been studied in detail. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that DNA has the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) and Pr(III) complexes through the static quenching procedure. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer constant kSV are determined. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°), are calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The experimental data suggest that the complexes bind to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Major groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)) with DNA.

  6. Complexation of Am(III) and Nd(III) by 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nilsson, Mikael; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Hancock, Robert D.; Nash, Ken L.

    2013-01-01

    The complexant 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) is a planar tetradentate ligand that is more preorganized for metal complexation than its unconstrained analogue ethylendiiminodiacetic acid (EDDA). Furthermore, the backbone nitrogen atoms of PDA are aromatic, hence are softer than the aliphatic amines of EDDA. It has been hypothesized that PDA will selectively bond to trivalent actinides over lanthanides. In this report, the results of spectrophotometric studies of the complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) by PDA are reported. Because the complexes are moderately stable, it was necessary to conduct these titrations using competitive equilibrium methods, competitive cation omplexing between PDA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and competition between ligand protonation and complex formation. Stability constants and ligand protonation constants were determined at 0.1 mol/L ionic strength and at 0.5 mol/L ionic strength nitrate media at 21 ± 1 C. The stability constants are lower than those predicted from first principles and speciation calculations indicate that Am(III) selectivity over Nd(III) is less than that exhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline.

  7. Soluble Mn(III)-L complexes are abundant in oxygenated waters and stabilized by humic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Véronique E.; Mucci, Alfonso; Tebo, Bradley M.; Luther, George W.

    2017-02-01

    Dissolved Mn (dMnT) is thought to be dominated by metastable Mn(II) in the presence of oxygen, as the stable form is insoluble Mn(IV). We show, for the first time, that Mn(III) is also stable as a soluble species in the oxygenated water column, when stabilized by organic ligands as Mn(III)-L complexes. We measured Mn(III)-L complexes in the oxygenated waters of a coastal fjord and a hemipelagic system where they make up to 86% of the dMnT. Although Mn(III) forms similar complexes to Fe(III), unlike most of the analogous Fe(III)-L complexes, the Mn(III)-L complexes are not colloidal, as they pass through both 0.20 μm and 0.02 μm filters. Depending on the kinetic stability of the Mn(III) complexes and the microbial community of a given system, these Mn(III)-L complexes are capable of donating or accepting electrons and may therefore serve as both reductants or oxidants, can be biologically available, and can thus participate in a multitude of redox reactions and biogeochemical processes. Furthermore, sample acidification experiments revealed that Mn(III) binding to humic ligands is responsible for up to 100% of this complexation, which can influence the formation of other metal complexes including Fe(III) and thus impact nutrient availability and uptake. Hence, humic ligands may play a greater role in dissolved Mn transport from coastal areas to the ocean than previously thought.

  8. CD147 interacts with NDUFS6 in regulating mitochondrial complex I activity and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Z; Zeng, W; Tang, W; Long, T; Zhang, J; Xie, X; Kuang, Y; Chen, M; Su, J; Chen, X

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the most lethal tumors and is characterized by high invasiveness, frequent metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. The risk of metastatic MM is accompanied by disordered energy metabolism involving the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) process, which is largely carried out in mitochondrial complexes. Complex I is the first and largest mitochondrial enzyme complex associated with this process. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein mainly expressed on the cell surface, and also appears in the cytoplasm in some tumors. We found that CD147 is often translocated to the cytoplasm in metastatic MM specimens as compared to primary MM. We also demonstrated high expression of CD147 in isolated mitochondrial fractions of A375 cells. The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay identified NDUFS6 (which encodes a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I) as a candidate that interacts with CD147 and depletion of CD147 in A375 cells significantly decreased complex I enzyme activity. We also showed that CD147 increased the viability of A375 cells exposed to berberine-induced mitochondrial damage, and protected them from apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. This finding was confirmed by adding exogenous Bcl-2 to A375 cell cultures. In summary, our results identify the existence of CD147 in human melanoma cell mitochondria. They indicate that CD147 appears to regulate complex I activity and apoptosis in MM by interacting with mitochondrial NDUFS6. Our findings provide new insight into the function of CD147 and identify it as a promising therapeutic target in melanoma through disruption of the energy metabolism.

  9. Analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping mitochondrial genomes of a Neotropical malaria vector complex

    PubMed Central

    Krzywinski, Jaroslaw; Li, Cong; Morris, Marion; Conn, Jan E.; Lima, José B.; Povoa, Marinete M.; Wilkerson, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Many vectors of human malaria belong to complexes of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species. Here we report the analysis of the newly sequenced complete mitochondrial DNA molecules from six recognized or putative species of one such group, the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis complex. The molecular evolution of these genomes had been driven by purifying selection, particularly strongly acting on the RNA genes. Directional mutation pressure associated with the strand-asynchronous asymmetric mtDNA replication mechanism may have shaped a pronounced DNA strand asymmetry in the nucleotide composition in these and other Anopheles species. The distribution of sequence polymorphism, coupled with the conflicting phylogenetic trees inferred from the mitochondrial DNA and from the published white gene fragment sequences, indicates that the evolution of the complex may have involved ancient mtDNA introgression. Six protein coding genes (nad5, nad4, cox3, atp6, cox1 and nad2) have high levels of sequence divergence and are likely informative for population genetics studies. Finally, the extent of the mitochondrial DNA variation within the complex supports the notion that the complex consists of a larger number of species than until recently believed. PMID:21241811

  10. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of morin-Eu(III) complex with calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowen; Guo, Jinbao; Pan, Junhui; Chen, Xiuxia; Wang, Junjie

    2009-04-01

    The interaction between morin-Eu(III) complex and calf thymus DNA in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and DNA melting techniques. Hypochromicity and red shift of the absorption spectra of morin-Eu(III) complex were observed in the presence of DNA, and the fluorescence intensity of morin-Eu(III) complex was greatly enhanced with the addition of DNA. Moreover, fluorescence quenching and blue shift of the emission peak were seen in the DNA-ethidium bromide (EB) system when morin-Eu(III) complex was added. The relative viscosity of DNA increased with the addition of morin-Eu(III) complex, whereas the value of melting temperature of DNA-EB system decreased in the presence of morin-Eu(III) complex. All these results indicated that morin-Eu(III) complex can bind to DNA and the major binding mode is intercalative binding. The 3:1 morin:Eu(III) complex (estimated binding constant = 2.36 × 10 6 L mol -1) is stabilized by intercalation into the DNA. The calculated binding constants of morin-Eu(III) complex with DNA at 292, 301 and 310 K were 7.47 × 10 4, 8.89 × 10 4 and 1.13 × 10 5 L mol -1, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters were also obtained: Δ H θ was 20.14 kJ mol -1 > 0 and Δ S θ was 161.70 J mol -1 K -1 > 0, suggesting that hydrophobic force plays a major role in the binding of morin-Eu(III) complex to DNA.

  11. Differential susceptibility of mitochondrial complex II to inhibition by oxaloacetate in brain and heart.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Anna; Shurubor, Yevgeniya; Valsecchi, Federica; Manfredi, Giovanni; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial Complex II is a key mitochondrial enzyme connecting the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the electron transport chain. Studies of complex II are clinically important since new roles for this enzyme have recently emerged in cell signalling, cancer biology, immune response and neurodegeneration. Oxaloacetate (OAA) is an intermediate of the TCA cycle and at the same time is an inhibitor of complex II with high affinity (Kd~10(-8)M). Whether or not OAA inhibition of complex II is a physiologically relevant process is a significant, but still controversial topic. We found that complex II from mouse heart and brain tissue has similar affinity to OAA and that only a fraction of the enzyme in isolated mitochondrial membranes (30.2±6.0% and 56.4±5.6% in the heart and brain, respectively) is in the free, active form. Since OAA could bind to complex II during isolation, we established a novel approach to deplete OAA in the homogenates at the early stages of isolation. In heart, this treatment significantly increased the fraction of free enzyme, indicating that OAA binds to complex II during isolation. In brain the OAA-depleting system did not significantly change the amount of free enzyme, indicating that a large fraction of complex II is already in the OAA-bound inactive form. Furthermore, short-term ischemia resulted in a dramatic decline of OAA in tissues, but it did not change the amount of free complex II. Our data show that in brain OAA is an endogenous effector of complex II, potentially capable of modulating the activity of the enzyme.

  12. Modeling rare earth complexes: Sparkle/AM1 parameters for thulium (III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2005-08-01

    The Sparkle/AM1 model, recently defined for Eu(III), Gd(III) and Tb(III) [R.O. Freire, G.B. Rocha, A.M., Simas, Inorg. Chem. 44 (2005) 3299], is extended to Tm(III). A set of 15 structures of high crystallographic quality from the Cambridge Crystallographic Database, with ligands chosen to be representative of all complexes with nitrogen or oxygen directly bonded to the Tm(III) ion, was used as a training set. For the 15 complexes, the Sparkle/AM1 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the Tm(III) ion and the oxygen or nitrogen ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.07 Å, a level of accuracy useful for luminescent complex design.

  13. Age Modulates Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Liver Toxicity: Dose-Dependent Decrease in Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes Activities and Coupling in Middle-Aged as Compared to Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Baratli, Yosra; Charles, Anne-Laure; Wolff, Valérie; Ben Tahar, Lotfi; Smiri, Leila; Bouitbir, Jamal; Zoll, Joffrey; Sakly, Mohsen; Auger, Cyril; Vogel, Thomas; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Geny, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities and mitochondrial coupling in young (3 months) and middle-aged (18 months) rat liver, organ largely involved in body iron detoxification. Isolated liver mitochondria were extracted using differential centrifugations. Maximal oxidative capacities (Vmax, complexes I, III, and IV activities), Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities), and Vtmpd, (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0) were determined in controls conditions and after exposure to 250, 300, and 350 μg/ml Fe3O4 in young and middle-aged rats. In young liver mitochondria, exposure to IONPs did not alter mitochondrial function. In contrast, IONPs dose-dependently impaired all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in middle-aged rat liver: Vmax (from 30 ± 1.6 to 17.9 ± 1.5; P < 0.001), Vsucc (from 33.9 ± 1.7 to 24.3 ± 1.0; P < 0.01), Vtmpd (from 43.0 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 2.2 µmol O2/min/g protein; P < 0.001) using Fe3O4 350 µg/ml. Mitochondrial coupling also decreased. Interestingly, 350 μg/ml Fe3O4 in the form of Fe3+ solution did not impair liver mitochondrial function in middle-aged rats. Thus, IONPs showed a specific toxicity in middle-aged rats suggesting caution when using it in old age. PMID:24949453

  14. Imbalance of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes in the Epidermis Induces Severe Skin Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Daniela; Brachvogel, Bent; Hornig-Do, Hue-Tran; Neuhaus, Johannes F G; Holzer, Tatjana; Tobin, Desmond J; Niessen, Carien M; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Baris, Olivier R

    2017-08-31

    Accumulation of large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and chronic, subclinical inflammation are concomitant during skin aging, thus raising the question of a causal link. To approach this, we generated mice expressing a mutant mitochondrial helicase (K320E-TWINKLE) in the epidermis in order to accelerate the accumulation of mtDNA deletions in this skin compartment. Mice displayed low amounts of large-scale deletions as well as a dramatic depletion of mtDNA in the epidermis and showed macroscopic signs of severe skin inflammation. The mtDNA alterations led to an imbalanced stoichiometry of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inducing a unique combination of cytokine expression, causing a severe inflammatory phenotype, with massive immune cell infiltrates already before birth. Altogether, these data unraveled a previously unknown link between an imbalanced stoichiometry of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and skin inflammation, and suggest that severe respiratory chain dysfunction, as observed in few cells leading to a mosaic in aged tissues, might be involved in the development of chronic sub-clinical inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  16. Complex oscillatory redox dynamics with signaling potential at the edge between normal and pathological mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Kembro, Jackelyn M; Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The time-keeping properties bestowed by oscillatory behavior on functional rhythms represent an evolutionarily conserved trait in living systems. Mitochondrial networks function as timekeepers maximizing energetic output while tuning reactive oxygen species (ROS) within physiological levels compatible with signaling. In this work, we explore the potential for timekeeping functions dependent on mitochondrial dynamics with the validated two-compartment mitochondrial energetic-redox (ME-R) computational model, that takes into account (a) four main redox couples [NADH, NADPH, GSH, Trx(SH)2], (b) scavenging systems (glutathione, thioredoxin, SOD, catalase) distributed in matrix and extra-matrix compartments, and (c) transport of ROS species between them. Herein, we describe that the ME-R model can exhibit highly complex oscillatory dynamics in energetic/redox variables and ROS species, consisting of at least five frequencies with modulated amplitudes and period according to power spectral analysis. By stability analysis we describe that the extent of steady state-as against complex oscillatory behavior-was dependent upon the abundance of Mn and Cu, Zn SODs, and their interplay with ROS production in the respiratory chain. Large parametric regions corresponding to oscillatory dynamics of increasingly complex waveforms were obtained at low Cu, Zn SOD concentration as a function of Mn SOD. This oscillatory domain was greatly reduced at higher levels of Cu, Zn SOD. Interestingly, the realm of complex oscillations was located at the edge between normal and pathological mitochondrial energetic behavior, and was characterized by oxidative stress. We conclude that complex oscillatory dynamics could represent a frequency- and amplitude-modulated H2O2 signaling mechanism that arises under intense oxidative stress. By modulating SOD, cells could have evolved an adaptive compromise between relative constancy and the flexibility required under stressful redox/energetic conditions.

  17. Complex oscillatory redox dynamics with signaling potential at the edge between normal and pathological mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The time-keeping properties bestowed by oscillatory behavior on functional rhythms represent an evolutionarily conserved trait in living systems. Mitochondrial networks function as timekeepers maximizing energetic output while tuning reactive oxygen species (ROS) within physiological levels compatible with signaling. In this work, we explore the potential for timekeeping functions dependent on mitochondrial dynamics with the validated two-compartment mitochondrial energetic-redox (ME-R) computational model, that takes into account (a) four main redox couples [NADH, NADPH, GSH, Trx(SH)2], (b) scavenging systems (glutathione, thioredoxin, SOD, catalase) distributed in matrix and extra-matrix compartments, and (c) transport of ROS species between them. Herein, we describe that the ME-R model can exhibit highly complex oscillatory dynamics in energetic/redox variables and ROS species, consisting of at least five frequencies with modulated amplitudes and period according to power spectral analysis. By stability analysis we describe that the extent of steady state—as against complex oscillatory behavior—was dependent upon the abundance of Mn and Cu, Zn SODs, and their interplay with ROS production in the respiratory chain. Large parametric regions corresponding to oscillatory dynamics of increasingly complex waveforms were obtained at low Cu, Zn SOD concentration as a function of Mn SOD. This oscillatory domain was greatly reduced at higher levels of Cu, Zn SOD. Interestingly, the realm of complex oscillations was located at the edge between normal and pathological mitochondrial energetic behavior, and was characterized by oxidative stress. We conclude that complex oscillatory dynamics could represent a frequency- and amplitude-modulated H2O2 signaling mechanism that arises under intense oxidative stress. By modulating SOD, cells could have evolved an adaptive compromise between relative constancy and the flexibility required under stressful redox

  18. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex II by the Anticancer Agent Lonidamine*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Shestov, Alexander A.; Worth, Andrew J.; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Blair, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor agent lonidamine (LND; 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid) is known to interfere with energy-yielding processes in cancer cells. However, the effect of LND on central energy metabolism has never been fully characterized. In this study, we report that a significant amount of succinate is accumulated in LND-treated cells. LND inhibits the formation of fumarate and malate and suppresses succinate-induced respiration of isolated mitochondria. Utilizing biochemical assays, we determined that LND inhibits the succinate-ubiquinone reductase activity of respiratory complex II without fully blocking succinate dehydrogenase activity. LND also induces cellular reactive oxygen species through complex II, which reduced the viability of the DB-1 melanoma cell line. The ability of LND to promote cell death was potentiated by its suppression of the pentose phosphate pathway, which resulted in inhibition of NADPH and glutathione generation. Using stable isotope tracers in combination with isotopologue analysis, we showed that LND increased glutaminolysis but decreased reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate. Our findings on the previously uncharacterized effects of LND may provide potential combinational therapeutic approaches for targeting cancer metabolism. PMID:26521302

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-08-20

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  1. Redefining the roles of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits in respiratory Complex I assembly

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Rasika; Deng, Janice; Fang, Hezhi; Bai, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory Complex I deficiency is implicated in numerous degenerative and metabolic diseases. In particular, mutations in several mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded Complex I subunits including ND4, ND5 and ND6 have been identified in several neurological diseases. We previously demonstrated that these subunits played essential roles in Complex I assembly which in turn affected mitochondrial function. Here, we carried out a comprehensive study of the Complex I assembly pathway. We identified a new Complex I intermediate containing both membrane and matrix arms at an early assembly stage. We find that lack of the ND6 subunit does not hinder membrane arm formation; instead it recruits ND1 and ND5 enter the intermediate. While ND4 is important for the formation of the newly identified intermediate, the addition of ND5 stabilizes the complex and is required for the critical transition from Complex I to supercomplexes assembly. As a result, the Complex I assembly pathway has been redefined in this study. PMID:25887158

  2. Photoluminescence studies on the complexation of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) in nitrate medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, P. N.; Mohapatra, M.; Godbole, S. V.

    2013-11-01

    UREX process has been proposed for selective extraction of U(VI) and Tc(VII) from nitric acid medium (∼1 M HNO3) using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as extractant and retaining Pu, Np and fission products in the aqueous phase. The feasibility of the use of luminescence spectroscopy as a technique to understand the complexation of trivalent f-elements cations viz. Eu(III) and Tb(III) with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) in nitric acid medium has been examined. The luminescence lifetimes for the 1 × 10-3 M Eu(III) and AHA complex system decreased with increased AHA concentration from 116 ± 0.2 μs (no AHA) to 1.6 ± 0.1 μs (0.1 M AHA) which was attributed to dynamic quenching. The corrected fluorescence intensities were used to calculate the stability constant (log K) for the formation of 1:1 Eu3+-AHA complex as 1.42 ± 0.64 under the conditions of this study. By contrast, the Tb(III)-AHA system at pH 3 (HNO3) did not show any significant variation in the life times of the excited state (364 ± 9 μs) suggesting the absence of dynamic quenching. The spectral changes in Tb(III)-AHA system showed the formation of 1:1 complex (log K: 1.72 ± 0.21). These studies suggest that the extent of AHA complexation with the rare earth elements will be insignificant as compared to tetravalent metal ions Pu(IV) and Np(IV) under UREX process conditions.

  3. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis-beta-diketone-type ligand.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis-beta-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  4. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis- β-diketone-type ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis- β-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  5. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1–40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1–40 peptide on the basis of their emission response. PMID:26419607

  6. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  7. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-30

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  8. Application of Protocols Devised to Study Bi(III) Complex Formation by Voltammetry: The Bi(III)-Picolinic Acid System.

    PubMed

    Billing, Caren; Cukrowski, Ignacy

    2016-12-22

    Bi(III) coordination chemistry has been largely neglected due to the difficulties faced when studying these systems even though Bi(III) is used in various medicinal applications. This study of the Bi(III)-picolinic acid system by voltammetry applies the rigorous methodologies already developed to enable the study of Bi(III) systems starting in very acidic solutions to prevent precipitation. This includes calibrating the glass electrode accurately at these low pHs, compensating for the diffusion junction potential below pH 2 and determining the reduction potential of uncomplexed Bi(III) which cannot be directly measured. The importance of including nitrate from the background electrolyte as a competing species is highlighted, especially for data acquired below pH ∼ 2. From analysis of the voltammetric data, it was not clear whether a ML3OH species formed in solution or whether it was a combination of ML4 and ML4OH. Information from crystal structures and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry measurements was thus used to propose the most probable species model. The log β values determined were 7.77 ± 0.07 for ML, 13.89 ± 0.07 for ML2, 18.61 ± 0.01 for ML3, 22.7 ± 0.2 for ML4, and 31.4 ± 0.2 for ML4OH. Application of these methodologies thus opens the door to broaden our understanding of Bi(III) complexation.

  9. Changes of haematic parameters, redox status and mitochondrial complex activity in the heart and liver of broilers fed with different density diets under low ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y Z; Wang, Y W; Ning, D; Guo, Y M

    2013-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary nutrient density on haematic parameters, oxidative status and mitochondrial complex activity in the heart and liver of broilers under low ambient temperature. Eight-day-old male ROSS-308 chickens were randomly divided into two treatments fed with normal (control) and high metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein density (H) diets. A high nutrient density diet increased body weight gain and reduced the feed conversation ratio during the first 3 weeks. Increased ascites-related mortality (weeks 4 to 6), right ventricle/total ventricle (week 6), blood haemoglobin (weeks 2 and 4) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (week 2) were observed in treatment H. Levels of malonaldehyde and protein carbonylation were increased at week 4, and activities of glutathione peroxidase at week 4 and CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase at week 6 were decreased in the heart; only malonaldehyde (week 6) was increased in the liver in treatment H. Relative mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (heart) was increased and heme oxygenase-1 (heart and liver) was decreased at week 4 in broilers fed with high ME and protein diet. Activities of mitochondrial complex III and IV (week 6) in the heart, and complex I (week 6) and complex III and IV (week 4) in the liver were decreased in treatment H. In conclusion, high levels of dietary ME and protein resulted in oxidative stress and high incidence of ascites in broilers under low ambient temperature. Heart dysfunction was primarily attributed to ascites development, in which oxidative injury and inhibition of mitochondrial complex activity were involved.

  10. Water-soluble phthalocyanine complexes of Ga(III) and In(III) in the photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantareva, V.; Angelov, I.; Wöhrle, D.; Dogandjiska, V.; Dimitrov, R.; Kussovski, V.

    2010-10-01

    Phthalocyanines of gallium(III) and indium(III) (GaPc1 and InPc1) bearing four methylpyridyloxy groups on the periphery of the phthalocyanine ring were synthesized. The both phthalocyanines were obtained with a good solubility in water solutions, which make them suitable for application in the Photodynamic therapy (PDT). The absorbance in the Uv-vis region of the complexes is typical for MPc with a highly intensive maximum in the far red spectra (681 nm - 697 nm for GaPc1 and for InPc1, both in DMSO). The fluorescence maxima are red shifted (691 nm/716 nm). The fluorescence quantum yields of the both complexes are lower than that for the unsubstituted MPcs with values of 0.25 for GaPc1 and much lower for InPc1 (0.012), which suggested a quenching from the substituents. The photochemical properties of singlet oxygen generation show quenching curves of "Furane" test with a 1O2 formation that increase significantly in the presence of the heavy atoms such as Ga(III) and especially In(III). Photodynamic efficacy against C. albicans in planktonic media was evaluated with a high photodynamic effect for GaPc1 at low concentrations (0.5 μM, - 3 μM) at mild irradiation parameters (30-60 J cm-2 and 50 mW cm-2). The inactivation of the fungus cells with InPc1 was insignificant even at strong treatment conditions (6.8 μM 60 J cm-2). The water-soluble phthalocyanine complexes of Ga(III) and In (III) were compared to the recently studied by us water-soluble Zn(II)-phthalocyanine, which was shown to have a high potential for photodynamic inactivation of variety pathogenic bacterial strains.

  11. Cardiolipin-dependent reconstitution of respiratory supercomplexes from purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae complexes III and IV.

    PubMed

    Bazán, Soledad; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Mallampalli, Venkata K P S; Heacock, Philip; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Dowhan, William

    2013-01-04

    Here, we report for the first time in vitro reconstitution of the respiratory supercomplexes from individual complexes III and IV. Complexes III and IV were purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. Complex III contained eight molecules of cardiolipin, and complex IV contained two molecules of cardiolipin, as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Complex IV also contained Rcf1p. No supercomplexes were formed upon mixing of the purified complexes, and low amounts of the supercomplex trimer III(2)IV(1) were formed after reconstitution into proteoliposomes containing only phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Further addition of cardiolipin to the proteoliposome reconstitution mixture resulted in distinct formation of both the III(2)IV(1) supercomplex trimer and III(2)IV(2) supercomplex tetramer. No other anionic phospholipid was as effective as cardiolipin in supporting tetramer formation. Phospholipase treatment of complex IV prevented trimer formation in the absence of cardiolipin. Both trimer and tetramer formations were restored by cardiolipin. Analysis of the reconstituted tetramer by single particle electron microscopy confirmed native organization of individual complexes within the supercomplex. In conclusion, although some trimer formation occurred dependent only on tightly bound cardiolipin, tetramer formation required additional cardiolipin. This is consistent with the high cardiolipin content in the native tetramer. The dependence on cardiolipin for supercomplex formation suggests that changes in cardiolipin levels resulting from changes in physiological conditions may control the equilibrium between individual respiratory complexes and supercomplexes in vivo.

  12. Decaffeinated green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents fatty liver disease by increased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, Aline B; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Okuda, Marcos H; Santana, Aline A; Streck, Emilio L; Seelaender, Marilia; do Nascimento, Claudia M Oller; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Lira, Fábio S; Oyama, Lila Missae

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been considered the hepatic manifestation of obesity. It is unclear whether supplementation with green tea extract rich in epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) influences the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and insulin resistance in the liver. EGCG regulated hepatic mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and was capable of improving lipid metabolism, attenuating insulin resistance in obese mice. Mice were divided into four groups: control diet+water (CW) or EGCG (CE) and hyperlipidic diet+water (HFW) or EGCG (HFE). All animals received water and diets ad libitum for 16 weeks. Placebo groups received water (0.1 ml/day) and EGCG groups (0.1 ml EGCG and 50 mg/kg/day) by gavage. Cytokines concentrations were obtained by ELISA, protein expression through Western blotting and mitochondrial complex enzymatic activity by colorimetric assay of substrate degradation. HFW increased body weight gain, adiposity index, retroperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue relative weight, serum glucose, insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Basal Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR); glucose intolerance was observed in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well as ectopic fat liver deposition. HFE group decreased body weight gain, retroperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue relative weight, HOMA-IR, insulin levels and liver fat accumulation; increased complexes II-III and IV and malate dehydrogenase activities and improvement in glucose uptake in OGTT and insulin sensitivity by increased protein expression of total AKT, IRα and IRS1. We did not find alterations in inflammatory parameters analyzed. EGCG was able to prevent obesity stimulating the mitochondrial complex chain, increasing energy expenditure, particularly from the oxidation of lipid substrates, thereby contributing to the prevention of hepatic steatosis and improved insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Native mitochondrial RNA-binding complexes in kinetoplastid RNA editing differ in guide RNA composition

    PubMed Central

    Madina, Bhaskara R.; Kumar, Vikas; Metz, Richard; Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3′-to-5′ in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of the first editing blocks indicate an enrichment of several initiating gRNAs in the MRB3010-purified complex. Our data also indicate fast evolution of mRNA 3′ ends and strain-specific alternative 3′ editing within 3′ UTR or C-terminal protein-coding sequence that could impact mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, we found robust specific copurification of edited and pre-edited mRNAs, suggesting that these particles may bind both mRNA and gRNA editing substrates. We propose that multiple subcomplexes of MRB1 with different RNA/protein composition serve as a scaffold for specific assembly of editing substrates and RECC, thereby forming the editing holoenzyme. The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. PMID:24865612

  14. Native mitochondrial RNA-binding complexes in kinetoplastid RNA editing differ in guide RNA composition.

    PubMed

    Madina, Bhaskara R; Kumar, Vikas; Metz, Richard; Mooers, Blaine H M; Bundschuh, Ralf; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3'-to-5' in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of the first editing blocks indicate an enrichment of several initiating gRNAs in the MRB3010-purified complex. Our data also indicate fast evolution of mRNA 3' ends and strain-specific alternative 3' editing within 3' UTR or C-terminal protein-coding sequence that could impact mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, we found robust specific copurification of edited and pre-edited mRNAs, suggesting that these particles may bind both mRNA and gRNA editing substrates. We propose that multiple subcomplexes of MRB1 with different RNA/protein composition serve as a scaffold for specific assembly of editing substrates and RECC, thereby forming the editing holoenzyme. The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. © 2014 Madina et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx targets cardiolipin to disintegrate respiratory chain complex II for cell death induction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, M-S; Schwall, C T; Pazarentzos, E; Datler, C; Alder, N N; Grimm, S

    2014-01-01

    Massive Ca2+ influx into mitochondria is critically involved in cell death induction but it is unknown how this activates the organelle for cell destruction. Using multiple approaches including subcellular fractionation, FRET in intact cells, and in vitro reconstitutions, we show that mitochondrial Ca2+ influx prompts complex II of the respiratory chain to disintegrate, thereby releasing an enzymatically competent sub-complex that generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cell death induction. This Ca2+-dependent dissociation of complex II is also observed in model membrane systems, but not when cardiolipin is replaced with a lipid devoid of Ca2+ binding. Cardiolipin is known to associate with complex II and upon Ca2+ binding coalesces into separate homotypic clusters. When complex II is deprived of this lipid, it disintegrates for ROS formation and cell death. Our results reveal Ca2+ binding to cardiolipin for complex II disintegration as a pivotal step for oxidative stress and cell death induction. PMID:24948011

  16. Ischemic A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I and its role in ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Stepanova, Anna; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism and provides approximately 40% of the proton-motive force that is utilized during mitochondrial ATP production. The dysregulation of complex I function--either genetically, pharmacologically, or metabolically induced--has severe pathophysiological consequences that often involve an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Slow transition of the active (A) enzyme to the deactive, dormant (D) form takes place during ischemia in metabolically active organs such as the heart and brain. The reactivation of complex I occurs upon reoxygenation of ischemic tissue, a process that is usually accompanied by an increase in cellular ROS production. Complex I in the D-form serves as a protective mechanism preventing the oxidative burst upon reperfusion. Conversely, however, the D-form is more vulnerable to oxidative/nitrosative damage. Understanding the so-called active/deactive (A/D) transition may contribute to the development of new therapeutic interventions for conditions like stroke, cardiac infarction, and other ischemia-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the mechanism of A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I considering recently available structural data and site-specific labeling experiments. In addition, this review discusses in detail the impact of the A/D transition on ROS production by complex I and the S-nitrosation of a critical cysteine residue of subunit ND3 as a strategy to prevent oxidative damage and tissue damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  17. Design of luminescent biotinylation reagents derived from cyclometalated iridium(III) and rhodium(III) bis(pyridylbenzaldehyde) complexes.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Kit; Kwok, Karen Ying; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2010-06-07

    A new class of luminescent biotinylation reagents derived from cyclometalated iridium(III) and rhodium(III) bis(pyridylbenzaldehyde) biotin complexes, [Ir(pba)(2)(bpy-C6-biotin)](PF(6)) (1), [Ir(pba)(2)(bpy-TEG-biotin)](PF(6)) (2), and [Rh(pba)(2)(bpy-C6-biotin)](PF(6)) (3), together with their biotin-free counterparts [Ir(pba)(2)(bpy-Et)](PF(6)) (4) and [Rh(pba)(2)(bpy-Et)](PF(6)) (5) [Hpba = 4-(2-pyridyl)benzaldehyde, bpy-C6-biotin = 4-[(6-biotinamido)hexylaminocarbonyl]-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine, bpy-TEG-biotin = 4-[(13-biotinamido-4,7,10-trioxa)tridecylaminocarbonyl]-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine, bpy-Et = 4-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine], have been synthesized and characterized and their photophysical and electrochemical properties studied. Upon photoexcitation, the iridium(III) complexes 1, 2, and 4 exhibited intense and long-lived orange-yellow luminescence in fluid solutions at 298 K and in rigid glass at 77 K. The rhodium(III) complexes 3 and 5 were weakly emissive in fluid solutions at 298 K but showed intense luminescence in low-temperature glass. In view of the structured emission profiles and the long lifetimes, the emission of all of the complexes has been assigned to a triplet intraligand ((3)IL) (pi --> pi*) (pba) excited state, which was probably mixed with some triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) [dpi(Ir or Rh) --> pi*(pba)] character. To investigate the reactivity of the aldehyde groups, complex 2 was reacted with n-butylamine, resulting in the formation of the complex [Ir(ppy-CH(2)NHC(4)H(9))(2)(bpy-TEG-biotin)](PF(6)) (2a) [Hppy-CH(2)NHC(4)H(9) = 2-[4-[N-(n-butyl)aminomethyl]phenyl]pyridine]. All of the aldehyde complexes have been used to biotinylate bovine serum albumin (BSA) to form bioconjugates 1-BSA-5-BSA. The bioconjugates have been isolated, purified, and characterized and their photophysical properties studied. Upon photoexcitation, all of the bioconjugates were luminescent and the emission has been

  18. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence properties of Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes with novel mono-substituted β-diketone ligands and 1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Li, Jun; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Tang, Rui-Ren; Tang, Xin-Cun

    2009-05-01

    Two novel pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives of mono-β-diketone, methyl 6-benzoylacetyl-2-pyridinecarboxylate (MBAP) and 6-benzoylacetyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (BAPA) and their Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and TG-DTG. Moreover, their Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes using 1,10-phenanthroline as a secondary ligand were prepared and characterized. The luminescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated in detail. The results suggested that Tb(III) complexes exhibit more efficient luminescence than Eu(III) complexes, the fluorescence intensity of Ln(III) complexes with BAPA is about twice as strong as that of Ln(III) complexes with MBAP, the fluorescence of mono-β-diketone complexes using 1,10-phenanthroline as a secondary ligand was prominently higher than that of complexes without adding 1,10-phenanthroline, and the ligand BAPA is an excellent sensitizer to Eu(III) and Tb(III) ion.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence properties of Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes with novel mono-substituted beta-diketone ligands and 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Li, Jun; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Tang, Rui-Ren; Tang, Xin-Cun

    2009-05-01

    Two novel pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives of mono-beta-diketone, methyl 6-benzoylacetyl-2-pyridinecarboxylate (MBAP) and 6-benzoylacetyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (BAPA) and their Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and TG-DTG. Moreover, their Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes using 1,10-phenanthroline as a secondary ligand were prepared and characterized. The luminescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated in detail. The results suggested that Tb(III) complexes exhibit more efficient luminescence than Eu(III) complexes, the fluorescence intensity of Ln(III) complexes with BAPA is about twice as strong as that of Ln(III) complexes with MBAP, the fluorescence of mono-beta-diketone complexes using 1,10-phenanthroline as a secondary ligand was prominently higher than that of complexes without adding 1,10-phenanthroline, and the ligand BAPA is an excellent sensitizer to Eu(III) and Tb(III) ion.

  20. [Mitochondrial encephalopathy due to complex I deficiency. Brain tissue biopsy findings and clinical course following pharmacological].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Caballero, P E; Mollejo-Villanueva, M; Alvarez-Tejerina, A

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies belong to a heterogeneous group of diseases with a range of neurological symptoms caused by a dysfunction somewhere in the nervous system. They may arise from mutations of the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA in the genes that code for the subunits of the respiratory chain. The results obtained from using different drugs to treat these diseases vary widely. A 33-year-old female with a history of migraine with aura, who was admitted to hospital because of epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging tests showed left-side occipital insult and a biopsy study of a sample of brain tissue revealed gliosis and vacuolisation of the white matter. Lactic acid levels in blood were normal. No ragged red fibres were seen in the muscle biopsy, but there was evidence of a complex I deficiency in the respiratory chain. After establishing treatment with coenzyme Q and riboflavin, the patient had no further episodes of neurological disorders. The absence of elevated levels of lactate, ragged red fibres in the muscle biopsy or the negative results for mutations in the genetic study do not rule out the possible existence of a mitochondrial disease. The gliosis and vacuolisation of the white matter with respect to the neurons that were found in the results of the brain tissue biopsy must lead us to consider a mitochondrial disease.

  1. Complex evolutionary patterns revealed by mitochondrial genomes of the domestic horse.

    PubMed

    Ning, T; Li, J; Lin, K; Xiao, H; Wylie, S; Hua, S; Li, H; Zhang, Y-P

    2014-01-01

    The domestic horse is the most widely used and important stock and recreational animal, valued for its strength and endurance. The energy required by the domestic horse is mainly supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, selection may have played an essential role in the evolution of the horse mitochondria. Besides, demographic events also affect the DNA polymorphic pattern on mitochondria. To understand the evolutionary patterns of the mitochondria of the domestic horse, we used a deep sequencing approach to obtain the complete sequences of 15 mitochondrial genomes, and four mitochondrial gene sequences, ND6, ATP8, ATP6 and CYTB, collected from 509, 363, 363 and 409 domestic horses, respectively. Evidence of strong substitution rate heterogeneity was found at nonsynonymous sites across the genomes. Signatures of recent positive selection on mtDNA of domestic horse were detected. Specifically, five amino acids in the four mitochondrial genes were identified as the targets of positive selection. Coalescentbased simulations imply that recent population expansion is the most probable explanation for the matrilineal population history for domestic horse. Our findings reveal a complex pattern of non-neutral evolution of the mitochondrial genome in the domestic horses.

  2. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity in mice: a possible mechanism underlying neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Zhang, Steven F; Jordán, Joaquín; Starkov, Anatoly A; Aguirre, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that such neurotoxicity is due to oxidative stress but the source of free radicals remains unknown. Inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes by MDMA was assessed as a possible source. Experimental approach: Activities of mitochondrial complexes after MDMA were evaluated spectrophotometrically. In situ visualization of superoxide production in the striatum was assessed by ethidium fluorescence and striatal dopamine levels were determined by HPLC as an index of dopaminergic toxicity. Key results: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of mice, an effect accompanied by an increased production of superoxide radicals and the inhibition of endogenous aconitase. α-Lipoic acid prevented superoxide generation and long-term toxicity independent of any effect on complex I inhibition. These effects of α-lipoic acid were also associated with a significant increase of striatal glutathione levels. The relevance of glutathione was supported by reducing striatal glutathione content with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, which exacerbated MDMA-induced dopamine deficits, effects suppressed by α-lipoic acid. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine, partially prevented MDMA-induced dopamine depletions, an effect reversed by L-arginine but not D-arginine. Finally, a direct relationship between mitochondrial complex I inhibition and long-term dopamine depletions was found in animals treated with MDMA in combination with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Conclusions and implications: Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I following MDMA could be the source of free radicals responsible for oxidative stress and the consequent neurotoxicity of this drug in mice. This article is commented on by Moncada, pp. 217

  3. Neodymium(III) Complexation by Amino-Carbohydrates via a Ligand-Controlled Hydrolysis Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Chen, Yongsheng; Fulton, John L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2011-07-28

    Chelation of neodymium-III Nd(III) by D-glucosamine (DGA) and chitosan was investigated in solution at near-physiological pH and ionic strength. This research demonstrates the first example of the lanthanide ion heteroleptic hydroxo-carbohydrate complex in solution. It was demonstrated that DGA and chitosan suppressed formation of polynuclear Nd(III) species at elevated pH.

  4. Detection of a mitochondrial kinase complex that mediates PKA-MEK-ERK-dependent phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins involved in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristina; Poderoso, Cecilia; Maloberti, Paula; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Mendez, Carlos; Poderoso, Juan J; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of this article, as an example we will describe the strategies followed to analyze the presence of the multi-kinase complex at the mitochondria and the posttranslational modification of two key mitochondrial proteins, which participate in the regulation of cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membranes and in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis. Hormones, ions or growth factors modulate steroid biosynthesis by the posttranslational phosphorylation of proteins. The question still remains on how phosphorylation events transmit a specific signal to its mitochondrial site of action. Cholesterol transport requires specific interactions in mitochondria between several proteins including a multi-kinase complex. The presence of this multi-kinase complex at the mitochondria reveals the importance of the posttranslational modification of mitochondrial proteins for its activity and functions. The activation of PKA triggers the posttranslational modification of the mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot2), which releases arachidonic acid (AA) in the mitochondria, and the activation of a kinase cascade that leads to the phoshorylation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. The function of StAR is to facilitate the access of cholesterol to the first enzyme of the biosynthesis process and its induction is dependent on Acot2 and intramitochondrial AA release. Truncation of the StAR protein is associated with the steroid deficiency disease, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

  5. Intermediate States of Ribonuclease III in Complex with Double-Stranded RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Jianhua; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Court, Donald L.; Waugh, David S.; Ji, Xinhua

    2010-07-19

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) can affect RNA structure and gene expression in either of two ways: as a processing enzyme that cleaves double-stranded (ds) RNA, or as a binding protein that binds but does not cleave dsRNA. We previously proposed a model of the catalytic complex of RNase III with dsRNA based on three crystal structures, including the endonuclease domain of RNase III with and without bound metal ions and a dsRNA binding protein complexed with dsRNA. We also reported a noncatalytic assembly observed in the crystal structure of an RNase III mutant, which binds but does not cleave dsRNA, complexed with dsRNA. We hypothesize that the RNase III {center_dot} dsRNA complex can exist in two functional forms, a catalytic complex and a noncatalytic assembly, and that in between the two forms there may be intermediate states. Here, we present four crystal structures of RNase III complexed with dsRNA, representing possible intermediates.

  6. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of quercetin-terbium(III) complex with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Gholamreza; Dolatabadi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Zeynali, Karim Asadpour; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Kashanian, Soheila

    2011-03-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with quercetin-terbium(III) [Q-Tb(III)] complex at physiological pH was monitored by UV absorption spectrophotometry, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and viscosimetric techniques. The complex displays binding properties to the CT-DNA and was found to interact with CT-DNA through outside binding, demonstrated by a hypochromic effect of Q-Tb(III) on the UV spectra of CT-DNA and the calculated association constants (K). Also, decrease in the specific viscosity of CT-DNA, decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Q-Tb(III) solutions in the presence of increasing amounts of CT-DNA, and detectable changes in the circular dichroism spectrum of CT-DNA are other evidences to indicate that Q-Tb(III) complex interact with CT-DNA through outside binding.

  7. Phosphorescent iridium(III)-bis-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as mitochondria-targeted theranostic and photodynamic anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Tan, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Wei; He, Liang; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria-targeted compounds represent a promising approach to target tumors selectively and overcome resistance to current anticancer therapies. In this work, three cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes (1-3) containing bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been explored as theranostic and photodynamic agents targeting mitochondria. These complexes display rich photophysical properties, which greatly facilitates the study of their intracellular fate. All three complexes are more cytotoxic than cisplatin against the cancer cells screened. 1-3 can penetrate into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells quickly and efficiently, and they can carry out theranostic functions by simultaneously inducing and monitoring the morphological changes in mitochondria. Mechanism studies show that these complexes exert their anticancer efficacy by initiating a cascade of events related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, they display up to 3 orders of magnitude higher cytotoxicity upon irradiation at 365 nm, which is so far the highest photocytotoxic responses reported for iridium complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphorescent Neutral Iridium (III) Complexes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid; Huckaba, Aron J; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-04-01

    The development of transition metal complexes for application in light-emitting devices is currently attracting significant research interest. Among phosphorescent emitters, those involving iridium (III) complexes have proven to be exceedingly useful due to their relatively short triplet lifetime and high phosphorescence quantum yields. The emission wavelength of iridium (III) complexes significantly depends on the ligands, and changing the electronic nature and the position of the ligand substituents can control the properties of the ligands. In this chapter, we discuss recent developments of phosphorescent transition metal complexes for organic light-emitting diode applications focusing solely on the development of iridium metal complexes.

  9. Mitochondrial complex I inhibition triggers a mitophagy-dependent ROS increase leading to necroptosis and ferroptosis in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Basit, Farhan; van Oppen, Lisanne Mpe; Schöckel, Laura; Bossenbroek, Hasse M; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Hermeling, Johannes Cw; Grefte, Sander; Kopitz, Charlotte; Heroult, Melanie; Hgm Willems, Peter; Koopman, Werner Jh

    2017-03-30

    Inhibition of complex I (CI) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by BAY 87-2243 ('BAY') triggers death of BRAF(V600E) melanoma cell lines and inhibits in vivo tumor growth. Here we studied the mechanism by which this inhibition induces melanoma cell death. BAY treatment depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), increased cellular ROS levels, stimulated lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione levels. These effects were paralleled by increased opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and stimulation of autophagosome formation and mitophagy. BAY-induced cell death was not due to glucose shortage and inhibited by the antioxidant α-tocopherol and the mPTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) overexpression in BAY-treated cells lowered ROS levels and inhibited mPTP opening and cell death, whereas the latter was potentiated by TRAP1 knockdown. Knockdown of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) inhibited the BAY-stimulated autophagosome formation, cellular ROS increase and cell death. Knockdown of phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) inhibited the BAY-induced Δψ depolarization, mitophagy stimulation, ROS increase and cell death. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) knockdown induced mitochondrial filamentation and inhibited BAY-induced cell death. The latter was insensitive to the pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK, but reduced by necroptosis inhibitors (necrostatin-1, necrostatin-1s)) and knockdown of key necroptosis proteins (receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL)). BAY-induced cell death was also reduced by the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 and overexpression of the ferroptosis-inhibiting protein glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). This overexpression also inhibited the BAY-induced ROS increase and lipid peroxidation. Conversely, GPX4 knockdown potentiated BAY-induced cell death. We propose a

  10. Effects of low-level laser therapy on mitochondrial respiration and nitrosyl complex content.

    PubMed

    Buravlev, Evgeny A; Zhidkova, Tatyana V; Vladimirov, Yury A; Osipov, Anatoly N

    2014-11-01

    Among the photochemical reactions responsible for therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation, the photolysis of nitrosyl iron complexes of iron-containing proteins is of primary importance. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of blue laser radiation on the respiration rate and photolysis of nitrosyl complexes of iron-sulfur clusters (NO-FeS) in mitochondria, subjected to NO as well as the possibility of NO transfer from NO-FeS to hemoglobin. It was shown that mitochondrial respiration in State 3 (V3) and State 4 (V4), according to Chance, dramatically decreased in the presence of 3 mM NO, but laser radiation (λ = 442 nm, 30 J/cm(2)) restored the respiration rates virtually to the initial level. At the same time, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra showed that laser irradiation decomposed nitrosyl complexes produced by the addition of NO to mitochondria. EPR signal of nitrosyl complexes of FeS-clusters, formed in the presence of 3 mM NO, was maximal in hypoxic mitochondria, and disappeared in a dose-dependent manner, almost completely at the irradiation dose 120 J/cm(2). EPR measurements showed that the addition of lysed erythrocytes to mitochondria decreased the amount of nitrosyl complexes in iron-sulfur clusters and produced the accumulation of NO-hemoglobin. On the other hand, the addition of lysed erythrocytes to mitochondria, preincubated with nitric oxide, restored mitochondrial respiration rates V3 and V4 to initial levels. We may conclude that there are two possible ways to destroy FeS nitrosyl complexes in mitochondria and recover mitochondrial respiration inhibited by NO: laser irradiation and ample supply of the compounds with high affinity to nitric oxide, including hemoglobin.

  11. Isoniazid-induced cell death is precipitated by underlying mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Zhang, Carmen; Schwall, Christine T; Alder, Nathan N; Pinkert, Carl A; Krueger, Winfried; Rasmussen, Theodore; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an antituberculosis drug that has been associated with idiosyncratic liver injury in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but there is growing evidence that INH and/or its major metabolite, hydrazine, may interfere with mitochondrial function. However, hepatic mitochondria have a large reserve capacity, and minor disruption of energy homeostasis does not necessarily induce cell death. We explored whether pharmacologic or genetic impairment of mitochondrial complex I may amplify mitochondrial dysfunction and precipitate INH-induced hepatocellular injury. We found that INH (≤ 3000 μM) did not induce cell injury in cultured mouse hepatocytes, although it decreased hepatocellular respiration and ATP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, coexposure of hepatocytes to INH and nontoxic concentrations of the complex I inhibitors rotenone (3 μM) or piericidin A (30 nM) resulted in massive ATP depletion and cell death. Although both rotenone and piericidin A increased MitoSox-reactive fluorescence, Mito-TEMPO or N-acetylcysteine did not attenuate the extent of cytotoxicity. However, preincubation of cells with the acylamidase inhibitor bis-p-nitrophenol phosphate provided protection from hepatocyte injury induced by rotenone/INH (but not rotenone/hydrazine), suggesting that hydrazine was the cell-damaging species. Indeed, we found that hydrazine directly inhibited the activity of solubilized complex II. Hepatocytes isolated from mutant Ndufs4(+/-) mice, although featuring moderately lower protein expression levels of this complex I subunit in liver mitochondria, exhibited unchanged hepatic complex I activity and were therefore not sensitized to INH. These data indicate that underlying inhibition of complex I, which alone is not acutely toxic, can trigger INH-induced hepatocellular injury.

  12. Development of a C3-symmetric benzohydroxamate tripod: Trimetallic complexation with Fe(III), Cr(III) and Al(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, Minati; Gupta, Amit; Kanungo, B. K.

    2016-06-01

    The design, synthesis and physicochemical characterization of a C3-symmetry Benzene-1,3,5-tricarbonylhydroxamate tripod, noted here as BTHA, are described. The chelator was built from a benzene as an anchor, symmetrically extended by three hydroxamate as ligating moieties, each bearing O, O donor sites. A combination of absorption spectrophotometry, potentiometry and theoretical investigations are used to explore the complexation behavior of the ligand with some trivalent metal ions: Fe(III), Cr(III), and Al(III). Three protonation constants were calculated for the ligand in a pH range of 2-11 in a highly aqueous medium (9:1 H2O: DMSO). A high rigidity in the molecular structure restricts the formation of 1:1 (M/L) metal encapsulation but shows a high binding efficiency for a 3:1 metal ligand stoichiometry giving formation constant (in β unit) 28.73, 26.13 and 19.69 for [M3L]; Mdbnd Fe(III), Al(III) and Cr(III) respectively, and may be considered as an efficient Fe-carrier. The spectrophotometric study reveals of interesting electronic transitions occurred during the complexation. BTHA exhibits a peak at 238 nm in acidic pH and with the increase of pH, a new peak appeared at 270 nm. A substantial shifting in both of the peaks in presence of the metal ions implicates a s coordination between ligand and metal ions. Moreover, complexation of BTHA with iron shows three distinct colors, violet, reddish orange and yellow in different pH, enables the ligand to be considered for the use as colorimetric sensor.

  13. Arrested development of the myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, in certain populations of mitochondrial 16S lineage III Tubifex tubifex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baxa, D.V.; Kelley, G.O.; Mukkatira, K.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rasmussen, C.; Hedrick, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory populations of Tubifex tubifex from mitochondrial (mt)16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) lineage III were generated from single cocoons of adult worms releasing the triactinomyxon stages (TAMs) of the myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis. Subsequent worm populations from these cocoons, referred to as clonal lines, were tested for susceptibility to infection with the myxospore stages of M. cerebralis. Development and release of TAMs occurred in five clonal lines, while four clonal lines showed immature parasitic forms that were not expelled from the worm (non-TAM producers). Oligochaetes from TAM- and non-TAM-producing clonal lines were confirmed as lineage III based on mt16S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) sequences, but these genes did not differentiate these phenotypes. In contrast, random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of genomic DNA demonstrated unique banding patterns that distinguished the phenotypes. Cohabitation of parasite-exposed TAM- and non-TAM-producing phenotypes showed an overall decrease in expected TAM production compared to the same exposure dose of the TAM-producing phenotype without cohabitation. These studies suggest that differences in susceptibility to parasite infection can occur in genetically similar T. tubifex populations, and their coexistence may affect overall M. cerebralis production, a factor that may influence the severity of whirling disease in wild trout populations. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Complexation of Curium(III) with DTPA at 10–70 °C: Comparison with Eu(III)–DTPA in Thermodynamics, Luminescence, and Coordination Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-16

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) is a challenging task because of their nearly identical chemical properties. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), a key reagent used in the TALSPEAK process that effectively separates An(III) from Ln(III), is believed to play a critical role in the An(III)/Ln(III) separation. However, the underlying principles for the separation based on the difference in the complexation of DTPA with An(III) and Ln(III) remain unclear. In this work, the complexation of DTPA with Cm(III) at 10-70 ºC was investigated by spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, in conjunction with computational methods. The binding strength, the enthalpy of complexation, the coordination modes, and the luminescence properties are compared between the Cm(III)-DTPA and Eu(III)-DTPA systems. The experimental and computational data have demonstrated that the difference between Cm(III) and Eu(III) in the binding strength with DTPA can be attributed to the stronger covalence bonding between Cm(III) and the nitrogen donors of DTPA.

  15. Assembly of respiratory complexes I, III, and IV into NADH oxidase supercomplex stabilizes complex I in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Stroh, Anke; Anderka, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Kathy; Yagi, Takao; Finel, Moshe; Ludwig, Bernd; Schägger, Hermann

    2004-02-06

    Stable supercomplexes of bacterial respiratory chain complexes III (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) have been isolated as early as 1985 (Berry, E. A., and Trumpower, B. L. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 2458-2467). However, these assemblies did not comprise complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Using the mild detergent digitonin for solubilization of Paracoccus denitrificans membranes we could isolate NADH oxidase, assembled from complexes I, III, and IV in a 1:4:4 stoichiometry. This is the first chromatographic isolation of a complete "respirasome." Inactivation of the gene for tightly bound cytochrome c552 did not prevent formation of this supercomplex, indicating that this electron carrier protein is not essential for structurally linking complexes III and IV. Complex I activity was also found in the membranes of mutant strains lacking complexes III or IV. However, no assembled complex I but only dissociated subunits were observed following the same protocols used for electrophoretic separation or chromatographic isolation of the supercomplex from the wild-type strain. This indicates that the P. denitrificans complex I is stabilized by assembly into the NADH oxidase supercomplex. In addition to substrate channeling, structural stabilization of a membrane protein complex thus appears as one of the major functions of respiratory chain supercomplexes.

  16. The Complexation of Mn(III) in the Sediments and Water Column of two Coastal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, V.; Mucci, A.; Luther, G. W., III

    2015-12-01

    In seawater, we find that the complexation of the intermediate manganese oxidation state, dissolved Mn(III), is kinetically stabilized by organic ligands in diverse environments. The cycling of these complexes is also tightly coupled to the cycles of C, O, N, S, and Fe. In the suboxic porewaters of the St. Lawrence Estuary (2011 (1), 2014 (here)), Mn(III)-L complexes made up to 100 % of total dissolved Mn (dMn(T)). The porewaters were dominated by weak complexes in lower and upper estuary porewaters (35 ppt salinity), whereas in the Saguenay Fjord (30 ppt salinity), weak (logKcond=11.1-11.6) and strong (logKcond>13.6) Mn(III)-L complexes were found in the same sample, which were kinetically stable to reduction - even in the presence of excess soluble Fe(II). The site at the Saguenay fjord likely has more terrestrial influence, and potentially different Mn(III)-L binding ligands than in the more oceanic samples. Overlying waters at both sites indicate that dMn(T) is fluxing out of the sediments, and all water column samples contained strong Mn(III)-L complexes (up to 86% of dMn(T)). Laboratory tests show that strong terrestrial Mn(III)-L complexes can precipitate at pH<2, and so previous dMn(T) assays in such environments, involving an acidification step, may have omitted an important fraction of dMn(T). These findings present the first measurement of two Mn(III)-binding ligand classes in the same water mass, and indicate that Mn(III)-L complexes have diverse and varying reactivity. We will discuss the implication of fluxing Mn(III)-L complexes from sediments to the overlying water column, in the St. Lawrence system compared to our data from the Chesapeake Bay (2013 (2), 2014 (here)) where strong Mn(III)-L complexes made up to 50 % of total dissolved Mn (dMn(T)) in anoxic bottom waters, and were partially kinetically stable to sulfide reduction. 1. Madison, A.S., Tebo, B.M., Mucci, A., Sundby, B., Luther, G.W. 2013. Abundant porewater Mn(III) is a major component of

  17. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  18. Thermodynamics of complexation in an aqueous solution of Tb(III) nitrate at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobacheva, O. L.; Berlinskii, I. V.; Dzhevaga, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the formation of hydroxo complexes and hydrates in an aqueous solution of terbium Tb(III) is determined using combined means of potentiometric and conductometric titration. The stability constants of the hydroxo complexes, the products of hydroxide solubility, and the Gibbs energy of terbium hydroxo complex formation are calculated.

  19. Photo- and electroluminescence of mixed-ligand Eu(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, N. S.; Meshkova, S. B.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Kopylova, T. N.; Topilova, Z. M.; Gadirov, R. M.; Samsonova, L. G.

    2012-05-01

    Spectral and luminescent properties of mixed-ligand Eu(III) complexes were studied in solutions and in polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) thin films. Trends in their variations were found depending on the complex structure and excitation mode. The electroluminescence was observed in ITO/PEDOT/Eu complex:PVC/CaMg/Al devices. Their current-voltage and voltage-brightness characteristics were investigated.

  20. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  1. Mitochondria-targeting phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for living cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingqing; Cao, Rui; Fei, Hao; Zhou, Ming

    2014-11-28

    Two phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes conjugated to a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation moiety, IrMitoOlivine and IrMitoNIR, were synthesized. The complexes show high mitochondria-specificity and relatively lower cytotoxicity. Time-lapse confocal imaging indicates that both complexes exhibit an excellent anti-photobleaching capability under continuous laser irradiation.

  2. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    PubMed

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-06-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion.

  3. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex

    PubMed Central

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-01-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion. PMID:21546912

  4. Gamma-lactone-Functionalized antitumoral acetogenins are the most potent inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Tormo, J R; Estornell, E; Gallardo, T; González, M C; Cavé, A; Granell, S; Cortes, D; Zafra-Polo, M C

    2001-03-12

    To study the relevance of the terminal alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-methyl-gamma-lactone moiety of the antitumoral acetogenins of Annonaceae for potent mitochondrial complex I inhibition, we have prepared a series of semisynthetic acetogenins with modifications only in this part of the molecule, from the natural rolliniastatin-1 (1) and cherimolin-1 (2). Some of the hydroxylated derivatives (1b, 1d and 1e) in addition to two infrequent natural beta-hydroxy gamma-methyl gamma-lactone acetogenins, laherradurin (3) and itrabin (4), are more potent complex I inhibitors than any other known compounds.

  5. Site-selective recognition of peptide phosphorylation by a terbium(III) complex in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Tao; Luo, Jian; Yang, Liu; Yao, Cheng

    2015-05-11

    A terbium(III) complex exhibits efficient selectivity for proximal diphosphorylation of peptides, accompanied with remarkable luminescence enhancement in the presence of Zn(II) ions in both buffer and protein extraction solutions from brain homogenates of mice.

  6. Synthesis and luminescence properties of iridium(III) azide- and triazole-bisterpyridine complexes.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Daniel C; Peterson, Joshua R; Cheng, Yuen Yap; Clady, Raphael G C; Schmidt, Timothy W; Thordarson, Pall

    2013-07-26

    We describe here the synthesis of azide-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines using the "chemistry on the complex" strategy. The resulting azide-complexes are then used in the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition "click chemistry" reaction to from the corresponding triazole-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines. The photophysical characteristics, including lifetimes, of these compounds were also investigated. Interestingly, oxygen appears to have very little effect on the lifetime of these complexes in aqueous solutions. Unexpectedly, sodium ascorbate acid appears to quench the luminescence of triazole-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines, but this effect can be reversed by the addition of copper(II) sulfate, which is known to oxidize ascorbate under aerobic conditions. The results demonstrate that iridium(III) bisterpyridines can be functionalized for use in "click chemistry" facilitating the use of these photophysically interesting complexes in the modification of polymers or surfaces, to highlight just two possible applications.

  7. Reactivity of a Cobalt(III)–Hydroperoxo Complex in Electrophilic Reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Bongki; Sutherlin, Kyle D.; Ohta, Takehiro; ...

    2016-11-15

    The reactivity of mononuclear metal-hydroperoxo adducts has fascinated researchers in many areas due to their diverse biological and catalytic processes. In this study, a mononuclear cobalt(III)-peroxo complex bearing a tetradentate macrocyclic ligand, [CoIII(Me3-TPADP)(O2)]+ (Me3-TPADP = 3,6,9-trimethyl-3,6,9-triaza-1(2,6)-pyridinacyclodecaphane), was prepared by reacting [CoII(Me3-TPADP)(CH3CN)2]2+ with H2O2 in the presence of triethylamine. Upon protonation, the cobalt(III)- peroxo intermediate was converted into a cobalt(III)-hydroperoxo complex, [CoIII(Me3-TPADP)(O2H)(CH3CN)]2+. The mononuclear cobalt(III)-peroxo and -hydroperoxo intermediates were characterized by a variety of physicochemical methods. Results of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry clearly show the transformation of the intermediates: the peak at m/z 339.2 assignable to the cobalt(III)-peroxo species disappears withmore » concomitant growth of the peak at m/z 190.7 corresponding to the cobalt(III)-hydroperoxo complex (with bound CH3CN). Isotope labeling experiments further support the existence of the cobalt(III)-peroxo and -hydroperoxo complexes. In particular, the O-O bond stretching frequency of the cobalt(III)-hydroperoxo complex was determined to be 851 cm-1 for 16O2H samples (803 cm-1 for 18O2H samples) and its Co-O vibrational energy was observed at 571 cm-1 for 16O2H samples (551 cm-1 for 18O2H samples; 568 cm-1 for 16O2 2H samples) by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Reactivity studies performed with the cobalt(III)-peroxo and -hydroperoxo complexes in organic functionalizations reveal that the latter is capable of conducting oxygen atom transfer with an electrophilic character, whereas the former exhibits no oxygen atom transfer reactivity under the same reaction conditions. Alternatively, the cobalt(III)-hydroperoxo complex does not perform hydrogen atom transfer reactions, while analogous low-spin Fe(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are capable of this reactivity. Density function

  8. Depletion of the "gamma-type carbonic anhydrase-like" subunits of complex I affects central mitochondrial metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Göing, Jennifer; Lorenz, Christin; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    "Gamma-type carbonic anhydrase-like" (CAL) proteins form part of complex I in plants. Together with "gamma carbonic anhydrase" (CA) proteins they form an extra domain which is attached to the membrane arm of complex I on its matrix exposed side. In Arabidopsis two CAL and three CA proteins are present, termed CAL1, CAL2, CA1, CA2 and CA3. It has been proposed that the carbonic anhydrase domain of complex I is involved in a process mediating efficient recycling of mitochondrial CO2 for photosynthetic carbon fixation which is especially important during growth conditions causing increased photorespiration. Depletion of CAL proteins has been shown to significantly affect plant development and photomorphogenesis. To better understand CAL function in plants we here investigated effects of CAL depletion on the mitochondrial compartment. In mutant lines and cell cultures complex I amount was reduced by 90-95% but levels of complexes III and V were unchanged. At the same time, some of the CA transcripts were less abundant. Proteome analysis of CAL depleted cells revealed significant reduction of complex I subunits as well as proteins associated with photorespiration, but increased amounts of proteins participating in amino acid catabolism and stress response reactions. Developmental delay of the mutants was slightly alleviated if plants were cultivated at high CO2. Profiling of selected metabolites revealed defined changes in intermediates of the citric acid cycle and amino acid catabolism. It is concluded that CAL proteins are essential for complex I assembly and that CAL depletion specifically affects central mitochondrial metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Mitochondrial Unfoldase-Peptidase Complex ClpXP Controls Bioenergetics Stress and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Ho; Rivadeneira, Dayana B.; Caino, M. Cecilia; Chae, Young Chan; Speicher, David W.; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano; Rampini, Paolo; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria must buffer the risk of proteotoxic stress to preserve bioenergetics, but the role of these mechanisms in disease is poorly understood. Using a proteomics screen, we now show that the mitochondrial unfoldase-peptidase complex ClpXP associates with the oncoprotein survivin and the respiratory chain Complex II subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) in mitochondria of tumor cells. Knockdown of ClpXP subunits ClpP or ClpX induces the accumulation of misfolded SDHB, impairing oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production while activating “stress” signals of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and autophagy. Deregulated mitochondrial respiration induced by ClpXP targeting causes oxidative stress, which in turn reduces tumor cell proliferation, suppresses cell motility, and abolishes metastatic dissemination in vivo. ClpP is universally overexpressed in primary and metastatic human cancer, correlating with shortened patient survival. Therefore, tumors exploit ClpXP-directed proteostasis to maintain mitochondrial bioenergetics, buffer oxidative stress, and enable metastatic competence. This pathway may provide a “drugable” therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:27389535

  10. Disruptive mitochondrial DNA mutations in complex I subunits are markers of oncocytic phenotype in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Gasparre, Giuseppe; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Bonora, Elena; Pennisi, Lucia Fiammetta; Toller, Matteo; Iommarini, Luisa; Ghelli, Anna; Moretti, Massimo; Betts, Christine M; Martinelli, Giuseppe Nicola; Ceroni, Alberto Rinaldi; Curcio, Francesco; Carelli, Valerio; Rugolo, Michela; Tallini, Giovanni; Romeo, Giovanni

    2007-05-22

    Oncocytic tumors are a distinctive class of proliferative lesions composed of cells with a striking degree of mitochondrial hyperplasia that are particularly frequent in the thyroid gland. To understand whether specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are associated with the accumulation of mitochondria, we sequenced the entire mtDNA in 50 oncocytic lesions (45 thyroid tumors of epithelial cell derivation and 5 mitochondrion-rich breast tumors) and 52 control cases (21 nononcocytic thyroid tumors, 15 breast carcinomas, and 16 gliomas) by using recently developed technology that allows specific and reliable amplification of the whole mtDNA with quick mutation scanning. Thirteen oncocytic lesions (26%) presented disruptive mutations (nonsense or frameshift), whereas only two samples (3.8%) presented such mutations in the nononcocytic control group. In one case with multiple thyroid nodules analyzed separately, a disruptive mutation was found in the only nodule with oncocytic features. In one of the five mitochondrion-rich breast tumors, a disruptive mutation was identified. All disruptive mutations were found in complex I subunit genes, and the association between these mutations and the oncocytic phenotype was statistically significant (P=0.001). To study the pathogenicity of these mitochondrial mutations, primary cultures from oncocytic tumors and corresponding normal tissues were established. Electron microscopy and biochemical and molecular analyses showed that primary cultures derived from tumors bearing disruptive mutations failed to maintain the mutations and the oncocytic phenotype. We conclude that disruptive mutations in complex I subunits are markers of thyroid oncocytic tumors.

  11. Voltage-Dependent Regulation of Complex II Energized Mitochondrial Oxygen Flux

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fan; Fink, Brian D.; Yu, Liping; Sivitz, William I.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria is generally measured during state 4 respiration (no ATP production) or state 3 (maximal ATP production at high ADP availability). However, mitochondria in vivo do not function at either extreme. Here we used ADP recycling methodology to assess muscle mitochondrial function over intermediate clamped ADP concentrations. In so doing, we uncovered a previously unrecognized biphasic respiratory pattern wherein O2 flux on the complex II substrate, succinate, initially increased and peaked over low clamped ADP concentrations then decreased markedly at higher clamped concentrations. Mechanistic studies revealed no evidence that the observed changes in O2 flux were due to altered opening or function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or to changes in reactive oxygen. Based on metabolite and functional metabolic data, we propose a multifactorial mechanism that consists of coordinate changes that follow from reduced membrane potential (as the ADP concentration in increased). These changes include altered directional electron flow, altered NADH/NAD+ redox cycling, metabolite exit, and OAA inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. In summary, we report a previously unrecognized pattern for complex II energized O2 flux. Moreover, our findings suggest that the ADP recycling approach might be more widely adapted for mitochondrial studies. PMID:27153112

  12. Bromodomain Inhibitors Correct Bioenergetic Deficiency Caused by Mitochondrial Disease Complex I Mutations.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Joeva J; Balsa, Eduardo; Verdeguer, Francisco; Tavares, Clint D J; Soustek, Meghan S; Hollingsworth, Louis R; Jedrychowski, Mark; Vogel, Rutger; Paulo, Joao A; Smeitink, Jan; Gygi, Steve P; Doench, John; Root, David E; Puigserver, Pere

    2016-10-06

    Mitochondrial diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of genetically inherited disorders that cause failures in energetic and metabolic function. Boosting residual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity can partially correct these failures. Herein, using a high-throughput chemical screen, we identified the bromodomain inhibitor I-BET 525762A as one of the top hits that increases COX5a protein levels in complex I (CI) mutant cybrid cells. In parallel, bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a target of I-BET 525762A, was identified using a genome-wide CRISPR screen to search for genes whose loss of function rescues death of CI-impaired cybrids grown under conditions requiring OXPHOS activity for survival. We show that I-BET525762A or loss of BRD4 remodeled the mitochondrial proteome to increase the levels and activity of OXPHOS protein complexes, leading to rescue of the bioenergetic defects and cell death caused by mutations or chemical inhibition of CI. These studies show that BRD4 inhibition may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assembly defects induce oxidative stress in inherited mitochondrial complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Leman, Géraldine; Gueguen, Naïg; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Kane, Mariame Selma; Wettervald, Céline; Chupin, Stéphanie; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Lebre, Anne-Sophie; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Barth, Magalie; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Verny, Christophe; Henrion, Daniel; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Complex I (CI) deficiency is the most common respiratory chain defect representing more than 30% of mitochondrial diseases. CI is an L-shaped multi-subunit complex with a peripheral arm protruding into the mitochondrial matrix and a membrane arm. CI sequentially assembled into main assembly intermediates: the P (pumping), Q (Quinone) and N (NADH dehydrogenase) modules. In this study, we analyzed 11 fibroblast cell lines derived from patients with inherited CI deficiency resulting from mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial DNA and impacting these different modules. In patient cells carrying a mutation located in the matrix arm of CI, blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) revealed a significant reduction of fully assembled CI enzyme and an accumulation of intermediates of the N module. In these cell lines with an assembly defect, NADH dehydrogenase activity was partly functional, even though CI was not fully assembled. We further demonstrated that this functional N module was responsible for ROS production through the reduced flavin mononucleotide. Due to the assembly defect, the FMN site was not re-oxidized leading to a significant oxidative stress in cell lines with an assembly defect. These findings not only highlight the relationship between CI assembly and oxidative stress, but also show the suitability of BN-PAGE analysis in evaluating the consequences of CI dysfunction. Moreover, these data suggest that the use of antioxidants may be particularly relevant for patients displaying a CI assembly defect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial Complex IV Subunit 4 Isoform 2 Is Essential for Acute Pulmonary Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Natascha; Hüttemann, Maik; Pak, Oleg; Scheibe, Susan; Knoepp, Fenja; Sinkler, Christopher; Malczyk, Monika; Gierhardt, Mareike; Esfandiary, Azadeh; Kraut, Simone; Jonas, Felix; Veith, Christine; Aras, Siddhesh; Sydykov, Akylbek; Alebrahimdehkordi, Nasim; Giehl, Klaudia; Hecker, Matthias; Brandes, Ralf P; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Weissmann, Norbert

    2017-08-04

    Acute pulmonary oxygen sensing is essential to avoid life-threatening hypoxemia via hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) which matches perfusion to ventilation. Hypoxia-induced mitochondrial superoxide release has been suggested as a critical step in the signaling pathway underlying HPV. However, the identity of the primary oxygen sensor and the mechanism of superoxide release in acute hypoxia, as well as its relevance for chronic pulmonary oxygen sensing, remain unresolved. To investigate the role of the pulmonary-specific isoform 2 of subunit 4 of the mitochondrial complex IV (Cox4i2) and the subsequent mediators superoxide and hydrogen peroxide for pulmonary oxygen sensing and signaling. Isolated ventilated and perfused lungs from Cox4i2(-/-) mice lacked acute HPV. In parallel, pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from Cox4i2(-/-) mice showed no hypoxia-induced increase of intracellular calcium. Hypoxia-induced superoxide release which was detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in wild-type PASMCs was absent in Cox4i2(-/-) PASMCs and was dependent on cysteine residues of Cox4i2. HPV could be inhibited by mitochondrial superoxide inhibitors proving the functional relevance of superoxide release for HPV. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization, which can promote mitochondrial superoxide release, was detected during acute hypoxia in wild-type but not Cox4i2(-/-) PASMCs. Downstream signaling determined by patch-clamp measurements showed decreased hypoxia-induced cellular membrane depolarization in Cox4i2(-/-) PASMCs compared with wild-type PASMCs, which could be normalized by the application of hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling were not or only slightly affected by Cox4i2 deficiency, respectively. Cox4i2 is essential for acute but not chronic pulmonary oxygen sensing by triggering mitochondrial hyperpolarization and release of mitochondrial superoxide which, after

  15. Interaction of complexes I, III, and IV within the bovine respirasome by single particle cryoelectron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Stahlberg, Henning; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The respirasome is a multisubunit supercomplex of the respiratory chain in mitochondria. Here we report the 3D reconstruction of the bovine heart respirasome, composed of dimeric complex III and single copies of complex I and IV, at about 2.2-nm resolution, determined by cryoelectron tomography and subvolume averaging. Fitting of X-ray structures of single complexes I, III2, and IV with high fidelity allows interpretation of the model at the level of secondary structures and shows how the individual complexes interact within the respirasome. Surprisingly, the distance between cytochrome c binding sites of complexes III2 and IV is about 10 nm. Modeling indicates a loose interaction between the three complexes and provides evidence that lipids are gluing them at the interfaces. PMID:21876144

  16. Identification of an iridium(III) complex with anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Liu, Li-juan; Chao, Wei-chieh; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Li, Ruei-nian; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2015-09-29

    Group 9 transition metal complexes have been widely explored as therapeutic agents due to their unique geometry, their propensity to undergo ligand exchanges with biomolecules and their diverse steric and electronic properties. These metal complexes can offer distinct modes of action in living organisms compared to carbon-based molecules. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative abilities of a series of cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes. The iridium(III) complex 1 inhibited the growth of S. aureus with MIC and MBC values of 3.60 and 7.19 μM, respectively, indicating its potent bactericidal activity. Moreover, complex 1 also exhibited cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines, with particular potency against ovarian, cervical and melanoma cells. This cyclometallated iridium(III) complex is the first example of a substitutionally-inert, Group 9 organometallic compound utilized as a direct and selective inhibitor of S. aureus.

  17. Identification of an iridium(III) complex with anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Liu, Li-Juan; Chao, Wei-chieh; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Li, Ruei-nian; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Group 9 transition metal complexes have been widely explored as therapeutic agents due to their unique geometry, their propensity to undergo ligand exchanges with biomolecules and their diverse steric and electronic properties. These metal complexes can offer distinct modes of action in living organisms compared to carbon-based molecules. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative abilities of a series of cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes. The iridium(III) complex 1 inhibited the growth of S. aureus with MIC and MBC values of 3.60 and 7.19 μM, respectively, indicating its potent bactericidal activity. Moreover, complex 1 also exhibited cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines, with particular potency against ovarian, cervical and melanoma cells. This cyclometallated iridium(III) complex is the first example of a substitutionally-inert, Group 9 organometallic compound utilized as a direct and selective inhibitor of S. aureus. PMID:26416333

  18. Infrared spectra of new Re(III) complexes with thiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Dinorah; Kremer, Eduardo; Baran, Enrique J

    2002-12-01

    Complexes of the type [Re(III)L6]X3, with L = thiourea, N-methylthiourea, N-ethylthiourea or N,N'-dimethytlthiourea and X = Cl- or PF6-, were prepared as suitable precursors for the synthesis of new rhenium complexes potentially useful in nuclear medicine. The infrared (IR) spectra of these complexes were recorded and analyzed and a general vibrational pattern for Re(III) complexes with thiourea derivatives could be established. Approximate assignments for N-allylthiourea and N-ethylthiourea are also proposed for the first time. The synthesis of the new complex [Re(III)(N-allylthiourea)6](PF6)3 is also reported, and information about its structural characteristics was obtained comparing its IR spectrum with those of the other complexes of the investigated series.

  19. Pink1 forms a multiprotein complex with Miro and Milton, linking Pink1 function to mitochondrial trafficking.

    PubMed

    Weihofen, Andreas; Thomas, Kelly Jean; Ostaszewski, Beth L; Cookson, Mark R; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2009-03-10

    Recessive mutations in Pink1 lead to a selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is characteristic of Parkinson disease. Pink1 is a kinase that is targeted in part to mitochondria, and loss of Pink1 function can alter mitochondrial morphology and dynamics, thus supporting a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and Parkinson disease etiology. Here, we report the unbiased identification and confirmation of a mitochondrial multiprotein complex that contains Pink1, the atypical GTPase Miro, and the adaptor protein Milton. Our screen also identified an interaction between Pink1 and Mitofilin. Based on previously established functions for Miro and Milton in the trafficking of mitochondria along microtubules, we postulate here a role for Pink1 in mitochondrial trafficking. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that the overexpression of Miro and Milton, both of which are known to reside at the outer mitochondrial membrane, increases the mitochondrial Pink1 pool, suggesting a function of Pink1 at the outer membrane. Further, we document that Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence can still be targeted to a mitochondria-enriched subcellular fraction via Miro and Milton. The latter finding is important for the interpretation of a previously reported protective effect of Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Finally, we find that Miro and Milton expression suppresses altered mitochondrial morphology induced by loss of Pink1 function in cell culture. Our findings suggest that Pink1 functions in the trafficking of mitochondria in cells.

  20. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  1. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  2. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  3. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  4. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl -...

  5. Mechanistic aspects of the chemistry of mononuclear Cr(III) complexes with pendant-arm macrocyclic ligands and formation of discrete Cr(III)/Fe(II) and Cr(III)/Fe(II)/Co(III) cyano-bridged mixed valence compounds.

    PubMed

    Basallote, Manuel G; Bernhardt, Paul V; Calvet, Teresa; Castillo, Carmen E; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Martínez, Manuel; Rodríguez, Carlos

    2009-11-21

    The kinetics and mechanism of the redox reaction between [Fe(II)(CN)(6)](4-) and the macrocyclic ligand complex [CrClL(15)](2+) (L(15) = 6-methyl-1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclopentadecane-6-amine) has been studied at different pH values. In acidic solution, the expected redox process occurs with no formation of any of the possible Cr(III)/Fe(II) mixed valence complexes, as those seen for the Co(III) species of the same family, due to the enhanced lability of the Cr(II) species formed on Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxidation. In alkaline conditions, the formation of the complex [Cr(L(15))(OH)(2)](+) takes place as an initial step that precedes a simple substitution process producing the expected cyano-bridged Cr(III)/Fe(II) complex. In this species the potentially pentadentate ligand, L(15), has a tetradentate coordination mode with a protonated exocyclic primary amine group and the redox potential is shifted to more negative values, thus disfavouring a redox driven reaction; the equivalent complex [CrCl(HL(14))(H(2)O)](3+) (L(14) = 6-methyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6-amine) has been prepared by the same method and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The final [Fe(II)(CN)(6)](4-) substituted complex, [{(HL(15))(OH)Cr(III)NC}Fe(II)(CN)(5)](-) shows pK(a) values of 3.8 and 7.4, as expected for the aqua and amino ligands, respectively. Its characterization indicated its Class II mixed valence character with a very intense MMCT band at 350 nm showing a much larger extinction coefficient than that observed for the Co(III) complexes of the same family. This fact is in good agreement with the much larger Cr(III)-Fe(II) (t(2g)-t(2g)) coupling through cyanide bridging ligands expected for these complexes. The fully mixed metal/valence/ligand trimetallic complex [{(HL(15))(OH)Cr(III)NC}{L(13)Co(III)NC}Fe(II)(CN)(4)](2+) has been prepared following the same procedures and the results are comparable. The final complex has the same Class II mixed valence character and its electronic

  6. No evidence of a role for mitochondrial complex I in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Garrett Z; Ke, Bi-Xia; Laskowski, Adrienne; Thorburn, David R; Sutton, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Complex I is the first enzyme complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, responsible for generating a large fraction of energy during oxidative phosphorylation. Recently, it has been identified that complex I deficiency can result in increased inflammation due to the generation of reactive oxygen species by innate immune cells. As a reduction in complex I activity has been demonstrated in human stomachs with atrophic gastritis, we investigated whether complex I deficiency could influence Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. Ndufs6(gt/gt) mice have a partial complex I deficiency. Complex I activity was quantified in the stomachs and immune cells of Ndufs6(gt/gt) mice by spectrophotometric assays. Ndufs6(gt/gt) mice were infected with H. pylori and bacterial colonization assessed by colony-forming assay, gastritis assessed histologically, and H. pylori -specific humoral response quantified by ELISA. The immune cells and stomachs of Ndufs6(gt/gt) mice were found to have significantly decreased complex I activity, validating the model for assessing the effects of complex I deficiency in H. pylori infection. However, there was no observable effect of complex I deficiency on either H. pylori colonization, the resulting gastritis, or the humoral response. Although complex I activity is described to suppress innate immune responses and is decreased during atrophic gastritis in humans, our data suggest it does not affect H. pylori pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rhombus-shaped tetranuclear [Ln4] complexes [Ln = Dy(III) and Ho(III)]: synthesis, structure, and SMM behavior.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Hossain, Sakiat; Das, Sourav; Biswas, Sourav; Sutter, Jean-Pascal

    2013-06-03

    The reaction of a new hexadentate Schiff base hydrazide ligand (LH3) with rare earth(III) chloride salts in the presence of triethylamine as the base afforded two planar tetranuclear neutral complexes: [{(LH)2Dy4}(μ2-O)4](H2O)8·2CH3OH·8H2O (1) and [{(LH)2Ho4}(μ2-O)4](H2O)8·6CH3OH·4H2O (2). These neutral complexes possess a structure in which all of the lanthanide ions and the donor atoms of the ligand remain in a perfect plane. Each doubly deprotonated ligand holds two Ln(III) ions in its two distinct chelating coordination pockets to form [LH(Ln)2](4+) units. Two such units are connected by four [μ2-O](2-) ligands to form a planar tetranuclear assembly with an Ln(III)4 core that possesses a rhombus-shaped structure. Detailed static and dynamic magnetic analysis of 1 and 2 revealed single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1. A peculiar feature of the χM" versus temperature curve is that two peaks that are frequency-dependent are revealed, indicating the occurrence of two relaxation processes that lead to two energy barriers (16.8 and 54.2 K) and time constants (τ0 = 1.4 × 10(-6) s, τ0 = 7.2 × 10(-7) s). This was related to the presence of two distinct geometrical sites for Dy(III) in complex 1.

  8. Copper-Mediated Fluorination of Arylboronate Esters. Identification of a Copper(III) Fluoride Complex

    PubMed Central

    Fier, Patrick S.; Luo, Jingwei; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    A method for the direct conversion of arylboronate esters to aryl fluorides under mild conditions with readily available reagents is reported. Tandem reactions have also been developed for the fluorination of arenes and aryl bromides through aryl-boronate ester intermediates. Mechanistic studies suggest that this fluorination reaction occurs through facile oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(III) followed by rate-limiting transmetallation of a bound arylboronate to Cu(III). Fast C-F reductive elimination is proposed to occur from an aryl-copper(III)-fluoride complex. Cu(III) intermediates have been generated independently and identified by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. PMID:23384209

  9. Copper-mediated fluorination of arylboronate esters. Identification of a copper(III) fluoride complex.

    PubMed

    Fier, Patrick S; Luo, Jingwei; Hartwig, John F

    2013-02-20

    A method for the direct conversion of arylboronate esters to aryl fluorides under mild conditions with readily available reagents is reported. Tandem reactions have also been developed for the fluorination of arenes and aryl bromides through arylboronate ester intermediates. Mechanistic studies suggest that this fluorination reaction occurs through facile oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(III), followed by rate-limiting transmetalation of a bound arylboronate to Cu(III). Fast C-F reductive elimination is proposed to occur from an aryl-copper(III)-fluoride complex. Cu(III) intermediates have been generated independently and identified by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS.

  10. A mitofusin-dependent docking ring complex triggers mitochondrial fusion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Tobias; Cavellini, Laetitia; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Cohen, Mickaël M

    2016-01-01

    Fusion of mitochondrial outer membranes is crucial for proper organelle function and involves large GTPases called mitofusins. The discrete steps that allow mitochondria to attach to one another and merge their outer membranes are unknown. By combining an in vitro mitochondrial fusion assay with electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET), we visualize the junction between attached mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and observe complexes that mediate this attachment. We find that cycles of GTP hydrolysis induce progressive formation of a docking ring structure around extended areas of contact. Further GTP hydrolysis triggers local outer membrane fusion at the periphery of the contact region. These findings unravel key features of mitofusin-dependent fusion of outer membranes and constitute an important advance in our understanding of how mitochondria connect and merge. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14618.001 PMID:27253069

  11. Mitochondrial respiration links TOR Complex 2 signaling to calcium regulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Vlahakis, Ariadne; Lopez Muniozguren, Nerea; Powers, Ted

    2017-03-21

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved regulator of cell growth and functions within 2 different protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, where TORC2 positively controls macroautophagy/autophagy during amino acid starvation. Under these conditions, TORC2 signaling inhibits the activity of the calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin and promotes the general amino acid control (GAAC) response and autophagy. Here we demonstrate that TORC2 regulates calcineurin by controlling the respiratory activity of mitochondria. In particular, we find that mitochondrial oxidative stress affects the calcium channel regulatory protein Mid1, which we show is an essential upstream activator of calcineurin. Thus, these findings describe a novel regulation for autophagy that involves TORC2 signaling, mitochondrial respiration, and calcium homeostasis.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Mesoamerican spiny-tailed lizards (Ctenosaura quinquecarinata complex): historical biogeography, species status and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hasbún, Carlos Roberto; Gómez, Africa; Köhler, Gunther; Lunt, David H

    2005-09-01

    Through the examination of past and present distributions of plants and animals, historical biogeographers have provided many insights on the dynamics of the massive organismal exchange between North and South America. However, relatively few phylogeographic studies have been attempted in the land bridge of Mesoamerica despite its importance to better understand the evolutionary forces influencing this biodiversity 'hotspot'. Here we use mitochondrial DNA sequence data from fresh samples and formalin-fixed museum specimens to investigate the genetic and biogeographic diversity of the threatened Mesoamerican spiny-tailed lizards of the Ctenosaura quinquecarinata complex. Species boundaries and their phylogeographic patterns are examined to better understand their disjunct distribution. Three monophyletic, allopatric lineages are established using mtDNA phylogenetic and nested clade analyses in (i) northern: México, (ii) central: Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, and (iii) southern: Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The average sequence divergence observed between lineages varied between 2.0% and 3.7% indicating that they do not represent a very recent split and the patterns of divergence support the recently established nomenclature of C. quinquecarinata, Ctenosaura flavidorsalis and Ctenosaura oaxacana. Considering the geological history of Mesoamerica and the observed phylogeographic patterns of these lizards, major evolutionary episodes of their radiation in Mesoamerica are postulated and are indicative of the regions' geological complexity. The implications of these findings for the historical biogeography, taxonomy and conservation of these lizards are discussed.

  13. Investigation of complexes tannic acid and myricetin with Fe(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungur, Şana; Uzar, Atike

    2008-01-01

    The pH dependence of the complexes was determined by both potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies. Stability constants and stoichiometries of the formed complexes were determined using slope ratio method. Fe(III) was formed complexes with tannic acid of various stoichiometries, which in the 1:1 molar ratio at pH < 3, in the 2:1 molar ratio at pH 3-7 and in the 4:1 molar ratio at pH > 7. Fe(III) was formed complexes with myricetin in the 1:2 molar ratio at pH 4 and 5 and in the 1:1 molar ratio at pH 6. Stability constant values were found to be 10 5 to 10 17 and 10 5 to 10 9 for Fe(III)-tannic acid complexes and Fe(III)-myricetin complexes. Both tannic acid and myricetin were possessed minimum affinities to Cu(II) and Zn(II). They had less affinity for Al(III) than for Fe(III).

  14. Cr(III), Fe(III) and Co(III) complexes of tetradentate (ONNO) Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskioğlu, Eren; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Çete, Servet; Hamurcu, Fatma; Erk, Birgül

    2008-08-01

    A series of metal complexes were synthesized from equimolar amounts of Schiff bases: 1,4-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)propyl]piperazine (bappnaf) and 1,8-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)- p-menthane (damnaf) with metal chlorides. All of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis, IR, 1H- 13C NMR, LC-MS) and thermal (TGA-DTA) methods, magnetic and conductance measurements. Schiff base complexes supposed in tetragonal geometry have the general formula [M(bappnaf or damnaf)]Cl· nH 2O, where M = Cr(III), Co(III) and n = 2, 3. But also Fe(III) complexes have octahedral geometry by the coordination of two water molecules and the formula is [Fe(bappnaf or damnaf)(H 2O) 2]Cl. The changes in the selected vibration bands in FT-IR indicate that Schiff bases behave as (ONNO) tetradentate ligands and coordinate to metal ions from two phenolic oxygen atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. Conductance measurements suggest 1:1 electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The synthesized compounds except bappnaf ligand have the antimicrobial activity against the bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 11230), Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 1501), Bacillus magaterium (RSKK 5117), Bacillus subtilis (RSKK 244), Bacillus cereus (RSKK 863) and the fungi: Candida albicans (ATCC 10239). These results have been considerably interest in piperazine derivatives due to their significant applications in antimicrobial studies.

  15. mer-[Fe III(bpca)(CN)3]-: a new low-spin iron(III) complex to build heterometallic ladder-like chains.

    PubMed

    Lescouëzec, Rodrigue; Vaissermann, Jacqueline; Toma, Luminita Marilena; Carrasco, Rosa; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2004-04-05

    The novel mononuclear complex PPh(4)-mer-[Fe(III)(bpca)(3)(CN)(3)].H(2)O (1) [PPh(4)(+) = tetraphenylphosphonium cation and bpca = bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amidate anion] and ladder-like chain compound [[Fe(III)(bpca)(micro-CN)(3)Mn(II)(H(2)O)(3)] [Fe(III)(bpca)(CN)(3)

  16. Mutations in mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II, and III genes detected in Alzheimer's disease using single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hamblet, Natasha S; Ragland, Brian; Ali, Mervat; Conyers, Barbara; Castora, Frank J

    2006-02-01

    A "mitochondrial hypothesis" of late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed. Biochemical studies indicate that there is a significant decrease in cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity as well as perturbed CO I and CO III mRNA levels in platelets and brain tissue from Alzheimer's patients. Using the electrophoretic mutation detection technique SSCP and DNA sequencing, we have identified 20 point mutations in the mitochondrial-encoded CO subunits (CO I, II, and III) in AD and age-matched control brain samples. Eight of the mutations are new variants of the mitochondrial genome. The efficiency of SSCP in detecting mutations in the CO subunits was estimated to be 80% when compared to dideoxy sequencing. One of the mutations (at position 9,861) results in a phenylalanine-->leucine substitution at a highly conserved residue in CO III. CO activity was reduced by an average of 35% in all AD brains compared to age-matched control samples, which agrees with previous reports. CO activity in one of the AD brain samples carrying the 9,861 mutation decreased by 80% relative to control brain samples, suggesting that the phenotypic expression of this mutation may result in reduced CO activity and compromised mitochondrial function.

  17. Novel Luminescent Probe Based on a Terbium(III) Complex for Hemoglobin Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorova, A. V.; Leonenko, I. I.; Aleksandrova, D. I.; Scrypynets, Yu. V.; Antonovich, V. P.; Ukrainets, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the spectral luminescent properties of Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes with a number of novel derivatives of oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid amides (L1-L5 ). We have observed quenching of the luminescence of 1:1 Tb(III)-L1-5 complexes by hemoglobin (Hb), which is explained by resonance energy transfer of electronic excitation from the donor (Tb(III)-L1-5 ) to the acceptor (Hb). Using the novel luminescent probe Tb(III)-L1, we have developed a method for determining Hb in human blood. The calibration Stern-Volmer plot is linear in the Hb concentration range 0.6-36.0 μg/mL, detection limit 0.2 μg/mL (3·10-9 mol/L).

  18. Selective DNA purine base photooxidation by bis-terdentate iridium(III) polypyridyl and cyclometalated complexes.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Alexandre; Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, Andrée; Elias, Benjamin

    2014-02-03

    Two bis-terdentate iridium(III) complexes with polypyridyl and cyclometalated ligands have been prepared and characterized. Their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties have been studied, and a photophysical scheme addressing their properties is proposed. Different types of excited states have been considered to account for the deactivation processes in each complex. Interestingly, in the presence of mono- or polynucleotides, a photoinduced electron-transfer process from a DNA purine base (i.e., guanine or adenine) to the excited complex is shown through luminescence quenching experiments. For the first time, this work reports evidence for selective DNA purine bases oxidation by excited iridium(III) bis-terdentate complexes.

  19. Enantiomeric NMR signal separation behavior and mechanism of samarium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes with (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinate.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Okano, Masaru; Kidani, Takahiro

    2017-04-12

    Enantiomeric (1) H and (13) C NMR signal separation behaviors of various α-amino acids and DL-tartarate were investigated by using the samarium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes with (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinate as chiral shift reagents. A relatively smaller concentration ratio of the lanthanide(III) complex to substrates was suitable for the neodymium(III) complex compared with the samarium(III) one, striking a balance between relatively greater signal separation and broadening. To clarify the difference in the signal separation behavior, the chemical shifts of β-protons for fully bound D- and L-alanine (δb (D) and δb (L)) and their adduct formation constants (Ks) were obtained for both metal complexes. Preference for D-alanine was similarly observed for both complexes, while it was revealed that the difference between the δb (D) and δb (L) values is the significant factor to determine the enantiomeric signal separation. The neodymium(III) and samarium(III) complexes can be used complementarily for higher and smaller concentration ranges of substrates, respectively, because the neodymium(III) complex gives the larger difference between the δb (D) and δb (L) values with greater signal broadening compared to the samarium(III) complex.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antibacterial studies of lanthanide(III) Schiff base complexes containing N, O donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekha, L.; Raja, K. Kanmani; Rajagopal, G.; Easwaramoorthy, D.

    2014-01-01

    A series of six Ln(III) Schiff base complexes, Pr(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), were synthesized using sodium salt of Schiff base, 2-[(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-3-hydroxy-propionic acid, derived from L-serine and 5-bromosalicylaldehyde. These complexes having general formula [Ln(L)(NO3)2(H2O)]·NO3 were characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, UV-Vis, FT-IR, mass spectrometry and fluorescence studies. Elemental analysis and conductivity measurements suggest the complexes have a 1:1 stoichiometry. From the spectral studies it has been concluded that Ln(III) complexes display eight coordination. The Schiff base and its Ln(III) metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activities by Agar diffusion method.

  1. Functional modules and structural basis of conformational coupling in mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Hunte, Carola; Zickermann, Volker; Brandt, Ulrich

    2010-07-23

    Proton-pumping respiratory complex I is one of the largest and most complicated membrane protein complexes. Its function is critical for efficient energy supply in aerobic cells, and malfunctions are implicated in many neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report an x-ray crystallographic analysis of mitochondrial complex I. The positions of all iron-sulfur clusters relative to the membrane arm were determined in the complete enzyme complex. The ubiquinone reduction site resides close to 30 angstroms above the membrane domain. The arrangement of functional modules suggests conformational coupling of redox chemistry with proton pumping and essentially excludes direct mechanisms. We suggest that a approximately 60-angstrom-long helical transmission element is critical for transducing conformational energy to proton-pumping elements in the distal module of the membrane arm.

  2. Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex I: Structure, Function and Implication in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lokendra K.; Lu, Jianxin; Bai, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotic cells whose primary function is to generate energy supplies in the form of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. As the entry point for most electrons into the respiratory chain, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, or complex I, is the largest and least understood component of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in understanding its subunit composition, its assembly, the interaction among complex I and other respiratory components, and its role in oxidative stress and apoptosis. This review provides an updated overview of the structure of complex I, as well as its cellular functions, and discusses the implication of complex I dysfunction in various human diseases. PMID:19355884

  3. Lanthanide(III) complexes of some natural siderophores: a thermodynamic, kinetic and relaxometric study.

    PubMed

    Tircsó, Gyula; Garda, Zoltán; Kálmán, Ferenc K; Baranyai, Zsolt; Pócsi, István; Balla, György; Tóth, Imre

    2013-10-01

    Stability constants of the complexes formed between the natural trihydroxamic acids desferrioxamine B (DFB) and desferricoprogen (DFC) with Nd(III), Gd(III) and Yb(III) ions were determined using pH-potentiometry. The equilibrium in these systems can be described by models containing mononuclear protonated (Ln(HL), Ln(H2L) and Ln(H3L)), deprotonated (LnL) and ternary hydroxo Ln(H-1L) complexes, but for both ligands dinuclear complexes of low stability were also detected. The stability constants for the Ln(HDFB)(+) complexes are 11.95 (Nd(III)), 13.16 (Gd(III)) and 14.67 (Yb(III)), while these values of the Ln(DFC) complexes are considerably higher (14.42 (Nd(III)), 15.14 (Gd(III)) and 16.49 (Yb(III))). The stability constants of the complexes of DFB and DFC are much lower than those of the Ln(L)3 complexes formed with some aromatic hydroxamic acids indicating that the relatively long spacer between the hydroxamic acid moieties in DFB and DFC is unfavorable for Ln(III) complexation. The relaxometric study conducted for the Gd(HDFB)(+) species revealed an interesting pH dependence of the relaxivity associated with a large hydration number (bishydrated complex) and fast water exchange (kex=(29.9±0.4)×10(6)s(-1)), which would be favorable for CA use. However the dissociation of Gd(HDFB)(+) is fairly fast (<2ms) under all conditions employed in the present work thus the kinetically labile Gd(HDFB)(+) is not suitable for in vivo CA applications. Some low stability ternary complexes were also detected with K(Gd(HDFB)(HCO3))=17.5±1.9 and K(Gd(HDFB)(Lactate))=8.4±3.2 but in the presence of citrate and phosphate ions the Gd(HDFB)(+) complex was found to dissociate.

  4. Solvation structure and thermodynamics for Pr(III), Nd(III) and Dy(III) complexes in ionic liquids evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuribara, Keita; Matsumiya, Masahiko; Tsunashima, Katsuhiko

    2016-12-01

    The coordination states of trivalent praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium complexes in the ionic liquid, triethyl-n-pentylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) amide ([P2225][TFSA]) were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the concentration of rare earth ions on the Raman spectra was investigated, ranging from 0.23 to 0.45 mol kg-1 of Pr(III), Nd(III), and Dy(III) in [P2225][TFSA]. Based on a conventional analysis, the solvation numbers, n, of Pr(III), Nd(III), and Dy(III) in [P2225][TFSA] were determined to be 4.99, 5.01, and 5.00 at 298 K and 5.04, 5.06, and 5.07 at 373 K, respectively. Thermodynamic properties such as ΔisoG, ΔisoH, and ΔisoS for the isomerism of [TFSA]- from trans- to cis-coordinated isomer in the bulk and the first solvation sphere of the central RE3+ (RE = Pr, Nd, and Dy) cation in [P2225][TFSA] were evaluated from the temperature dependence of the Raman bands, measured at temperatures ranging from 298 to 398 K. Regarding the bulk properties, ΔisoG(bulk), ΔisoH(bulk), and TΔisoS(bulk) at 298 K were found to be -1.06, 6.86, and 7.92 kJ mol-1, respectively. The trans-[TFSA]- was a dominant contributor to the enthalpy, as shown by the positive value of ΔisoH(bulk). The value of TΔisoS(bulk) was slightly larger than that of ΔisoH(bulk), and cis-[TFSA]- was, therefore, entropy-controlled in [P2225][TFSA]. In contrast, in the first solvation sphere of the RE3+ cation, ΔisoH(RE) became remarkably negative, suggesting that cis-[TFSA]- isomers were stabilized by enthalpic contributions. Furthermore, ΔisoH(RE) contributed to the remarkable decrease in ΔisoG(RE), and this result clearly indicates that cis-[TFSA]- conformers bound to RE3+ cations are the preferred coordination state of [RE(III)(cis-TFSA)5]2- in [P2225][TFSA]. Moreover, optimized geometries and binding energies of [Pr(III)(cis-TFSA)5]2-, [Nd(III)(cis-TFSA)5]2-, and [Dy(III)(cis-TFSA)5]2- clusters were also investigated by DFT calculations using the ADF

  5. Allosteric nucleotide-binding site in the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I)

    PubMed Central

    Grivennikova, Vera G.; Gladyshev, Grigory V.; Vinogradov, Andrei D.

    2011-01-01

    The rotenone-insensitive NADH:hexaammineruthenium III (HAR) oxidoreductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart and Yarrowia lipolytica submitochondrial particles or purified bovine complex I are stimulated by ATP and other purine nucleotides. The soluble fraction of mammalian complex I (FP) and prokaryotic complex I homolog NDH-1 in Paracoccus denitrificans plasma membrane lack stimulation of their activities by ATP. The stimulation appears as a decrease in apparent Km values for NADH and HAR. Thus, the “accessory” subunits of eukaryotic complex I bear an allosteric ATP-binding site. PMID:21624365

  6. Disrupting mitochondrial-nuclear coevolution affects OXPHOS complex I integrity and impacts human health.

    PubMed

    Gershoni, Moran; Levin, Liron; Ovadia, Ofer; Toiw, Yasmin; Shani, Naama; Dadon, Sara; Barzilai, Nir; Bergman, Aviv; Atzmon, Gil; Wainstein, Julio; Tsur, Anat; Nijtmans, Leo; Glaser, Benjamin; Mishmar, Dan

    2014-09-22

    The mutation rate of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is higher by an order of magnitude as compared with the nuclear genome, enforces tight mitonuclear coevolution to maintain mitochondrial activities. Interruption of such coevolution plays a role in interpopulation hybrid breakdown, speciation events, and disease susceptibility. Previously, we found an elevated amino acid replacement rate and positive selection in the nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I subunit NDUFC2, a phenomenon important for the direct interaction of NDUFC2 with the mtDNA-encoded complex I subunit ND4. This finding underlines the importance of mitonuclear coevolution to physical interactions between mtDNA and nuclear DNA-encoded factors. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this interaction is important for the stability and activity of complex I. Here, we show that siRNA silencing of NDUFC2 reduced growth of human D-407 retinal pigment epithelial cells, significantly diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, and interfered with complex I integrity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis of a positively selected amino acid in NDUFC2 significantly interfered with the interaction of NDUFC2 with its mtDNA-encoded partner ND4. Finally, we show that a genotype combination involving this amino acid (NDUFC2 residue 46) and the mtDNA haplogroup HV likely altered susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ashkenazi Jews. Therefore, mitonuclear coevolution is important for maintaining mitonuclear factor interactions, OXPHOS, and for human health. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Enantiomeric self-recognition in homo- and heterodinuclear macrocyclic lanthanide(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, Jerzy

    2011-06-20

    The controlled formation of lanthanide(III) dinuclear μ-hydroxo-bridged [Ln(2)L(2)(μ-OH)(2)X(2)](n+) complexes (where X = H(2)O, NO(3)(-), or Cl(-)) of the enantiopure chiral macrocycle L is reported. The (1)H and (13)C NMR resonances of these complexes have been assigned on the basis of COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, and HMQC spectra. The observed NOE connectivities confirm that the dimeric solid-state structure is retained in solution. The enantiomeric nature of the obtained chiral complexes and binding of hydroxide anions are reflected in their CD spectra. The formation of the dimeric complexes is accompanied by a complete enantiomeric self-recognition of the chiral macrocyclic units. The reaction of NaOH with a mixture of two different mononuclear lanthanide(III) complexes, [Ln(1)L](3+) and [Ln(2)L](3+), results in formation of the heterodinuclear [Ln(1)Ln(2)L(2)(μ-OH)(2)X(2)](n+) complexes as well as the corresponding homodinuclear complexes. The formation of the heterodinuclear complex is directly confirmed by the NOESY spectra of [EuLuL(2)(μ-OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](4+), which reveal close contacts between the macrocyclic unit containing the Eu(III) ion and the macrocyclic unit containing the Lu(III) ion. While the relative amounts of homo- and heterodinuclear complexes are statistical for the two lanthanide(III) ions of similar radii, a clear preference for the formation of heterodinuclear species is observed when the two mononuclear complexes contain lanthanide(III) ions of markedly different sizes, e.g., La(III) and Yb(III). The formation of heterodinuclear complexes is accompanied by the self-sorting of the chiral macrocyclic units based on their chirality. The reactions of NaOH with a pair of homochiral or racemic mononuclear complexes, [Ln(1)L(RRRR)](3+)/[Ln(2)L(RRRR)](3+), [Ln(1)L(SSSS)](3+)/[Ln(2)L(SSSS)](3+), or [Ln(1)L(rac)](3+)/[Ln(2)L(rac)](3+), results in mixtures of homochiral, homodinuclear and homochiral, heterodinuclear complexes. On the contrary, no

  8. Mitochondrial hepato-encephalopathy due to deficiency of QIL1/MIC13 (C19orf70), a MICOS complex subunit.

    PubMed

    Zeharia, Avraham; Friedman, Jonathan R; Tobar, Ana; Saada, Ann; Konen, Osnat; Fellig, Yacov; Shaag, Avraham; Nunnari, Jodi; Elpeleg, Orly

    2016-12-01

    The mitochondrial inner membrane possesses distinct subdomains including cristae, which are lamellar structures invaginated into the mitochondrial matrix and contain the respiratory complexes. Generation of inner membrane domains requires the complex interplay between the respiratory complexes, mitochondrial lipids and the recently identified mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complex. Proper organization of the mitochondrial inner membrane has recently been shown to be important for respiratory function in yeast. Here we aimed at a molecular diagnosis in a brother and sister from a consanguineous family who presented with a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by hyperlactatemia, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, disturbed hepatocellular function with abnormal cristae morphology in liver and cerebellar and vermis atrophy, which suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. Using homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing the patients were found to be homozygous for the p.(Gly15Glufs*75) variant in the QIL1/MIC13 (C19orf70) gene. QIL1/MIC13 is a constituent of MICOS, a six subunit complex that helps to form and/or stabilize cristae junctions and determine the placement, distribution and number of cristae within mitochondria. In patient fibroblasts both MICOS subunits QIL1/MIC13 and MIC10 were absent whereas MIC60 was present in a comparable abundance to that of the control. We conclude that QIL1/MIC13 deficiency in human, is associated with disassembly of the MICOS complex, with the associated aberration of cristae morphology and mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction. 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria is associated with variants in genes encoding mitochondrial inner membrane organizing determinants, including TAZ, DNAJC19, SERAC1 and QIL1/MIC13.

  9. Efficient phosphodiester hydrolysis by luminescent terbium(III) and europium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Maryene A; Neves, Ademir; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Szpoganicz, Bruno; Fischer, Franciele L; Terenzi, Hernán; Serra, Osvaldo A; Santos, Vanessa G; Vaz, Boniek G; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-07-05

    The synthesis and structures of two new isostructural mononuclear [Ln(L)(NO(3))(H(2)O)(3)](NO(3))(2) complexes, with Ln = Tb (complex 1) and Eu (complex 2), which display high activity in the hydrolysis of the substrate 2,4-bis(dinitrophenyl)phosphate, are reported. These complexes displayed catalytic behavior similar to the mononuclear gadolinium complex [Gd(L)(NO(3))(H(2)O)(3)](NO(3))(2) previously reported by us (Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 2919-2921); one hydrolysis reaction in two stages where the diesterase and monoesterase activities could be monitored separately, with the first stage dependent on and the second independent of the complex concentration. Through potentiometric studies, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis, and determination of the kinetic behaviors of 1 and 2 in acetonitrile/water solution, the species present in solution could be identified and suggested a dinuclear species, with one hydroxo group, as the most prominent catalyst under mild conditions. The complexes show high activity (k(1) = 7 and 18 s(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively) and catalytic efficiency. Complexes 1 and 2 were found to be active toward the cleavage of plasmid DNA, and complete kinetic studies were carried out. Studies with a radical scavenger (dimethylsulfoxide) confirmed the hydrolytic action of 1 and 2 in the cleavage of DNA. Studies on the incubation of distamycin with plasmid DNA suggested that 1 and 2 are regio-specific, interacting with the minor groove of DNA. These complexes displayed luminescent properties. Complex 1 showed higher emission intensity than 2 due to a more efficient energy transfer between triplet and emission levels of terbium (T --> (5)D(4)), along with nonradiative deactivation mechanisms of the excited states of europium via multiphonon decays and the ligand-to-metal charge transfer state. Lifetime measurements of the (5)D(4) and (5)D(0) excited levels for 1 and 2, respectively, indicated the numbers of coordinated water

  10. Cardioprotection by S-nitrosation of a cysteine switch on mitochondrial complex I

    PubMed Central

    Chouchani, Edward T; Methner, Carmen; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M; Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R; Ding, Shujing; James, Andrew M; Cochemé, Helena M; Reinhold, Johannes; Lilley, Kathryn S; Partridge, Linda; Fearnley, Ian M; Robinson, Alan J; Hartley, Richard C; Smith, Robin A J; Krieg, Thomas; Brookes, Paul S; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage from elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury in myocardial infarction and stroke. The mechanism by which the increase in ROS occurs is not known, and it is unclear how this increase can be prevented. A wide variety of nitric oxide donors and S-nitrosating agents protect the ischemic myocardium from infarction, but the responsible mechanisms are unclear1–6. Here we used a mitochondria-selective S-nitrosating agent, MitoSNO, to determine how mitochondrial S-nitrosation at the reperfusion phase of myocardial infarction is cardioprotective in vivo in mice. We found that protection is due to the S-nitrosation of mitochondrial complex I, which is the entry point for electrons from NADH into the respiratory chain. Reversible S-nitrosation of complex I slows the reactivation of mitochondria during the crucial first minutes of the reperfusion of ischemic tissue, thereby decreasing ROS production, oxidative damage and tissue necrosis. Inhibition of complex I is afforded by the selective S-nitrosation of Cys39 on the ND3 subunit, which becomes susceptible to modification only after ischemia. Our results identify rapid complex I reactivation as a central pathological feature of ischemia-reperfusion injury and show that preventing this reactivation by modification of a cysteine switch is a robust cardioprotective mechanism and hence a rational therapeutic strategy. PMID:23708290

  11. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART I: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS ON RESPIRATORY COMPLEX SUBUNITS OR ASSEMBLY FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Torraco, Alessandra; Peralta, Susana; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are the most common inborn errors of metabolism affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Because the poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, a cure for these disorders is still unavailable and all the treatments currently in use are supportive more than curative. Therefore, in the past decade a great variety of mouse models have been developed to assess the in vivo function of several mitochondrial proteins involved in human diseases. Due to the genetic and physiological similarity to humans, mice represent reliable models to study the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and are precious to test new therapeutic approaches. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to defects in subunits of the OXPHOS complexes or in assembly factors. We discuss how these models recapitulate many human conditions and how they have contributed to the understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease. PMID:25660179

  12. MINOS1 is a conserved component of mitofilin complexes and required for mitochondrial function and cristae organization

    PubMed Central

    Alkhaja, Alwaleed K.; Jans, Daniel C.; Nikolov, Miroslav; Vukotic, Milena; Lytovchenko, Oleksandr; Ludewig, Fabian; Schliebs, Wolfgang; Riedel, Dietmar; Urlaub, Henning; Jakobs, Stefan; Deckers, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The inner membrane of mitochondria is especially protein rich and displays a unique morphology characterized by large invaginations, the mitochondrial cristae, and the inner boundary membrane, which is in proximity to the outer membrane. Mitochondrial inner membrane proteins appear to be not evenly distributed in the inner membrane, but instead organize into functionally distinct subcompartments. It is unknown how the organization of the inner membrane is achieved. We identified MINOS1/MIO10 (C1orf151/YCL057C-A), a conserved mitochondrial inner membrane protein. mio10-mutant yeast cells are affected in growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and exhibit altered mitochondrial morphology. At the ultrastructural level, mutant mitochondria display loss of inner membrane organization. Proteomic analyses reveal MINOS1/Mio10 as a novel constituent of Mitofilin/Fcj1 complexes in human and yeast mitochondria. Thus our analyses reveal new insight into the composition of the mitochondrial inner membrane organizing machinery. PMID:22114354

  13. Cytotoxic activity of new cerium (III) complexes of bis-coumarins.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Irena; Manolov, Ilia; Momekov, Georgi; Tzanova, Tzvetomira; Konstantinov, Spiro; Karaivanova, Margarita

    2005-12-01

    Complexes of cerium (III) with bis-coumarins: 3,3'-benzylidene-bis(4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) and bis(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-methane were synthesized by reaction of cerium (III) salt and the ligands, in amounts equal to metal/ligand molar ratio of 1:2. The complexes were prepared by adding an aqueous solution of cerium (III) salt to an aqueous solution of the ligand subsequently raising the pH of the mixture gradually to ca. 5.0 by adding dilute solution of sodium hydroxide. The cerium (III) complexes with bis-coumarins were characterized by different physicochemical methods--elemental analysis, IR-, 1H- and 13C-NMR-spectroscopies and mass-spectral data. The spectral data of cerium (III) complexes were interpreted on the basis of comparison with the spectra of the free ligands. This analysis showed that in the Ce (III) complexes the ligands coordinated to the metal ion through both deprotonated hydroxyl groups. On the basis of the nu(C=O) red shift observed, participation of the carbonyl groups in the coordination to the metal ion was also suggested. Cytotoxic screening by MTT assay was carried out. In the present study we performed comparative evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of the two newly synthesized cerium complexes against the acute myeloid leukemia derived HL-60 and the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-derived BV-173. In addition the cytotoxic effects of Ce (III) complex with 3,3'-benzylidene-bis(4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) were evaluated on the CML-derived K-562 and LAMA-84 cells, characterized by relative low responsiveness to chemotherapy. The DNA isolated from the cytosolic fraction of BV-173 cells after 24 h treatment with the same complex (at 100 and 200 microM) demonstrated a laddering phenomenon that is indicative for apoptotic cell death.

  14. Internal switches modulating electron tunneling currents in respiratory complex III.

    PubMed

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-01

    In different X-ray crystal structures of bc1 complex, some of the key residues of electron tunneling pathways are observed in different conformations; here we examine their relative importance in modulating electron transfer and propose their possible gating function in the Q-cycle. The study includes inter-monomeric electron transfer; here we provide atomistic details of the reaction, and discuss the possible roles of inter-monomeric electronic communication in bc(1) complex. Binding of natural ligands or inhibitors leads to local conformational changes which propagate through protein and control the conformation of key residues involved in the electron tunneling pathways. Aromatic-aromatic interactions are highly utilized in the communication network since the key residues are aromatic in nature. The calculations show that there is a substantial change of the electron transfer rates between different redox pairs depending on the different conformations acquired by the key residues of the complex.

  15. Tl(I) and Tl(III) activate both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanzel, Cecilia Eliana; Verstraeten, Sandra Viviana

    2009-04-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic metal though yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells exposure to thallous (Tl(I)) or thallic (Tl(III)) cations leads to mitochondrial damage and reduced cell viability. In the present work we comparatively characterized the possible pathways involved in Tl(I)- and Tl(III)- (10-100 {mu}M) mediated decrease in PC12 cells viability. We observed that these cations do not cause cell necrosis but significantly increased the number of cells with apoptotic features. Both cations lead to Bax oligomerization and caused apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (Endo G), and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, but they did not activate caspase dependent DNAse (CAD). Tl(I)- and Tl(III)-dependent caspases 9 and 3 activation followed similar kinetics, with maximal effects at 18 h of incubation. In addition, Tl(I) promoted phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Tl(III) induced 2- and 18-fold increase in Fas content and caspase 8 activity, respectively. Together, experimental results show that Tl(I) and Tl(III) induce PC12 cells apoptosis, although differential pathways are involved. While Tl(I)-mediated cell apoptosis was mainly associated with mitochondrial damage, Tl(III) showed a mixed effect triggering both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying Tl-induced loss of cell viability in PC12 cells.

  16. New Bismuth(III), Lanthanum(III), Praseodymium (III), and Heterodinuclear Bi-La and Bi-Pr Complexes with Polyaminocarboxylate Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wullens, H.; Bodart, N.; Devillers, M.

    2002-09-01

    New Bi(III), La(III) and Pr(III) complexes with a variety of high-denticity polyaminocarboxylic acids (H 4edta, H 5dtpa, H 6ttha, H 4Cydta, H 5hpdta, H 4egta) have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically by FTIR. In the case of the decadentate ttha ligand, homodinuclear M2(ttha) ( M=Bi, La, Pr) and heterodinuclear MM'(ttha) complexes were isolated. Detailed investigations of their thermal degradation scheme were carried out in relationship with the possible use of these complexes as molecular precursors for the formation of mixed Bi-La and Bi-Pr oxides in which the crystal structure of the fluorite-like δ-Bi 2O 3 phase can be stabilized at room temperature. Decomposition proceeds in three successive stages, consisting of dehydration, ligand pyrolysis leading to monoxo-, dioxo- or simple carbonates, depending on the metal nature, and finally decarbonatation producing the corresponding oxide: α-Bi 2O 3, La 2O 3, Pr 6O 11, BiLaO 3 or BiPrO 3.

  17. Versatile bonding and coordination modes of ditriazolylidene ligands in rhodium(iii) and iridium(iii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Kevin; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-10-12

    Metalation of novel ditriazolium salts containing a trimethylene (-CH2CH2CH2-) or dimethylether linker (-CH2OCH2-) was probed with different rhodium(iii) and iridium(iii) precursors. When using [MCp*Cl2]2, a transmetalation protocol via a triazolylidene silver intermediate was effective, while base-assisted metalation with MCl3via sequential deprotonation of the triazolium salt with KOtBu and addition of the metal precursor afforded homoleptic complexes. The N-substituent on the triazole heterocycle directed the metalation process and led to Ctrz,Ctrz,CPh-tridentate chelating ditriazolylidene complexes for N-phenyl substituents. With ethyl substituents, only Ctrz,Ctrz-bidentate complexes were formed, while metalation with mesityl substituents was unsuccessful, presumably due to steric constraints. Through modification of the reaction conditions for the metalation step, an intermediate species was isolated that contains a Ctrz,CPh-bidentate chelate en route to the formation of the tridentate ligand system. Accordingly, Cphenyl-H bond activation occurs prior to formation of the second metal-triazolylidene bond. Stability studies with a Ctrz,Ctrz,CPh-tridentate chelating ditriazolylidene iridium complex towards DCl showed deuterium incorporation at both N-phenyl groups and indicate that Cphenyl-H bond activation is reversible while the Ctrz-Ir bond is robust. The flexible linker between the two triazolylidene donor sites provides access to both facial and meridional coordination modes.

  18. Organometallic rhodium(III) and iridium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes with curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin co-ligands.

    PubMed

    Pettinari, Riccardo; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Condello, Francesca; Petrini, Agnese; Scopelliti, Rosario; Riedel, Tina; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-12-21

    A series of half-sandwich cyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) and iridium(III) complexes of the type [Cp*M(curc/bdcurc)Cl] and [Cp*M(curc/bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3], in which Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, curcH = curcumin and bdcurcH = bisdemethoxycurcumin as O^O-chelating ligands, and PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, is described. The X-ray crystal structures of three of the complexes, i.e. [Cp*Rh(curc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (5), [Cp*Rh(bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (6) and [Cp*Ir(bdcurc)(PTA)][SO3CF3] (8), confirm the expected "piano-stool" geometry. With the exception of 5, the complexes are stable under pseudo-physiological conditions and are moderately cytotoxic to human ovarian carcinoma (A2780 and A2780cisR) cells and also to non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, but lack the cancer cell selectivity observed for related arene ruthenium(II) complexes.

  19. Equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between inorganic aqueous Fe(III) and the siderophore complex, Fe(III)-desferrioxamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dideriksen, K.; Baker, J. A.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2008-05-01

    In oxic oceans, most of the dissolved iron (Fe) exists as complexes with siderophore-like, strongly coordinating organic ligands. Thus, the isotope composition of the little amount of free inorganic Fe that is available for precipitation and preservation in the geological record may largely be controlled by isotope fractionation between the free and complexed iron. We have determined the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation induced by organic ligand activity in experiments with solutions having co-existing inorganic Fe(III) species and siderophore complexes, Fe-desferrioxamine B (at pH 2). The two differently complexed Fe(III) pools were separated by addition of Na 2CO 3, which led to immediate precipitation of the inorganic Fe without causing significant dissociation of Fe-desferrioxamine complexes. Experiments using enriched 57Fe tracer showed that isotopic equilibration between the 57Fe-labelled inorganic species and the isotopically "normal" siderophore-bound Fe was rapid during the first few seconds and then became slower. Consequently, the data fitted poorly to first and second order reaction equations. However, with a two-stage reaction, the data fit perfectly with a first order equation for the slower stage, indicating that approximately 40% re-equilibration may take place during the separation of the two pools. To further test if the induced precipitation leads to experimental artefacts, the fractionation during precipitation of inorganic Fe was determined. Assuming a Rayleigh-type fractionation during precipitation, this experiment yielded an isotope fractionation factor of α56Fe solution-solid = 1.00027. Calculations based on these results indicate that isotopic re-equilibration is unlikely to significantly affect our determined equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between inorganically and organically complexed Fe. To determine the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between inorganically and organically bound Fe(III), experiments with variable

  20. Complexation Studies of Bidentate Heterocyclic N-Donor Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark; Hoch, Courtney L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2011-11-28

    A new bidentate nitrogen donor complexing agent that combines pyridine and triazole functional groups, 2-((4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine (PTMP), has been synthesized. The strength of its complexes with trivalent americium (Am3+) and neodymium (Nd3+) in anhydrous methanol has been evaluated using spectrophotometric techniques. The purpose of this investigation is to assess this ligand (as representative of a class of similarly structured species) as a possible model compound for the challenging separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides. This separation, important in the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles, is best achieved through the agency of multidentate chelating agents containing some number of nitrogen or sulfur donor groups. To evaluate the relative strength of the bidentate complexes, the derived constants are compared to those of the same metal ions with 2,2*-bipyridyl (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), and 2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole (PBIm). At issue is the relative affinity of the triazole moiety for trivalent f element ions. For all ligands, the derived stability constants are higher for Am3+ than Nd3+. In the case of Am3+ complexes with phen and PBIm, the presence of 1:2 (AmL2) species is indicated. Possible separations are suggested based on the relative stability and stoichiometry of the Am3+ and Nd3+ complexes. It can be noted that the 1,2,3-triazolyl group imparts a potentially useful selectivity for trivalent actinides (An(III)) over trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)), though the attainment of higher complex stoichiometries in actinide compared with lanthanide complexes may be an important driver for developing successful separations.

  1. Identification of a Dynamic Mitochondrial Protein Complex Driving Cholesterol Import, Trafficking, and Metabolism to Steroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Rone, Malena B.; Midzak, Andrew S.; Issop, Leeyah; Rammouz, Georges; Jagannathan, Sathvika; Fan, Jinjiang; Ye, Xiaoying; Blonder, Josip; Veenstra, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Steroid hormones are critical for organismal development and health. The rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis is the transport of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) to the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP11A1 in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Cholesterol transfer occurs through a complex termed the “transduceosome,” in which cytosolic steroidogenic acute regulatory protein interacts with OMM proteins translocator protein and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) to assist with the transfer of cholesterol to OMM. It has been proposed that cholesterol transfer from OMM to IMM occurs at specialized contact sites bridging the two membranes composed of VDAC and IMM adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT). Blue native PAGE of Leydig cell mitochondria identified two protein complexes that were able to bind cholesterol at 66- and 800-kDa. Immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the 800-kDa complex contained the OMM translocator protein (18-kDa) and VDAC along with IMM CYP11A1, ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3A (ATAD3A), and optic atrophy type 1 proteins, but not ANT. Knockdown of ATAD3A, but not ANT or optic atrophy type 1, in Leydig cells resulted in a significant decrease in hormone-induced, but not 22R-hydroxycholesterol-supported, steroid production. Using a 22-phenoxazonoxy-5-cholene-3-beta-ol CYP11A1-specific probe, we further demonstrated that the 800-kDa complex offers the microenvironment needed for CYP11A1 activity. Addition of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein to the complex mobilized the cholesterol bound at the 800-kDa complex, leading to increased steroid formation. These results identify a bioactive, multimeric protein complex spanning the OMM and IMM unit that is responsible for the hormone-induced import, segregation, targeting, and metabolism of cholesterol. PMID:22973050

  2. Infertility and recurrent miscarriage with complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress in animal models.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Miyazawa, Masaki; Mitsushita, Junji; Johnson, Thomas E; Hartman, Phil S; Ishii, Naoaki

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with some forms of both male and female infertility. However, there is insufficient knowledge of the influence of oxidative stress on the maintenance of a viable pregnancy, including pregnancy complications and fetal development. There are a number of animal models for understanding age-dependent decrease of reproductive ability and diabetic embryopathy, especially abnormal spermatogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis with mitochondrial dysfunctions. Several important processes occur in mitochondria, including ATP synthesis, calcium ion storage, induction of apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These events have different effects on the several aspects of reproductive function. Tet-mev-1 conditional transgenic mice, developed after studies with the mev-1 mutant of the nematode C. elegans, offer the ability to carefully regulate expression of doxycycline-induced mutated SDHC(V69E) levels and hence modulate endogenous oxidative stress. The mev-1 models have served to illuminate the effects of complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial ROS production, although interestingly they maintain normal mitochondrial and intracellular ATP levels. In this review, the reproductive dysfunctions are presented focusing on fertility potentials in each gamete, early embryogenesis, maternal conditions with placental function and neonatal development.

  3. Benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derived from limonene complexed with copper induced mitochondrial dysfunction in Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Britta, Elizandra Aparecida; Silva, Ana Paula Barbosa; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; Silva, Cleuza Conceição; Sernaglia, Rosana Lázara; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects more than 12 million people. Treatment presents several problems, including high toxicity and many adverse effects, leading to the discontinuation of treatment and emergence of resistant strains. We evaluated the in vitro antileishmanial activity of benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derived from limonene complexed with copper, termed BenzCo, against Leishmania amazonensis. BenzCo inhibited the growth of the promastigote and axenic amastigote forms, with IC(50) concentrations of 3.8 and 9.5 µM, respectively, with 72 h of incubation. Intracellular amastigotes were inhibited by the compound, with an IC(50) of 10.7 µM. BenzCo altered the shape, size, and ultrastructure of the parasites. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization was observed in protozoa treated with BenzCo but caused no alterations in the plasma membrane. Additionally, BenzCo induced lipoperoxidation and the production of mitochondrial superoxide anion radicals in promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. Our studies indicated that the antileishmania activity of BenzCo might be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, leading to parasite death.

  4. Benzaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone Derived from Limonene Complexed with Copper Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Britta, Elizandra Aparecida; Barbosa Silva, Ana Paula; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; Silva, Cleuza Conceição; Sernaglia, Rosana Lázara; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects more than 12 million people. Treatment presents several problems, including high toxicity and many adverse effects, leading to the discontinuation of treatment and emergence of resistant strains. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the in vitro antileishmanial activity of benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derived from limonene complexed with copper, termed BenzCo, against Leishmania amazonensis. BenzCo inhibited the growth of the promastigote and axenic amastigote forms, with IC50 concentrations of 3.8 and 9.5 µM, respectively, with 72 h of incubation. Intracellular amastigotes were inhibited by the compound, with an IC50 of 10.7 µM. BenzCo altered the shape, size, and ultrastructure of the parasites. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization was observed in protozoa treated with BenzCo but caused no alterations in the plasma membrane. Additionally, BenzCo induced lipoperoxidation and the production of mitochondrial superoxide anion radicals in promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. Conclusion/Significance Our studies indicated that the antileishmania activity of BenzCo might be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, leading to parasite death. PMID:22870222

  5. Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency Increases Protein Acetylation and Accelerates Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Karamanlidis, Georgios; Lee, Chi Fung; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Suthammarak, Wichit; Gong, Guohua; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Morgan, Philip G.; Wang, Wang; Tian, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases including heart failure but the specific mechanisms for this link remain largely elusive. We modeled the impairment of mitochondrial respiration by inactivation of the Ndufs4 gene, a protein critical for Complex I (C-I) assembly, in the mouse heart (cKO). While C-I supported respiration decreased by >40%, the cKO mice maintained normal cardiac function in vivo and high-energy phosphate content in isolated perfused hearts. However, the cKO mice developed accelerated heart failure after pressure overload or repeated pregnancy. Decreased NAD+/NADH ratio by C-I deficiency inhibited Sirt3 activity, leading to increase in protein acetylation, and sensitization of the permeability transition in mitochondria (mPTP). NAD+ precursor supplementation to cKO mice partially normalized the NAD+/NADH ratio, protein acetylation and mPTP sensitivity. These findings describe a mechanism connecting mitochondrial dysfunction to the susceptibility to diseases and propose a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23931755

  6. Synthesis, characterisation and biological evaluation of lanthanide(III) complexes with 3-acetylcoumarin-o-aminobenzoylhydrazone (ACAB).

    PubMed

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B; Shenoy, Rashmi V; Vadavi, Ramesh S; Patil, Manjula S; Patil, Siddappa A

    2005-09-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes of the general formula [Ln(ACAB)(2)(NO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].NO(3).H(2)O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Y(III), ACAB=3-acetylcoumarin-o-aminobenzoylhydrazone have been isolated and characterised based on elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, UV, TG/DTA and EPR spectral studies. The ligand behaves in bidentate fashion coordinating through hydrazide >C=O and nitrogen of >C=N. A coordination number of ten is assigned to the complexes. Antibacterial and Antifungal studies indicate an enhancement of activity of the ligand on complexation.

  7. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Michael D

    2006-09-28

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  8. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting III: Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This is the third part of a study of plane transformations described in a complex setting. After the study of homotheties, translations, rotations and reflections, we proceed now to the study of plane similarities, either direct or inverse. Their group theoretical properties are described, and their action on classical geometrical objects is…

  9. Luminescent chemosensors for amines and ammonia based on Eu(III) chelate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander A.; Voznesenskiy, Sergey S.; Petrochenkova, Nataliya V.; Shishov, Alexander S.; Leonov, Andrei A.; Emelina, Tatiana B.; Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Kulchin, Yuri N.

    2016-11-01

    Here we report a novel luminescent sensor for amines and ammonia based on Eu(III) tris-β-benzoylacetonate complexes obtained in various conditions. It has been revealed that interaction of Eu(III) tris-β-benzoylacetonate with analyte vapor results in increase of the Eu(III) luminescence intensity. Exposure of Eu(III) complexes to ammonia and methylamine vapors results in a rapid increase of the emission and excitation spectra intensity and a rapid recovery, almost to the initial value, when the sample is exposed to air. Moreover, luminescence decay time value of Eu(III) complexes is in dependence on analyte presence and increase in ammonia atmosphere and decrease under purging of pure air. The dependences of sensor response features upon preparation conditions were shown. The mechanism of the analyte vapors effect on Eu(III) luminescence intensification has been suggested using the data of IR spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations. The mechanism of luminescence sensitization consists in bonding of an analyte molecule with a water molecule into the coordination sphere of Eu(III). As a result, the bond of a water molecule with the luminescence center weakens and the blockage of the quenching of luminescence on OH-vibrations takes place. The obtained data can be used for development of sensor materials with selective optical sensitivity to ecologically harmful vapours of organic and inorganic compounds.

  10. The diabetes medication Canagliflozin reduces cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting mitochondrial complex-I supported respiration.

    PubMed

    Villani, Linda A; Smith, Brennan K; Marcinko, Katarina; Ford, Rebecca J; Broadfield, Lindsay A; Green, Alex E; Houde, Vanessa P; Muti, Paola; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2016-10-01

    The sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors Canagliflozin and Dapagliflozin are recently approved medications for type 2 diabetes. Recent studies indicate that SGLT2 inhibitors may inhibit the growth of some cancer cells but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival were used to assess the sensitivity of prostate and lung cancer cell growth to the SGLT2 inhibitors. Oxygen consumption, extracellular acidification rate, cellular ATP, glucose uptake, lipogenesis, and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the p70S6 kinase were assessed. Overexpression of a protein that maintains complex-I supported mitochondrial respiration (NDI1) was used to establish the importance of this pathway for mediating the anti-proliferative effects of Canagliflozin. Clinically achievable concentrations of Canagliflozin, but not Dapagliflozin, inhibit cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival of prostate and lung cancer cells alone and in combination with ionizing radiation and the chemotherapy Docetaxel. Canagliflozin reduced glucose uptake, mitochondrial complex-I supported respiration, ATP, and lipogenesis while increasing the activating phosphorylation of AMPK. The overexpression of NDI1 blocked the anti-proliferative effects of Canagliflozin indicating reductions in mitochondrial respiration are critical for anti-proliferative actions. These data indicate that like the biguanide metformin, Canagliflozin not only lowers blood glucose but also inhibits complex-I supported respiration and cellular proliferation in prostate and lung cancer cells. These observations support the initiation of studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of Canagliflozin on limiting tumorigenesis in pre-clinical animal models as well epidemiological studies on cancer incidence relative to other glucose lowering therapies in clinical populations.

  11. [Synthesis of hydroxamic acids and study of their complexes with iron (II) and (III) ions].

    PubMed

    Nenortiene, Palma; Sapragoniene, Marija; Stankevicius, Antanas

    2002-01-01

    Hydroxamic acids are widespread in the tissues of plants, in metabolites of bacteria and fungi, including complex compounds with metal ions. These acids have wide spectrum of biological activity and therefore are perspective reagents for analysis of chemical elements. Fourteen aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydroxamic acids have been synthesized from esters of carboxylic acids. Photometric reactions of hydroxamic acids with iron (II) and (III) were investigated. Complex formation of iron (II) and (III) depending on pH was studied with series of synthesized hydroxamic acids: octanohydroxamic, maleic hydroxamic, 2-hydroxybenzoxydroxamic, benzoxydroxamic, phthalmonoxydroxamic and 3-metoxybenzohydroxamic acids. Composition of iron (III) complexes with 2-hydroxybenzohydroxamic, octanoxydroxamic, 3-metoxybenzohydroxamic acids and iron (II) with 2-hydroxybenzohydroxamic acid was studied by methods of mole ratio and isomolar solutions. Sensitivity of reagents was evaluated by values of absorption coefficients (epsilon). Stability of complexes in water and organic solvents was investigated. Interaction between iron (III) and hydroxamic acids (octanoxydroxamic, 2-hydroxybenzohydroxamic, 3-metoxybenzohydroxamic) have been applied for quantitative photometric analysis of iron (III) salts. Color reaction of iron (II) with 2-hydroxybenzohydroxamic acid was applied for quantitative photometric determination of iron (II) salts. 3-Metoxybenzohydroxamic acid was proposed as a new indicator for complexonometric analysis of iron (III). Chelatometric titration of iron (III) using this indicator is not influenced by copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, so this methods is recommended for iron quantity detection in antianemic drugs, which are composed of latter microelements. Synthesis procedure of 2-benzoylamino-3-arylacrylhydroxamic acids from saturated azlactones was created. Color and precipitate reactions of iron (II) and (III), copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) ions with

  12. The addition of ketone bodies alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction by restoring complex I assembly in a MELAS cellular model.

    PubMed

    Frey, Samuel; Geffroy, Guillaume; Desquiret-Dumas, Valerie; Gueguen, Naig; Bris, Celine; Belal, Sophie; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Barth, Magalie; Henrion, Daniel; Lenaers, Guy; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic Diet used to treat refractory epilepsy for almost a century may represent a treatment option for mitochondrial disorders for which effective treatments are still lacking. Mitochondrial complex I deficiencies are involved in a broad spectrum of inherited diseases including Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome leading to recurrent cerebral insults resembling strokes and associated with a severe complex I deficiency caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. The analysis of MELAS neuronal cybrid cells carrying the almost homoplasmic m.3243A>G mutation revealed a metabolic switch towards glycolysis with the production of lactic acid, severe defects in respiratory chain activity and complex I disassembly with an accumulation of assembly intermediates. Metabolites, NADH/NAD(+) ratio, mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption and BN-PAGE analysis were evaluated in mutant compared to control cells. A severe complex I enzymatic deficiency was identified associated with a major complex I disassembly with an accumulation of assembly intermediates of 400kDa. We showed that Ketone Bodies (KB) exposure for 4weeks associated with glucose deprivation significantly restored complex I stability and activity, increased ATP synthesis and reduced the NADH/NAD+ ratio, a key component of mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, without changing the mutant load, mtDNA copy number was significantly increased with KB, indicating that the absolute amount of wild type mtDNA copy number was higher in treated mutant cells. Therefore KB may constitute an alternative and promising therapy for MELAS syndrome, and could be beneficial for other mitochondrial diseases caused by complex I deficiency.

  13. Mitochondrial Cysteine Synthase Complex Regulates O-Acetylserine Biosynthesis in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Markus; Beard, Katherine F. M.; Lee, Chun Pong; Boltz, Achim; Schwarzländer, Markus; Fuchs, Christopher; Meyer, Andreas J.; Heeg, Corinna; Sweetlove, Lee J.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Hell, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine synthesis is catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL) in the cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria of plants. Biochemical analyses of recombinant plant SAT and OAS-TL indicate that the reversible association of the proteins in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC) controls cellular sulfur homeostasis. However, the relevance of CSC formation in each compartment for flux control of cysteine synthesis remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate the interaction between mitochondrial SAT3 and OAS-TL C in planta by FRET and establish the role of the mitochondrial CSC in the regulation of cysteine synthesis. NMR spectroscopy of isolated mitochondria from WT, serat2;2, and oastl-C plants showed the SAT-dependent export of OAS. The presence of cysteine resulted in reduced OAS export in mitochondria of oastl-C mutants but not in WT mitochondria. This is in agreement with the stronger in vitro feedback inhibition of free SAT by cysteine compared with CSC-bound SAT and explains the high OAS export rate of WT mitochondria in the presence of cysteine. The predominant role of mitochondrial OAS synthesis was validated in planta by feeding [3H]serine to the WT and loss-of-function mutants for OAS-TLs in the cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria. On the basis of these results, we propose a new model in which the mitochondrial CSC acts as a sensor that regulates the level of SAT activity in response to sulfur supply and cysteine demand. PMID:22730323

  14. ND3, ND1 and 39 kDa subunits are more exposed in the de-active form of bovine mitochondrial complex I

    PubMed Central

    Babot, Marion; Labarbuta, Paola; Birch, Amanda; Kee, Sara; Fuszard, Matthew; Botting, Catherine H.; Wittig, Ilka; Heide, Heinrich; Galkin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing feature of mitochondrial complex I from several species is the so-called A/D transition, whereby the idle enzyme spontaneously converts from the active (A) form to the de-active (D) form. The A/D transition plays an important role in tissue response to the lack of oxygen and hypoxic deactivation of the enzyme is one of the key regulatory events that occur in mitochondria during ischaemia. We demonstrate for the first time that the A/D conformational change of complex I does not affect the macromolecular organisation of supercomplexes in vitro as revealed by two types of native electrophoresis. Cysteine 39 of the mitochondrially-encoded ND3 subunit is known to become exposed upon de-activation. Here we show that even if complex I is a constituent of the I + III2 + IV (S1) supercomplex, cysteine 39 is accessible for chemical modification in only the D-form. Using lysine-specific fluorescent labelling and a DIGE-like approach we further identified two new subunits involved in structural rearrangements during the A/D transition: ND1 (MT-ND1) and 39 kDa (NDUFA9). These results clearly show that structural rearrangements during de-activation of complex I include several subunits located at the junction between hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, in the region of the quinone binding site. De-activation of mitochondrial complex I results in concerted structural rearrangement of membrane subunits which leads to the disruption of the sealed quinone chamber required for catalytic turnover. PMID:24560811

  15. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and its protection by quercetin via a coenzyme Q-like action.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian; Lopez-Alarcón, Camilo; Aliaga, Margarita E; Speisky, Hernán

    2012-07-30

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the development of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A major objective of the present study was to investigate whether in vitro the NSAIDs, aspirin, indomethacin, diclofenac, piroxicam and ibuprofen, which feature different chemical structures, are able to inhibit mitochondrial complex I. All NSAIDs were effective inhibitors when added both, directly to mitochondria isolated from rat duodenum epithelium (50 μM) or to Caco-2 cells (250 μM). In the former system, complex I inhibition was concentration-dependent and susceptible to competition and reversion by the addition of coenzyme Q (32.5-520 μM). Based on reports suggesting a potential gastro-protective activity of quercetin, the ability of this flavonoid to protect isolated mitochondria against NSAIDs-induced complex I inhibition was evaluated. Low micromolar concentrations of quercetin (1-20 μM) protected against such inhibition, in a concentration dependent manner. In the case of aspirin, quercetin (5 μM) increased the IC50 by 10-fold. In addition, the present study shows that quercetin (5-10 μM) can behave as a "coenzyme Q-mimetic" molecule, allowing a normal electron flow along the whole electron transporting chain (complexes I, II, III and IV). The exposed findings reveal that complex I inhibition is a common deleterious effect of NSAIDs at the mitochondrial level, and that such effect is, for all tested agents, susceptible to be prevented by quercetin. Data provided here supports the contention that the protective action of quercetin resides on its, here for first time-shown, ability to behave as a coenzyme Q-like molecule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Congenital deficiency of a 20-kDa subunit of mitochondrial complex I in fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Slipetz, D M; Goodyer, P R; Rozen, R

    1991-01-01

    The first component of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain is especially complex, consisting of 19 nuclear and seven mitochondrion-encoded subunits. Accordingly, a wide range of clinical manifestations are produced by the various mutations occurring in human populations. In this study, we analyze the subunit structure of complex I in fibroblasts from two patients who have distinct clinical phenotypes associated with complex I deficiency. The first patient died in the second week of life from overwhelming lactic acidosis. Severe complex I deficiency was evident in her fibroblasts, since alanine oxidation was markedly reduced whereas succinate oxidation was normal. Absence of a 20-kDa subunit was demonstrable when newly synthesized proteins were immunoprecipitated from pulse-labeled fibroblasts by anti-complex I antibody. Disordered assembly or decreased stability of the complex was suggested by deficiency of multiple subunits on Western immunoblots. The second patient exhibited a milder clinical phenotype, characterized by moderate lactic acidosis and developmental delay in childhood and by onset of seizures at 8 years of age. Oxidation studies demonstrated expression of the complex I deficiency in fibroblasts, but no subunit abnormalities were detected by immunoprecipitation or Western immunoblotting. This report demonstrates the utility of cultured fibroblasts in studying mutations affecting synthesis and assembly of complex I. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1903590

  17. Efficient removal of Cr(III)-organic complexes from water using UV/Fe(III) system: Negligible Cr(VI) accumulation and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuxuan; Jiang, Zhao; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaolin; Wang, Dandan; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-09-13

    Most available processes are incapable of removing Cr(III)-organic complexes from water due to their high solubility, extremely slow decomplexation rate, and possible formation of more toxic Cr(VI) during oxidation. Herein, we proposed a new combined process, i.e., UV/Fe(III) followed by alkaline precipitation (namely UV/Fe(III)+OH), to achieve highly efficient and environmentally benign removal of Cr(III)-organic complexes from water. The combined process could remove Cr(III)-citrate from 10.4 mg Cr/L to 0.36 mg Cr/L and ∼60% total organic carbon as well. More attractively, negligible Cr(VI) (<0.06 mg/L) was formed during the process. In the viewpoint of mechanism, the added Fe(III) generates ·OH radicals to transform Cr(III) into Cr(VI) and simultaneously released the citrate ligand to form Fe(III)-citrate simultaneously. Then, the photolysis of Fe(III)-citrate under UV irradiation involved the citrate degradation and the production of massive Fe(II) species, which in turn transformed the formed Cr(VI) back to Cr(III). The free metal ions, including Cr(III), Fe(II) and Fe(III) were removed by the subsequent alkaline precipitation. Also, the combined process is applicable to other Cr(III) complexes with EDTA, tartrate, oxalate, acetate. The applicability of the combined process was further demonstrated by treating two real tanning effluents, resulting in the residual Cr(III) below 1.5 mg/L (the discharge standard of China) and negligible formation of Cr(VI) (<0.004 mg/L) as well. In general, the combined process has a great potential for efficient removal of Cr(III) complexes from contaminated waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Mitochondrial Transcription Initiation Complexes Have Similar Topology on the Light and Heavy Strand Promoters.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yaroslav I; Temiakov, Dmitry

    2016-06-24

    Transcription is a highly regulated process in all domains of life. In human mitochondria, transcription of the circular genome involves only two promoters, called light strand promoter (LSP) and heavy strand promoter (HSP), located in the opposite DNA strands. Initiation of transcription occurs upon sequential assembly of an initiation complex that includes mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) and the initiation factors mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and TFB2M. It has been recently suggested that the transcription initiation factor TFAM binds to HSP and LSP in opposite directions, implying that the mechanisms of transcription initiation are drastically dissimilar at these promoters. In contrast, we found that binding of TFAM to HSP and the subsequent recruitment of mtRNAP results in a pre-initiation complex that is remarkably similar in topology and properties to that formed at the LSP promoter. Our data suggest that assembly of the pre-initiation complexes on LSP and HSP brings these transcription units in close proximity, providing an opportunity for regulatory proteins to simultaneously control transcription initiation in both mtDNA strands.

  19. Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Novel NF1 Mutation Associated with Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Isidoro, Lara; Rocha, Dalila

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a multisystemic, progressive disease, with an estimated incidence of 1/3500-2500. Mitochondrial diseases are generally multisystemic and may be present at any age, and the global prevalence is 1/8500. The diagnosis of these disorders is complex because of its clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Case Report. We present a rare case of the association of these two different genetic diseases, in which a heterozygous missense mutation in the NF1 gene was identified which had not yet been described (p.M1149 V). Additionally, the patient is suspected of carrying an unspecified mutation causing respiratory chain complex I deficiency. Clinical presentation included hypotonia, global development delay, reduced growth rate, progressive microcephaly, and numerous café-au-lait spots. Discussion. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of complex I deficiency in a patient with neurof