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Sample records for mixed hazardous waste

  1. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study.

  2. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1992-10-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na{sub 2}O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO{sub 2}) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  3. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B. ); Ramsey, W.G. . Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na[sub 2]O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO[sub 2]) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  4. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  5. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  6. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  7. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing... rebuttable presumption for used oil of § 279.10(b)(1)(ii) applies to used oil managed by generators....

  8. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing... rebuttable presumption for used oil of § 279.10(b)(1)(ii) applies to used oil managed by generators....

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  10. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

  11. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

  12. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  13. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  14. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  15. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  16. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  17. Measurements and Models for Hazardous chemical and Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Laurel A. Watts; Cynthia D. Holcomb; Stephanie L. Outcalt; Beverly Louie; Michael E. Mullins; Tony N. Rogers

    2002-08-21

    Mixed solvent aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. Not only does the chemical process industry create large quantities of aqueous waste, but the majority of the waste inventory at the DOE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is mixed solvent aqueous waste. In addition, large quantities of waste are expected to be generated in the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical properties is essential. The goal of this work is to develop a phase equilibrium model for mixed solvent aqueous solutions containing salts. An equation of state was sought for these mixtures that (a) would require a minimum of adjustable parameters and (b) could be obtained from a available data or data that were easily measured. A model was developed to predict vapor composition and pressure given the liquid composition and temperature. It is based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, adapted to include non-volatile and salt components. The model itself is capable of predicting the vapor-liquid equilibria of a wide variety of systems composed of water, organic solvents, salts, nonvolatile solutes, and acids or bases. The representative system o water + acetone + 2-propanol + NaNo3 was selected to test and verify the model. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and phase density measurements were performed for this system and its constituent binaries.

  18. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  19. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  20. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  1. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1997-07-15

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  2. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  3. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  4. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  5. Measurement and Model for Hazardous Chemical and Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Michael E. Mullins; Tony N. Rogers; Stephanie L. Outcalt; Beverly Louie; Laurel A. Watts; Cynthia D. Holcomb

    2002-07-30

    Mixed solvent aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. Not only does the chemical process industry create large quantities of aqueous waste, but the majority of the waste inventory at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is mixed solvent aqueous waste. In addition, large quantities of waste are expected to be generated in the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical properties is essential. The goal of this work is to develop a phase equilibrium model for mixed solvent aqueous solutions containing salts. An equation of state was sought for these mixtures that (a) would require a minimum of adjustable parameters and (b) could be obtained from a available data or data that were easily measured. A model was developed to predict vapor composition and pressure given the liquid composition and temperature. It is based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, adapted to include non-volatile and salt components. The model itself is capable of predicting the vapor-liquid equilibria of a wide variety of systems composed of water, organic solvents, salts, nonvolatile solutes, and acids or bases. The representative system of water + acetone + 2-propanol + NaNO3 was selected to test and verify the model. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and phase density measurements were performed for this system and its constituent binaries.

  6. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  7. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  8. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  9. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  10. Closure of hazardous and mixed radioactive waste management units at DOE facilities. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This is document addresses the Federal regulations governing the closure of hazardous and mixed waste units subject to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. It provides a brief overview of the RCRA permitting program and the extensive RCRA facility design and operating standards. It provides detailed guidance on the procedural requirements for closure and post-closure care of hazardous and mixed waste management units, including guidance on the preparation of closure and post-closure plans that must be submitted with facility permit applications. This document also provides guidance on technical activities that must be conducted both during and after closure of each of the following hazardous waste management units regulated under RCRA.

  11. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria.

  12. Favorable Decision Upholding Radioactive/Hazardous Mixed Waste Storage Civil Enforcement Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a copy of the U.S. Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) decision in Edison Electric Institute, et al. v. EPA, No. 91-1586, which upheld the EPA's August 29, 1991, radioactive/hazardous 'mixed waste' storage civil enforcement policy

  13. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  14. Degradation of hazardous chemicals in liquid radioactive wastes from biomedical research using a mixed microbial population

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Radtke, M.; Wey, J.E.; Rogers, R.D.; Rau, E.H.

    1997-10-01

    As the costs associated with treatment of mixed wastes by conventional methods increase, new technologies will be investigated as alternatives. This study examines the potential of using a selected mixed population of microorganisms to treat hazardous chemical compounds in liquid low level radioactive wastes from biomedical research procedures. Microorganisms were isolated from various waste samples and enriched against compounds known to occur in the wastes. Individual isolates were tested for their ability to degrade methanol, ethanol, phenol, toluene, phthalates, acetonitrile, chloroform, and trichloroacetic acid. Following these tests, the organisms were combined in a media with a mixture of the different compounds. Three compounds: methanol, acetonitrile, and pseudocumene, were combined at 500 microliter/liter each. Degradation of each compound was shown to occur (75% or greater) under batch conditions with the mixed population. Actual wastes were tested by adding an aliquot to the media, determining the biomass increase, and monitoring the disappearance of the compounds. The compounds in actual waste were degraded, but at different rates than the batch cultures that did not have waste added. The potential of using bioprocessing methods for treating mixed wastes from biomedical research is discussed.

  15. Direct chemical oxidation of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, F.; Farmer, J.

    1995-04-11

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) refers to the use of continuously-regenerated peroxydisulfate (with possible hydrogen peroxide supplements) to effect total destruction of organic wastes in aqueous media. The process does not involve toxic catalysts or the cogeneration of secondary wastes. Peroxydisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup -2}) is one the strongest known chemical oxidants. It is routinely used in laboratory total carbon analyzers--uncatalyzed at 100{degrees}C, or catalyzed by UV, platinum or dissolved transition metal ions--and detects by oxidative destruction to 0.01 ppm levels. We report: (1) development of a waste treatment approach grounded in industrial electrolysis practice and in reaction rate data for Pt-initiated S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup -2} oxidation at 100{degrees}C; (2) tests of an electrochemical cell generating 1.5 N peroxydisulfate solutions; (3) lower-limit rate data for destruction of surrogates for chemical warfare agents and compounds with functional groups resisting oxidation; and (4) destruction of a Dowex{reg_sign} ion exchange resin, such as used in nuclear processing. This technique is particularly suited for applications in analytical laboratories or in manufacturing industries where the waste generation is low in volume, highly toxic or fugitive, or changing. The process may be tailored for destruction of very small to bulk quantities of chemical warfare agents.

  16. USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    LAGERRAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined.

  17. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Hui; Adams, Jay W.; Kalb, Paul D.

    1999-03-09

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole %.iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  18. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, Hui; Adams, Jay W.; Kalb, Paul D.

    1998-11-24

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  19. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1998-11-24

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1--6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15--20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30--60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3--6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20--50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30--70 mole % phosphate, from about 3--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3--8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5--2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3--6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  20. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1999-03-09

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  1. Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, Peter; Kalb, Paul D.; Heiser, III, John H.

    1997-11-14

    The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

  2. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Thermoplastic encapsulation of commercial reactor low level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1995-05-01

    Conventional hydraulic cement solidification is the primary technology employed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities for treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. The extensive use of cement as a solidification binder has been based on its availability, relative low cost, processability, and high alkalinity (beneficial for immobilizing toxic metals). However, a chemical hydration reaction necessary to set and cure the waste form limits the type and quantity of waste that can be incorporated due to possible interferences between the waste and binder material. Alternative encapsulation technologies have been sought under DOE sponsorship that provide increases in waste stream compatibility, waste loading potential, and waste form performance at lower costs. The Environmental & Waste Technology Center (E&WTC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several low temperature encapsulation processes for improved treatment of commercial reactor and DOE waste streams, using low-density polyethylene and sulfur polymer. Process development studies have shown successful process applicability to a wide range of wastes including evaporator concentrates, such as sodium sulfate and borate salts, incinerator ash and ion exchange resins. Waste form performance studies have been conducted to characterize waste form behavior under disposal conditions in accordance with testing criteria specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Based on processing and performance considerations, dramatic waste loading improvements compared with conventional hydraulic cement have been achieved. For example, the polyethylene process has been shown to encapsulate up to 70 dry wt% evaporator salt concentrates, compared with a maximum of about 12 dry wt% for the best hydraulic cement formation.

  4. Delisting a Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discussed the hazardous waste delisting process. A hazardous waste delisting is a rulemaking procedure to amend the list of hazardous wastes to exclude a waste produced at a particular facility.

  5. Department of Energy Waste Information Network: Hazardous and mixed waste data management

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Information Network (WIN) was developed through the efforts of the DOE Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Office (SO) to meet the programmatic information needs of the Director, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. WIN's key objective is to provide DOE Headquarters (HQ), DOE Operations Offices, and their contractors with an information management tool to support environmental restoration and waste management activities and to promote technology transfer across the DOE complex. WIN has evolved in various stages of growth driven by continued identification of user needs. The current system provides seven key features: technical information systems, bulletin boards, data file transfer, on-line conferencing, formal concurrence system, electronic messaging, and integrated spreadsheet/graphics. WIN is based on Digital Equipment Corporation;s (DEC) VAXcluster platform and is currently supporting nearly 1,000 users. An interactive menu system, DEC's ALL-IN-1 (1), provides easy access to all applications. WIN's many features are designed to provide the DOE waste management community with a repository of information management tools that are accessible, functional, and efficient. The type of tool required depends on the task to be performed, and WIN is equipped to serve many different needs. Each component of the system is evaluated for effectiveness for a particular purpose, ease of use, and quality of operation. The system is fully supported by project managers, systems analysts, and user assistance technicians to ensure subscribers of continued, uninterrupted service. 1 ref.

  6. Coherent and consistent decision making for mixed hazardous waste management: The application of quantitative assessment techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.M.; Little, R.H.; Torres, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper focuses on predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities, illustrated by presentation of the development and application of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. The issues addressed include: (1) land-based disposal practice, (2) the conceptual and mathematical representation of processes leading to release, migration and accumulation of contaminants, (3) the identification and evaluation of relevant assessment end-points, including human health, health of non-human biota and eco-systems, and property and resource effects, (4) the gap between data requirements and data availability, and (5) the application of results in decision making, given the uncertainties in assessment results and the difficulty of comparing qualitatively different impacts arising in different temporal and spatial scales. The paper illustrates the issues with examples based on disposal of metals and radionuclides to shallow facilities. The types of disposal facility considered include features consistent with facilities for radioactive wastes as well as other types of design more typical of hazardous wastes. The intention is to raise the question of whether radioactive and other hazardous wastes are being consistently managed, and to show that assessment methods are being developed which can provide quantitative information on the levels of environmental impact as well as a consistent approach for different types of waste, such methods can then be applied to mixed hazardous wastes contained radionuclides as well as other contaminants. The remaining question is whether the will exists to employ them. The discussion and worked illustrations are based on a methodology developed and being extended within the current European Atomic Energy Community`s cost-sharing research program on radioactive waste management and disposal, with co-funding support from Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos SA, Spain.

  7. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  8. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  9. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  10. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  11. Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to incineration for the treatment of organic mixed wastes. Estimated costs for waste treatment using the process are from $2.50/kg to $25.00/kg, depending on the size of the unit and the amount of waste processed. Process units can be mobile for on-site treatment of wastes. Results from phase 1 and 2, design and engineering studies, are described.

  12. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  14. Delphi`s DETOXSM process: Preparing to treat high organic content hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Goldblatt, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center is sponsoring a full-scale technology demonstration of Delphi Research, Inc.`s patented DETOX{sup SM} catalytic wet chemical oxidation waste treatment process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The process is being developed primarily to treat hazardous and mixed wastes within the DOE complex as an alternative to incineration, but it has significant potential to treat wastes in the commercial sector. The results of the demonstration will be intensively studied and used to validate the technology. A critical objective in preparing for the demonstration was the successful completion of a programmatic Operational Readiness Review. Readiness Reviews are required by DOE for all new process startups. The Readiness Review provided the vehicle to ensure that Delphi was ready to start up and operate the DETOX{sup SM} process in the safest manner possible by implementing industry accepted management practices for safe operation. This paper provides an overview of the DETOX{sup SM} demonstration at SRS, and describes the crucial areas of the Readiness Review that marked the first steps in Delphi`s transition from a technology developer to an operating waste treatment services provider.

  15. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  16. Guidelines for generators to meet HWHF acceptance requirements for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Berkeley Lab. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1996-06-01

    This document provides performance standards that one, as a generator of hazardous chemical, radioactive, or mixed wastes at the Berkeley Lab, must meet to manage their waste to protect Berkeley Lab staff and the environment, comply with waste regulations and ensure the continued safe operation of the workplace, have the waste transferred to the correct Waste Handling Facility, and enable the Environment, Health and Safety (EH and S) Division to properly pick up, manage, and ultimately send the waste off site for recycling, treatment, or disposal. If one uses and generates any of these wastes, one must establish a Satellite Accumulation Area and follow the guidelines in the appropriate section of this document. Topics include minimization of wastes, characterization of the wastes, containers, segregation, labeling, empty containers, and spill cleanup and reporting.

  17. Hazardous Waste Generators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many industries generate hazardous waste. EPA regulates hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to ensure these wastes are managed in ways that are protective of human health and the environment.

  18. Real-Time Broad Spectrum Characterization of Hazardous Mixed Waste by Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson Jr., Charles W.

    2000-12-31

    The goal of this project was to expand the range of chemical species that may be detected by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) in environmental, and specifically in Mixed Waste, monitoring and characterization applications. Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) functions as a near real-time monitor: there is little to no sample preparation and t analysis time is seconds to minutes. MIMS can be implemented as a flow injection technique, where samples, standards, and method blanks can be sequentially analyzed in a continuous fashion. The membrane acts as an interface between the sample (air or water) and the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Transport of the analyte through the membrane occurs by the process of pervaporation. This process is described by adsorption to the outer surface of the membrane, diffusion through the membrane, and desorption from the inner membrane surface into a helium gas flow or into vacuum. The driving force for this work is the need for a rapid, sensitive, and broadly applicable tool for characterizing organic and metal-containing contaminants in a variety of DOE (and other) waste streams. In all characterization scenarios, a balance must be struck between evaluation of the hazards and their extent at a waste site, and the resources available for the overall mitigation of that risk. In the case of chemically, physically, and geometrically homogeneous waste, the situation is aided by the ability to reasonably assume that any sample collected is representative of the overall site constituents. However, few real environmental challenges are homogeneous. As a result, detailed sampling plans must be prepared, and chemical analyses must be performed on a number of samples in order to identify areas of contamination and assess further options. For many years, the chemical analysis part of this process has been accomplished by delivering the samples to a (typically) physically remote laboratory, where very detailed, and

  19. Hazardous Waste Permitting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide RCRA hazardous waste permitting regulatory information and resources permitted facilities, hazardous waste generators, and permit writers. To provide the public with information on how they can be involved in the permitting process.

  20. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  1. Grand Junction projects office mixed-waste treatment program, VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.R.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses an indirectly heated, batch vacuum dryer to thermally desorb organic compounds from mixed wastes. This process hazards analysis evaluated 102 potential hazards. The three significant hazards identified involved the inclusion of oxygen in a process that also included an ignition source and fuel. Changes to the design of the MTU were made concurrent with the hazard identification and analysis; all hazards with initial risk rankings of 1 or 2 were reduced to acceptable risk rankings of 3 or 4. The overall risk to any population group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  2. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  3. Federal Register Notice: State Authorization To Regulate the Hazardous Components of Radioactive Mixed Wastes Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is today publishing a notice that in order to obtain and maintain authorization to administer and enforce a hazardous waste program pursuant to Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), States must have authority to regulate the hazardous components of 'radioactive mixed wastes.

  4. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  5. Hazardous Waste Data (RCRAInfo)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazardous waste information is contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo), a national program management and inventory system about hazardous waste handlers. In general, all generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of hazardous waste are required to provide information about their activities to state environmental agencies. These agencies, in turn pass on the information to regional and national EPA offices. This regulation is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. You may use the RCRAInfo Search to determine identification and location data for specific hazardous waste handlers, and to find a wide range of information on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities regarding permit/closure status, compliance with Federal and State regulations, and cleanup activities.

  6. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  7. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  8. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  9. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page gives an overview of how to safely manage household hazardous wastes like cleaners, paints and oils. Information is also provided on how to find recycling and disposal options for these products, as well as natural alternatives.

  10. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains information about the latest developments in destroying hazardous wastes by incineration or pyrolysis. Topics include: hydrogenation and reuse of hazardous organic wastes; catalytic incineration of gaseous wastes; oxygen enhancement of hazardous waste incineration; and thermal fixation of hazardous metal sludges in an alumina-silicate matrix.

  11. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  12. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  13. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  14. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses hazardous waste, waste disposal, unsafe exposure, movement of hazardous waste, and the Superfund clean-up process that consists of site discovery, site assessment, clean-up method selection, site clean up, and site maintenance. Argues that proper disposal of hazardous waste is everybody's responsibility. (JRH)

  15. Management of hazardous wastes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), during the course of numerous research activities, generates hazardous, radioactive, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The management of these waste materials is highly regulated in the United States (US). This paper focuses on the hazardous waste regulations that limit and prescribe waste management at LLNL.

  16. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  17. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Superfund, a federal cleanup program created in response to growing public concern over the health and environmental risks posed by hazardous waste sites. Discusses sources, disposal, and movement and risk of hazardous waste. (JRH)

  18. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  19. New hazardous waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1993-05-15

    From data supplied by industrial laboratories, from academia, and from the EPA's Superfund Innovative Site Evaluation (SITE) program, this paper presents an informal look at some new and innovative hazardous waste treatment processes. These processes show promise for sparing users off-site disposal costs as well as for remediation of contamination at Superfund or RCRA sites. Included are the following: equipment that will biodegrade water-based paint wastes and pesticide wastes; recycling of potliner and furnace dusts for metal recovery; a process that reduces PCBs and PAHs to lighter hydrocarbons such as methane. Finally, two radiofrequency (RF) processes are described that can be used to remove soil contaminants such as pentachlorophenols, Aroclor 1242, solvents, oils, jet fuel, and pesticides.

  20. Mixed Waste Focus Area -- Waste form initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-07-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI.

  1. Bremsstrahlung-Based Imaging and Assays of Radioactive, Mixed and Hazardous Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwofie, J.; Wells, D. P.; Selim, F. A.; Harmon, F.; Duttagupta, S. P.; Jones, J. L.; White, T.; Roney, T.

    2003-08-01

    A new nondestructive accelerator based x-ray fluorescence (AXRF) approach has been developed to identify heavy metals in large-volume samples. Such samples are an important part of the process and waste streams of U.S Department of Energy sites, as well as other industries such as mining and milling. Distributions of heavy metal impurities in these process and waste samples can range from homogeneous to highly inhomogeneous, and non-destructive assays and imaging that can address both are urgently needed. Our approach is based on using high-energy, pulsed bremsstrahlung beams (3-6.5 MeV) from small electron accelerators to produce K-shell atomic fluorescence x-rays. In addition we exploit pair-production, Compton scattering and x-ray transmission measurements from these beams to probe locations of high density and high atomic number. The excellent penetrability of these beams allows assays and images for soil-like samples at least 15 g/cm2 thick, with elemental impurities of atomic number greater than approximately 50. Fluorescence yield of a variety of targets was measured as a function of impurity atomic number, impurity homogeneity, and sample thickness. We report on actual and potential detection limits of heavy metal impurities in a soil matrix for a variety of samples, and on the potential for imaging, using AXRF and these related probes.

  2. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Robert C. W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  3. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  4. RATES OF IRON OXIDATION AND ARSENIC SORPTION DURING GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER MIXING AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a pond at a hazardous waste site is controlled, in part, by the rate of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact...

  5. Hazardous Wastes--New Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Harvey W.

    1979-01-01

    The need for effective disposal of hazardous medical and pathological wastes is discussed and the results of a test of five different models of incinerators in disposing of such wastes is presented. (MJB)

  6. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  7. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag{sup 2+} or Ce{sup +4} are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  9. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  10. Overview of robotics for Mixed Waste Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Operations Robotics program is developing robotics technology to make the handling and treatment of Department of Energy mixed waste; better, faster, safer and cheaper. This technology will provide remote operations and not require humans to be in contact with this radioactive and hazardous waste. The technology includes remote handling and opening of waste containers, remote removal of waste from the containers, remote characterization and sorting of the waste, and remote treatment and disposition of the waste. The initial technology development program culminated in an integrated demonstration in November 1993 and each aspect of this technology is described.

  11. Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview that includes the definition of hazardous waste, EPA’s Cradle-to-Grave Hazardous Waste Management Program, and hazardous waste generation, identification, transportation, recycling, treatment, storage, disposal and regulations.

  12. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 2, Site specific---California through Idaho. [Waste mixtures of hazardous materials and low-level radioactive wastes or transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  13. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers.

  14. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  15. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  16. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  17. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  18. Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

  19. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Stair, D.M. Jr.; Keller, L.J.; Hensel, T.W.

    1994-12-31

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success.

  20. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains technical overviews of new processes for reducing hazardous waste volume. These processes are based upon physico-chemical principles. Topics include: vacuum extraction for cleanup of soils and groundwater; catalytic hydrodechlorination; on stripping technology; and recovery and disposal of nitrate wastes.

  1. Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket contains information reported to EPA by federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants have been - or may be - released.

  2. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  3. 76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...,'' to exclude (or delist) on a one-time basis from the lists of hazardous waste, a certain solid waste... the petitioned waste is ] not hazardous waste. This exclusion applies to 148 cubic yards of...

  4. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  5. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  6. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  7. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  8. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper.

  9. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator.

  10. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  11. Biological treatment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de

    1998-12-01

    This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

  12. Hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, G.W.; Mercer, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    This is a reference work designed to guide the chemist to solutions to problems of waste disposal. It has chapters on incineration, ocean dumping and underground injection, landfill disposal, transportation, abandoned sites, regulation, etc. A group of 12 appendices provide a lot of useful information for quick reference.

  13. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains 21 various biodegradation techniques for hazardous waste treatment. Topics include: cyclic vertical water table movement for enhancement of in situ biodegradation of diesel fuel; enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; and evaluation of aeration methods to bioremediate fuel-contaminated soils.

  14. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  15. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  16. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  17. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-12-31

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  18. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D. ); Stevens, L. )

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  19. Hazardous Waste Reduction Naval Air Station Oceana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    hazardous waste. 1. Federal Legislation Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of...Material Control and Management HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments MATWING Medium Attack Wing MEK Methylethyl Ketone MI Maintenance Instruction

  20. 75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities..., Tennessee from the lists of hazardous wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero...

  1. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... specific waste from a particular generating facility should not be regulated as a hazardous waste. Based on waste-specific information provided by the petitioner, EPA granted an exclusion for up to 3,000...

  2. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA... petitioned waste on human health and the environment. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  3. Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.Y.

    1995-11-01

    A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

  4. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  5. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  6. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  7. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  8. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  9. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Training for hazardous waste workers

    SciTech Connect

    Favel, K.

    1990-10-26

    This implementation plan describes the system and provides the information and schedules that are necessary to comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) Memorandum, Reference EPD dated September 11, 1990, Training for Hazardous Waste Workers. The memo establishes the need for identifying employees requiring environmental training, ensuring that the training is received, and meeting documentation and recordkeeping requirements for the training.

  11. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

  12. 2016 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, Sonja L.; English, Charles Joe

    2016-12-02

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE), inclusive of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Office of Environmental Management, and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program, which is a component of the overall Pollution Prevention (P2) Program, administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (EPC-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and P2 goals of the Associate Directorate of Environmental Management (ADEM) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. This report includes data for all waste shipped offsite from LANL during fiscal year (FY) 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016). LANS was active during FY2016 in waste minimization and P2 efforts. Multiple projects were funded that specifically related to reduction of hazardous waste. In FY2016, there was no hazardous, mixed-transuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste shipped offsite from the Laboratory. More non-remediation hazardous waste and MLLW was shipped offsite from the Laboratory in FY2016 compared to FY2015. Non-remediation MTRU waste was not shipped offsite during FY2016. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  13. 75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... Refinery (Beaumont Refinery) to exclude (or delist) a certain solid waste generated by its Beaumont, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS)...

  14. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G.; Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  15. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  16. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  17. Integrating Total Quality Management (TQM) and hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Nancy

    1993-11-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.

  18. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  19. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, Sonja L.; English, Charles J.

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  20. EPA Sets Rules on Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. Jeffrey

    1980-01-01

    Announces the final rules published by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring that generators, transporters, and disposers of hazardous wastes report exactly where the wastes will be taken. (Author/SA)

  1. Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

    2003-02-26

    Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

  2. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  3. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  4. Technology transfer in hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  6. 76 FR 48073 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY... the Agency) is proposing to revise the regulations for hazardous waste management under the...

  7. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann

    1992-03-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  8. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann.

    1992-01-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  9. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of salt-containing, mixed waste residues each year. One of the obvious treatment solutions for these salt-containing wastes is to immobilize the hazardous components to meet Environmental Protection Agency/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA/RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thus rendering the mixed waste to a radioactive waste only classification. One proposed solution is to use thermal treatment via vitrification to immobilize the hazardous component and thereby substantially reduce the volume, as well as provide exceptional durability. However, these melter systems involve expensive capital apparatus with complicated off-gas systems. In addition, the vitrification of high salt waste may cause foaming and usually requires extensive development to specify glass

  10. 76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... Planning and Permitting Division, Corrective Action and Waste Minimization Section (6PD-C), 1445 Ross... will be taken on this petition. A new petition will be required for this waste stream. List of...

  11. The mixed waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to {approximately}$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at {approximately}$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability.

  12. Military hazardous wastes: an overview and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaoka, K.E.; Malloy, M.C.; Dever, G.L.; Weinberger, L.P.

    1981-12-01

    The report describes and analyzes the management activities and motivating factors of the military in dealing with its hazardous waste streams. Findings and conclusions in areas of concern are given to provide information that may be of value to the future management of military hazardous wastes.

  13. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  14. Vegetative soil covers for hazardous waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, Jerry L.

    Shallow land burial has been the preferred method for disposing of municipal and hazardous wastes in the United States because it is the simplest, cheapest, and most cost-effective method of disposal. Arid and semiarid regions of the western United States have received considerable attention over the past two decades in reference to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste disposal. Disposal is based upon the premise that low mean annual precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and low or negligible recharge, favor waste isolation from the environment for long periods of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that containment of municipal and hazardous wastes in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers utilizing natural soils and native vegetation i.e., vegetative soil covers, will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous waste landfills. Vegetative soil cover design combines layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem that maintains the natural water balance. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards' equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data from 1919 to 1996 are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 1 m (3 ft) cover is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  15. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  16. Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: a review.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Rachana; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2006-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization is accepted as a well-established disposal technique for hazardous waste. As a result many different types of hazardous wastes are treated with different binders. The S/S products have different property from waste and binders individually. The effectiveness of S/S process is studied by physical, chemical and microstructural methods. This paper summarizes the effect of different waste stream such as heavy metals bearing sludge, filter cake, fly ash, and slag on the properties of cement and other binders. The factors affecting strength development is studied using mix designs, including metal bearing waste alters the hydration and setting time of binders. Pore structure depends on relative quantity of the constituents, cement hydration products and their reaction products with admixtures. Carbonation and additives can lead to strength improvement in waste-binder matrix.

  17. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present.

  18. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  19. Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, M.F.

    1991-08-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility of the Savannah River Plant received hazardous and solid low level radioactive wastes from 1972 until 1986. Because this facility did not have a permit to receive hazardous wastes, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure was performed between 1987 and 1990. This closure consisted of dynamic compaction of the waste trenches and placement of a 3-foot clay cap, a 2-foot soil cover, and a vegetative layer. Operations of the waste disposal facility, tests performed to complete the closure design, and the construction of the closure cap are discussed herein.

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  1. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  2. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  3. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  4. MLW, TRU, LLW, MIXED, HAZARDOUS WASTES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION. WASTE MANAGEMENT/ENERGY SECURITY AND A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT. DFR Decommissioning: the Breeder Fuel Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, C.; Potier, P.; Ashton, Brian Morris

    2003-02-27

    The Dounreay site, in North Scotland, was opened in 1955 and a wide range of nuclear facilities have been built and operated there by UKAEA (The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) for the development of atomic energy research. The Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) was built between 1955 and 1957, and operated until 1977 for demonstration purposes and for producing electricity. Today, its decommissioning is a key part of the whole Dounreay Site Restoration Plan that integrates the major decommissioning activities such as the fuel treatment and the waste management. The paper presents the contract strategy and provides an overview of the BFR project which consists in the removal of the breeder elements from the reactor and their further treatment. It mainly provides particular details of the Retrieval and Processing Facilities design.

  5. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  6. Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of the Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket Facilities comprised of four lists: National Priorities List (NPL), Non-National Priorities List, Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC), and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  7. GEOSTATISTICAL SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses field sampling design for environmental sites and hazardous waste sites with respect to random variable sampling theory, Gy's sampling theory, and geostatistical (kriging) sampling theory. The literature often presents these sampling methods as an adversari...

  8. Online Hazardous Waste Cleanup Technical Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper is intended to give the reader examples of some online technical resources that can assist with hazardous waste cleanups in the Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Brownfields programs.

  9. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  10. 75 FR 13066 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... standards for the management of specific types of hazardous waste and specific types of hazardous waste management facilities, the land disposal restrictions program and the hazardous waste permit program. DATES... disposal facilities, the standards for the management of specific types of hazardous waste and...

  11. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  12. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  13. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  14. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  15. 75 FR 12989 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is taking Direct Final action on a number of technical changes that correct or clarify several parts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations that relate to hazardous waste identification, manifesting, the hazardous waste generator requirements, standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste......

  16. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  17. Hazardous Educational Waste Collections in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

    This report presents the status of programs designed to manage hazardous educational waste collections in secondary schools in the state of Illinois. Laboratory wastes, expired chemicals, unstable compounds, and toxic or flammable materials are accounted for in this document. The report contains an executive summary, a review of Illinois statutes…

  18. Previous Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket contains information reported to EPA by federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants have been - or may be - released.

  19. Vitrification: Destroying and immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Peters, R.D.; Perez, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Researchers at the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have led the development of vitrification a versatile adaptable process that transforms waste solutions, slurries, moist powder and/or dry solids into a chemically durable glass form. The glass form can be safely disposed or used for other purposes, such as construction material if non-radioactive. The feed used in the process can be either combustible or non-combustible. Organic compounds are decomposed in the melters` plenum, while the inorganic residue melts into a molten glass pool. The glass produced by this process is a chemically durable material comparable to natural obsidian. Its properties typically allow it to pass the EPA Toxicity (TCLP) test as non-hazardous. To date, no glass produced by vitrification has failed the TCLP test. Vitrification is thus an ideal method of treating DOE`s mixed waste because of its ability to destroy organic compounds and bind toxic or radioactive elements. This article provides an overview of the technology.

  20. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a review and evaluation of vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring. It describes the applicability of selected monitoring methods to hazardous waste disposal sites. Topics covered include: geohydrologic framework of the vadose zone; premonitoring of storage at disposal sites; premonitoring of water movement at disposal sites; active and abandoned site monitoring methods; waste source pollutant characterization; geohydrologic settings for waste disposals and conceptual vadose zone monitoring descriptions.

  1. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  2. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Coyne, Martin J.; Fiscus, Gregory M.; Sammel, Alfred G.

    1998-01-01

    A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

  3. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

    1998-10-06

    A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

  4. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals.

  5. Regulatory Exclusions and Alternative Standards for the Recycling of Materials, Solid Wastes and Hazardous Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Determining the Level of Regulation for Hazardous Waste Recycling, Recycled Materials that are not Subject to RCRA Hazardous Waste Regulation, Materials Subject to Alternative Regulatory Controls, Materials Subject to Full Hazardous Waste Regulations.

  6. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  7. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  8. 75 FR 71559 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... final exclusion for ExxonMobil Refining and Supply Company-- Beaumont Refinery, published on October 1...Mobil Refining and Supply Company--Beaumont Refinery, published on October 1, 2010, 75 FR 60632....

  9. 75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... exclusion for Eastman Chemical Company--Texas Operations, published on September 24, 2010. DATES: Effective... Company--Texas Operations, published on September 24, 2010, 75 FR 58315. We stated in that direct...

  10. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented.

  11. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE`s Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP`s charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program.

  12. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Violet N.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action. PMID:20040981

  13. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  14. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  15. Mixed waste minimization in a research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes minimization efforts and processes for mixed waste generated by research facilities. Waste stream assessment and treatment, and database management for various research-related waste streams is detailed.

  16. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai; Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Hazardous waste regulations: an interpretive guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, A.

    1981-01-01

    Compliance with hazardous-waste laws has been made difficult by new, lengthy, and complicated Environmental Protection Agency regulations. This book analyzes and reorganizes the 150 pages of three-column regulations, clarifying all aspects of the requirements. Paralleling the related sections of the law (Subtitle C of the Resources Act), the book begins with an overview of the law and regulations and an identification and listing of hazardous wastes. There are guidelines for authorized state programs along with notification requirements for those in hazardous-waste activities. A checklist format, using five different scenarios offers a practical approach to analyzing the unique requirements for generators and transporters as well as owners and operators. 3 figures.

  18. Implementation of a True Enterprise Web Based System to Manage Low Level, Mixed, Weapons Grade, Transuranic and Hazardous Waste at Lawrence Livermore National Laboaratory

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J; Plunkett, J; Haigh, D; Plunkett, J; Haigh, D; Collins, J

    2003-11-21

    Faced with increasing challenges imposed by a new mixed waste treatment facility under construction, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) embarked on a yearlong process of finding and implementing a new system to replace its existing waste tracking software. After a review of several applications, including the IWTS system in use at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)a, LLNL decided to implement HazTrack. HazTrack represents a new generation of browser based enterprise level business applications that are replacing the hardcoded client-server software that has been so prevalent for the last 15 years. It is widely believed that the object-oriented application frameworks of these applications, such as the model view controller (MVC) framework for HazTrack will be at the core of leading-edge software technology in the twenty-first century. MVC applications adapt more readily to changes in business and technical requirements than do applications built using traditional programming techniques, anywhere from 2.5 to 12 times faster than propagating the same changes to programmatically implemented solutions. Because of this ability, the HazTrack team was able to rapidly modify the HazTrack application for management of radiological waste storage, including support for an unlimited number of dose conversion factors (DCF's) for calculation of Plutonium Equivalent (Pu-Eq) curies, nuclide tracking, nuclide distribution tracking, and storage area limits management. LLNL also required extensive security management features including a waste approval process with lockdown and audit trail capability that was also incorporated during the implementation, as well as a flexible access control architecture to facilitate customized user views and access rights to functions based on user groups. HazTrack supports the full range of waste handling activities including waste generation, characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal through its fully

  19. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  20. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  1. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205... SECURITY PLANS Shipping Papers § 172.205 Hazardous waste manifest. (a) No person may offer, transport, transfer, or deliver a hazardous waste (waste) unless an EPA Form 8700-22 and 8700-22A (when...

  2. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  3. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  4. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  5. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  6. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  7. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  8. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  9. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  10. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Imports of hazardous waste. 262.60 Section 262.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60...

  11. Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1998-07-01

    The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

  12. Tougher standards for burning hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1993-08-01

    This article reports that tighter emission standards for hazardous waste combustion proposed by the EPA may require design changes that could alter the economics of hazardous waste incineration in the US. A recent draft strategy for the combustion of hazardous waste by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Washington, DC, has sent tremors through the two major types of combustors of industrial wastes: commercial incinerators and cement kilns. It is too early to predict what new environmental regulations will result from this proposal, but the ability of competitive combustors to meet them will likely determine their survival. The two emissions standards specified in the draft strategy announced in May by EPA administrator Carol Browner limit the particulate emissions from hazardous waste incinerators to 0.015 grain per dry standard cubic foot, less than one-fifth the 0.08 grain now permitted. Control of dioxins spells an even sharper change in EPA strategy, for these must be held to under 30 nanograms per dry standard cubic meter. Currently, there are no overall dioxin limits, only site-specific boundaries calculated on a risk-assessment basis for boilers and industrial furnaces (BIF) that have the potential to emit large amounts of dioxins and furans.

  13. Hazardous Waste Certification Plan: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of hazardous waste (HW) handled in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). The plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end- product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; and executive summary of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. The plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Systems Group Manager to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with several requirements of the Federal Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Act (RCRA), the Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), and the State of California, Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22.

  14. Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

    1997-11-01

    A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

  15. Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy. [Hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.

    1990-02-01

    Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them.

  16. Hazardous Waste Management - Liquids in Landfills - Federal Register Notice, November 18, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA), EPA is promulgating this final rule regarding the landfill disposal of containerized liquids mixed with sorbents.

  17. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  18. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  19. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  20. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  1. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  2. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

    1983-10-01

    This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

  3. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  4. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

  5. Management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at a conference on the management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Papers were presented in the following topics: federal and state programs; sampling and monitoring; leaking tanks; in-situ treatment; site remediation; banner technology; storage/disposal; endangerment assessment; risk assessment techniques; and research and development.

  6. What Specific Areas Must a Hazardous Waste Permit Address?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazardous waste permits provide treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) with the legal authority to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste and detail how the facility must comply with the regulations

  7. Psychosocial effects of hazardous toxic waste disposal on communities

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, D.L. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Community responses to exposure to hazardous wastes; Characteristics of citizen groups which emerge with respect to hazardous waste sites; The technological world-view and environmental planning.

  8. Hazardous Waste Generator Regulations: A User-Friendly Reference Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    User-friendly reference to assist EPA and state staff, industrial facilities generating and managing hazardous wastes as well as the general public, in locating and understanding RCRA hazardous waste generator regulations.

  9. Hazardous Waste Electronic Manifest System (E-Manifest)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides information on EPA's work toward developing a hazardous waste electronic manifest system. Information on the Hazardous Waste Electronic Manifest Establishment Act, progress on the project and frequent questions are available.

  10. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... (carcinogenic risk of 10 -5 and non-cancer hazard index of 1.0). The DRAS program can back-calculate the... possible risks associated with releases of waste constituents through surface pathways...

  11. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... site. Using the risk level (carcinogenic risk of 10 -5 and non-cancer hazard index of 0.1), the DRAS... of waste constituents through surface pathways (e.g., volatilization or wind-blown particulate...

  12. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  13. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. (a) The Regional Administrator with regulatory... hazardous waste landfills not located at the site from which the waste originated, without the...

  14. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. (a) The Regional Administrator with regulatory... hazardous waste landfills not located at the site from which the waste originated, without the...

  15. Integrating waste management with Job Hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The web-based Automated Job Hazard Analysis (AJHA) system is a tool designed to help capture and communicate the results of the hazard review and mitigation process for specific work activities. In Fluor Hanford's day-to-day work planning and execution process, AJHA has become the focal point for integrating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) through industrial health and safety principles; environmental safety measures; and involvement by workers, subject-matter experts and management. This paper illustrates how AJHA has become a key element in involving waste-management and environmental-control professionals in planning and executing work. To support implementing requirements for waste management and environmental compliance within the core function and guiding principles of an integrated safety management system (ISMS), Fluor Hanford has developed the a computer-based application called the 'Automated Job Hazard Analysis' (AJHA), into the work management process. This web-based software tool helps integrate the knowledge of site workers, subject-matter experts, and safety principles and requirements established in standards, and regulations. AJHA facilitates a process of work site review, hazard identification, analysis, and the determination of specific work controls. The AJHA application provides a well-organized job hazard analysis report including training and staffing requirements, prerequisite actions, notifications, and specific work controls listed for each sub-task determined for the job. AJHA lists common hazards addressed in the U.S. Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) federal codes; and State regulations such as the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Administration (WISHA). AJHA also lists extraordinary hazards that are unique to a particular industry sector, such as radiological hazards and waste management. The work-planning team evaluates the scope of work and reviews the work site to identify potential hazards. Hazards

  16. Wastewater and Hazardous Waste Survey, England AFB Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Background 1 A. Wastewater System 2 B. England AFB Wastewater Discharge Limitations 2 C. Characteristic Hazardous Waste Regulations 3 1II. Procedures 4 A...Conservation and Recovery Act, or the Louisiana State Hazardous Waste Regulations . The wastewater survey was conducted by 1 Lt Robert A. Tetla, 2Lt Charles W...34Hazardous Waste Abatement Plan, England Air Force Base, Louisiana," 1987. 0 12. State of Louisiana Hazardous Waste Regulations 13. RCRA Interim

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  19. Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Korenberg, Jacob

    1990-01-01

    An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

  20. Estimating the Long Term Liability from Landfilling Hazardous Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments make the key element in...Society of Civil Engineers, New York, Nov. 1990. 44 required by the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to RCRA, as shown in Figure 10...reauthorized in 1984 by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , is due for reauthorization in 1992 and it is probable that leachate flow rates shall

  1. 76 FR 36480 - Hazardous Waste Manifest Printing Specifications Correction Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 262 Hazardous Waste Manifest Printing Specifications Correction Rule AGENCY... proposing a minor change to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste manifest regulations that affects those entities that print the hazardous waste manifest form in accordance with...

  2. 76 FR 72311 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... the receptor's respiratory system. This is no longer necessary as toxicity reference values for...-2009-0312; SW FRL-9490-9] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous... States: States having a dual system that includes Federal RCRA requirements and their own...

  3. 77 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) is granting a petition submitted by ExxonMobil Refining and Supply Company (ExxonMobil) Baytown Refinery to exclude from hazardous waste control (or delist) a certain solid waste. This final rule responds to the petition submitted by ExxonMobil to have the F039 underflow water...

  4. 75 FR 51678 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... exclude (or delist) its wastewater treatment biosludge generated by its Ingleside, Texas facility from the..., K020, F025, F001, F003, and F005 waste resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the... 9, 2009, to exclude the wastewater treatment biosludge from the lists of hazardous waste under...

  5. Converting mixed waste into durable glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ruller, J.A.; Greenman, W.G.

    1994-12-31

    Radioactive, hazardous and mixed contamination of soils and sediments within the Weapons Complex is widespread and estimated to total billions of cubic meters. The cost to remediate this contamination, as well as the contaminated surface and groundwaters, buildings and facilities has been estimated to be up to $300 billion over the next 30 years and up to $30 billion over the next five years. Progress towards cleaning the Weapons Complex depends upon the development of new remediation technologies. The remediation of contaminated soils and sludges ultimately rests on the immobilization of radioactive and hazardous contaminants into a solid wasteform that is leach resistant to aqueous corrosion and other forms of degradation (such as thermal cycling and biological attack) and is highly durable. In addition, the process to immobilize the contaminants should concentrate the contaminants into the smallest volume to reduce disposal/storage and transportation costs. GTS Duratek and the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America have successfully demonstrated that several different waste streams can be converted into a durable, leach-resistant glass that will also lower waste volumes. In this paper, the authors discuss these successes for soils and sludges from three separate US Department of Energy sites. The sites are: the K-25 facility; the Weldon Spring site; and Fernald, Ohio.

  6. The Scientific Management of Hazardous Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Keith S.

    According to the jacket of this book, three independent scientists carefully define the limits of scientific knowledge applicable to the management of hazardous wastes. It is claimed that the extrapolation and application of this knowledge is examined, significant areas of uncertainty are identified, and the authors reveal “the fallibility of certain interpretations.” It would be more accurate to claim these as possible goals of the book rather than its accomplishments.Chapter 1, Hazardous Wastes and Their Recycling Potential, includes 11 pages of lists of chemicals, some of which are poorly reproduced. The remaining pages describe, superficially, several recycling schemes. Connections between the chemicals previously listed and the recycling schemes are not given. Concerning the potential for recycling, the last sentence of the chapter reads, “Indeed, the concept of waste recycling, itself a contradiction in terms, is better politics than business.” Taken literally, this assertion itself contradicts venerable practice, as the farmer might observe as he transfers waste from his cows to the crops in his field. More pertinently, it can be argued that the recovery of solvents, metals, and oil from waste flows is much more than a political gesture.

  7. Biological treatment of hazardous aqueous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Opatken, E.J.; Howard, H.K.; Bond, J.J.

    1987-06-01

    Studies were conducted with a rotating biological conractor (RBC) to evaluate the treatability of leachates from the Stringfellow and New Lyme hazardous-waste sites. The leachates were transported from the waste sites to Cincinnati at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Testing and Evaluation Facility. A series of batches were run with primary effluent from Cincinnati's Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Facility. The paper reports on the results from these experiments and the effectiveness of an RBC to adequately treat leachates from Superfund sites.

  8. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-12-31

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.

  9. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  10. Determining Cleanup Standards for Hazardous Waste Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    CERCLA ) 8 was designed to deal with so-called Superfund sites like Love Canal. Among other things, Section 121 of that Act 9 describes, the cleanup...the "big stick" for cleaning up dangerous environmental sites falls under the broad 17 scope of CERCLA and the Superfund . The fundamental difference...as wastes under RCRA but are still 43 considered "hazardous" for CERCLA regulation. Furthermore, CERCLA , as amended by the Superfund Amendment and

  11. Hazardous Waste Minimization Guide for Shipyards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    suited for low-boiling solvents without abrasive solids. Another evaporation method involves the use of a dryer . In this operation, the waste is fed...sludge is dewatered through filter presses and sludge dryers . The sludge is then generally disposed of at a class 1 Iandfill site owned by a hazardous...piece, the metal powder, water, glass shot, and additives are tumbled together in a barrel. Coatings are limited to ductile metals such as Cd, An, Sn

  12. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1990-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  13. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1988-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  14. R D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Devgun, J.S.; Brown, J.J.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Hazardous Waste Site Analysis (Small Site Technology)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Fluidized Bed ......................................................................... 48 M ultiple H earth...contamination 17 Fluidized Bed Incineration - The vessels contain a bed of graded, inert granular material, usually silica sand or a catalyst. The heated bed ...material is expanded by combustion air forced upward through the bed . As waste material is mixed with the hot fluidized bed material, heat is rapidly

  16. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Hazardous Waste Training Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    substances, which reduces the amount of waste covered by RCRA. 2.2.2. Enforcement of Hazardous Waste Regulations The goals of the RCRA enforcement...civil action is a formal lawsuit filed against an entity that failed to comply with hazardous waste regulations or contributed to a release of... hazardous waste regulations on an Air Force installation is the _______________. A. State environmental regulatory agency B. Local county or city

  17. Hazardous and toxic waste management in Botswana: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Meng, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste is a complex waste category because of its inherent chemical and physical characteristics. It demands for environmentally sound technologies and know-how as well as clean technologies that simultaneously manage and dispose it in an environmentally friendly way. Nevertheless, Botswana lacks a system covering all the critical steps from importation to final disposal or processing of hazardous and toxic waste owing to limited follow-up of the sources and types of hazardous and toxic waste, lack of modern and specialised treatment/disposal facilities, technical know-how, technically skilled manpower, funds and capabilities of local institutions to take lead in waste management. Therefore, because of a lack of an integrated system, there are challenges such as lack of cooperation among all the stakeholders about the safe management of hazardous and toxic waste. Furthermore, Botswana does not have a systematic regulatory framework regarding monitoring and hazardous and toxic waste management. In addition to the absence of a systematic regulatory framework, inadequate public awareness and dissemination of information about hazardous and toxic waste management, slower progress to phase-out persistent and bio-accumulative waste, and lack of reliable and accurate information on hazardous and toxic waste generation, sources and composition have caused critical challenges to effective hazardous and toxic waste management. It is, therefore, important to examine the status of hazardous and toxic waste as a waste stream in Botswana. By default; this mini-review article presents an overview of the current status of hazardous and toxic waste management and introduces the main challenges in hazardous and toxic waste management. Moreover, the article proposes the best applicable strategies to achieve effective hazardous and toxic waste management in the future.

  18. RFID technology for hazardous waste management and tracking.

    PubMed

    Namen, Anderson Amendoeira; Brasil, Felipe da Costa; Abrunhosa, Jorge José Gouveia; Abrunhosa, Glaucia Gomes Silva; Tarré, Ricardo Martinez; Marques, Flávio José Garcia

    2014-09-01

    The illegal dumping of hazardous waste is one of the most concerning occurrences related to illegal waste activities. The waste management process is quite vulnerable, especially when it comes to assuring the right destination for the delivery of the hazardous waste. The purpose of this paper is to present a new system design and prototype for applying the RFID technology so as to guarantee the correct destination for the hazardous waste delivery. The aim of this innovative approach, compared with other studies that employ the same technology to the waste disposal process, is to focus on the certification that the hazardous waste will be delivered to the right destination site and that no inappropriate disposal will occur in the transportation stage. These studies were carried out based on data collected during visits to two hazardous waste producer companies in Brazil, where the material transportation and delivery to a company in charge of the waste disposal were closely monitored.

  19. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company's hazardous waste program.

    PubMed

    Van Noordwyk, H J; Santoro, M A

    1978-12-01

    This paper discusses the present hazardous waste program of 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company). 3M's definition of hazardous waste and the company's position on hazardous waste disposal are first considered. The company position is that wherever and whenever the disposal of a waste material threatens the environment or public safety, then that waste should be considered a hazardous waste and treated accordingly in terms of its handling and ultimate disposal. The generation of hazardous wastes and the differentiation of "hazardous" and "nonhazardous" wastes are described next. Handling of hazardous wastes from their generation to their disposal is then covered. This includes a definition of internal 3M terminology and a description of the hazard rating system used by the company. Finally, 3M disposal practices are presented. It is 3M's position that thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, where appropriate, is the best method for their disposal. With this in mind, 3M has constructed incineration facilities throughout the country. The rotary kiln incinerator at the 3M Chemolite plant in Cottage Grove, Minnesota is briefly described. Disposal of certain hazardous wastes in controlled secure land disposal sites is then briefly discussed.

  20. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  1. Mixed waste management facility FY94 plan

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a progress report detailing the different aspects of the project plan. Included are the topics of quality assurance, safety and cost as they relate to the processing and storage of hazardous materials and radioactive waste.

  2. Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

  3. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition.

  4. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Nocito, T.; Vaux, W.G.; Snyder, T.

    1994-12-31

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the US nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCBs, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay, and fission products of DOE operations. To allow disposal, the asbestos must be converted chemically, followed by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives. An attempt was made to apply techniques that have already proved successful in the mining, oil, and metals processing industries to the development of a multi-stage process to remove and separate hazardous chemical radioactive materials from asbestos. This process uses three methods: ABCOV chemicals which converts the asbestos to a sanitary waste; dielectric heating to volatilize the organic materials; and electrochemical processing for the removal of heavy metals, RCRA wastes and radionuclides. This process will result in the destruction of over 99% of the asbestos; limit radioactive metal contamination to 0.2 Bq alpha per gram and 1 Bq beta and gamma per gram; reduce hazardous organics to levels compatible with current EPA policy for RCRA delisting; and achieve TCLP limits for all solidified waste.

  5. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  6. Chemical treatment of mixed waste at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Honigford, L.; Sattler, J.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams.

  7. Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today!

    SciTech Connect

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.; Sattler, J.

    1996-02-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams.

  8. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  9. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  10. An Effective Waste Management Process for Segregation and Disposal of Legacy Mixed Waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, Anne K.; Meyer, Dann; Rellergert, Carla A.; Schriner, Joseph A.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well- defined, properly characterized, and precisely inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried through this process. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this paper is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

  11. 77 FR 36447 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... (that is, ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity), (2) the wastes meet the criteria for... any of the hazardous waste characteristics (that is, ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity, and...+00 Copper 2.23E-03 4.60E+02 o-Cresol ND 2.00E+02 m-Cresol ND 2.00E+02 p-Cresol ND 2.00E+02...

  12. Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. The study focused on three specific models: MEPAS version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. The approach to model review advocated in the study is directed to technical staff responsible for identifying, selecting and applying multimedia models for use at sites containing radioactive and hazardous materials. In the report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted.

  13. ALARA Analysis of Radiological Control Criteria Associated with Alternatives for Disposal of Hazardous Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Bilyard, Gordon R.; Branch, Kristi M.; Lavender, Jay C.; Miller, Peter L.

    2002-05-15

    This ALARA analysis of Radiological Control Criteria (RCC) considers alternatives to continued storage of certain DOE mixed wastes. It also considers the option of treating hazardous wastes generated by DOE facilities, which have a very low concentration of radionuclide contaminants, as purely hazardous waste. Alternative allowable contaminant levels examined correspond to doses to an individual ranging from 0.01 mrem/yr to 10 to 20 mrem/yr. Generic waste inventory data and radionuclide source terms are used in the assessment. Economic issues, potential health and safety issues, and qualitative factors relating to the use of RCCs are considered.

  14. Polyethylene macroencapsulation - mixed waste focus area. OST reference No. 30

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The lead waste inventory throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has been estimated between 17 million and 24 million kilograms. Decontamination of at least a portion of the lead is viable but at a substantial cost. Because of various problems with decontamination and its limited applicability and the lack of a treatment and disposal method, the current practice is indefinite storage, which is costly and often unacceptable to regulators. Macroencapsulation is an approved immobilization technology used to treat radioactively contaminated lead solids and mixed waste debris. (Mixed waste is waste materials containing both radioactive and hazardous components). DOE has funded development of a polyethylene extrusion macroencapsulation process at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) that produces a durable, leach-resistant waste form. This innovative macroencapsulation technology uses commercially available single-crew extruders to melt, convey, and extrude molten polyethylene into a waste container in which mixed waste lead and debris are suspended or supported. After cooling to room temperature, the polyethylene forms a low-permeability barrier between the waste and the leaching media.

  15. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper.

  16. Safety analysis approaches or mixed transuranic waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Forrester, R. J.; Lehto, M. A.; Pan, Y. C.

    1999-02-10

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed a survey of assumptions and techniques used for safety analyses at seven sites that handle or store mixed transuranic (TRU) waste operated by contractors for the US Department of Energy (DOE). While approaches to estimating on-site and off-site consequences of hypothetical accidents differ, there are commonalities in all of the safety studies. This paper identifies key parameters and methods used to estimate the radiological consequences associated with release of waste forms under abnormal conditions. Specific facilities are identified by letters with their safety studies listed in a bibliography rather than as specific references so that similarities and differences are emphasized in a nonjudgmental manner. References are provided for specific parameters used to project consequences associated with compromise of barriers and dispersion of potentially hazardous materials. For all of the accidents and sites, estimated dose commitments are well below guidelines even using highly conservative assumptions. Some of the studies quantified the airborne concentrations of toxic materials; this paper only addresses these analyses briefly, as an entire paper could be dedicated to this subject.

  17. Economic Analysis of Hazardous Waste Minimization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF REPORT OF THIS PP,,E OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassilied Unclassified SAR NSN 7540 01-280 5500 SuxVl form t (Rev 2- R ]I Pe•nbed or ANSi Srd 2r39...Consulting Associates, Inc.. 15 June 1987). Chapter 7. T . Page, R . Harris, and J. Bruser, Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water: A Cost-Benefit Analysis...Pretreatment of Hazardous Waste, EPA/600/D-87/047 (EPA, January 1987), pp 58-70. Page, T ., R . Harris, and J. Bruser. Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water

  18. Regulatory compliance by small-quantity generators of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    While small quantity and very small quantity generators of hazardous waste (SQCs and VSQGs) are responsible for less than one percent of the total hazardous waste produced, mismanagement of even small quantities of many types of hazardous waste can cause significant local impacts. Most SQGs and VSQGs are also small businesses. They are presumed to face significant time, expertise, and other resource constraints in complying with legally and technically complex regulations such as those that govern hazardous waste management. A sample of 400 SQGs and VSQGs in New Jersey was surveyed to assess policy options for two policy issues identified by the New Jersey Hazardous Waste Facilities Siting Commission: (1) enhancing regulatory compliance by SQGs, and (2) promoting voluntary adherence with hazardous waste regulations by VSQGs in the state. The analysis empirically tests hypotheses based on the rational utility maximization and bounded rationality models of individual and organizational decision making and compliance behavior.

  19. New treatment technologies for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, G.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes new treatment technologies for mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. Several processes are described including mercury removal techniques, steam reforming from aqueous organic wastes, development of plasma treatment systems, waste vitrification and control and recovery of vapor phase mercury in combustion flue gas. Continuous monitoring of mercury, ammonia, acid gases, and volatile organic compounds and a brief description of final waste form development is presented.

  20. VAC*TRAX - thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

    1995-10-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 2600{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost.

  1. In-plant management of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.W.; Howell, W.L. Jr. |

    1995-12-31

    One of the earliest sustainable technologies for the management of hazardous industrial wastes, and one of the most successful, is {open_quotes}In-Plant Control{close_quotes} Waste elimination, reuse and/or minimization can encourage improved utilization of resources, decreased environmental degradation and increased profits at individual industrial product ion sites, or within an industry. For new facilities and industries, putting such programs in place is relatively easy. Experience has shown, however, that this may be more difficult to initiate in existing facilities, especially in older and heavier industries. This task can be made easier by promoting a mutually respectful partnership between production and environmental interests within the facility or industry. This permits {open_quotes}common sense{close_quotes} thinking and a cooperative, proactive strategy for securing an appropriate balance between economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility. Case studies are presented wherein a phased, incremental in-plant system for waste management was developed and employed to good effect, using a model that entailed {open_quotes}Consciousness, Commitment, Training, Recognition, Re-engineering and Continuous Improvement{close_quotes} to promote waste minimization or elimination.

  2. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  3. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Michael L.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.; Chapman, Chris C.; Peters, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  4. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  5. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  6. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  7. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  8. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... F037 Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead, chromium. F038 Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead.... K052 Lead. K169 Benzene. K170 Benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b... separation sludges that are listed as hazardous wastes due to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead...

  9. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Sam Houston, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Houston has a number of power production and heating/cooling plants ( HCP ) that use hazardous materials and generate potentially hazardous wastes. The DEH...Training and Support Center - Photo, Print Section; Buildings 2010, 2016 2. DPTMSEC - Training and Support Center - Graphics Section; Building 1450 3...Hazardous Waste Minimization HCL Hospitals, Clinics, and Laboratories HCP Heating/Cooling Plants HMTC Hazardous Materials Technical Center HSC Health

  10. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    SciTech Connect

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  11. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.; Ulerich, N.; Nocito, T.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective of this three-phase program is to develop an integrated process for treating asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The integrated process will attempt to minimize processing and disposal costs. The objectives of Phase 1 were to establish the technical feasibility of asbestos decomposition, inorganic radionuclide nd heavy metal removal, and organic volatilization. Phase 1 resulted in the successful bench-scale demonstration of the elements required to develop a mixed waste treatment process for asbestos-containing material (ACM) contaminated with radioactive metals, heavy metals, and organics. Using the Phase 1 data, a conceptual process was developed. The Phase 2 program, currently in progress, is developing an integrated system design for ACM waste processing. The Phase 3 program will target demonstration of the mixed waste processing system at a DOE facility. The electromagnetic mixed waste processing system employs patented technologies to convert DOE asbestos to a non-hazardous, radionuclide-free, stable waste. The dry, contaminated asbestos is initially heated with radiofrequency energy to remove organic volatiles. Second,the radionuclides are removed by solvent extraction coupled with ion exchange solution treatment. Third, the ABCOV method converts the asbestos to an amorphous silica suspension at low temperature (100{degrees}C). Finally the amorphous silica is solidified for disposal.

  12. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  13. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  14. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  15. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-11

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS.

  16. A Guidance Manual: Waste Analysis at Facilities that Generate, Treat, Store, and Dispose of Hazardous Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discusses how a person can perform waste analyses and develop waste analysis plans (WAPs) in accordance with the federal hazardous waste regulations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

  17. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  18. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-12-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  19. Analysis of radioactive mixed hazardous waste using derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Lerner, B.D.; Bean, R.M.; Grant, K.E.; Lucke, R.B.; Mong, G.M.; Clauss, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitroso-iminodiacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid. The chelator of highest concentration was ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids.

  20. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, L.F. Ebrahim, S.A.; Al-Thukair, A.A.

    2009-08-15

    Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

  1. VAC*TRAX - Thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 260{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost. This paper describes the VAC*TRAX thermal desorption process, as well as results from the pilot testing program. Also, the design and application of the full-scale treatment system is presented. Materials tested to date include spiked soil and debris, power plant trash and sludge contaminated with solvents, PCB contaminated soil, solvent-contaminated uranium mill-tailings, and solvent and PCB-contaminated sludge and trash. Over 70 test runs have been performed using the pilot VAC*TRAX system, with more than 80% of the tests using mixed waste as the feed material.

  2. Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

    1985-01-01

    A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  3. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  4. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  5. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), copper, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, mercury, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in one Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) well. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  6. HAZ-ED Classroom Activities for Understanding Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Superfund Program investigates and cleans up hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Part of this program is devoted to informing the public and involving people in the process of cleaning up hazardous waste sites from beginning to end. The Haz-Ed program was developed to assist the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)…

  7. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information in the document is based on presentations at the EPA-sponsored seminar series on Operational Parameters for Hazardous Waste Combustion Devices. This series consisted of five seminars held in 1992. Hazardous waste combustion devices are regulated under the Resource...

  8. Hazardous Waste Technical Assistance Survey, March AFB, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Bioenvironmental Engineer, SGPB, AV 947-3952 2Lt Bachand, Environmental Coordinator, OEEV, AV 947-4855 Ms Billy Maddi, Hazardous Waste Manager, DRMO (Located...amounts of oily rags which are drummed and disposed of as hazardous waste. Shop: Fuel Systems Building: 2307 Contact: Mr Vaughn AUTOVON: 947-5256 Shop

  9. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  10. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  11. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  12. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility FSS Well Data Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. No constituent exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  14. A rating system for determination of hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Talinli, Ilhan; Yamantürk, Rana; Aydin, Egemen; Başakçilardan-Kabakçi, Sibel

    2005-11-11

    Although hazardous waste lists and their classification methodologies are nearly the same in most of the countries, there are some gaps and subjectiveness in determining the waste as hazardous waste. A rating system for the determination of waste as a hazardous waste is presented in this study which aims to overcome the problems resulted from the existing methodologies. Overall rating value (ORV) calculates and quantifies the waste as regular, non-regular or hazardous waste in an "hourglass" scale. "ORV" as a cumulative-linear formulation in proposed model consists of components such as ecological effects of the waste (Ee) in terms of four main hazard criteria: ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity and toxicity; combined potential risk (CPR) including carcinogenic effect, toxic, infectious and persistence characteristics; existing lists and their methodology (L) and decision factor (D) to separate regular and non-regular waste. Physical form (f) and quantity (Q) of the waste are considered as factors of these components. Seventeen waste samples from different sources are evaluated to demonstrate the simulation of the proposed model by using "hourglass" scale. The major benefit of the presented rating system is to ease the works of decision makers in managing the wastes.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER MICROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE USING KINETIC MIXER PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; MILIAN,L.W.; ADAMS,J.W.

    1997-11-01

    Thermokinetic mixing was investigated as an alternative processing method for polyethylene microencapsulation, a technology well demonstrated for treatment of hazardous, low-level radioactive and low-level mixed wastes. Polyethylene encapsulation by extrusion has been previously shown to be applicable to a wide range of waste types but often pretreatment of the wastes is necessary due to process limitations regarding the maximum waste moisture content and particle size distribution. Development testing was conducted with kinetic mixing in order to demonstrate technology viability and show improved process applicability in these areas. Testing to establish process capabilities and relevant operating parameters was performed with waste surrogates including an aqueous evaporator concentrate and soil. Using a pilot-scale kinetic mixer which was installed and modified for this program, the maximum waste moisture content and particle size was determined. Following process development with surrogate wastes, the technology was successfully demonstrated at BNL using actual mixed waste.

  16. Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste - Burning of Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces - Federal Register Notice, September 5, 1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing an administrative stay of the permitting standards for boilers and industrial furnaces adopted pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (56 FR 7206, Feb. 21, 1991) as they apply to coke ovens burning certain hazardous wastes

  17. Hazardous waste research and development in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Carpenter, R.A.; Environment and Policy Inst., Honolulu, HI )

    1989-01-01

    The effective management of hazardous waste is an issue that all countries of the Pacific Basin must address. By very rough estimates, almost 272 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are being generated every year in the region. While the data are not consistently defined and reported, they do indicate the extent of the problem. Increasing development brings along an increase in the rate of hazardous waste generation. On this basis, the developing countries of the region can be expected to experience some of the same problems of the developed countries as their economies become more industrialized. Fundamental problems are involved in the compilation of consistent hazardous-waste generation statistics in the Pacific Basin. One involves the definition of what constitutes hazardous waste.

  18. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-03-17

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  19. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  20. 77 FR 29275 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of...

  1. 77 FR 46994 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of...

  2. 75 FR 36609 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of...

  3. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification.

  4. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  5. Pollution due to hazardous glass waste.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Pooja

    2014-02-01

    Pollution resulting from hazardous glass (HG) is widespread across the globe, both in terms of quantity and associated health risks. In waste cathode ray tube (CRT) and fluorescent lamp glass, mercury and lead are present as the major pollutants. The current review discusses the issues related to quantity and associated risk from the pollutant present in HG and proposes the chemical, biological, thermal, hybrid, and nanotechniques for its management. The hybrid is one of the upcoming research models involving the compatible combination of two or more techniques for better and efficient remediation. Thermal mercury desorption starts at 100 °C but for efficient removal, the temperature should be >460 °C. Involvement of solar energy for this purpose makes the research more viable and ecofriendly. Nanoparticles such as Fe, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ag, and WS2 alone or with its formulation can immobilize heavy metals present in HG by involving a redox mechanism. Straight-line equation from year-wise sale can provide future sale data in comparison with lifespan which gives future pollutant approximation. Waste compact fluorescent lamps units projected for the year 2015 is 9,300,000,000 units and can emit nearly 9,300 kg of mercury. On the other hand, CRT monitors have been continuously replaced by more improved versions like liquid crystal display and plasma display panel resulting in the production of more waste. Worldwide CRT production was 83,300,000 units in 2002 and can approximately release 83,000 metric tons of lead.

  6. Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.

    1982-05-01

    This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require.

  7. Compatibility of packaging components with simulant mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the US have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (US DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). Based on these national requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program provides a basis to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, the authors present the results of the second phase of this testing program. The first phase screened five liner materials and six seal materials towards four simulant mixed wastes. This phase involved the comprehensive testing of five candidate liner materials to an aqueous Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The comprehensive testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials a matrix of four gamma radiation doses ({approximately} 1, 3, 6, and 40 kGy), three temperatures (18, 50, and 60 C), and four exposure times (7, 14, 28, and 180 days). Following their exposure to these combinations of conditions, the materials were evaluated by measuring five material properties. These properties were specific gravity, dimensional changes, hardness, stress cracking, and mechanical properties.

  8. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  9. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    SciTech Connect

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  10. Hybrid systems process mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chertow, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    Some technologies, developed recently in Europe, combine several processes to separate and reuse materials from solid waste. These plants have in common, generally, that they are reasonably small, have a composting component for the organic portion, and often have a refuse-derived fuel component for combustible waste. Many European communities also have very effective drop-off center programs for recyclables such as bottles and cans. By maintaining the integrity of several different fractions of the waste, there is a less to landfill and less to burn. The importance of these hybrid systems is that they introduce in one plant an approach that encompasses the key concept of today's solid waste planning; recover as much as possible and landfill as little as possible. The plants also introduce various risks, particularly of finding secure markets. There are a number of companies offering various combinations of materials recovery, composting, and waste combustion. Four examples are included: multiple materials recovery and refuse-derived fuel production in Eden Prairie, Minnesota; multiple materials recovery, composting and refuse-derived fuel production in Perugia, Italy; composting, refuse-derived fuel, and gasification in Tolmezzo, Italy; and a front-end system on a mass burning waste-to-energy plant in Neuchatel, Switzerland.

  11. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  12. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  13. 75 FR 41121 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste...), 3001, 3004, 3005, and 4004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1970, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of...

  14. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-12-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

  15. Physical and chemical methods for the characterization of hazardous wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. W.; Maskarinec, M. P.; Lee, D. W.

    Numerous test methods have been proposed and developed to evaluate the hazards associated with handling and disposal of wastes in landfills. The major concern is the leaching of toxic constituents from the wastes. The fate of hazardous constituents in landfilled wastes is highly dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste. Thus, the primary objective in the selection of waste characterization procedures should be focused on those methods that gauge the fate of the waste's hazardous constituents in a specific landfill environment. Waste characterization in the United States has centered around the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. The strategy employed in the development of most regulatory waste characterization procedures has been a pass or fail approach, usually tied to some form of a mismanagement scenario for that waste. For example, USEPA has chosen the disposal of a waste in a municipal waste landfill as a mismanagement scenario for the development of the waste leaching tests to determine the toxicity characteristic. Many wastes, such as large-volume utility wastes or mining wastes, are not disposed of in municipal waste landfills. As a consequence, more effort is needed in the development of waste leaching tests that determine the long-term leaching characteristics of that waste in the landfill environment in which the waste is to be disposed. Waste leaching models also need to be developed and tested as to their ability to simulate actual disposal environments. These models need to be compared with laboratory leaching tests, and, if practical, coupled with groundwater transport models.

  16. Project report for the commercial disposal of mixed low-level waste debris

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.; Balls, V.; Shea, T.; Thiesen, T.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the basis for the commercial disposal of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) debris and the associated activities. Mixed waste is radioactive waste plus hazardous waste as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The critical factors for this project were DOE 5820.2A exemption, contracting mechanism, NEPA documentation, sampling and analysis, time limitation and transportation of waste. This report also will provide a guide or a starting place for future use of Envirocare of Utah or other private sector disposal/treatment facilities, and the lessons learned during this project.

  17. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in empty... WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.7 Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers. (a)(1) Any hazardous waste remaining in either: an empty container; or...

  18. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  19. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-04-05

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  20. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  1. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Day, Delbert E.

    1998-01-01

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  2. Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Sinkule, B.J.

    1997-02-01

    A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.

  3. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  4. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  5. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  6. Effects of mixed waste simulants on transportation packaging plastic components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes.

  7. Trip Reports. Hazardous Waste Minimization and Control at Army Depots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    phosphoric acid and sludge from the bottom of the tank is a very small waste stream at Tobyhanna; therefore, even complete elimination of this *waste... stream would result in only a small reduction in hazardous waste generation. Tooele performed several tests with Rust Eliminator on a variety of...rinse waters are treated In the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (lWTW.. However, this stream is not monitored for Total Toxic Organics. The cleaning ae

  8. Wastewater and Hazardous Waste Survey, Homestead AFB Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Hexachloroexxhydro-exo,exo-dimethanonapthalene Hexamethyltetraphosphate Hydrazinecarbothioam ide Hydrazine methyl Hydrocyanic acid Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen...characteristic hazardous waste (EP Toxicity) analysis on neutralized battery acid . (5) Drums and bowsers at waste storage sites should be secured. (6) Paint...neutralized battery acid . In fact, 95% of all wastes are included in the first six categories. Table 7: Categories of Waste on Homestead AFB 1 Category

  9. The Impact of Household Hazardous Wastes on Landfill Leachates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    sample was taken. Sorting municipal solid waste after collection has the advantage of directly sampling what will go into the landfill. A study of the...Seattle/King County area (Cal Recovery Systems, 1985) determined that approximately 0.5 percent (by weight) of the municipal solid waste stream are...the Stanford Research Institute is now underway to determine the concentration of household hazardous waste in municipal solid waste (Galvin, 1987). A

  10. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste. 258.20 Section 258.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20 Procedures..., regulated hazardous waste means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, that...

  11. Hazardous waste treatment using fungus enters marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    When the announcement was made eight years ago that a common fungus had been found that could degrade a variety of environmental pollutants, the news stirred interest in the scientific community, the private sector, and the general public. Here was the promise of a new technology that might be effective and economical in treating hazardous waste, especially the most recalcitrant of toxic pollutants. Today, commercialization is beginning amid a mixture of optimism and skepticism. The organism in question is white rot fungus, or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and it belongs to a family of woodrotting fungi common all over North America. The fungi secrete enzymes that break down lignin in wood to carbon dioxide and water--a process called mineralization. These lignin-degrading enzymes are not very discriminating, however. The white rot fungi have been shown to degrade such materials as DDT, the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels, in many cases mineralizing these pollutants to a significant extent.

  12. Mixed waste treatment capabilities at Envirocare

    SciTech Connect

    Rafati, A.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation gives an overview of the business achievements and presents a corporate summary for the whole handling company Envirocare located in Clive, Utah. This company operates a permitted low-level radioactive and mixed waste facility which handles waste from the United States Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Defense, and Fortune 500 companies. A description of business services and treatment capabilities is presented.

  13. Dual regulation of Department of Energy mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to discuss the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) experience with dual regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended, and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, of mixed waste and to describe one mechanism for the resolution of inconsistencies that may arise. To date, the department has not identified any unresolvable inconsistency between the AEA and RCRA, although technical differences are being discussed among DOE, EPA, and state regulators at several locations. As long as the flexibilities of RCRA are explored with careful consideration of the radiological hazard of each mixed-waste stream, the potential for inconsistencies between AEA and RCRA that DOE must resolve is expected to remain small.

  14. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel.

  15. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  16. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  17. Geochemical transformations and modeling of two deep-well injected hazardous wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Seyler, B.; Steele, J.D.; Mravik, S.C.; Moore, D.M.; Krapac, I.G.; Peden, J.M.; Griffin, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two liquid hazardous wastes (an alkaline brine-like solution and a dilute acidic waste) were mixed with finely ground rock samples of three injection-related lithologies (sandstone, dolomite, and siltstone) for 155 to 230 days at 325??K-10.8 MPa. The pH and inorganic chemical composition of the alkaline waste were not significantly altered by any of the rock samples after 230 days of mixing. The acidic waste was neutralized as a consequence of carbonate dissolution, ion exchange, or clay-mineral dissolution, and hence was transformed into a nonhazardous waste. Mixing the alkaline waste with the solid phases yielded several reaction products: brucite, Mg(OH)2; calcite, CaCO3; and possibly a type of sodium metasilicate. Clay-like minerals formed in the sandstone, and hydrotalcite, Mg6Al2-CO3(OH)16??4H2O, may have formed in the siltstone at trace levels. Mixing the alkaline waste with a synthetic brine yielded brucite, calcite, and whewellite (CaC2O4??H2O). The thermodynamic model PHRQPITZ predicted that brucite and calcite would precipitate from solution in the dolomite and siltstone mixtures and in the alkaline waste-brine system. The dilute acidic waste did not significantly alter the mineralogical composition of the three rock types after 155 days of contact. The model PHREEQE indicated that the calcite was thermodynamically stable in the dolomite and siltstone mixtures.

  18. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... taking place identifies principal hazardous constitutes in such waste, in accordance with § 264.552(e)(4... following standards specified for CAMU-eligible wastes: (i) The treatment standards under § 264.552(e)(4)(iv... authorizes receipt of such waste. (e) For each remediation, CAMU-eligible waste may not be placed in an...

  19. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-03-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance.

  20. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ``Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.`` To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste.

  1. Hazardous waste incineration: Emotional fears and technical reality

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    Although incinerators are not risk-free, they bear up well by comparison to other methods of hazardous waste disposal and other socially-accepted risks. The current level of suspicion and anxiety regarding incinerators can be reduced through the sharing of expert information about the need for, and process of, hazardous waste combustion, and early involvement of community and industry representatives, even before a particular incinerator site is chosen. The federal government`s role should not be one of asking whether a particular place wants a hazardous waste incinerator. Their approach should be one of consensus-building. A brief look at the facts can help the public understand that incineration is the best available treatment for hazardous wastes.

  2. EPA requires Phoenix facility to safely handle hazardous waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently fined World Resources Company $39,900 for violations of hazardous waste laws. World Resources, located in Tolleson, Ariz. uses manufactured residues to produce metal concentrate

  3. International Agreements on Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Several international agreements may affect U.S. hazardous waste import and export practices including the Basel Convention, the OECD Council Decision, and bilateral agreements between the U.S. and Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Malaysia, and the Philippines

  4. Complexed metals in hazardous waste: Limitations of conventional chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Diel, B.N.; Kuchynka, D.J.; Borchert, J.

    1994-12-31

    In the management of hazardous waste, more is known regarding the treatment of metals than about the fixation, destruction and/or immobilization of any other hazardous constituent group. Metals are the only hazardous constituents which cannot be destroyed, and so must be converted to their least soluble and/or reactive form to prevent reentry into the environment. The occurrence of complexed metals, e.g., metallocyanides, and/or chelated metals, e.g., M{center_dot}EDTA in hazardous waste streams presents formidable challenges to conventional waste treatment practices. This paper presents the results of extensive research into the destruction (chemical oxidation) of metallocyanides and metal-chelates, defines the utility and limitations of conventional chemical oxidation approaches, illustrates some of the waste management difficulties presented by such species, and presents preliminary data on the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photodecomposition of chelated metals.

  5. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Engineering Forum Issue Paper: Online Hazardous Waste Cleanup Technical Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper is intended to give the reader examples of some online technical resources that can assist with hazardous waste cleanups in the Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Brownfields programs.

  7. Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A.; Blackard, B.

    1996-12-31

    In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Notification: Evaluation of EPA Oversight of Hazardous Waste Imports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0036, March 26, 2014. The Office of Inspector General for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA oversight of hazardous waste imports on April 14, 2014.

  9. Powercon Corp. settles hazardous waste violations at Severn, Md. facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (November 19, 2015) - Powercon Corporation has agreed to pay a $40,000 penalty to settle alleged violations of hazardous waste regulations at its manufacturing facility in Severn, Md., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today.

  10. Lowell Company Settles with EPA for Hazardous Waste Concerns

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Lowell, Mass., manufacturer of fiber products has come into compliance with hazardous waste laws after the US Environmental Agency found the company was violating federal and state environmental laws.

  11. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  13. Process development accomplishments: Waste and hazard minimization, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, D.A.

    1991-11-04

    This report summarizes significant technical accomplishments of the Mound Waste and Hazard Minimization Program for FY 1991. The accomplishments are in one of eight major areas: environmentally responsive cleaning program; nonhalogenated solvent trials; substitutes for volatile organic compounds; hazardous material exposure minimization; nonhazardous plating development; explosive processing waste reduction; tritium capture without conversion to water; and robotic assembly. Program costs have been higher than planned.

  14. The Mixed Waste Management Facility closure and expansion at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, M.F.; Frye-O`Bryant, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    Process wastes containing radioactive and hazardous constituents have been generated throughout the operational history of the Savannah River Site. Solid wastes containing low level radionuclides were buried in Low Level Radioactive Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). Until 1986, waste containing lead and cadmium was disposed of in the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) portion of LLRWDF. Between 1986 and 1990, waste containing F-listed hazardous rags were buried. Current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations prohibit the disposal of these hazardous wastes at nonpermitted facilities. This paper describes the closure activities for the MWMF, completed in 1990 and plans proposed for the expansion of this closure to include the LLRWDF suspect solvent rag trenches.

  15. The Mixed Waste Management Facility closure and expansion at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, M.F.; Frye-O'Bryant, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Process wastes containing radioactive and hazardous constituents have been generated throughout the operational history of the Savannah River Site. Solid wastes containing low level radionuclides were buried in Low Level Radioactive Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). Until 1986, waste containing lead and cadmium was disposed of in the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) portion of LLRWDF. Between 1986 and 1990, waste containing F-listed hazardous rags were buried. Current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations prohibit the disposal of these hazardous wastes at nonpermitted facilities. This paper describes the closure activities for the MWMF, completed in 1990 and plans proposed for the expansion of this closure to include the LLRWDF suspect solvent rag trenches.

  16. 40 CFR 261.35 - Deletion of certain hazardous waste codes following equipment cleaning and replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Lists of Hazardous Wastes § 261.35 Deletion of certain hazardous waste codes following equipment... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of certain hazardous...

  17. Degradation of hazardous organic wastes by microorganisms. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kenis, P.

    1988-05-01

    This report addresses the microbiological detoxification of hazardous organic compounds before and after they have contaminated soil, ground water, and other areas. The in-situ degradation of toxic organic compounds is often the most cost-effective cleanup approach. Companies that use or provide microorganisms and other products and services for hazardous organic waste detoxification are listed in the appendices of this report.

  18. Hazardous Waste Management System - Definition of Hazardous Waste - Mixture and Derived- From Rules - Federal Register Notice, October 30, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This action responds to public comment on two proposals (57 FR 7636, March 3, 1992, and 57 FR 21450, May 20, 1992) to modify EPA's hazardous waste identification rules under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  19. Mixed waste paper as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kersletter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K. )

    1991-10-01

    A successful recycling program requires several components: education and promotion, convenient collection service, and most importantly, a market for collected materials. In Washington state, domestic markets currently have, or are building, the capacity to use most of the glass, newsprint, aluminum, tin cans, and corrugated materials that are collected. Unfortunately, markets for mixed waste paper (MWP), a major component of the state's solid waste stream, have been slow to develop and are unable to absorb the tremendous volumes of material generated. The American Paper Stock Institute classifies MWP as low grade paper such as magazines, books, scrap paper, non-corrugated cardboard (boxboard/chipboard), and construction paper. When viewed as part of a curbside collection program MWP consists primarily of catalogs, binder paper, magazines, brochures, junk mail, cereal boxes, and other household packaging items. A comprehensive analysis of Washington State's solid waste stream showed that during 1988, Washington citizens generated approximately 460,000 tons of mixed waste paper. No small amount, this is equivalent to more than 10% of the total solid waste generated in the state, and is expected to increase. Current projections of MWP generation rates indicated that Washington citizens could discard as much as 960,000 tons of MWP by the year 2010 making it one of the single largest components of the state's solid waste stream. This paper reports on the use of MWP as fuel source.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory, east hazardous waste shipment data validation

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Graden, C.; Coveleskie, A.

    1995-09-01

    At the request of EM-331, the Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program (TSP) is conducting an evaluation of data regarding past hazardous waste shipments from DOE sites to commercial TSDFs. The intent of the evaluation is to find out if, from 1984 to 1991, DOE sites could have shipped hazardous waste contaminated with DOE-added radioactivity to commercial TSDFs not licensed to receive radioactive material. A team visited Argonne National Laboratory, East (ANL-E) to find out if any data existed that would help to make such a determination at ANL-E. The team was unable to find any relevant data. The team interviewed personnel who worked in waste management at the time. All stated that ANL-E did not sample and analyze hazardous waste shipments for radioactivity. Waste generators at ANL-E relied on process knowledge to decide that their waste was not radioactive. Also, any item leaving a building where radioisotopes were used was surveyed using hand-held instrumentation. If radioactivity above the criteria in DOE Order 5400.5 was found, the item was considered radioactive. The only documentation still available is the paperwork filled out by the waste generator and initialed by a health physics technician to show no contamination was found. The team concludes that, since all waste shipped offsite was subjected at least once to health physics instrumentation scans, the waste shipped from ANL-E from 1984 to 1991 may be considered clean.

  1. 2002 Hyperspectral Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.

    2003-08-28

    - caps on the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF). This report first describes the principles of hyperspectral remote sensing. In situ measurement and hyperspectral remote sensing methods used to analyze hazardous waste sites on the Savannah River Site are then presented.

  2. Hazardous Waste Management: A View to the New Century, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Gwen

    Like many parts of the United States, Colorado is facing a significant hazardous waste problem. Radioactive and chemical wastes generated by the Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant, the toxic Lowry Land Fill Site, industrial dumps, and heavy land and air traffic contribute to water, land, and air pollution in the state. As part of a statewide response…

  3. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits. 270.62 Section 270.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID.../feed). (E) Capacity of prime mover. (F) Description of automatic waste feed cut-off system(s)....

  4. Self Audits of Hazardous Waste Operations in Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for compliance with state and federal regulations regarding the handling of hazardous wastes in college chemistry laboratories. Addresses: (1) waste determination; (2) facility requirements; (3) use of the manifest, vendor, transporter, site selection requirements, and training; (4) contingency planning; and (5) documentation.…

  5. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  6. GUIDE TO TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past fewyears, it has become increasinsly evident that land disposal of hazardous wastes is at least only a temporary solution for much of the wastes present at Superfund sites. The need for more Iong-term, permanent "treatment solutions as alternatives to land disposal ...

  7. Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

  8. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL1A, NPFPDL1B, NPFPDL1C and NPFPDL1D

    SciTech Connect

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This Hazardous Waste Determination Report is intended to satisfy the terms of a Memorandum of Agreement (Agreement signed on June 16, 1999) between the U.S. Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department. The Agreement pertains to the exchange of information before a final decision is made on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant application for a permit under the ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act''. The Agreement will terminate upon the effective date of a final ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act'' permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In keeping with the principles and terms of the Agreement, this report describes the waste stream data and information compilation process, and the physical and chemical analyses that the U.S. Department of Energy has performed on selected containers of transuranic debris waste to confirm that the waste is nonhazardous (non-mixed). This also summarizes the testing and analytical results that support the conclusion that the selected transuranic debris waste is not hazardous and thus, not subject to regulation under the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' or the ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act''. This report will be submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department no later than 45 days before the first shipment of waste from the Hanford Site to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, unless the parties mutually agree in writing to a shorter time. The 52 containers of transuranic debris waste addressed in this report were generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1995 and 1997. Based on reviews of administrative documents, operating procedures, waste records, generator certifications, and personnel interviews, this transuranic debris waste was determined to be nonhazardous. This determination is supported by the data derived from nondestructive examination, confirmatory visual examination, and the results of container headspace gas sampling and analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that this transuranic debris

  9. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr{sup VI} to Cr{sup III} from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions.

  10. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  11. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  12. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  13. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  14. 78 FR 54178 - Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program..., Virginia received final authorization to implement its hazardous waste management program effective... the analogous Federal requirements. The Virginia Waste Management Act (VWMA), enacted by the...

  15. Treatment Technologies for Hazardous Ashes Generated from Possible Incineration of Navy Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 HW - Hazardous Waste HWM - Hazardous Waste Minimization IWTP - Industrial wastewater treatment piant...Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) will eventually prohibit land disposal of...Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended, PL 94-580, 42 USC 6901. 3. Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments

  16. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  17. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  18. Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. [Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste].

    PubMed

    Costa, Taiza Florêncio; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP), and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  20. Visible and infrared remote imaging of hazardous waste: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.; Aiello, Danielle P.; Haack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical global environmental problems is human and ecological exposure to hazardous wastes from agricultural, industrial, military and mining activities. These wastes often include heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals. Traditional field and laboratory detection and monitoring of these wastes are generally expensive and time consuming. The synoptic perspective of overhead remote imaging can be very useful for the detection and remediation of hazardous wastes. Aerial photography has a long and effective record in waste site evaluations. Aerial photographic archives allow temporal evaluation and change detection by visual interpretation. Multispectral aircraft and satellite systems have been successfully employed in both spectral and morphological analysis of hazardous wastes on the landscape and emerging hyperspectral sensors have permitted determination of the specific contaminants by processing strategies using the tens or hundreds of acquired wavelengths in the solar reflected and/or thermal infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reviews the literature of remote sensing and overhead imaging in the context of hazardous waste and discusses future monitoring needs and emerging scientific research areas.

  1. Information on Disposal Practices of Generators of Small Quantities of Hazardous Wastes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-28

    reviewed the States’ solid and hazardous waste regulations , policies, and procedures. We contacted solid or hazardous waste officials in 46 other States...exempts from hazardous waste regulations mixtures of domestic sewage and other wastes that pass through a sewer system to a publicly owned sewage...such wastes under hazardous waste regulations is necessary. An assistant to the EPA Assistant Administrator for Water said that EPA recognizes that a

  2. Stabilization of hazardous ash waste with newberyite-rich chemically bonded magnesium phosphate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S.Y.

    1995-11-01

    A novel newberyite-rich magnesium-phosphate ceramic, intended for the stabilization of the US Department of Energy`s low-level mixed-waste streams, has been developed by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. The reaction slurry, formed at room temperature, sets rapidly and forms a lightweight hard ceramic with low open porosity and a high compression strength of {approx} 6,200 psi. It is a composite of stable mineral phases of newberyite, luenebergite, and residual Mg oxide. Using this matrix, the authors developed superior waste forms for a surrogate ash waste stream. The final waste form is a low-permeability structural-quality ceramic, in which hazardous contaminants are chemically fixed and physically encapsulated. The compression strength of the waste form is an order of magnitude higher than the land disposal requirement, even at high waste loading. The high compression strength is attributed to stronger bonds in the waste form that result from participation of ash waste in the setting reactions. Long-term leaching studies show that the waste form is stable in an aqueous environment. The chemically bonded phosphate ceramic approach in this study may be a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method for fabricating high-performance waste forms either for stabilizing waste streams or for developing value-added construction materials from high-volume benign waste streams.

  3. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, F.J.; Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  4. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-09-19

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

  5. Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center: Program Plan. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center was created as part of an ongoing federal effort to provide technologies and methods that protect human health and welfare and environment from hazardous wastes. The Center was established by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) to develop and adapt innovative technologies and methods for assessing the impacts of and remediating inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites. The Superfund legislation authorized $10 million for Pacific Northwest Laboratory to establish and operate the Center over a 5-year period. Under this legislation, Congress authorized $10 million each to support research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) on hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste problems in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, including the Hanford Site. In 1987, the Center initiated its RD and D activities and prepared this Program Plan that presents the framework within which the Center will carry out its mission. Section 1.0 describes the Center, its mission, objectives, organization, and relationship to other programs. Section 2.0 describes the Center's RD and D strategy and contains the RD and D objectives, priorities, and process to be used to select specific projects. Section 3.0 contains the Center's FY 1988 operating plan and describes the specific RD and D projects to be carried out and their budgets and schedules. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. New hazardous waste management system: regulation of wastes or wasted regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The unsound management of hazardous wastes, as exemplified by Love Canal, causes a variety of environmental and health problems. A review of present state controls reveals the need for the Federal regulation that was incorporated in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). A detailed description of RCRA, however, faults the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for deferring regulation and for its failure to meet deadlines, issue standards, or include many dangerous wastes in the prohibited list. EPA's interim standards of essentially voluntary guidelines will offer little protection from contamination until final permit regulations are established. 326 references. (DCK)

  7. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  8. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory.

  9. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  10. Strategies for characterizing mixed nuclear wastes: The challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Toste, A.P.

    1993-12-31

    The chemical analysis of nuclear wastes, especially mixed wastes, pose various problems to the analytical chemist. The chemical content may be very complex, particularly when organics are present. This report describes the analysis of two highly radioactive wastes: a neutralized cladding removal waste, and a volume reduction, double-shell slurry waste. The organic content analysis is described.

  11. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Hazardous Waste Test Methods / SW-846

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) provide guidance to analytical scientists, enforcement officers and method developers across a variety of sectors.

  13. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-02-12

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  14. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  15. The coast guard's cleanup of hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1989-11-01

    GAO concluded that the Coast Guard still has most of its major hazardous waste cleanup work to do - an effort that will cost millions and will take decades to complete. Yet the Coast Guard cannot confidently estimate long-term cleanup costs until it assesses and investigates potential hazardous waste locations. While Coast Guard data suggest that it is complying with hazardous waste regulations, this GAO report maintains that the Coast Guard may not be collecting the type of information needed to support long-term budget requests. The Coast Guard is planning to reissue reporting instructions in order to stress the importance of reporting violations and related costs. If successful, this effort could help ensure that the Coast Guard has the information necessary to estimate future funding needs.

  16. Degradation of Hazardous Organic Wastes by Microorganisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Environmental Restoration Account, Installation Restoration R&D Demonstration Project. It was funded by the Naval Facilities Engineering Command and represents...organic wastes in liquid streams . APPENDIX E Smith and Loveless, Inc. 14040 Santa Fe Trail Drive Lenexa, Kansas 66215 (913) 888-5201 Prefabricated fixed...in the waste stream . tha-t-would p _obele-x-ie, The CECOS proposal met the 2. React Phase, during this nerg-e-6fficient an-d costeffetive. Energy

  17. Stabilization solutions to hazardous metals laden waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is limited to treatment of bottom and fly ash waste resulting from WTE and RTE Cogeneration plants, commonly known as trash burners. The body of the paper defines waste generation and conventional treatment schemes. This paper does not identify a best treatment, however, it does offer a general perspective of the treatments to lead the reader to further investigation. Advantages and disadvantages of the ash treatments is discussed in each treatment section. 29 refs., 1 fig.

  18. 40 CFR 271.11 - Requirements for transporters of hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous wastes. 271.11 Section 271.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS Requirements for Final Authorization § 271.11 Requirements for transporters of hazardous wastes. (a) The...

  19. 40 CFR 271.12 - Requirements for hazardous waste management facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for hazardous waste... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS Requirements for Final Authorization § 271.12 Requirements for hazardous waste management facilities. The...

  20. Hazardous Waste: EPA’s Generation and Management Data Need Further Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 form the foundation for this...Superfund) EPA Environmental Protection Agency GAO General Accounting Office HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , 1984 NGA National Governors...to final disposition. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HswA) strengthened RCRA by further encouraging waste

  1. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Bourne, Gary L.; McFee, John N.; Burdge, Bradley G.; McConnell, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the recovery of hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and radioactive elements from phenolic resin filter by a circulating a solution of 8 to 16 molar nitric acid at a temperature of 110 to 190 degrees F. through the filter. The hot solution dissolves the filter material and releases the hazardous material so that it can be recovered or treated for long term storage in an environmentally safe manner.

  2. Locating hazardous waste facilities: The influence of NIMBY beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    Groothuis, P.A.; Miller, G. )

    1994-07-01

    The [open quote]Not-In-My-Backyard[close quote] (NIMBY) syndrome is analyzed in economic decision making. Belief statements that reflect specific NIMBY concerns are subjected to factor analysis and the structure reveals two dimensions: tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance reflects an acceptance of rational economic arguments regarding the siting of a hazardous waste facility and avoidance reflects a more personal fear-of-consequences. Analysis identifies demographic characteristics of individuals likely to exhibit these two beliefs. These beliefs also are shown to influence the acceptance of a hazardous waste disposal facility in ones neighborhood when compensation is offered.

  3. Thermoplastic encapsulation of waste surrogates by high-shear mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Patel, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a robust, extrusion-based polyethylene encapsulation process applicable to a wide range of solid and aqueous low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. However, due to the broad range of physical and chemical properties of waste materials, pretreatment of these wastes is often required to make them amenable to processing with polyethylene. As part of the scope of work identified in FY95 {open_quotes}Removal and Encapsulation of Heavy Metals from Ground Water,{close_quotes} EPA SERDP No. 387, that specifies a review of potential thermoplastic processing techniques, and in order to investigate possible pretreatment alternatives, BNL conducted a vendor test of the Draiswerke Gelimat (thermokinetic) mixer on April 25, 1995 at their test facility in Mahwah, NJ. The Gelimat is a batch operated, high-shear, high-intensity fluxing mixer that is often used for mixing various materials and specifically in the plastics industry for compounding additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers.

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring continued at the Savannah River Plant. During second quarter 1993, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), dichloromethane (methylene chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  5. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  6. Upgrades to meet LANL SF, 121-2011, hazardous waste facility permit requirements

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B; Johns - Hughes, Kathryn W

    2011-01-21

    Members of San IIdefonso have requested information from LANL regarding implementation of the revision to LANL's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (the RCRA Permit). On January 26, 2011, LANL staff from the Waste Disposition Project and the Environmental Protection Division will provide a status update to Pueblo members at the offices of the San IIdefonso Department of Environmental and Cultural Preservation. The Waste Disposition Project presentation will focus on upgrades and improvements to LANL waste management facilities at TA-50 and TA-54. The New Mexico Environment Department issued LANL's revised Hazardous Waste Facility permit on November 30, 2010 with a 30-day implementation period. The Waste Disposition Project manages and operates four of LANL's permitted facilities; the Waste Characterization, Reduction and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) at TA-SO, and Area G, Area L and the Radioassay and Nondestructive Testing facility (RANT) at TA-54. By implementing a combination of permanent corrective action activities and shorter-term compensatory measures, WDP was able to achieve functional compliance on December 30, 2010 with new Permit requirements at each of our facilities. One component of WOP's mission at LANL is centralized management and disposition of the Laboratory's hazardous and mixed waste. To support this mission objective, WOP has undertaken a project to upgrade our facilities and equipment to achieve fully compliant and efficient waste management operations. Upgrades to processes, equipment and facilities are being designed to provide defense-in-depth beyond the minimum, regulatory requirements where worker safety and protection of the public and the environment are concerned. Upgrades and improvements to enduring waste management facilities and operations are being designed so as not to conflict with future closure activities at Material Disposal Area G and Material Disposal Area L.

  7. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  8. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  9. Hazardous waste sites and stroke in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbatykh, Ivan; Huang, Xiaoyu; Lessner, Lawrence; Carpenter, David O

    2005-01-01

    Background - Environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may lead to elevation of serum lipids, increasing risk of atherosclerosis with thromboembolism, a recognized cause of stroke. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to contaminants from residence near hazardous waste sites in New York State influences the occurrence of stroke. Methods - The rates of stroke hospital discharges were compared among residents of zip codes containing hazardous waste sites with POPs, other pollutants or without any waste sites using information for 1993–2000 from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database, containing the records of all discharge diagnoses for patients admitted to state-regulated hospitals. Results - After adjustment for age and race, the hospitalization rate for stroke in zip codes with POPs-contaminated sites was 15% higher than in zip codes without any documented hazardous waste sites (RR 1.15, 95% CI, 1.05, 1.26). For ischemic stroke only, the RR was 1.17 (95% CI 1.04, 1.31). Residents of zip codes containing other waste sites showed a RR of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.02, 1.24) as compared to zip codes without an identified waste site. Conclusion - These results suggest that living near a source of POPs contamination constitutes a risk of exposure and an increased risk of acquiring cerebrovascular disease. However further research with better control of individual risk factors and direct measurement of exposure is necessary for providing additional support for this hypothesis. PMID:16129026

  10. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

  11. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  12. Emerging technologies in hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W. ); Pohland, F.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The book includes chapters on topics such as municipal solid wastes, water purification by radiation, the isolation or organic species and inorganic radionuclides, and solvent recycling. Several chapters cover radiolysis chemistry in dilute aqueous media, solar treatment, chemical separations (adsorption, ion exchange, membrane dialysis, and distillation), the biological and chemical treatment of soils and sludges, and solids immobilization.

  13. Integrated approach to hazardous and radioactive waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Reece, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development is supporting the demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of waste retrieval technologies. An integration of leading-edge technologies with commercially available baseline technologies will form a comprehensive system for effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the complex of DOE nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the complexity of systems integration, addressing organizational and engineering aspects of integration as well as the impact of human operators, and the importance of using integrated systems in remediating buried hazardous and radioactive waste.

  14. What was leaking from a hazardous-waste dump

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1988-05-15

    The city of Niagara Falls, N.Y., is the home of several toxic waste disposal sites, the most famous of which is Love Canal. Although less well known, the Hyde Park dump is equally noxious. This hazardous-waste dump was operated by the Hooker Chemical Company from about 1953 to 1975. Approximately 55,000 tons of halogenated waste were buried at this site, which is just north of the city. The Hyde Park dump is drained by Bloody Run Creek. Ronald A. Hites of Indiana University outlines the steps taken to identify the structures of organic compounds leaking from the Hyde Park dump.

  15. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  16. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    SciTech Connect

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  17. Hazardous-waste nightmare. [Evaluation of legislative proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, T.

    1980-04-21

    Mr. Alexander points out that, even in the absence of Federal regulation, hazardous wastes would be a major problem for companies. Many have been driven to desperate measures even to find someplace to put the 125 billion pounds of such wastes that are produced each year - but that nobody wants nearby. EPA recently began promulgating final regulations implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act passed by Congress in 1976; these regulations will mandate technical standards for all future waste sites as well as a cradle to grave system for tracking major hazardous wastes to their ultimate disposition. But much of Washington's new interest seems to be a response to the charge that government too long overlooked the menace in old wastes; so, they are now turning to unusually primitive measures aimed at industry's past practice. The Justice Department has mobilized a fourteen-lawyer section to track down and prosecute companies for transgressions. Several bills are making their way through committees and, if enacted, could confront even very large industries with the choice of finding some new way of dealing with old wastes or going out of business. In discussing these proposals and touching briefly on the technical side of how wastes reach the aquifers, Mr. Alexander says that little is known about the extent of trace-chemical contamination - and, although it's time Washington ended its neglect of the problem, the extremely punitive measures are probably not called for.

  18. Children's Understandings Related to Hazardous Household Items and Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, George N.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on children's understanding of hazardous household items (HHI) and waste (HHW). Children from grades 4, 5 and 6 (n=173) participated in a questionnaire and interview research design. The results indicate that: (a) on a daily basis the children used HHI and disposed of HHW, (b) the children did not realize the danger of these…

  19. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES - RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATIONS - 1995

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes, hosted by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the EPA in Rye Brook, New York. he symposium was the eighth annual meeting for the presentation of research conducted by EPA's Biosystems Technol...

  20. Accepting leachate from a hazardous-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Brandenburg, B.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This article discusses the considerations necessary in preparing to treat leachate from a hazardous-waste landfill. The topics discussed include a review of the law, federal, state and local regulations, specific constituents of concern, leachate characteristics, process design and toxicity of the leachate. A table of the actual leachate composition is included.

  1. Household Hazardous Waste: Everyone's Problem--Everyone's Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Linda

    1985-01-01

    Examines the household hazardous waste problem, addressing several areas related to regulation, disposal, and control. Also gives a list of safer alternatives for household cleaners/disinfectants, paint products, and pesticides. Indicates that individuals can collectively make a difference in public exposure by changing purchases and practices.…

  2. The Future of Hazardous Waste Tracking: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability and performance of various RFID technologies to track hazardous wastes and materials (HAZMAT) across international borders will be verified in the El Paso, Texas-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico area under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)/Environmental and S...

  3. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  4. 77 FR 22229 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... table listing hazardous wastes from specific sources; and a conforming change to alert certain recycling...) of this chapter'' to alert recyclers to the existing LDR certification and notification requirement... those imposed by such regulations * * *'' EPA disagrees. The amendment simply alerts persons subject...

  5. Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

  6. MEASUREMENT OF BIOAVAILABLE IRON AT TWO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past, the concentrations of iron II in monitoring wells has been used to evaluate natural attenuation processes at hazardous waste sites. Changes in the aqueous concentrations of electron acceptors/products are important to the evaluation of natural biological attenuation...

  7. Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Robert D.

    1993-05-01

    Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.

  8. Sociological perspective on the siting of hazardous waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.S.; Williams, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The siting of hazardous waste facilities has been, and will likely continue to be, both an important societal need and a publically controversial topic. Sites have been denounced, shamed, banned, and moved at the same time that the national need for their installation and use has grown. Despite available technologies and physical science capabilities, the effective siting of facilitites stands more as a major contemporary social issue than it is a technological problem. Traditional social impact assessment approaches to the siting process have largely failed to meaningfully contribute to successful project implementation; these efforts have largely ignored the public perception aspects of risk and hazard on the success or failure of facility siting. This paper proposes that the siting of hazardous waste facilities could well take advantage of two rich but somewhat disparate research histories in the social sciences. A convergent and integrated approach would result from the successful blending of social impact assessment, which seeks to define and mitigate problems, with an approach used in hazards policy studies, which has sought to understand and incorporate public risk perceptions into effective public decision-making. It is proposed in this paper that the integration of these two approaches is necessary for arriving at more readily acceptable solutions to siting hazardous waste facilities. This paper illustrates how this integration of approaches could be implemented.

  9. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  11. Evaluation of frameworks for ecotoxicological hazard classification of waste.

    PubMed

    Stiernström, S; Wik, O; Bendz, D

    2016-12-01

    A new harmonized EU regulation for the classification of waste came into effect on 1st June 2015, in which the criteria and assessment methods for the classification of hazardous waste are harmonized with other internationally agreed-upon systems for hazard classification of chemicals (CLP). However, criteria and guidance for the assessment of ecotoxicological hazard (Hazard Property 14, HP14) are still lacking for waste classification. This paper have evaluated and compared two HP14 classification frameworks: (i) a calculation method (summation) for mixtures, and (ii) leaching tests. The two frameworks were evaluated by surveying and evaluating ecotoxicological data for Cu, Zn, K and Ca species in bottom ash from incinerated waste, together with geochemical speciation modelling. Classification based on the summation method proved to be highly sensitive to the choice of speciation and ecotoxicological classification. This results in a wide range of critical concentrations triggering hazardous classification (in particular for Cu and Zn). Important parameters governing the availability of toxic elements, such as transformation from one species to another and complexation on organic or inorganic sorbents, are not accounted for. Geochemical modelling revealed that a testing strategy built on CLP based leaching tests (liquid/solid ratio (L/S)⩾10,000, pH range 5.5-8.5) avoids bias and is superior to the summation method with respect to both precision and accuracy. A testing strategy built on leaching tests, designed for risk assessment purposes, (L/S ratio of 10, natural pH of the ash) severely underestimate the hazard associated with the presence of toxic compounds (Cu and Zn), while simultaneously falsely indicate a hazardousness due to the presence of non-toxic compounds (Ca and K). However, the testing methods adopted by CLP are problematic from a practical and functional point of view. To conclude, the L/S ratio and pH were found to be critical for hazard

  12. Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket (docket). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facilities Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket (``docket``) identifies Federal facilities that may be contaminated with hazardous substances and that must be evaluated to determine if they pose a risk to public health or the environment The docket, required by Section 120(c) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), also provides a vehicle for making information about potentially contaminated facilities available to the public. Facilities listed on the docket must complete site assessments that provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with information needed to determine whether or not the facility should be included on he National Priorities List (NPL). This Information Brief, which revises the previous Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compiliance Docket Information Brief, provides updated information on the docket listing process, the implications of listing, and facility status after listing.

  13. Hazardous-waste incineration in a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary-kiln simulator was used to develop a better understanding of how hazardous materials are removed from sorbent clays. Experimental results and associated numerical modeling on the combustion and desorption of toluene from a montmorillonite clay sorbent are presented. The purpose of these tests was to understand the mass and heat transfer characteristics of the material in a rotary kiln environment. The experiments were done in a batch mode, simulating a control volume of solids moving down the length of a full-scale rotary kiln, exchanging time for distance as the independent variable. Studies investigating the effect of oxygen concentration, charge size, rotational velocity, and kiln cavity temperature on the desorption rate were completed. Also, effects of water in the montmorillonite were examined. Two comprehensive models were developed to predict the thermal and mass desorption characteristics of the bed, respectively. Another series of studies in the rotary kiln simulator was focused on NO, formation from nitrogenous waste constituents. These tests were performed to simulate materials (plastics, nylons, dyes, and process waste) usually destroyed in hazardous-waste incinerators. Four surrogate wastes, Aniline, Pyridine, Malononitrile, and Ethylenediamine, were absorbed onto the montmorillonite clay sorbent. A detailed discussion regarding the design, construction and operation of the rotary-kiln simulator for research on the destruction of hazardous waste materials is presented in the Appendices. All facility calibration techniques and calculations in addition to data acquisition and reduction algorithms are also discussed there.

  14. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  15. Information for Importers and Receiving Facilities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for importers of hazardous waste from Canada, Chile, Mexico, or non-OECD countries who are subject to the hazardous waste generator and importer requirements described in 40 CFR Part 262 Subpart A – D and F, under RCRA

  16. EPA Proposes Clarksburg, W.Va. Hazardous Waste Site to Superfunds National Priorities List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (April 6, 2016) - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that five hazardous waste sites are being added to the National Priorities List (NPL). The Agency also has proposed that eight other hazardous waste sites be add

  17. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Cornerstone Chemical Company, Waggaman, LA AGENCY... granted to Cornerstone for four Class I injection wells located at Waggaman, Louisiana. The company...

  18. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF Corporation Freeport, Texas AGENCY: Environmental... granted to BASF Corporation for three Class I injection wells located at Freeport, Texas. The company...

  19. Information for Exporters of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for exporters of hazardous waste to OECD countries for recycling who are subject to the hazardous waste generator and importer requirements described in 40 CFR Part 262 Subpart H, under RCRA

  20. 76 FR 36879 - Minnesota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... 142A; Specific Provisions for Batteries, Checklist 142B; Specific Provisions for Pesticides, Checklist..., Storage and Disposal Facilities and Hazardous Waste Generators; Organic Air Emissions Standards for Tanks... Facilities and Hazardous Waste Generators; Organic Air Emissions Standards for Tanks, Surface...

  1. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  2. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  3. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T.

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  4. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  5. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  6. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-01

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as `problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  7. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tyrer, M; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage sludge ash samples would require disposal in a hazardous waste landfill because they exceed EU landfill waste acceptance criteria for stabilised non-reactive hazardous waste cells for soluble selenium (Se). Because Zn cannot be proven to exist predominantly as a phosphate or oxide in the ashes, it is recommended they be considered as non-hazardous waste. However leaching test results demonstrate that these ashes cannot be considered as inert waste, and this has significant implications for the management, disposal and re-use of sewage sludge ash.

  8. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  9. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M.

    1994-08-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control.

  10. Bioconversion of mixed solids waste to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Q A; Keller, F A; Tucker, M P; Lombard, C K; Jenkins, B M; Yomogida, D E; Tiangco, V M

    1999-01-01

    A mixed solids waste (MSW) feedstock, comprising construction lumber waste (35% oven-dry basis), almond tree prunings (20%), wheat straw (20%), office waste paper (12.5%), and newsprint (12.5%), was converted to ethanol via dilute-acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The MSW was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.4% w/w) at 210 degrees C for 3 min in a 4-L steam explosion reactor, then washed with water to recover the solubilized hemicellulose. The digestibility of water-washed, pretreated MSW was 90% in batch enzymatic hydrolysis at 66 FPU/g cellulose. Using an enzyme-recycle bioreactor system, greater than 90% cellulose hydrolysis was achieved at a net enzyme loading of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. Enzyme recycling using membrane filtration and a fed-batch fermentation technique is a promising option for significantly reducing the cost of enzyme in cellulose hydrolysis. The hexose sugars were readily fermentable using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain that was adapted to the hydrolysate. Solid residue after enzyme digestion was subjected to various furnace experiments designed to assess the fouling and slagging characteristics. Results of these analyses suggest the residue to be of a low to moderate slagging and fouling type if burned by itself.

  11. Criteria for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gagner, S D; Gaylord, R; Govers, R; Kennedy, W E; Hunnacek, M M; Kennedy, A M

    2003-04-10

    In 1991, in response to the Department of Energy (DOE) Moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from Radioactive Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a process to use a combination of generator knowledge and/or sampling and analyses to certify waste as non-radioactive. The analytical process used the minimum detectable activity (MDA) as the de minimus value. In the past twelve years, a great deal of operating experience has shown the LLNL certification process has serious limitations including: (1) Procedure-specified analytical methodologies have resulted in the inability to adopt new techniques and methods that are more rapid, safer, and produce less waste. (2) The characterization of materials as radioactive or non-radioactive is dependent on method-specific detection limits, not on an objective risk-based standard. (3) There are substantial differences in the limits for surface contamination, sewer discharges, and hazardous waste moratorium determinations, even though all of these methods are used to free-release materials from radiological controls. LLNL, in conjunction with the Chamberlain Group and Dade Moeller & Associates, Inc., is pursuing a risk-based approach to determine whether waste is non-radioactive, consistent with DOE guidance. This paper discusses the approach, which includes defining the radionuclides considered, establishing the exposure scenarios for the critical groups identified for each of three waste streams, defining the exposure pathways and key input data or assumptions, presenting radiation doses for unit concentrations of radionuclides in each waste stream, presenting radiation doses for unit concentrations of radionuclides in each waste stream, presenting the authorized limits for each waste stream, and discussing the results. Analytical values which fall below these authorization limits will be considered non-radioactive, with any individual dose maintained below 1 mrem/yr.

  12. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of hazardous wastes and urine from rats fed these wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Inmon, J.P.; Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E.; Pasley, T.C.

    1987-06-01

    Fifteen hazardous industrial waste samples were evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay using strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the crude wastes also were evalauted. Seven of the crude wastes were mutagenic, but only 2 of the extract of these 7 wastes were mutagenic; extracts of 2 additional wastes also were mutagenic. In addition, 10 of the crude wastes were administered by gavage to F-344 rats, and 24-H urine samples were collected. Of the 10 raw urines evaluated, 3 were mutagenic in strain TA98 in the presence of S9 and B-glucuronidase. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the mutagenicity of urine from rodents exposed to hazardous wastes. Based on the present results, the use of only strain TA98 in the presence of S9 might be adequate for general screening of hazardous wastes or waste extracts for genotoxicity.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VII Appendix VII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes Table 1—Effective... Land Disposal Restrictions for Contaminated Soil and Debris (CSD) Restricted hazardous waste in...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VII Appendix VII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes Table 1—Effective... Contaminated Soil and Debris (CSD) Restricted hazardous waste in CSD Effective date 1. Solvent-(F001-F005)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hazardous Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hazardous Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  17. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management... codify in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Wisconsin's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal...

  18. 77 FR 15966 - Ohio: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Ohio: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision..., 1989 (54 FR 27170) to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization... Combustors; Final Rule, Checklist 198, February 14, 2002 (67 FR 6968); Hazardous Waste Management...

  19. 76 FR 62303 - California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... hazardous waste management program shall be effective at 1 p.m. on October 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION..., effective August 1, 1992 (57 FR 32726), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program....

  20. 78 FR 25579 - Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions... adopted these requirements by reference at Georgia Hazardous Waste Management Rule 391-3-11-.07(1), EPA... to EPA for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the...

  1. 76 FR 37021 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program..., (50 FR 3348), to implement its base Hazardous Waste Management Program. We granted authorization for... opportunity to apply for final authorization to operate all aspects of their hazardous waste...

  2. 77 FR 38530 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program..., (50 FR 3348), to implement its base Hazardous Waste Management Program. We granted authorization for... operate all aspects of their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal government....

  3. 77 FR 15273 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision... hazardous waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization... its program revision in accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management...

  4. 77 FR 12228 - Idaho: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Idaho: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA). RCRA allows EPA to authorize State hazardous waste management... hazardous ] waste management program with the changes described in the authorization application. Idaho...

  5. 78 FR 43810 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY... authorization on October 17, 1985 (50 FR 40377), to implement its Base Hazardous Waste Management program... Administrative Regulations, Article 31--Hazardous Waste Management, effective May 10, 2013. The...

  6. 77 FR 3224 - New Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...; FRL-9613-5] New Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY... regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' New Mexico's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)...

  7. 77 FR 65314 - Missouri: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Missouri: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program..., Missouri received final authorization to implement its hazardous waste management program effective... Hazardous Waste Management Law'' section 260.350 through 260.434. Missouri's authority to incorporate...

  8. 76 FR 6561 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program..., effective December 31, 1984 (49 FR 48694) to implement its base hazardous waste management program. EPA... XV are from the North Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Rules 15A NCAC 13A, effective April...

  9. 78 FR 32161 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision... authorization of its program revision in accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management... seq. establishes the statutory authority to administer the Hazardous waste management program...

  10. 77 FR 59879 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management... codify in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Idaho's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA ] proposes to revise the codification of Idaho's program...

  11. 77 FR 47779 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision..., 1985) to implement its Base Hazardous Waste Management program. Arkansas received authorization for... Ecology Commission Regulation Number 23 (Hazardous Waste Management), adopted on April 25, 2008 and...

  12. 75 FR 45583 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... the codification of New York's authorized hazardous waste program which is set forth in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', New York's authorized...

  13. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  14. Method for solidification of radioactive and other hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Voskresenskaya, Elena N.; Kostin, Eduard M.; Pavlov, Vyacheslav F.; Revenko, Yurii A.; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Sharonova, Olga M.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Macheret, Yevgeny

    2002-01-01

    Solidification of liquid radioactive waste, and other hazardous wastes, is accomplished by the method of the invention by incorporating the waste into a porous glass crystalline molded block. The porous block is first loaded with the liquid waste and then dehydrated and exposed to thermal treatment at 50-1,000.degree. C. The porous glass crystalline molded block consists of glass crystalline hollow microspheres separated from fly ash (cenospheres), resulting from incineration of fossil plant coals. In a preferred embodiment, the porous glass crystalline blocks are formed from perforated cenospheres of grain size -400+50, wherein the selected cenospheres are consolidated into the porous molded block with a binder, such as liquid silicate glass. The porous blocks are then subjected to repeated cycles of saturating with liquid waste, and drying, and after the last cycle the blocks are subjected to calcination to transform the dried salts to more stable oxides. Radioactive liquid waste can be further stabilized in the porous blocks by coating the internal surface of the block with metal oxides prior to adding the liquid waste, and by coating the outside of the block with a low-melting glass or a ceramic after the waste is loaded into the block.

  15. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: Demonstrating technologies to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ``waste contaminated with chemically hazardous [governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)] and radioactive species [governed by US Department of energy (DOE) orders].`` The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed-waste treatment technologies tat meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations of fixed-hearth plasma arc and vitrification systems will be used to determine whether these processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. MWIP also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process.

  16. Trial Burn Activities for a Mixed Waste Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, M.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is located on the Savannah River Site (SRS), owned by the U. S. Department of Energy and managed by BNFL, Inc. for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. SRS received permits from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region IV to construct and operate the CIF, a hazardous, radioactive mixed waste incinerator. This paper presents the results of the trial burn conducted on the CIF in April 1997 which is the initial demonstration of compliance with the permits. The incinerator is currently operating under approved post-trial burn conditions while the trial burn results are being evaluated. A final operating permit is expected the fall of 1998.

  17. [Mixed Waste Focus Area]. Monthly progress report summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    During November 1994, a Call for Proposals to lead the implementation team of the Mixed Waste Focus Area was issued by DOE-HQ. Interested Sites prepared proposals to lead the MWFA and responded to DOE-HQ on December 1, 1994. DOE-ID was selected to lead the MWFA on December 15, 1994. As this report is being published, the Mixed Waste Integrated Program is being transitioned to the Mixed Waste Focus Area. Transition is scheduled to be complete by March 31, 1995. This report contains summaries of individual research projects which demonstrate the development of technology to treat mixed waste throughout the DOE complex.

  18. Spatial analysis of hazardous waste data using geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Zirschky, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine if geostatistics could be a useful tool for evaluating hazardous waste sites. Three sites contaminated by dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)) were investigated. The first site evaluated was a creek into which TCDD-contaminated soil had eroded. The second site was a town in which TCDD-contaminated wastes had been sprayed onto the streets. Finally, the third site was a highway of which the shoulders were contaminated by dust deposition from a nearby hazardous waste site. The distribution of TCDD at the first and third sites were investigated using kriging, an optimal estimation technique. By using kriging, the areas of both sites requiring cleanup were successfully identified. At the second site, the town, satisfactory results were not obtained. The distribution of contamination in this town is believed to be very heterogeneous; thus, reasonable estimates could not be obtained. Additional sampling was therefore recommended at this site. Based upon this research, geostatistics appears to be a very useful tool for evaluating a hazardous waste site if the distribution of contaminants at the site is homogeneous, or can be divided into homogeneous areas.

  19. Hazardous waste cleanup: A case study for developing efficient programs

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Puder, M.G.

    1995-06-01

    As officials in Pacific Basin Countries develop laws and policies for cleaning up hazardous wastes, experiences of countries with such instruments in place may be instructive. The United States has addressed cleanups of abandoned hazardous waste sites through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The US Congress enacted CERCLA in 1980. The task of cleaning up waste sites became larger and more costly than originally envisioned and as a result, Congress strengthened and expanded CERCLA in 1986. Today, many industry representatives, environmentalists, and other interested parties say the program is still costly and ineffective, and Congress is responding through a reauthorization process to change the law once again. Because the law and modifications to it can affect company operations and revenues, industries want to know the potential consequences of such changes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a baseline for one economic sector -- the US energy industry -- against which impacts of proposed changes to CERCLA could be measured. Difficulties encountered in locating and interpreting the data for developing that baseline suggest that legislation should not only provide for meeting its stated goals (e.g., protection of human health and the environment) but also allow for its efficient evaluation over time. This lesson can be applied to any nation contemplating hazardous waste cleanup laws and policies.

  20. Buying time: Franchising hazardous and nuclear waste cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a private franchise approach to long-term custodial care, monitoring and eventual cleanup of hazardous and nuclear waste sites. The franchise concept could be applied to Superfund sites, decommissioning commercial reactors and safeguarding their wastes and to Department of Energy sites. Privatization would reduce costs by enforcing efficient operations and capital investments during the containment period, by providing incentives for successful innovation and by sustaining containment until the cleanup`s net benefits exceed its costs. The franchise system would also permit local governments and citizens to demand and pay for more risk reduction than provided by the federal government. In principle, they would have the option of taking over site management. The major political drawback of the idea is that it requires society to be explicit about what it is willing to pay for now to protect current and future generations. Hazardous waste sites are enduring legacies of energy development. Abandoned mines, closed refineries, underground storage tanks and nuclear facilities have often become threats to human health and water quality. The policy of the United States government is that such sites should quickly be made nonpolluting and safe for unrestricted use. That is, the policy of the United States is prompt cleanup. Orphaned commercial hazardous waste sites are addressed by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Superfund program. 17 refs., 2 tabs.