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Sample records for mixed sodium oxide-uranium

  1. Late-occurring pulmonary pathologies following inhalation of mixed oxide (uranium + plutonium oxide) aerosol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, N M; Van der Meeren, A; Fritsch, P; Abram, M-C; Bernaudin, J-F; Poncy, J L

    2010-09-01

    Accidental exposure by inhalation to alpha-emitting particles from mixed oxide (MOX: uranium and plutonium oxide) fuels is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. For MOX fuels, the risk of lung cancer development may be different from that assigned to individual components (plutonium, uranium) given different physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate late effects in rat lungs following inhalation of MOX aerosols of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% plutonium. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols and kept for their entire lifespan. Different initial lung burdens (ILBs) were obtained using different amounts of MOX. Lung total alpha activity was determined by external counting and at autopsy for total lung dose calculation. Fixed lung tissue was used for anatomopathological, autoradiographical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Inhalation of MOX at ILBs ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of rats) including fibrosis (70%) and malignant lung tumors (45%). High ILBs (4-20 kBq) resulted in reduced survival time (N = 102; p < 0.05) frequently associated with lung fibrosis. Malignant tumor incidence increased linearly with dose (up to 60 Gy) with a risk of 1-1.6% Gy for MOX, similar to results for industrial plutonium oxide alone (1.9% Gy). Staining with antibodies against Surfactant Protein-C, Thyroid Transcription Factor-1, or Oct-4 showed differential labeling of tumor types. In conclusion, late effects following MOX inhalation result in similar risk for development of lung tumors as compared with industrial plutonium oxide.

  2. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Sodium doping and reactivity in pure and mixed ice nanoparticles*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Rubovič, Peter; Fárník, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Doping of clusters by sodium atoms and subsequent photoionization (NaPI) is used as a fragmentation-free cluster ionization method. Here we investigate different clusters using NaPI and electron ionization (EI) with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF). The mass spectra of the same clusters ionized by NaPI and EI reveal significant differences which point to Na reactivity in the clusters. First, we discuss mixed X M ·(H2O) N (X = HNO3, N2O) clusters where reactions between Na and molecules X leads to the "cluster invisibility" for the NaPI method. Second, mixed (NH3) M ·(H2O) N clusters are observed by both methods, but they reveal different cluster compositions, and the mass spectra suggest that neither the EI nor the NaPI spectrum corresponds exactly to the neutral cluster distribution. Finally, we discuss the reactions of Na in pure water clusters as a function of the number of Na atoms doped into the clusters. In summary, we present experimental evidence that the NaPI method in the present cases does not reveal the size and composition of the neutral clusters. A detailed understanding of Na reactivity in the clusters is needed for its application as a fragmentation-free cluster ionization method. Besides, we introduce the combination of NaPI and EI as a new tool to investigate the sodium reactivity in clusters and aerosol particles.

  4. Differential thermosensitivity in mixed syndrome cardiac sodium channel mutants.

    PubMed

    Abdelsayed, Mena; Peters, Colin H; Ruben, Peter C

    2015-09-15

    Cardiac arrhythmias are often associated with mutations in SCN5A the gene that encodes the cardiac paralogue of the voltage-gated sodium channel, NaV 1.5. The NaV 1.5 mutants R1193Q and E1784K give rise to both long QT and Brugada syndromes. Various environmental factors, including temperature, may unmask arrhythmia. We sought to determine whether temperature might be an arrhythmogenic trigger in these two mixed syndrome mutants. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure the biophysical properties of NaV 1.5 WT, E1784K and R1193Q mutants. Recordings were performed using Chinese hamster ovary (CHOk1) cells transiently transfected with the NaV 1.5 α subunit (WT, E1784K, or R1193Q), β1 subunit, and eGFP. The channels' voltage-dependent and kinetic properties were measured at three different temperatures: 10ºC, 22ºC, and 34ºC. The E1784K mutant is more thermosensitive than either WT or R1193Q channels. When temperature is elevated from 22°C to 34°C, there is a greater increase in late INa and use-dependent inactivation in E1784K than in WT or R1193Q. However, when temperature is lowered to 10°C, the two mutants show a decrease in channel availability. Action potential modelling using Q10 fit values, extrapolated to physiological and febrile temperatures, show a larger transmural voltage gradient in E1784K compared to R1193Q and WT with hyperthermia. The E1784K mutant is more thermosensitive than WT or R1193Q channels. This enhanced thermosensitivity may be a mechanism for arrhythmogenesis in patients with E1784K sodium channels.

  5. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  6. Chemical and physical compatibility of levalbuterol inhalation solution concentrate mixed with budesonide, ipratropium bromide, cromolyn sodium, or acetylcysteine sodium.

    PubMed

    Bonasia, Philip J; McVicar, William K; Bill, Williams; Ong, Shaowei

    2008-12-01

    Medications are frequently combined in the nebulizer cup, so it is important to determine their chemical and physical compatibility. To determine the chemical and physical compatibility of levalbuterol with ipratropium bromide, cromolyn sodium, acetylcysteine sodium, and budesonide. We mixed one dose of levalbuterol inhalation solution concentrate (1.25 mg/0.5 mL) with one dose of ipratropium bromide (0.5 mg/2.5 mL), cromolyn sodium (20 mg/2 mL), acetylcysteine sodium (1,000 mg/5 mL), or budesonide (0.5 mg/2 mL). Immediately after mixing the 2 drugs (time zero [T(0)]), and again after 30 min at room temperature (T(30)), we visually inspected the admixtures, measured their pH, and conducted high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was no evidence of physical incompatibility with these drugs combinations. With all the admixtures, both drugs were chemically stable for at least 30-min. Admixture pH had not changed significantly at T(30). Drug recovery was 93.2-102.6% of the initial or control values. The 2-drug admixtures we studied were compatible for at least 30 min at room temperature.

  7. Evaluation of molten lead mixing in sodium coolant by diffusion for application to PAHR. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, T.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Leaf, G.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In post-accident heat removal (PAHR) applications the use of a lead slab is being considered for protecting a porous bed of steel shots in ex-vessel cavity from direct impingement of molten steel or fuel upon vessel failure following a hypothetical core dissembly accident in an LMFBR. The porous bed is provided to increase coolability of the fuel debris by the sodium coolant. The objectives of the present study are (1) to determine melting rates of lead slabs of various thicknesses in contact with sodium coolant and (2) to evaluate the extent of penetration and mixing rates of molten lead into sodium coolant by molecular diffusion alone.

  8. Reactions of cumene hydroperoxide mixed with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hung-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min; Tsai, Tung-Lin

    2008-04-15

    Decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was undertaken in a free radical chain reaction. The peroxyl group is very active and unstable, while the remainder of the molecule is inert. CHP reacted with various concentrations of dilute sodium hydroxide as a catalyst to cleave at ambient and decomposition temperature. The products were verified by GC/MS, and were quantitatively analyzed by chromatography. CHP cleaved heterolytic with NaOH at 250 degrees C, whose major product was dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC); however, the main products become acetophenone and alpha-methylstyrene by cleaved homolytic pathway. The catalytic concentrations of NaOH significantly affected the branch ratios of DMPC under decomposition. Based on the experimental results, a radical cleavage mechanism was proposed. To sum up, the reaction parameters, such as temperature, Lewis base, etc., could affect the incompatibilities and decomposition pathways for proper CHP cleavage process. In addition, exothermic onset temperatures (T0) and heat of decomposition (Delta Hd) of incompatible mixtures and CHP itself were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Comparisons of T0, Delta Hd and peak power were assessed to corroborate the severity of thermal hazards. From the decay rate of CHP concentration, the reaction order was determined to be 0.5, and the Arrhenius parameters were measured as Ea=92.1 kJ/mol and frequency factor A=2.42 x 10(10)min(-1).

  9. Internal Structure, Hygroscopic and Reactive Properties of Mixed Sodium Methanesulfonate-Sodium Chloride Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying; Minofar, Babak; Desyaterik, Yury; Dames, E. E.; Zhu, Zihua; Cain, Jeremy P.; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Gilles, Marry K.; Wang, Hai; Jungwirth, Pavel; Laskin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Internal structures, hygroscopic properties and heterogeneous reactivity of mixed CH3SO3Na/NaCl particles were investigated using a combination of computer modeling and experimental approaches. Surfactant properties of CH3SO3 ions and their surface accumulation in wet, deliquesced particles were assessed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and surface tension measurements. Internal structures of dry CH3SO3Na/NaCl particles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assisted with X-ray microanalysis mapping, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The combination of these techniques shows that dry CH3SO3Na/NaCl particles are composed of a NaCl core surrounded by a CH3SO3Na shell. Hygroscopic growth, deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions of mixed CH3SO3Na/NaCl particles were determined and compared to those of pure NaCl particles. These results indicate that particles undergo a two step deliquescence transition: first at ~69% relative humidity (RH) the CH3SO3Na shell takes up water, and then at ~75% RH the NaCl core deliquesces. Reactive uptake coefficients for the particle HNO3 heterogeneous reaction were determined at different CH3SO3Na/NaCl mixing ratios and RH. The net reaction probability decreased notably with increasing CH3SO3Na and at lower RH.

  10. Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Minofar, B; Desyaterik, Y; Dames, E; Zhu, Z; Cain, J P; Hopkins, R J; Gilles, M K; Wang, H; Jungwirth, P; Laskin, A

    2011-07-07

    Internal structures, hygroscopic properties and heterogeneous reactivity of mixed CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles were investigated using a combination of computer modeling and experimental approaches. Surfactant properties of CH(3)SO(3)(-) ions and their surface accumulation in wet, deliquesced particles were assessed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and surface tension measurements. Internal structures of dry CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assisted with X-ray microanalysis mapping, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The combination of these techniques shows that dry CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles are composed of a NaCl core surrounded by a CH(3)SO(3)Na shell. Hygroscopic growth, deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions of mixed CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles were determined and compared to those of pure NaCl particles. These results indicate that particles undergo a two step deliquescence transition: first at ∼69% relative humidity (RH) the CH(3)SO(3)Na shell takes up water, and then at ∼75% RH the NaCl core deliquesces. Reactive uptake coefficients for the particle-HNO(3) heterogeneous reaction were determined at different CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl mixing ratios and RH. The net reaction probability decreased notably with increasing CH(3)SO(3)Na and at lower RH.

  11. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P < .001) as well as the surface energy (P < .001) significantly decreased with increasing benzalkonium chloride concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: VII. Characterization of sodium cholate-sodium deoxycholate mixed-micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2010-03-05

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) systems with mixed pseudostationary phases of the bile surfactants sodium cholate (SC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) have been characterized by means of the solvation parameter model. The importance of characterizing systems with an appropriate set of solutes that embrace a wide range of descriptor values has been proven as they can significantly influence the value of the system constants. The fit of the solvation parameter model to the experimental log k data has been compared for each SC-SDC system when the Abraham descriptors and the Poole optimized descriptors, recently proposed, are used. In both cases, the variation in MEKC surfactant composition results in similar changes in the coefficients of the correlation equations, which in turn leads to similar information on solute-solvent and solute-micelle interactions. It is demonstrated that SDC is more hydrogen-bond acidic and hydrophobic but slightly less polarizable than SC. Systems with intermediate selectivity are obtained through mixtures of both surfactants.

  13. Clinical Effect of a Mixed Solution of Sodium Hyaluronate and Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose During the Transconjunctival Approach for Orbital Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung Wan; Lee, Hyo Seok; Oh, Han Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC, Guardix-sol®) during the transconjunctival approach to orbital wall reconstruction. Eighty-seven patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach were enrolled in this prospective study. We applied HACMC between the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum after surgery in 47 patients and did not use it in 40 patients. Lower lid retraction and marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD2) were measured to analyze the degree of postoperative adhesion at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months. The degree of MRD2 showed clinically significant differences at postoperative 1 week and 1 month between the HACMC and control groups (p<0.05). Lower lid ectropion developed in two patients (5.0%) in the control group but did not occur in the HACMC group. In orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach, the HACMC mixture solution is effective for preventing adhesion and lower lid ectropion during the early postoperative period. PMID:22977754

  14. Clinical effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose during the transconjunctival approach for orbital wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung Wan; Lee, Hyo Seok; Oh, Han Jin; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC, Guardix-sol®) during the transconjunctival approach to orbital wall reconstruction. Eighty-seven patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach were enrolled in this prospective study. We applied HACMC between the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum after surgery in 47 patients and did not use it in 40 patients. Lower lid retraction and marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD(2)) were measured to analyze the degree of postoperative adhesion at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months. The degree of MRD(2) showed clinically significant differences at postoperative 1 week and 1 month between the HACMC and control groups (p<0.05). Lower lid ectropion developed in two patients (5.0%) in the control group but did not occur in the HACMC group. In orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach, the HACMC mixture solution is effective for preventing adhesion and lower lid ectropion during the early postoperative period.

  15. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  16. [Preparation and characterization of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed oral fast dissolving film and antitumor activity study].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Xiao, Yun-Zhi; Xun, Ping-Hua; Dai, Ling; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-Long

    2014-05-01

    A novel drug delivery system combining oral fast dissolving film with sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid mixed micelles was prepared to increase the absorption of cucurbitacin B that is a poor aqueous solubility substance. Encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity coefficient, investigated the morphology, disintegration time of oral fast dissolving film and the pharmacodynamic properties of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles before and after solidified in mice were evaluated and compared. The oral fast dissolving film prepared in this study showed a homogeneous pale yellow and could completely disintegrated in the 30 s. It could meet the requirements of rapidly disintegrating fully. The encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity coefficient of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles loaded in oral fast dissolving film were (43.36 +/- 2.12)%, (108.82 +/- 5.2) nm, (-34.18 +/- 1.07) mV, 0.088 +/- 0.012, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity coefficient of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles in solution were (41.26 +/- 2.22)%, (181.82 +/- 4.48) nm, (-30.67 +/- 0.81) mV, 0.092 +/- 0.012, respectively. The difference of pharmacodynamics among film of cucurbitacin B-loaded micelles, cucurbitacin B-loaded micelles and free cucurbitacin B in vivo was compared. Solubility of cucurbitacin B loaded in sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles has also been greatly improved. The tumor inhibition rate of cucurbitacin B loaded in sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles was significantly improved and did not change significantly before and after solidified. These showed that the sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles could enhance the antitumor activities of cucurbitacin B and the stability of cucurbitacin B sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed micelles was improved

  17. Antiadhesive effect of mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose after blow-out fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Mi; Baek, Sehyun

    2012-11-01

    Treatment of blow-out fractures is aimed at the prevention of permanent diplopia and cosmetically unacceptable enophthalmos. Porous polyethylene sheets are one of the most common alloplastic implants for blow-out fracture repair. Because adhesion between the porous polyethylene and the orbital soft tissue can result in restrictions of ocular motility, prevention of postoperative adhesion is important in the reconstruction of blow-out fractures. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of the mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC) on postoperative adhesion in blow-out fracture repair in an animal model.Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were used. An 8-mm defect was made in the maxillary sinuses including the bone and mucosa. A 10-mm porous polyethylene sheet (Medpor; Porex Surgical Inc., Newnan, GA) was inserted in to the defect. The rabbits were divided into a control group and a HACMC group. In the HACMC group, HACMC solution was instilled onto the surface of the implant and then the implant was inserted. The implants were harvested at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery (3 implants each period). Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) stains were performed for evaluation of inflammation, fibrosis, and vascularization.Inflammation appeared less severe in the HACMC group, but the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. The degree of fibrosis was more severe in the control group. There were significant differences in the degree of fibrosis between the 2 groups 4 and 8 weeks after surgery (P = 0.046). The amount of vascularization was similar in both groups.The HACMC solution seemed to be effective for reducing postoperative adhesion in reconstruction of blow-out fractures in a rabbit model. Our results suggest that the application of HACMC solution could be an effective adjunct for the repair of trap-door fractures or revision

  18. Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra E

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and cavitation and this can mask the role that cavitation bubbles play. High frequency ultrasound from a plate transducer can be used to examine the effect of cavitation bubbles without the intense shear effect. This study reports the crystal size and morphology with various mixing speeds and ultrasound frequencies. The results show high frequency ultrasound produced sodium chloride crystals of similar size distribution as an ultrasonic horn. In addition, ultrasound generated sodium chloride crystals having a more symmetrical cubic structure compared to crystals produced by a high shear mixer.

  19. Large eddy simulation of mixing between hot and cold sodium flows - comparison with experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneau, J.P.; Noe, H.; Menant, B.

    1995-09-01

    The large eddy simulation is becoming a potential powerful tool for the calculation of turbulent flows. In nuclear liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the knowledge of the turbulence characteristics is of great interest for the prediction and the analysis of thermal stripping phenomena. The objective of this paper is to give a contribution in the evaluation of the large eddy simulation technique is an individual case. The problem chosen is the case of the mixing between hot and cold sodium flows. The computations are compared with available sodium tests. This study shows acceptable qualitative results but the simple model used is not able to predict the turbulence characteristics. More complex models including larger domains around the fluctuating zone and fluctuating boundary conditions could be necessary. Validation works are continuing.

  20. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of povidone-sodium cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles for the solubilization of poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiangnan; Tong, Shanshan; Wang, Li; Peng, Min; Cao, Xia; Xu, Ximing

    2010-06-01

    Mixed micelles made of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sodium cholate, and phospholipids were prepared to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. Sylibin, a drug used in treating liver diseases, was incorporated into the mixed micelles. The formulation of sylibin containing PVP-sodium cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles with an optimized composition (PVP/sodium cholate/phospholipid/silybin = 3:3:4:1 approximately 2 by weight) was obtained based on the study of pseudoternary phase diagrams. The critical micelle concentration was used to evaluate the micellar stability towards dilution. The results showed that addition of PVP to sodium-cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles increased stability. The solubility of sylibin in PVP-sodium cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles was higher than that in pure water or in sodium cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles. In a stability study, we found that PVP-sodium cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles showed good stability. After 3 months storage at 40 degrees C, just 2.6% sylibin was lost with only minor changes of the particle size when compared to a reference formulation containing sodium cholate and phospholipid mixed micelles. In addition, the developed formulation significantly improved in vitro drug release. The time required to release 50% sylibin (t50%) from sodium cholate and phospholipid mixed micelles was 326 h, while the t50% from PVP-sodium cholate-phospholipid mixed micelles was only 51.1 h. Our results suggest that these mixed micelles might have significant potential application to the biomedical field.

  1. Water uptake properties of internally mixed sodium halide and succinic acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, Lorena; Méndez, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, María N.; Castaño, Fernando; Basterretxea, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols include appreciable fractions of organic material, that can affect properties such as hygroscopicity, phase transition or chemical reactivity. Although sodium chloride is the major component of marine salt, bromide and iodide ions tend to accumulate onto particle surfaces and influence their behaviour. The hygroscopic properties of internally mixed submicrometric particles composed of succinic acid (SA) and NaX (where X = F, Cl, Br or I) have been studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell at ambient temperature for different relative succinic acid/NaX compositions. The results show that deliquescence relative humidities of SA/NaF and SA/NaCl are equal to those of the pure sodium halides. SA/NaBr particles, on the other hand, deliquesce at lower relative humidities than pure NaBr particles, the effect being more marked as the SA/NaBr mass ratio approaches unity. The SA/NaI system behaves as a non-deliquescent system, absorbing liquid water at all relative humidities, as in pure NaI. Succinic acid phase in the particles has been spectroscopically monitored at given values of both RH and SA/NaX solute mass ratio. The different hygroscopic properties as the halogen ion is changed can be rationalized in terms of simple thermodynamic arguments and can be attributed to the relative contributions of ion-molecule interactions in the solid particles. The observed behaviour is of interest for tropospheric sea salt aerosols mixed with organic acids.

  2. Enthalpies of Mixing in Sodium Silicate Glasses and Relevance to Adam-Gibbs Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G.; Jarry, P.; Toplis, M.; Richet, P.

    2003-12-01

    Solution calorimetric measurements have been made in 20.1 wt % hydrofluoric acid at 50° C on binary Na2O-SiO2 glasses ranging in composition from 0 to 50 mol % Na2O. The initial calorimetric data for compositions between 20 and 50 mol % Na2O were highly variable, determined later to be due to the development of Na carbonate on the glass surfaces. However, additional measurements using minimally-ground specimens that had been remelted shortly before the calorimetric dissolutions produced highly reproducible results. After adjustment of the data for glass transition temperature (Richet et al., 1984, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc.), the results show nearly linear ("ideal") behavior of the heats of solution between 50 % Na2O and 30-35 % Na2O. However, positive enthalpies of mixing (Hex) are evident in the compositional region between 0 and 30-35 mol % Na2O, with maximum magnitudes of Hex on the order of 5 kJ/mol relative to 0 and 35 % Na2O end members. Within the framework of the Adam-Gibbs theory of structural relaxation, viscosity and heat capacity data may be combined to determine configurational entropies of silicate glasses. When applied to sodium silicate glasses (Toplis, 2001, Chemical Geology), positive entropies of mixing (Sex) are calculated for compositions between 0 and 30 mole % Na2O, a compositional region where liquid immiscibility also is known to occur (Haller et al., 1974, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc.) and where Gibbs free energies of mixing (Gex) therefore must be positive. Because positive entropies of mixing contribute negatively (-TSex) to Gex, the observed immiscibility requires positive enthalpies of mixing (Hex) in the silicic part of the compositional range. The present study confirms such positive enthalpies of mixing and supports the usefulness of Adam-Gibbs theory for the prediction of viscosity/entropy behavior of silicate glasses and liquids.

  3. Oxidative aging of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J.; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2012-10-01

    Studies of the oxidative aging of single mixed component aerosol particles formed from oleic acid (OL) and sodium chloride over a range of relative humidities (RH) and ozone concentrations by aerosol optical tweezers are reported. The rate of loss of OL and changes in the organic phase volume are directly measured, comparing particles with effloresced and deliquesced inorganic seeds. The kinetics of the OL loss are analyzed and the value of the reactive uptake coefficient of ozone by OL is compared to previous studies. The reaction of OL is accompanied by a decrease in the particle volume, consistent with the evaporation of semivolatile products over a time scale of tens of thousands of seconds. Measurements of the change in the organic phase volume allow the branching ratio to involatile components to be estimated; between 50 and 85% of the initial organic volume remains involatile, depending on ozone concentration. The refractive index (RI) of the organic phase increases during and after evaporation of volatile products, consistent with aging followed by a slow restructuring in particle morphology. The hygroscopicity of the particle and kinetics of the response of the organic phase to changes in RH are investigated. Both size and RI of unoxidized and oxidized particles respond promptly to RH changes with values of the RI consistent with linear mixing rules. Such studies of the simultaneous changes in composition and size of mixed component aerosol provide valuable data for benchmarking kinetic models of heterogeneous atmospheric aging.

  4. Does Para-chloroaniline Really Form after Mixing Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine?

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ekim Onur; Irmak, Özgür; Hür, Deniz; Yaman, Batu Can; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-03-01

    Mixing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with chlorhexidine (CHX) forms a brown-colored precipitate. Previous studies are not in agreement whether this precipitate contains para-chloroaniline (PCA). Tests used for analysis may demonstrate different outcomes. Purpose of this study was to determine whether PCA is formed through the reaction of mixing NaOCl and CHX by using high performance liquid chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. To obtain a brown precipitate, 4.99% NaOCl was mixed with 2.0% CHX. This brown precipitate was analyzed and compared with signals obtained from commercially available 4.99% NaOCl, 2% solutions, and 98% PCA in powder form. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses showed that brown precipitate does not contain free PCA. This study will be a cutoff proof for the argument on PCA formation from reaction of CHX and NaOCl. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Wet calcining of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and bicarbonate in a mixed solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, R. S.; Witkamp, G. J.

    2002-04-01

    Trona ore is used in large amounts for the production of soda ash. A key step in this process is the conversion of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate: Na 2CO 3·NaHCO 3·2H 2O) into soda (sodium carbonate anhydrate: Na 2CO 3). Currently, this conversion is done industrially by calcining of the raw ore in rotary calciners at ca. 120°C or higher (Natural Soda Ash—Occurrences, Processing, and Use, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, p. 267). Trona can however be converted at lower temperatures by using a "wet calcining" technique. In this technique, trona is contacted with an organic or mixed organic-aqueous solvent at a conversion temperature that depends on the water activity of the used solvent. In pure ethylene glycol this temperature can be as low as 55°C. The conversion by "wet calcining" occurs very similar to that in the regular dry calcining process via a solid phase conversion. The anhydrate crystals form directly from the solid trona. This produces pseudomorphs (J. Chem. Eng. Data 8(3) (1963) 301), i.e. agglomerates of fine anhydrate crystals (1-10 μm). At high temperatures, dense, finely pored agglomerates are formed, while the outer shape of the agglomerate retains the prism shape of the trona crystal. At low conversion temperatures, loosely packed or even unstable agglomerates are found.

  6. Identifying predictors of high sodium excretion in patients with heart failure: A mixed effect analysis of longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Creber, Ruth Masterson; Topaz, Maxim; Lennie, Terry A.; Lee, Christopher S.; Puzantian, Houry; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background A low-sodium diet is a core component of heart failure self-care but patients have difficulty following the diet. Aim The aim of this study was to identify predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion among patients with heart failure. Methods The World Health Organization Five Dimensions of Adherence model was used to guide analysis of existing data collected from a prospective, longitudinal study of 280 community-dwelling adults with previously or currently symptomatic heart failure. Sodium excretion was measured objectively using 24-hour urine sodium measured at three time points over six months. A mixed effect logistic model identified predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion. Results The adjusted odds of higher sodium excretion were 2.90, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–4.25, p<0.001) for patients who were obese; 2.80 (95% CI: 1.33–5.89, p=0.007) for patients with diabetes; and 2.22 (95% CI: 1.09–4.53, p=0.028) for patients who were cognitively intact. Conclusion Three factors were associated with excess sodium excretion and two factors, obesity and diabetes, are modifiable by changing dietary food patterns. PMID:24366985

  7. Identifying predictors of high sodium excretion in patients with heart failure: a mixed effect analysis of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Masterson Creber, Ruth; Topaz, Maxim; Lennie, Terry A; Lee, Christopher S; Puzantian, Houry; Riegel, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    A low-sodium diet is a core component of heart failure self-care but patients have difficulty following the diet. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion among patients with heart failure. The World Health Organization Five Dimensions of Adherence model was used to guide analysis of existing data collected from a prospective, longitudinal study of 280 community-dwelling adults with previously or currently symptomatic heart failure. Sodium excretion was measured objectively using 24-hour urine sodium measured at three time points over six months. A mixed effect logistic model identified predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion. The adjusted odds of higher sodium excretion were 2.90, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-4.25, p<0.001) for patients who were obese; 2.80 (95% CI: 1.33-5.89, p=0.007) for patients with diabetes; and 2.22 (95% CI: 1.09-4.53, p=0.028) for patients who were cognitively intact. Three factors were associated with excess sodium excretion and two factors, obesity and diabetes, are modifiable by changing dietary food patterns. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  8. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products.

  9. Shear characteristics, miscibility, and topography of sodium caseinate-monoglyceride mixed films at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Patino, Juan M; Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution, we are concerned with the study of structure, topography, and surface rheological characteristics (under shear conditions) of mixed sodium caseinate and monoglycerides (monopalmitin and monoolein) at the air/water interface. Combined surface chemistry (surface film balance and surface shear rheometry) and microscopy (Brewster angle microscopy, BAM) techniques have been applied in this study to mixtures of insoluble lipids and sodium caseinate spread at the air-water interface. At a macroscopic level, sodium caseinate and monoglycerides form an heterogeneous and practically immiscible monolayer at the air-water interface. The images from BAM show segregated protein and monoglyceride domains that have different topography. At surface pressures higher than that for the sodium caseinate collapse, this protein is displaced from the interface by monoglycerides. These results and those derived from interfacial shear rheology (at a macroscopic level) appear to support the idea that immiscibility and heterogeneity of these emulsifiers at the interface have important repercussions on the shear characteristics of the mixed films, with the alternating flow of segregated monoglyceride domains (of low surface shear viscosity, etas) and protein domains (of high etas) across the canal.

  10. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO2-PuO2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  11. Reuse of MSWI bottom ash mixed with natural sodium bentonite as landfill cover material.

    PubMed

    Puma, Sara; Marchese, Franco; Dominijanni, Andrea; Manassero, Mario

    2013-06-01

    The research described in this study had the aim of evaluating the reuse of incinerator slag, mixed with sodium bentonite, for landfill capping system components. A characterization was performed on pure bottom ash (BA) samples from an incinerator in the north of Italy. The results show that the BA samples had appropriate properties as covers. The compacted dry unit weight of the studied BA (16.2 kN m(-3)) was lower than the average value that characterizes most conventional fill materials and this can be considered advantageous for landfill cover systems, since the fill has to be placed on low bearing capacity ground or where long-term settlement is possible. Moreover, direct shear tests showed a friction angle of 43°, corresponding to excellent mechanical characteristics that can be considered an advantage against failure. The hydraulic conductivity tests indicated a steady-state value of 8 × 10(-10) m s(-1) for a mixture characterized by a bentonite content by weight of 10%, which was a factor 10 better than required by Italian legislation on landfill covers. The results from a swell index test indicated that fine bentonite swelled, even when divalent cations were released by the BA. The leaching behaviour of the mixture did not show any contamination issues and was far better than obtained for the pure BA. Thus, the BA-bentonite mixture qualified as a suitable material for landfill cover in Italy. Moreover, owing to the low release of toxic compounds, the proposed cover system would have no effect on the leachate quality in the landfill.

  12. Concentration effect of sodium carbonate and sodium aluminate as accelerator and H2O mixing against physical properties: Flow ability, setting time, and strength in low cement castable refractory product (Case study: PT. Indoporlen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krismahariyanto, Mei; Saing, Bungaran; Widodo, Hernowo

    2017-09-01

    The research was intended to analyze effect of comparison concentration between accelerator and H2O mixing against characterization of flow ability, setting time and strength at low cement castable refractory product (case study at PT. Indoporlen Refractory), Shown the kinds of accelerator sodium aluminate and sodium carbonate have good characterization result against flow ability and setting time while additional H2O mixing conclude to good strength with different kinds of temperature at 110 °C, 900 °C and 1450 °C which revealed the measurement are above to allowed specification and as well the strength test coming from accelerator of sodium aluminate and sodium carbonate in various concentration 0.01% until 0.04% and with various of H2O mixing 5.0 until 6.5% achieves the strength above in allowed specification of PT. Indoporlen.

  13. Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-06-21

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.

  14. Productivity, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of fattening Zandi lambs fed sodium bentonite supplemented total mixed rations.

    PubMed

    Khadem, A A; Soofizadeh, M; Afzalzadeh, A

    2007-10-15

    Thirty male Zandy lambs (25 +/- 0.50 kg BW, 10 lambs in each group) were randomly allocated in three (control, 2% bentonite and 4% bentonite) treatment groups. Lambs were fed Total Mixed Rations (TMRs) containing 75% Concentrate Mixture (CM) and 25% forage. Sodium bentonite was mixed with the CM part of TMRs before being mixed with the forage. The fattening period lasted 84 days and data were collected on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of lambs. Results showed that sheep fed bentonite added diets had relatively higher feed intake than the control group which ended to slightly higher weight change with a fairly appropriate feed conversion ratio in bentonite fed animals. Compared to the control group, a reasonably lower glucose and urea concentration and a higher total protein content was observed in the blood of sheep fed bentonite supplemented diets. The use of bentonite in diets did not affect the blood cholesterol contents of sheep. Slaughter weights, carcass dressing out percentages and carcass cuts were a bit higher in sheep of bentonite fed groups compared to those in control group. Sheep fed bentonite added diets produced carcasses with lower subcutaneous fat thicknesses and lower fat-tail percentages. Furthermore, feed cost was estimated to be lower for sheep in 2% bentonite group than that in other two groups. In conclusion, the use of two-percent sodium bentonite is suggested for diets of fattening lambs in Iranian feed markets.

  15. Na 1.7Ti 6O 11: A new mixed-valence nonstoichiometric sodium titanate with a tunnel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Junji; Takei, Humihiko

    1990-03-01

    From the high-temperature reaction of sodium metal and titanium oxide, a new member ofTi 3+/Ti 4-mixed valence sodium titanates, Na 1.7Ti 6O 11, was prepared. It is black in color and crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group P4 2/ mnmwith lattice constants a = 11.7456(10)Å, and c = 2.9866(8)Å, V = 412.03(12)Å 3, and Z = 2.The structure was determined from a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study and refined to values of the conventional Rfactors of R = 0.038and Rw = 0.025for 783 observed reflections. The basic units of the structure are built up from six edge-shared TiO 6 octahedra, and they are linked along the c-axis by sharing edges to form rutile-type chains, as in the case of CaFe 2O 4-type NaTi 2O 4 and Na 2Ti 4O 9. Sodium atoms are located in the tunnels with an occupancy factor of 0.84(1), and two types of Ti sites are randomly occupied by Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ cations.

  16. Mixed Micelles of Sodium Cholate and Sodium Dodecylsulphate 1:1 Binary Mixture at Different Temperatures – Experimental and Theoretical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Jójárt, Balázs; Poša, Mihalj; Fiser, Béla; Szőri, Milán; Farkaš, Zita; Viskolcz, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Micellisation process for sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate in 1∶1 molar ratio was investigated in a combined approach, including several experimental methods and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelle was determined by spectrofluorimetric and surface tension measurements in the temperature range of 0–50°C and the values obtained agreed with each other within the statistical error of the measurements. In range of 0–25°C the cmc values obtained are temperature independent while cmc values were increased at higher temperature, which can be explained by the intensive motion of the monomers due to increased temperature. The evidence of existing synergistic effect among different constituent units of the micelle is indicated clearly by the interaction parameter (β1,2) calculated from cmc values according to Rubingh. As the results of the conductivity measurements showed the negative surface charges of the SDS-NaCA micelle are not neutralized by counterions. Applying a 10 µs long coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation for system including 30-30 SDS and CA (with appropriate number of Na+ cations and water molecules) we obtained semi-quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Spontaneous aggregation of the surfactant molecules was obtained and the key steps of the micelle formation are identified: First a stable SDS core was formed and thereafter due to the entering CA molecules the size of the micelle increased and the SDS content decreased. In addition the size distribution and composition as well as the shape and structure of micelles are also discussed. PMID:25004142

  17. Interaction between bovine serum albumin and equimolarly mixed cationic-anionic surfactants decyltriethylammonium bromide-sodium decyl sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Run-Chao; Cao, Ao-Neng; Lai, Lu-Hua; Zhu, Bu-Yao; Zhao, Guo-Xi; Xiao, Jin-Xin

    2005-03-25

    The interactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the anionic surfactant sodium decylsulfonate (C10SO3), the cationic surfactant decyltriethylammonium bromide (C10NE) and equimolarly mixed cationic-anionic surfactants C10NE-C10SO3 were investigated by surface tension, viscosity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and circular dichroism (CD). It was shown that the single ionic surfactant C10SO3 or C10NE has obvious interaction with BSA. The presence of C10SO3 or C10NE modified BSA structure. However, the equimolarly mixed cationic-anionic surfactants C10NE-C10SO3 showed very weak interactions with BSA. The surface tension-log concentration (gamma-logC) plot for the aqueous solutions of C10NE-C10SO3/BSA mixtures coincided with that of C10NE-C10SO3 solutions. Viscometry showed that there is no significant change in the rheological properties for the C10NE-C10SO3/BSA mixed solutions. DLS showed that BSA monomers and mixed aggregates of C10NE-C10SO3 existed in the C10NE-C10SO3/BSA mixed solutions. From CD spectra no obvious modification of BSA structure in the presence of C10NE-C10SO3 mixtures was observed. The weak interactions between BSA and C10NE-C10SO3 might be explained in terms of the very low critical micelle concentration (cmc) of C10NE-C10SO3 mixtures that made the concentration of ionic surfactant monomers much lower than that needed for inducing the modification of BSA structure. In other words, the very strong synergism between oppositely charged cationic and anionic surfactants makes the formation of cationic-anionic surfactant mixed aggregates in the bulk solution a more favorable process than binding to proteins.

  18. Volatility of NH3 from internally mixed sodium succinate-NH4SO4 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Zhang, Yunhong

    2016-04-01

    Contributing the complicacy of atmospheric constituents, aerosol particles may undergo complicated heterogeneous reactions that have profound consequences on their hygroscopic properties and volatility. Ammonia (NH3) is a ubiquitous trace atmospheric gas in the troposphere and has negative effects on human health and climate forcing of ambient aerosols. In addition, atmospheric cycle of NH3 is complex in atmosphere, therefore it necessary to get insights to the complexity of gas-to-aerosol NH3 partitioning, which results in large uncertainties in the sources and distributions of NH3. By using in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), we report here the volatility of NH3 from the laboratory generated sodium succinate with ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) at a 1:1 molar ratio as well as its effect on the hygroscopicity of the mixtures. The loss of the NH4+ peak at 1451cm-1 and the formation of peaks at 1718 and 1134 cm-1 due to C = O stretching asymmetric vibration of -COOH and ν3 (SO42-) stretching of sodium sulfate indicate that sodium succinate reacts with (NH4)2SO4, releasing NH3 and forming succinic acid and sodium sulfate on dehydration process. The formation of less hygroscopic succinic acid and volatility of NH3 in mixtures leads to a significant decrease in the total water content. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the reaction between (NH4)2SO4 and dicarboxylate salts, which may represent an important particle-gas partitioning for ammonia and thus elucidate another underlying ammonia cycle in atmosphere. These results could be helpful to understand the mutual transformation process of dicarboxylic acids and dicarboxylate salts.

  19. A study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and sodium (lithium) dodecyl sulfate by the small-angle neutron scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewska, A.; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E.

    2007-09-01

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a new nonionic surfactant, namely, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C14E7), and an anionic surfactant, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, or lithium dodecyl sulfate, is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary results of the investigation into the behavior of C14E7 aqueous solutions (at two concentrations, 0.17 and 0.50%) upon addition of small amounts of three different classical anionic surfactants are reported.

  20. Mixed sodium nickel-manganese sulfates: Crystal structure relationships between hydrates and anhydrous salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Delyana M.; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N.; Kukeva, Rositsa R.; Markov, Pavel V.; Nihtianova, Diana D.; Stoyanova, Radostina K.

    2017-06-01

    The present contribution provides new structural and spectroscopic data on the formation of solid solutions between hydrated and dehydrated sulfate salts of sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese in a whole concentration range: Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·yH2O, 0≤ x≤1.0. Using powder XRD, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), IR and Raman spectroscopy it has been found that double sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese salts form solid solutions Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·4H2O with a blödite-type of structure within a broad concentration range of 0≤x≤0.49, while the manganese rich compositions Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·2H2O (0.97≤x≤1.0) crystallize in the kröhnkite-type of structure. The Ni-based blödites Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·4H2O dehydrate between 140 and 260 °C into anhydrous salts Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2, 0≤ x≤0.44, with a structure where Ni1-xMnxO6 octahedra are bridged into pairs by edge- and corner sharing SO42- groups. Both TEM and EPR methods show that the Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions are homogenously distributed over three crystallographic positions of the large monoclinic cell. The dehydration of the kröhnkite phase Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2·2H2O yields the alluaudite phase Na2+δMn2-δ/2(SO4)3, where the Na-to-Mn ratio decreases and all Ni2+ dopants are released from the structure. The process of the dehydration is discussed in terms of structural aspects taking into account the distortion degree of the Ni,MnO6 and SO4 polyhedra.

  1. Aluminum manganese oxides with mixed crystal structure: high-energy-density cathodes for rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Wook; Ku, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Ryoung-Hee; Yun, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seok-Soo; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2014-07-01

    We report a new discovery for enhancing the energy density of manganese oxide (Nax MnO2 ) cathode materials for sodium rechargeable batteries by incorporation of aluminum. The Al incorporation results in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 with a mixture of tunnel and layered crystal structures. NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 shows a much higher initial discharge capacity and superior cycling performance compared to pristine Na(0.65) MnO2 . We ascribe this enhancement in performance to the formation of a new orthorhombic layered NaMnO2 phase merged with a small amount of tunnel Na(0.44) MnO2 phase in NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , and to improvements in the surface stability of the NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 particles caused by the formation of Al-O bonds on their surfaces. Our findings regarding the phase transformation and structure stabilization induced by incorporation of aluminum, closely related to the structural analogy between orthorhombic Na(0.44) MnO2 and NaAl(0.1) Mn(0.9) O2 , suggest a strategy for achieving sodium rechargeable batteries with high energy density and stability.

  2. Suppression and enhancement of coexisting super-fluorescence and multi-wave mixing processes in sodium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Huaibin; Zhang Xun; Li Changbiao; Lan Huayan; Che Junling; Zhang Ying; Zhang Yanpeng

    2013-05-28

    Different aspects of the properties of the coexisting super-fluorescence (SFL), multi-wave mixing with the fluorescence signal in the sodium vapor are studied both theoretically and experimentally. First, by scanning the dressed-state, the properties of these coexisting processes, such as the SFL signal modulated by using the dark and bright states, the interplay between dressed-states, are observed for the first time. Then, by scanning the probe field, the interplay between the one-photon and two-photon processes of the coexisting signals is obtained with or without the external dressing fields. Such control on each process in such coexisting system has an important potential application in quantum communication.

  3. Suppression and enhancement of coexisting super-fluorescence and multi-wave mixing processes in sodium vapor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Xun; Li, Changbiao; Lan, Huayan; Che, Junling; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-05-28

    Different aspects of the properties of the coexisting super-fluorescence (SFL), multi-wave mixing with the fluorescence signal in the sodium vapor are studied both theoretically and experimentally. First, by scanning the dressed-state, the properties of these coexisting processes, such as the SFL signal modulated by using the dark and bright states, the interplay between dressed-states, are observed for the first time. Then, by scanning the probe field, the interplay between the one-photon and two-photon processes of the coexisting signals is obtained with or without the external dressing fields. Such control on each process in such coexisting system has an important potential application in quantum communication.

  4. Computer modelling of doped mixed metal fluorides and oxides for device applications: Rare earth, sodium and barium doped KYF 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert A.; Maddock, Elizabeth M.; Valerio, Mario E. G.

    2008-06-01

    The mixed metal fluorides and oxides have a range of important applications in optical and electronic devices. For example, rare earth doped LiCaAlF6 is used in solid state lasers; and pure and doped LiNbO3 is used in a wide range of optical and electronic applications. In attempting to develop new materials, two questions which arise include: which host lattices are most suitable, and which dopants will produce the required optical behaviour? This paper continues recent work designed to provide straightforward computational approaches to predict and assess properties of such materials, presenting the results of recent calculations on rare earth doping in KYF4, as well as sodium and barium doping, which has been prompted by experimental work in this area.

  5. Ab initio GW quasiparticle energies of small sodium clusters by an all-electron mixed-basis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Soh; Ohno, Kaoru; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Louie, Steven G.

    2001-04-01

    A state-of-the-art GW calculation is carried out for small sodium clusters, Na2, Na4, Na6, and Na8. The quasiparticle energies are evaluated by employing an ab initio GW code based on an all-electron mixed-basis approach, which uses both plane waves and atomic orbitals as basis functions. The calculated ionization potential and the electron affinity are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The exchange and correlation parts to the electron self-energy within the GW approximation are presented from the viewpoint of their size dependence. In addition, the effect of the off-diagonal elements of the self-energy corrections to the local-density-approximation exchange-correlation potential is discussed. Na2 and Na8 have a larger energy gap than Na4 and Na6, consistent with the fact that they are magic number clusters.

  6. Phospholipid containing mixed micelles. Characterization of diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate and DHPC and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Radha; Vautier-Giongo, Carolina; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Bales, Barney L; Hajdu, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Mixed micelles of l,2-diheptanoyl-sn-grycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) with ionic detergents were prepared to develop well characterized substrates for the study of lipolytic enzymes. The aggregates that formed on mixing DHPC with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and with the positively charged dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) to determine the aggregation numbers and bimolecular collision rates, and electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure the hydration index and microviscosity of the micelles at the micelle-water interface. Mixed micelles between the phospholipid and each of the detergents formed in all compositions, yielding interfaces with varying charge, hydration, and microviscosity. Both series of micelles were found to be globular up to 0.7 mole fraction of DHPC, while the aggregation numbers varied within the same concentration range of the components less than 15%. Addition of the zwitterionic phospholipid component increased the degree of counterion dissociation as measured by the quenching of the fluorescence of pyrene by the bromide ions bound to DHPC/DTAB micelles, showing that at 0.6 mole fraction of DHPC 80% of the bromide ions are dissociated from the micelles. The interface water concentration decreased significantly on addition of DHPC to each detergent. For combined phospholipid and detergent concentration of 50 mM the interface water concentration decreased, as measured by ESR of the spin-probes, from 38.5 M/L of interface volume in SDS alone to 9 M/L when the phospholipid was present at 0.7 mole fraction. Similar addition of DHPC to DTAB decreased the interfacial water concentration from 27 M/L to 11 M/L. Determination of the physicochemical parameters of the phospholipid containing mixed micelles here presented are likely to provide important insight into the design of assay systems for kinetic studies of phospholipid metabolizing enzymes.

  7. Sodium Nitroprusside in Patients With Mixed Pulmonary Hypertension and Left Heart Disease: Hemodynamic Predictors of Response and Prognostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoong Sern; Zaphiriou, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Mixed pulmonary hypertension (PH) in heart failure (HF) is defined by transpulmonary gradient ≥ 12 and/or pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ≥ 240 dyne/s/cm(-5), but diastolic pressure gradient (DPG) ≥ 7 mmHg has been proposed more recently. We evaluated the acute hemodynamic response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) specifically in relation to the proposed DPG criterion ≥7 mmHg and the prognostic significance of response to SNP in patients with mixed PH and advanced HF. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with advanced HF and mixed PH underwent cardiac catheterization and acute SNP infusion. Baseline hemodynamic parameters included transpulmonary gradient, PVR, DPG, and pulmonary capacitance (PCap). Hemodynamic response to SNP was defined as a reduction in PVR of at least 20%. The composite endpoint was death/heart transplantation/mechanical circulatory support. Sixty of the 98 patients were SNP responders. SNP resulted in significant reductions in filling pressures and PVR and increase in stroke volume and PCap. DPG (not baseline PVR) was significantly associated with hemodynamic response to SNP on logistic regression analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of a DPG ≥7 mmHg to identify nonresponders to SNP were 74% and 97%, respectively. At median follow-up of 218 (148-324) days, 13 and 19 patients of the SNP responders and nonresponders, respectively, met the composite endpoint (P = .021 by log-rank test). Hemodynamic response to SNP and PCap were independently associated with the composite outcome of survival free from transplantation/mechanical circulatory support. Baseline DPG ≥ 7 mmHg is associated with poor PVR response to SNP. PVR response to SNP and PCap are associated with a more favorable prognosis in patients with advanced HF and mixed PH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sodium glycodeoxycholate and glycocholate mixed aggregates in gas and solution phases.

    PubMed

    de Petris, Giulia; Festa, Maria Rosa; Galantini, Luciano; Giglio, Edoardo; Leggio, Claudia; Pavel, Nicolae Viorel; Troiani, Anna

    2009-05-21

    This paper deals with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements in order to provide information on the existence, aggregation, composition, and structure of the two-component aggregates of sodium glycocholate (NaGC) and sodium glycodeoxycholate (NaGDC) in the gas and solution phases. Five samples, containing 100% NaGC and 100% NaGDC, and NaGDC/NaGC molar ratios of 3 (75D), 1 (50D), and 1/3 (25D), have been analyzed by ESIMS in positive-ion detection mode starting from 10(-3) and 10(-2) M total bile salt concentration in aqueous solutions. Generally, dimers or trimers prevail in the 100% NaGC or NaGDC samples, respectively, as observed in the preceding one-component ESIMS measurements and in agreement with the proposed micellar aggregate structures in aqueous solution. Moreover, it is observed that the composition of multimers in the samples 75D, 50D, and 25D deviates from the one expected on the basis of a random association of the monomers, the NaGDC contribution generally prevailing on the NaGC one. It happens also under the same percentage condition (50D sample), in agreement with a greater aggregation ability of NaGDC with respect to NaGC. SAXS and DLS data were recorded on six samples containing a NaGC+NaGDC 40 mM total concentration, one bile salt having 40, 32, 24, 16, 8, and 0 mM concentration and the other the complementary one, keeping constant the NaCl concentration (0.6 M). The NaGDC 40 mM sample presents SAXS curves in agreement with a cylindrical shape of the aggregates as shown in a previous paper. For the bile salt mixtures, the progressive decrease of the sizes and change of the aggregate morphology, toward a globular-like geometry, are observed by increasing the NaGC fraction, thus confirming the hypothesis about the ability of trihydroxy salts to inhibit the growth of dihydroxy salt aggregates. Fits on the basis of cylindrical model can be accomplished

  9. Surface characterization of human serum albumin and sodium perfluorooctanoate mixed solutions by pendant drop tensiometry and circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Messina, Paula; Prieto, Gerardo; Dodero, Verónica; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A; Maldonado-Valderrama, J; Ruso, Juan M; Sarmiento, Félix

    2006-06-15

    The interfacial behavior of mixed human serum albumin (HSA)/sodium perfluorooctanoate (C8FONa) solutions is examined by using two experimental techniques, pendant drop tensiometry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Through the analysis of the surface tension of the mixed solutions, surface competitive adsorption at the air-water interface between C8FONa and HSA is detected. The dynamic adsorption curves exhibit the distinct regimes in their time-dependent surface tension. The nature of these regimes is further analyzed in terms of the variation of the molecules surface areas. As a consequence, a compact and dense structure was formed where protein molecules were interconnected and overlapped. Thus, a reduction of the area occupied per molecule from 100 to 0.2 nm(2) is interpreted as a gel-like structure at the surface. The presence of the surfactant seems to favor the formation of this interfacial structure. Finally, measurements of circular dichroism suggests a compaction of the protein due to the association with the surfactant given by an increase of alpha-helix structure in the complexes as compared to that of pure protein.

  10. An In Vitro Spectroscopic Analysis to Determine Whether para-Chloroaniline is Produced from Mixing Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John E.; Sem, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether para-chloroaniline (PCA) is formed through the reaction of mixing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Methods Initially commercially available samples of chlorhexidine acetate (CHXa) and PCA were analyzed with 1H NMR spectroscopy. Two solutions, NaOCl and CHXa, were warmed to 37°C and when mixed they produced a brown precipitate. This precipitate was separated in half and pure PCA was added to one of the samples for comparison before they were each analyzed with 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results The peaks in the 1H NMR spectra of CHXa and PCA were assigned to specific protons of the molecules, and the location of the aromatic peaks in the PCA spectrum defined the PCA doublet region. While the spectrum of the precipitate alone resulted in a complex combination of peaks, upon magnification there were no peaks in the PCA doublet region which were intense enough to be quantified. In the spectrum of the precipitate, to which PCA was added, two peaks do appear in the PCA doublet region. Comparing this spectrum to that of precipitate alone, the peaks in the PCA doublet region are not visible prior to the addition of PCA. Conclusions Based on this in vitro study, the reaction mixture of NaOCl and CHXa does not produce PCA at any measurable quantity and further investigation is needed to determine the chemical composition of the brown precipitate. PMID:20113799

  11. Chlorhexidine mouthwash and sodium lauryl sulphate dentifrice: do they mix effectively or interfere?

    PubMed

    Elkerbout, T A; Slot, D E; Bakker, E W P; Van der Weijden, G A

    2016-02-01

    What is the effectiveness of a chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash used in combination with a sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) dentifrice on the parameters of plaque and gingivitis? MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic databases were searched up to July 2014. The inclusion criteria were (randomized) controlled clinical trials, subjects ≥18 years of age with good general health. Papers evaluating the effect of CHX mouthwash used in combination with SLS dentifrice or a dentifrice slurry compared with CHX mouthwash as a single oral hygiene intervention or in combination with an SLS-free dentifrice were included. From the eligible studies, data were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed when feasible. Independent screening of 83 unique papers resulted in four eligible publications, with nine comparisons. The meta-analysis showed that when an SLS dentifrice was used as a slurry rinse, the interference on the plaque-inhibiting effect of a CHX mouthwash was significantly decreased (MD 0.33; P ≤ 0.00001; 95% CI: <0.24; 0.42>). No significant difference was observed when SLS dentifrice was applied as a paste in combination with CHX mouthwash (MD 0.08; P = 0.42; 95% CI: <-0.26; 0.11>). Descriptive and subgroup analyses support these findings. Moreover, the observed effect for the dentifrice paste occurred regardless of the order of use. This review demonstrates that when CHX mouthwash is recommended, it can be used in combination with an SLS dentifrice without any interference regarding its inhibiting effect on dental plaque, regardless of the order of use. Consequently, the collective evidence indicates that the combined use of dentifrice and CHX mouthwash is not contraindicated. However, this recommendation has been graded as moderate taking into account a potential publication bias because three of the four included studies emerged from the same research group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quantitative ion beam analysis of M-C-O systems: application to an oxidized uranium carbide sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Raveu, G.; Garcia, P.; Carlot, G.; Khodja, H.; Vickridge, I.; Barthe, M. F.; Sauvage, T.

    2014-04-01

    A large variety of materials contain both carbon and oxygen atoms, in particular oxidized carbides, carbon alloys (as ZrC, UC, steels, etc.), and oxycarbide compounds (SiCO glasses, TiCO, etc.). Here a new ion beam analysis methodology is described which enables quantification of elemental composition and oxygen concentration profile over a few microns. It is based on two procedures. The first, relative to the experimental configuration relies on a specific detection setup which is original in that it enables the separation of the carbon and oxygen NRA signals. The second concerns the data analysis procedure i.e. the method for deriving the elemental composition from the particle energy spectrum. It is a generic algorithm and is here successfully applied to characterize an oxidized uranium carbide sample, developed as a potential fuel for generation IV nuclear reactors. Furthermore, a micro-beam was used to simultaneously determine the local elemental composition and oxygen concentration profiles over the first microns below the sample surface. This method is adapted to the determination of the composition of M?C?O? compounds with a sensitivity on elemental atomic concentrations around 1000 ppm.

  13. Cooperativity between Volatilization of NH3, Evaporation of Water and Crystallization of Na2SO4 in Internally Mixed Sodium Succinate/Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pan; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Gas-to-particle partitioning is one of the most important physicochemical process in atmospheric aerosols. The chemical reaction in the internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosols attracts much attention on the volatility and hygroscopicity. In this study, FTIR spectra evolution with time were observed by FTIR-ATR technique at constant relative humidity for the internally mixed sodium succinate/ammonium sulfate aerosols with molar ratio of 1:1. The results showed that sodium succinate and ammonium sulfate in the mixed aerosols could react to form succinate acid and sodium sulfate accompanying NH3 volatile as followings: NaOOCCH2CH2COONa (aq) + (NH4)2SO4 (aq) → HOOCCH2CH2COOH (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq or crystal) + NH3 (g) The volatilization of NH3 speeded up the evaporation of water, and indirectly accelerated the crystallization of Na2SO4 in the mixed aerosols, which synergistically accelerated release of NH3. The complex reaction between dicarboxylic salt and (NH4)2SO4 could help us to understand the cooperativity between the gas-to-particle equilibrium, phase transition, atmospheric composition and volatility, which could reveal the formation mechanism of the secondary organic aerosols.

  14. Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic-nervous-system activity in obese subjects treated with a low-calorie protein or mixed diet.

    PubMed

    DeHaven, J; Sherwin, R; Hendler, R; Felig, P

    1980-02-28

    Seven obese subjects were placed on a 400-kcal protein diet and on an isocaloric mixed diet (50 per cent protein and 50 per cent carbohydrate), three to 5 1/2 weeks for each diet. Despite twofold to fivefold increases in ketone levels in the blood and urine with the protein diet, net nitrogen balance was no different from that with the mixed diet (-2.1 +/- 0.9 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.4 g per day; mean +/- S.E.M.). However, net sodium loss with the protein diet (-382 +/- 117 mmol) was significantly greater than with the mixed diet (-25 +/- 105 mmol; P less than 0.02). Furthermore, maximal orthostatic decreases in systolic blood pressure with the protein diet (-28 +/- 3 mm Hg) were greater than with the mixed diet (-18 +/- 3 mm Hg; P less than 0.02) and were accompanied by symptoms of orthostatic hypotension in all patients. The protein diet (but not the mixed diet) also resulted in a 40 per cent decline in basal plasma levels of norepinephrine (P less than 0.01) and a failure of plasma norepinephrine to rise after two minutes of standing. We conclude that as compared with mixed diets, hypocaloric protein diets offer no advantage with respect to nitrogen metabolism but result in greater sodium depletion, a decrease in sympathetic-nervous-system activity, and the development of orthostatic hypotension.

  15. Clinical comparison between the bleaching efficacy of 37% peroxide carbamide gel mixed with sodium perborate with established intracoronal bleaching agent.

    PubMed

    de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Lopes, Eduardo Biaggioni; Ciccone-Nogueira, Juliane Cristina; Silva, Regina Célia S P

    2009-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the bleaching efficacy of sodium perborate/37% carbamide peroxide paste and traditional sodium perborate/distilled water for intracoronal bleaching. Thirty patients with dark anterior teeth were divided into 2 groups (n = 15): group A: sodium perborate/distilled water; and group B: sodium perborate/37% carbamide peroxide paste. The bleaching treatment limited each patient to the maximum of 4 changes of the bleaching agent. Initial and final color shades were measured using the Vita Lumin shade guide. Data was analyzed with Wilcoxon test for initial and final comparison according to the bleaching agent, demonstrating efficacy of the bleaching treatment with both agents. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of the efficacy of the bleaching agents, showing that there was no significant difference between them. The sodium perborate/37% carbamide peroxide association for intracoronal bleaching has proven to be as effective as sodium perborate/distilled water.

  16. pKa values of hyodeoxycholic and cholic acids in the binary mixed micelles sodium-hyodeoxycholate-Tween 40 and sodium-cholate-Tween 40: Thermodynamic stability of the micelle and the cooperative hydrogen bond formation with the steroid skeleton.

    PubMed

    Poša, Mihalj; Pilipović, Ana; Bećarević, Mirjana; Farkaš, Zita

    2017-01-01

    Due to a relatively small size of bile acid salts, their mixed micelles with nonionic surfactants are analysed. Of the special interests are real binary mixed micelles that are thermodynamically more stable than ideal mixed micelles. Thermodynamic stability is expressed with an excess Gibbs energy (G(E)) or over an interaction parameter (βij). In this paper sodium salts of cholic (C) and hyodeoxycholic acid (HD) in their mixed micelles with Tween 40 (T40) are analysed by potentiometric titration and their pKa values are determined. Examined bile acids in mixed micelles with T40 have higher pKa values than free bile acids. The increase of ΔpKa acid constant of micellary bound C and HD is in a correlation with absolute values of an interaction parameter. According to an interaction parameter and an excess Gibbs energy, mixed micelle HD-T40 are thermodynamically more stable than mixed micelles C-T40. ΔpKa values are higher for mixed micelles with Tween 40 whose second building unit is HD, related to the building unit C. In both micellar systems, ΔpKa increases with the rise of a molar fraction of Tween 40 in binary mixtures of surfactants with sodium salts of bile acids. This suggests that, ΔpKa can be a measure of a thermodynamic stabilization of analysed binary mixed micelles as well as an interaction parameter. ΔpKa values are confirmed by determination of a distribution coefficient of HD and C in systems: water phase with Tween 40 in a micellar concentration and 1-octanol, with a change of a pH value of a water phase. Conformational analyses suggests that synergistic interactions between building units of analysed binary micelles originates from formation of hydrogen bonds between steroid OH groups and polyoxyethylene groups of the T40. Relative similarity and spatial orientation of C3 and C6 OH group allows cooperative formation of hydrogen bonds between T40 and HD - excess entropy in formation of mixed micelle. If a water solution of analysed binary

  17. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Risperidone, Lithium, or Divalproex Sodium for Initial Treatment of Bipolar I Disorder, Manic or Mixed Phase, in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Barbara; Luby, Joan L.; Joshi, Paramjit; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John T.; Axelson, David A.; Bolhofner, Kristine; Robb, Adelaide; Wolf, Dwight V.; Riddle, Mark A.; Birmaher, Boris; Nusrat, Nasima; Ryan, Neal D.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Tillman, Rebecca; Lavori, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Context There was a paucity of comparative pharmacological research for initial treatment of bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed phase, in children and adolescents. Objective To investigate which medication to administer first to antimanic medication-naive subjects. Design, Setting, and Participants The Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study recruited 6- to 15-year-old children and adolescents with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed phase) at 5 US sites from 2003 to 2008 into a controlled, randomized, no-patient-choice, 8-week protocol. Blinded, independent evaluators conducted all baseline and end-point assessments. Interventions Subjects received a titrated schedule of lithium, divalproex sodium, or risperidone. Medications were increased weekly only if there was inadequate response, and no dose-limiting adverse effects, to maximum doses of lithium carbonate (1.1-1.3 mEq/L), divalproex sodium (111-125 μg/mL), and risperidone (4-6 mg). Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome measures were the Clinical Global Impressions for Bipolar Illness Improvement-Mania and the Modified Side Effects Form for Children and Adolescents. Results There were 279 antimanic medication-naive subjects (mean [SD] age, 10.1 [2.8] years; 50.2% female) who had the following characteristics: 100% elated mood and/or grandiosity, 77.1% psychosis, 97.5% mixed mania, 99.3% daily rapid cycling, and mean (SD) mania duration of 4.9 (2.5) years. The mean (SD) titrated lithium level was 1.09 (0.34) mEq/L, and the mean (SD) divalproex sodium level was 113.6 (23.0) μg/mL. The mean (SD) titrated risperidone dose was 2.57 (1.21) mg. Higher response rates occurred with risperidone vs lithium (68.5% vs 35.6%; χ21=16.9, P<.001) and vs divalproex sodium (68.5% vs 24.0%; χ21=28.3, P<.001). Response to lithium vs divalproex sodium did not differ. The discontinuation rate was higher for lithium than for risperidone (χ21=6.4, P=.011). Increased weight gain, body mass index, and prolactin level

  19. Amphiphile behavior in mixed solvent media I: self-aggregation and ion association of sodium dodecylsulfate in 1,4-dioxane-water and methanol-water media.

    PubMed

    Pan, A; Naskar, B; Prameela, G K S; Kumar, B V N Phani; Mandal, A B; Bhattacharya, S C; Moulik, S P

    2012-10-02

    Mixed aquo-organic solvents are used in chemical, industrial, and pharmaceutical processes along with amphiphilic materials. Their fundamental studies with reference to bulk and interfacial phenomena are thus considered to be important, but such detailed studies are limited. In this work, the interfacial adsorption of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, C12H25SO4(-)Na(+)) in dioxane-water (Dn-W) and methanol-water (Ml-W) media in extensive mixing ratios along with its bulk behavior have been investigated. The solvent-composition-dependent properties have been identified, and their quantifications have been attempted. The SDS micellization has been assessed in terms of different solvent parameters, and the possible formation of an ion pair and triple ion of the colloidal electrolyte, C12H25SO4(-)Na(+) in the Dn-W medium has been correlated and quantified. In the Ml-W medium at a high volume percent of Ml, the SDS amphiphile formed special associated species instead of ion association. The formation of self-assembly and the energetics of SDS in the mixed solvent media have been determined and assessed using conductometry, calorimetry, tensiometry, viscometry, NMR, and DLS methods. The detailed study undertaken herein with respect to the behavior of SDS in the mixed aquo-organic solvent media (Dn-W and Ml-W) is a new kind of endeavor.

  20. Uranium oxide and sodium oxide aerosol experiments: NSPP mixed-oxide tests 303-307, data record report. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.E.; Kress, T.S.; Tobias, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    This data record report summarizes five tests, involving mixtures of uranium oxide and sodium oxide aerosols, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this project is to establish the validity (or level of conservatism) of the aerosol behavioral code, HAARM-3, and follow-on codes under development at Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Descriptions of the five tests with tables and graphs summarizing the results are included.

  1. Ion-exchange voltammetry with nafion/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) mixed coatings on mercury film electrodes: characterization studies and application to the determination of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luciana S; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Carapuça, Helena M

    2006-09-12

    This work aimed to produce improved polymer coatings for the modification of thin mercury film electrodes (TMFEs). The goal is to obtain sensitive, reproducible, mechanically stable and antifouling devices suitable for the determination of trace metal cations in complex media. Therefore, novel mixed coatings of two sulfonated cation-exchange polymers of dissimilar characteristics-Nafion (NA) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-were produced by solvent evaporation onto glassy carbon electrodes. The effect of the mass ratio (NA:PSS) on the film morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy, revealing the formation of biphasic polymer systems, where PSS bead-shaped clusters appeared randomly dispersed into a uniform and compact NA environment. The permselectivity/ion-exchange features of the mixed films onto glassy carbon were evaluated using cathecol, urate, and dopamine. To allow trace metal analysis, thin mercury films were plated through the NA/PSS coatings, being the reproducibility and ion-exchange features of the mixed coatings-TMFE evaluated using lead ions. The best NA/PSS coating was found for the mass ratio of 5.3. Analytical performance of the NA/PSS-TMFE yielded a detection limit of 5.5 nM (3sigma), and the application of this modified electrode to an untreated polluted estuarine water sample produced significant improvements in the quality of the signal compared with that for a bare TMFE.

  2. Coordination preferences of the alkali cations sodium and caesium in the mixed-cationic Zintl ammoniate Cs(3.2)Na(0.8)Ge₉·5.3NH₃.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefanie; Suchentrunk, Christof; Korber, Nikolaus

    2014-11-01

    The involvement of two different alkali cations in the nonagermanide ammoniate Cs(3.2)Na(0.8)Ge9·5.3NH3 [tricaesium sodium nonagermanide-ammonia (1/5.3)] provides insights into the coordination behaviour of ammonia towards sodium and caesium cations within one compound and represents the first mixed-cationic solvate structure of nonagermanide tetraanions. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2₁/m and, with the presence of pseudomerohedral twinning, mixed-cation sites and disordering of the nonagermanide cage anions, features a combination of crystallographic challenges which could all be resolved during the refinement.

  3. First principles multielectron mixed quantum/classical simulations in the condensed phase. II. The charge-transfer-to-solvent states of sodium anions in liquid tetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Glover, William J; Larsen, Ross E; Schwartz, Benjamin J

    2010-04-14

    Gas-phase atomic anions lack bound electronic excited states, yet in solution many of these anions exhibit intense absorption bands due to the presence of excited states, referred to as charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) states that are bound only by the presence of the solvent. CTTS spectra thus serve as delicate probes of solute-solvent interactions, but the fact that they are created by the interactions of a solute with many solvent molecules makes them a challenge to describe theoretically. In this paper, we use mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics with the two-electron Fourier-grid (2EFG) electronic structure method presented in the previous paper [W. J. Glover, R. E. Larsen, and B. J. Schwartz, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 144101 (2010)] to simulate the CTTS states of a sodium anion in liquid tetrahydrofuran, Na(-)/THF. Since our 2EFG method is based on configuration interaction with single and double excitations in a grid basis, it allows for an exact treatment of the two valence electrons of the sodium anion. To simulate Na(-)/THF, we first develop a new electron-THF pseudopotential, and we verify the accuracy of this potential by reproducing the experimental absorption spectrum of an excess electron in liquid THF with near quantitative accuracy. We also are able to reproduce the CTTS spectrum of Na(-)/THF and find that the CTTS states of Na(-) exhibit a Rydberg-like progression due to the pre-existing long-range solvent polarization around the anion. We also find that the CTTS states are highly mixed with the disjoint electronic states supported by naturally occurring solvent cavities that exist in liquid THF. This mixing explains why the solvated electrons that are ejected following CTTS excitation appear with their equilibrium absorption spectrum. The mixing of the CTTS and solvent-cavity states also explains why the recombination of the electron and its geminate Na(0) partner occurs on slower time scales when photoexciting in the blue compared to in the red

  4. The mixed glass former effect in 0.35sodium oxide + 0.65[(x)boron trioxide + (1-x)phosphorus pentoxide] glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Randilynn Beth

    Energy storage is a growing concern in an ever increasingly battery driven society. Development of safer, smaller, and longer lasting batteries is in demand. Ion conducting glasses are an important type of solid electrolyte that could be used to answer this need. Unfortunately, many known ion conducting glasses, such as binary lithium oxide glasses with conductivities in the 10-7--10-8 S/cm range, are not conductive enough for practical use. In order for ion conducting glasses to be used as a commercial solid electrolyte, a method of increasing the glasses' ionic conductivity must be found. While alkali mixed glass former glasses, such as Bi2O3+B2O3+LiO2 and Li2S+SiS2+GeS2, have shown increases in the alkali ion conductivity up to two orders of magnitude, the cause of this increase is unclear. This phenomena has become known as the Mixed Glass Former Effect (MGFE) and is defined by a non-linear, non-additive change in ionic conductivity. Although the MGFE has been observed in the literature, it has not been observed in all mixed glass former (MGF) glasses and has also been seen as a negative or positive effect. In this talk, I will review our comprehensive study of the physical properties, structure, and the effect of composition on MGF sodium borophosphate glasses. It is our hypothesis that changes in the short range order structures, caused by the mixing of the boron and phosphate networks, are responsible for the MGFE. I will show a strong correlation between physical properties and structural changes with changing glass former composition.

  5. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13 mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples.

  6. Studies on the gel behavior and luminescence properties of biological surfactant sodium deoxycholate/rare-earth salts mixed systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yitong; Xin, Xia; Li, Wenzhe; Jia, Chunyu; Wang, Lin; Shen, Jinglin; Xu, Guiying

    2014-10-01

    Luminescent hydrogels were facilely designed through supramolecular self-assembly of biological surfactant (sodium deoxycholate, NaDC) and lanthanide salt (Eu(NO3)3). The microstructures of the hydrogels were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), from which nanofibers and tiny particles were observed. The arrangement of the deoxycholate and metal ions was proposed according to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements. Rheological measurements revealed that the mechanical strength of the hydrogels increased with increasing concentration of NaDC and Eu(NO3)3, while the maximum emission of the fluorescence of the gels appeared at a stoichiometry between Eu(NO3)3 and NaDC of 1:3. It is expected that the incorporation of luminescent lanthanide ions could impart versatile functionalities for practical applications to the hydrogels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anionic-zwitterionic mixed micelles in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: sodium dodecyl sulfate-N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium-3-propane-1-sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, E S; Preston, B P; Foley, J P

    1994-07-15

    A zwitterionic surfactant, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium-3-propane-1- sulfonic acid (SB-12), was used in combination with an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), to form a novel pseudostationary phase for use in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. This mixed micellar system was characterized in terms of analyte retention, selectivity, efficiency, elution range, and resolution; and compared to results obtained using only SDS. A typically used SDS concentration, 20 mM, was chosen as a reference to which comparisons could be drawn. With 20 mM SDS, the optimum concentration range of 10-20 mM SB-12 provided efficiencies that were 2-4 times greater than with SDS alone, with minimal (< 15%) changes in the elution range and electroosmotic flow. The addition of 40 and 60 mM SB-12 also resulted in efficiencies on average of 600,000-800,000 theoretical plates/m, but at a significant reduction in the elution range and peak capacity. Retention factors (k') for the various neutral analytes increased by 20% with addition of 10 mM SB-12 and by approximately 60% with addition of 40 and 60 mM SB-12, while operating currents remained constant as SB-12 was added. Geometrical isomers p-nitrotoluene and m-nitrotoluene, that co-eluted with 20 mM SDS, were baseline resolved with the addition of 10 mM SB-12; in addition, methylene selectivity was greatest at this composition. No capillary wall interactions or coating effects were observed with the SDS-SB-12 mixed micellar system, in contrast to previously studied anionic-non-ionic mixed micellar system, SDS-Brij 35. Consequently, migration times were very repeatable (< or = 1.2% R.S.D.).

  8. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro )

    1993-04-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO[sub 2]-rich and CeO[sub 2]-lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO[sub 2] content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl[sub 3], LaCl[sub 3], NdCl[sub 3], and PrCl[sub 3] are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 [mu]m.

  9. A Proton Leak Current through the Cardiac Sodium Channel Is Linked to Mixed Arrhythmia and the Dilated Cardiomyopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Keller, Dagmar I.; Huang, Hai; Pouliot, Valérie; Chatelier, Aurélien; Osswald, Stefan; Brink, Marijke; Chahine, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac Na+ channels encoded by the SCN5A gene are essential for initiating heart beats and maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Mutations in these channels have recently been associated with atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, conduction disorders, and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We investigated a young male patient with a mixed phenotype composed of documented conduction disorder, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia associated with DCM. Further family screening revealed DCM in the patient's mother and sister and in three of the mother's sisters. Because of the complex clinical phenotypes, we screened SCN5A and identified a novel mutation, R219H, which is located on a highly conserved region on the fourth helix of the voltage sensor domain of Nav1.5. Three family members with DCM carried the R219H mutation. The wild-type (WT) and mutant Na+ channels were expressed in a heterologous expression system, and intracellular pH (pHi) was measured using a pH-sensitive electrode. The biophysical characterization of the mutant channel revealed an unexpected selective proton leak with no effect on its biophysical properties. The H+ leak through the mutated Nav1.5 channel was not related to the Na+ permeation pathway but occurred through an alternative pore, most probably a proton wire on the voltage sensor domain. We propose that acidification of cardiac myocytes and/or downstream events may cause the DCM phenotype and other electrical problems in affected family members. The identification of this clinically significant H+ leak may lead to the development of more targeted treatments. PMID:22675453

  10. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and NLO properties of a new mixed crystal potassium sodium ammonium dihydrogenphosphate K0.23Na0.23(NH4)0.54H2PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, G.; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah

    2012-08-01

    Potassium sodium ammonium dihydrogenphosphate K0.23Na0.23(NH4)0.54H2PO4 (KSADP), a new mixed crystal has been grown in aqueous medium by the slow evaporation of equimolar mixture of ammonium dihydrogenphosphate (ADP), potassium dihydrogenphosphate (KDP) and sodium dihydrogenphosphate (SDP). Crystal composition as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that it belongs to the tetragonal system with noncentrosymmetric space group I-42d and it is structurally similar to ADP with cell parameter values, a=7.4794(4) Å; b=7.4794(4) Å; c=7.2974(11) Å; υ=408.23(7) Å3; z=4. The presence of sodium and potassium in ADP matrix was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The partial cationic substitution results in defect centers influencing the physical properties. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns could be attributed to strains in the lattice. Refinement of structure by single crystal XRD analysis reveals that potassium, sodium and ammonium coexist in the mixed crystal. The surface morphology of the as-grown specimen, which is changed as a result of cationic incorporation, was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements revealed that the mixed crystal has a superior NLO activity than ADP.

  11. [LD 50 and selenium concentration in the organs of rabbits following oral administration of sodium selenite and testing of the toxicity of Ursoselevit-Prämix].

    PubMed

    Berschneider, F; Hess, M; Neuffer, K; Willer, S

    1976-01-01

    LD50/24hr was established in the first of a series of experiments on 72 rabbits for orally applied sodium selenite. The dosage was 8.62 mg/kg live weight, the confidence interval being (1 - alpha = 0.95) +/- 0.13 mg/kg. The value was four times as high following intravenous application. Complete lethality was recorded from 15 mg Na2SeO3/kg live weight within 21 hours. Thirty-six animals were involved in the second experiment of the series. They had 50 or 100 per cent Ursoselevit-Prämix (30 ppm Se) in their rations. Body mass development of the test animals was superior to that recorded from the controls in the first 50 days, after which limit the former declined strongly in a few days. Their general condition worsened. Postmortem findings, following slaughter, included catarrhal enteritis, toxic liver dystrophy, scattered pulpous tumours in the spleen, and interstitial nephritis. In the third experiment (50 per cent Ursoselevit-Prämix with 60 ppm Se in the rations), the test animals developed better than the controls during the first two months, after which point they exhibited the same clinical symptoms as those observed in the second experiment, stopped to put on weight, and eventually turned cachectic. The pathomorphological findings were identical with those obtained from the second experiment. The selenium concentrations in the organs of the test animals all were much higher than those of the controls. Their amounts in excess to base values were up to eleven times in the blood, nine times in the liver, twelve times in the kidneys, and 13 times in the muscles.

  12. Effects of aggregates on mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Tonigold, Katrin; Varga, Imre; Nylander, Tommy; Campbell, Richard A

    2009-04-07

    We have exploited the spatial and kinetic resolution of ellipsometry to monitor the lateral movement of inhomogeneous patches of material in mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface. We show that the choice of sample preparation methods can have a profound effect on the state of the interface for chemically equivalent samples. The extent of aggregation in the bulk solution on relevant time scales is affected by specific details of the polymer/surfactant mixing process, which produces varying numbers of aggregates that can become trapped in the interfacial layer, resulting in an enhanced and fluctuating ellipsometry signal. It can be beneficial to apply the surface-cleaning method of aspiration prior to physical measurements to remove trapped aggregates through the creation of a fresh interface. At low pH, the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning is remarkably constant over a factor of >500 in the bulk composition below charge equivalence, which is discussed in terms of possible adsorption mechanisms. At high pH, through observing temporal fluctuations in the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning, we reveal two important processes: there is the spontaneous adsorption of aggregates > 0.2 microm in diameter into the interfacial layer, and with time there is the fusion of smaller aggregates to generate new large surface aggregates. We attribute the favorability of the adsorption and fusion processes at high pH to reduced electrostatic barriers resulting from the low surface charge density of the aggregates. It is inappropriate in this case to consider the interface to comprise a homogeneous adsorption layer that is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk solution. Our work shows that it can be helpful to consider whether there are macroscopic particles embedded in molecular layers at the air/liquid interface for systems where there is prior knowledge of

  13. Tunable quasi-cw two-micron lasing in diode-pumped crystals of mixed Tm{sup 3+}-doped sodium - lanthanum - gadolinium molybdates and tungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Bol'shchikov, F A; Ryabochkina, P A; Zharikov, Evgeny V; Lis, Denis A; Subbotin, Kirill A; Zakharov, N G; Antipov, Oleg L

    2010-12-09

    Two-micron lasing is obtained for the first time on the {sup 3}F{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6} transition of Tm{sup 3+} ions in diode-pumped crystals of mixed sodium - lanthanum - gadolinium tungstate Tm:NaLa{sub 1/2}Gd{sub 1/2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (C{sub Tm} = 3.6 at %) (3.6Tm : NLGW) and molybdate Tm:NaLa{sub 1/3}Gd{sub 2/3}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (C{sub Tm} = 4.8 at %) (4.8Tm : NLGM). For the 3.6Tm : NLGW crystal, the quasi-cw laser output power exceeded 200 mW and the slope efficiency (with respect to absorbed pump power) for the {pi}- and {sigma}-polarisations at wavelengths of 1908 and 1918 nm was 34% and 30%, respectively. The laser wavelength of this crystal was continuously tuned within the spectral range of 1860 - 1935 nm. For the 4.8Tm : NLGM crystal, the slope efficiency for the {pi}- and {sigma}-polarisations at wavelengths of 1910 and 1918 nm was 27% and 23%, respectively, and the laser wavelength was tunable within the spectral range of 1870 - 1950 nm. (lasers)

  14. A mixed iron-manganese based pyrophosphate cathode, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, for rechargeable sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Rana A; Park, Chan Sun; Raja, Arsalan A; Shin, Jaeho; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2016-02-07

    The development of secondary batteries based on abundant and cheap elements is vital. Among various alternatives to conventional lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are promising due to the abundant resources and low cost of sodium. While there are many challenges associated with the SIB system, cathode is an important factor in determining the electrochemical performance of this battery system. Accordingly, ongoing research in the field of SIBs is inclined towards the development of safe, cost effective cathode materials having improved performance. In particular, pyrophosphate cathodes have recently demonstrated decent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. Herein, we report the synthesis, electrochemical properties, and thermal behavior of a novel Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 cathode for SIBs. The material was synthesized through a solid state process. The structural analysis reveals that the mixed substitution of manganese and iron has resulted in a triclinic crystal structure (P1[combining macron] space group). Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is electrochemically active with a reversible capacity of ∼80 mA h g(-1) at a C/20 rate with an average redox potential of 3.2 V. (vs. Na/Na(+)). It is noticed that 84% of initial capacity is preserved over 90 cycles showing promising cyclability. It is also noticed that the rate capability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 is better than Na2MnP2O7. Ex situ and CV analyses indicate that Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 undergoes a single phase reaction rather than a biphasic reaction due to different Na coordination environment and different Na site occupancy when compared to other pyrophosphate materials (Na2FeP2O7 and Na2MnP2O7). Thermogravimetric analysis (25-550 °C) confirms good thermal stability of Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7 with only 2% weight loss. Owing to promising electrochemical properties and decent thermal stability, Na2Fe0.5Mn0.5P2O7, can be an attractive cathode for SIBs.

  15. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and....1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic.... Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b)...

  16. Separation and determination of anesthetics by capillary electrophoresis with mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate and Tween 20 using electrochemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ming; Li, Jie; Yang, Yang; Du, Jun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    A simple and new method for the simultaneous determination of procaine (Pro), lidocaine (Lid), ropivacaine (Rop) and bupivacaine (Bup) was developed using capillary electrophoresis separation with mixed micelles and electrochemiluminescence detection. The use of mixed micelles of 2.0 × 10(-3)  mol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 8.0 × 10(-3)  mol/L Tween 20 greatly improved separation selectivity. The detection sensitivities of four drugs with a Pt working electrode were increased by modification of the Pt electrode with europium(III)-doped Prussian Blue analog (Eu-PB). Under optimal conditions, the four local anesthetics were well separated and detected. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) of Pro, Lid, Rop and Bup in standard solution are 2.5 × 10(-8) , 1.3 × 10(-8) , 3.0 × 10(-8) and 4.1 × 10(-8)  mol/L, respectively. The limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N = 10) of Pro, Lid, Rop and Bup are 2.3 × 10(-7) , 1.2 × 10(-7) , 3.7 × 10(-7) and 5.6 × 10(-7)  mol/L in a human urine sample, and 8.5 × 10(-7) , 6.9 × 10(-7) , 2.8 × 10(-6) and 1.1 × 10(-6)  mol/L in a human serum sample, respectively. The recoveries of four drugs at different spiked concentrations in human urine and serum samples were between 86.5 and 107.6%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine local anesthetics in biofluids.

  17. Effects of wortmannin, sodium nitroprusside, insulin, genistein, and guanosine triphosphate on chemotaxis and cell growth of Entodinium caudatum, Epidinium caudatum, and mixed ruminal protozoa.

    PubMed

    Diaz, H L; Knapp, J R; Karnati, S K R; Dehority, B A; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which ruminal protozoa sense and migrate toward nutrients are not fully understood. Chemotaxis by many diverse eukaryotic cells is mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, which is highly conserved in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways and consistently inhibited by wortmannin. In experiment 1a, increasing the concentration of wortmannin inhibited cell growth nonlinearly at 24h of a culture of the rumen protozoan Entodinium caudatum, but high variability prevented growth inhibition of Epidinium caudatum from reaching significance. In experiment 1b, increasing the insulin concentration recovered 24-h cell counts for both cultures, depending on wortmannin concentration. In experiment 2, addition of sodium nitroprusside (Snp; activator of protein kinase G for cilial beat reversal in nonrumen ciliate models) at 500µM or wortmannin at 200µM in beakers containing rumen fluid decreased random swimming by mixed entodiniomorphids into capillary tubes (inserted into beakers) containing saline. Both Snp and wortmannin increased chemotaxis into tubes containing glucose compared with the beaker control. For isotrichids, beaker treatments had no response. Glucose increased chemotaxis, but peptides decreased chemotaxis even when combined with glucose. In experiment 3, we assessed preincubation of genistein (a purported RTK blocker in nonrumen ciliate models) at 40 or 400µM in beakers and guanosine triphosphate (GTP; a universal chemorepellent in nonrumen ciliate models, perhaps mediated through an RTK) at 10 or 100µM combined with glucose in capillary tubes. Neither genistein nor GTP affected chemotaxis toward glucose for entodiniomorphids. However, GTP at 100µM reduced chemotaxis toward glucose for isotrichids. After the animal is fed, isotrichids that are depleted in glycogen migrate to the dorsal area of the rumen, and the rapid uptake of sugars is enhanced through strong chemotaxis but can be reversed by peptides or GTP. In contrast

  18. Sodium - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due to: Use of medicines ... overview Hepatorenal syndrome Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Ions Low sodium level Nephrotic syndrome Sweating Review ...

  19. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  20. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2 hours after meals, with a full glass of water. If you are using sodium bicarbonate for another reason, it may be taken with or without food. Do not take sodium bicarbonate on an overly full stomach.Dissolve sodium bicarbonate powder in at least 4 ounces (120 milliliters) of ...

  1. Sodium Azide

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to sodium azide by drinking the contaminated water. Following contamination of food with sodium azide, you could be exposed to sodium azide by eating the contaminated food. Following release of ... with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. ...

  2. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  3. The mixed glass former effect in 0.5(Sodium Sulfide) + 0.5[x(Germanium Sulfide) + (1-x)PS5/2] glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Christian Michael

    The rapidly growing global energy demand, especially for energy from renewable sources, requires development of longer-lasting, safer, and smaller batteries. Ion-conducting glasses are of particular interest as candidates for solid electrolyte materials in next-generation batteries. Commercial solid-state electrolytes require an ionic conductivity of at least 10-3 S/cm. In order to meet this design constraint, development of new ion-conducting glasses is required. An increase or decrease in the ionic conductivity of glasses can be achieved by mixing two glass former cations at constant fraction of the mobile cation, known as the mixed glass former effect (MGFE). This enhancement or depression of the ionic conductivity is non-linear and non-additive, and its cause is currently unknown. The 0.5Na2S + 0.5[xGeS 2 + (1-x)PS5/2] glasses exhibit a negative MGFE in Na + ion conductivity. If the cause of this depression in the Na + ion conductivity is better understood, it may enable the design of mixed glass former systems that will exhibit enhancement of the ionic conductivity. We hypothesis that changes in short range order structures occur when the thio-phosphate and thio-germanate glass networks are mixed, causing the negative MGFE. Our comprehensive study of the glass structure and physical properties of the 0.5Na2S + 0.5[xGeS2 + (1-x)PS5/2] glasses shows that structural changes in the ternary glasses strongly correlate with the decrease in the ionic conductivity.

  4. Scaling approach and thermal-hydraulic analysis in the reactor cavity cooling system of a high temperature gas -cooled reactor and thermal-jet mixing in a sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotowa, Olumuyiwa A.

    This dissertation develops and demonstrates the application of the top-down and bottom-up scaling methodologies to thermal-hydraulic flows in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of the high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and upper plenum of the sodium fast reactor (SFR), respectively. The need to integrate scaled separate effects and integral tests was identified. Experimental studies and computational tools (CFD) have been integrated to guide the engineering design, analysis and assessment of this scaling methods under single and two-phase flow conditions. To test this methods, two applicable case studies are considered, and original contributions are noted. Case 1: "Experimental Study of RCCS for the HTGR". Contributions include validation of scaling analysis using the top-down approach as guide to a ¼-scale integral test facility. System code, RELAP5, was developed based on the derived scaling parameters. Tests performed included system sensitivity to decay heat load and heat sink inventory variations. System behavior under steady-state and transient scenarios were predicted. Results show that the system has the capacity to protect the cavity walls from over-heating during normal operations and provide a means for decay heat removal under accident scenarios. A full width half maximum statistical method was devised to characterize the thermal-hydraulics of the non-linear two-phase oscillatory behavior. This facilitated understanding of the thermal hydraulic coupling of the loop segments of the RCCS, the heat transfer, and the two-phase flashing flow phenomena; thus the impact of scaling overall. Case 2: "Computational Studies of Thermal Jet Mixing in SFR". In the pool-type SFR, susceptible regions to thermal striping are the upper instrumentation structure and the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). We investigated the thermal mixing above the core to UIS and the potential impact due to poor mixing. The thermal mixing of dual-jet flows at different

  5. Dalteparin sodium.

    PubMed

    Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

    2001-08-01

    Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications.

  6. Sodium MRI.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Sodium ((23)Na) imaging has a place somewhere between (1)H-MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Like MRS it potentially provides information on metabolic processes, but only one single resonance of ionic (23)Na is observed. Therefore pulse sequences do not need to code for a chemical shift dimension, allowing (23)Na images to be obtained at high resolutions as compared to MRS. In this chapter the biological significance of sodium in the brain will be discussed, as well as methods for observing it with (23)Na-MRI. Many vital cellular processes and interactions in excitable tissues depend on the maintenance of a low intracellular and high extracellular sodium concentration. Healthy cells maintain this concentration gradient at the cost of energy. Leaky cell membranes or an impaired energy metabolism immediately leads to an increase in cytosolic total tissue sodium. This makes sodium a biomarker for ischemia, cancer, excessive tissue activation, or tissue damage as might be caused by ablation therapy. Special techniques allow quantification of tissue sodium for the monitoring of disease or therapy in longitudinal studies or preferential observation of the intracellular component of the tissue sodium. New methods and high-field magnet technology provide new opportunities for (23)Na-MRI in clinical and biomedical research.

  7. Mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on glassy carbon electrodes: Ion-exchange, permselectivity properties and analytical application of poly-l-lysine-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-coated mercury film electrodes for the detection of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Monterroso, Sandra C C; Carapuça, Helena M; Duarte, Armando C

    2006-02-28

    The present work describes the preparation, optimization and characterization of mixed polyelectrolyte coatings of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) for the modification of thin mercury film electrodes (MFEs). The novel-modified electrodes were applied in the direct analysis of trace metals in estuarine waters by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The effects of the coating morphology and thickness and also of the monomeric molar ratio PLL/PSS on the cation-exchange ability of the PLL-PSS polyelectrolyte coatings onto glassy carbon (GC) were evaluated using target cationic species such as dopamine (DA) or lead cation. Further, the semi-permeability of the PLL-PSS-coated electrodes based both on electrostatic interactions and on molecular size leads to an improved anti-fouling ability against several tensioactive species. The analytical usefulness of the PLL-PSS-mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on thin mercury film electrodes is demonstrated via SWASV measurements of trace metals (lead, copper and cadmium at the low nanomolar level; accumulation time of 180s) in estuarine waters containing moderate levels of dissolved organic matter, resulting in a fast and direct methodology requiring no sample pretreatment.

  8. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-an; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-qiong; Zheng, Chun-hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix.

  9. Mixed lithium-sodium (LiNaCO3) and lithium-potassium (LiKCO3) carbonates for low temperature electrochemical applications: Structure, electronic properties and surface reconstruction from ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Chiara; Ringuedé, Armelle; Cassir, Michel; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    The structural, electronic and surface properties of the mixed lithium-sodium (LiNaCO3) and lithium-potassium (LiKCO3) carbonates were studied through periodic calculations performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using three different exchange-correlation functionals. The hybrid functional PBE0 was found to be the best one to describe both geometric and electronic features of bulk LiNaCO3 and LiKCO3. Polar (001) and non-polar (110) low index surfaces were taken into account, the first one being found the most stable in both cases, after reconstruction. Both introduction of vacancies (R1) and octopolar terminations (R2) of (001), exposing Li ((001)Li) or Na ((001)Na) were described in detail. The computed stability order for the reconstructed surfaces in gas phase is: (001)R1Na > > (001)R1Li > (001)R2Na ≈ (001)R2Li. The obtained information, in particular regarding the electronic and surface properties, could be used in future to help understanding the role of mixed carbonates as component of oxide-carbonate electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) applications, especially as reasonable starting points for dynamics calculations of liquid molten carbonates based systems.

  10. Mixed Hemi/Ad-Micelle Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for the Efficient Removal and Trace Determination of Rhodamine-B and Rhodamine-6G.

    PubMed

    Ranjbari, Elias; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Kiekens, Filip; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-08-04

    Mixed hemi/ad-micelle sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MHAMS-MIONPs) were used as an efficient adsorbent for both removal and preconcentration of two important carcinogenic xanthine dyes named rhodamine-B (RB) and rhodamine-6G (RG). To gain insight in the configuration of SDS molecules on the surface of MIONPs, zeta potential measurements were performed in different [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios. Zeta potential data indicated that mixed hemi/ad-micelle MHAM was formed in [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios over the range of 1.1 to 7.3. Parameters affecting the adsorption of dyes were optimized as removal efficiency by one variable at-a-time and response surface methodology; the obtained removal efficiencies were ∼100%. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies, under the optimum condition (pH = 2; amount of MIONPs = 87.15 mg; [SDS]/[MIONP] ratio = 2.9), showed that adsorption of both dyes are based on the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities for RB and RG were 385 and 323 mg g(-1), respectively. MHAMS-MIONPs were also applied for extraction of RB and RG. Under optimum conditions (pH = 2; amount of damped MHAMS-MIONPs = 90 mg; eluent solvent volume = 2.6 mL of 3% acetic acid in acetonitrile), extraction recoveries for 0.5 mg L(-1) of RB and RG were 98% and 99%, with preconcentration factors of 327 and 330, respectively. Limit of detection obtained for rhodamine dyes were <0.7 ng mL(-1). Finally, MHAMS-MIONPs were successfully applied for both removal and trace determination of RB and RG in environmental and wastewater samples.

  11. New mixed ligand zinc(II) complexes based on the antiepileptic drug sodium valproate and bioactive nitrogen-donor ligands. Synthesis, structure and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Darawsheh, Mohanad; Abu Ali, Hijazi; Abuhijleh, A Latif; Rappocciolo, Emilia; Akkawi, Mutaz; Jaber, Suhair; Maloul, Salam; Hussein, Yasmeen

    2014-07-23

    Starting from the precursor [Zinc Valproate complex] (1), new mixed ligand zinc(II) complexes of valproic acid and nitrogen-based ligands, formulating as, [Zn(valp)22,9-dmphen] (2), [Zn2(valp)4(quin)2] (3), [Zn(valp)2(2-ampy)2] (4), and [Zn(valp)2(2-ampic)2] (5) (valp = valproate, 2,9-dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, quin = quinoline, 2-ampy = 2-aminopyridine, 2-ampic = 2-amino-6-picoline) were synthesized and characterized using IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C{(1)H} NMR and UV-Vis spectrometry. The crystal structures of complexes 2, 3 and 4 were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complexes were also evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity using in-vitro agar diffusion method against three Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) species. Complex 2 showed considerable activity against all tested microorganisms and the effect of complexation on the anti-bacterial activity of the parent ligand of 2 was also investigated. The anti-bacterial activity of 2,9-dmphen against Gram-negative bacteria was enhanced upon complexation with zinc valproate. On the other hand, complexes 1 and 3 showed weak inhibition activity against the tested species and complexes 4 and 5 didn't show any activity at all. Two methods were used for testing the inhibition of ferriprotoporphyrinIX bio-mineralization: a semi-quantitative micro-assay and a previously self-developed quantitative in-vitro method. Both were used to study the efficiency of these complexes in inhibiting the formation of the Malaria pigment which considered being the target of many known anti-malarial drugs such as Chloroquine and Amodiaquine. Results showed that the efficiency of complex 2 in preventing the formation of β-Hematin was 80%. The efficiency of Amodiaquine as a standard drug was reported to give 91%.

  12. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  15. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  16. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  17. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  18. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  19. The roles of electronic exchange and correlation in charge-transfer- to-solvent dynamics: Many-electron nonadiabatic mixed quantum/classical simulations of photoexcited sodium anions in the condensed phase.

    PubMed

    Glover, William J; Larsen, Ross E; Schwartz, Benjamin J

    2008-10-28

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) reactions of solvated atomic anions serve as ideal models for studying the dynamics of electron transfer: The fact that atomic anions have no internal degrees of freedom provides one of the most direct routes to understanding how the motions of solvent molecules influence charge transfer, and the relative simplicity of atomic electronic structure allows for direct contact between theory and experiment. To date, molecular dynamics simulations of the CTTS process have relied on a single-electron description of the atomic anion-only the electron involved in the charge transfer has been treated quantum mechanically, and the electronic structure of the atomic solute has been treated via pseudopotentials. In this paper, we examine the severity of approximating the electronic structure of CTTS anions with a one-electron model and address the role of electronic exchange and correlation in both CTTS electronic structure and dynamics. To do this, we perform many-electron mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations of the ground- and excited-state properties of the aqueous sodium anion (sodide). We treat both of the sodide valence electrons quantum mechanically and solve the Schrodinger equation using configuration interaction with singles and doubles (CISD), which provides an exact solution for two electrons. We find that our multielectron simulations give excellent general agreement with experimental results on the CTTS spectroscopy and dynamics of sodide in related solvents. We also compare the results of our multielectron simulations to those from one-electron simulations on the same system [C. J. Smallwood et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11263 (2003)] and find substantial differences in the equilibrium CTTS properties and the nonadiabatic relaxation dynamics of one- and two-electron aqueous sodide. For example, the one-electron model substantially underpredicts the size of sodide, which in turn results in a dramatically

  20. Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kathryn; Jacob, Sharon E

    2010-01-01

    Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SHMG) is a preservative used in many commercially available products, including shampoos, conditioners, soaps, moisturizers, body sprays, baby wipes, room sprays, cleaning agents, and pesticides. It is in a class of chemicals known as formaldehyde-releasing preservatives. Notably, members of this class have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis, possibly due to the agents themselves, the formaldehyde they release, or both. Studies on SHMG in animals have demonstrated potential for sensitization and dermatitis, and formaldehyde-allergic patients have been reported to improve when products containing SHMG are avoided. Patients and providers need to be aware of this preservative.

  1. The Perceptual Characteristics of Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    PubMed

    St John, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Three experiments assessed potential changes in the rat's perception of sodium chloride (NaCl) during a state of sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sodium-sufficient rats licking a range of NaCl concentrations (0.028-0.89M) in 15s trials showed an inverted U-shaped concentration response function peaking at 0.281M. Depleted rats (furosemide) showed an identical function, merely elevated, suggesting altered qualitative or hedonic perception but no change in perceived intensity. In Experiment 2, sodium-depleted rats were tested with NaCl, sodium gluconate, and potassium chloride (KCl; 0.028-0.89M) similar to Experiment 1. KCl was licked at the same rate as water except for a slight elevation at 0.158; sodium gluconate and NaCl were treated similarly, but rats showed more licking for hypertonic sodium gluconate than hypertonic NaCl. Sodium-depleted rats were also tested with NaCl mixed in amiloride (10-300 μM). Amiloride reduced licking but did not alter the shape of the concentration-response function. Collectively, these results suggest that transduction of sodium by epithelial sodium channels (which are blocked by amiloride and are more dominant in sodium gluconate than NaCl transduction) is crucial for the perception of sodium during physiological sodium depletion. In Experiment 3, sodium-deplete rats were tested with NaCl as in Experiment 1 but after taste aversion conditioning to 0.3M NaCl or sucrose. Rats conditioned to avoid NaCl but not sucrose failed to express a sodium appetite, strongly suggesting that NaCl does not undergo a change in taste quality during sodium appetite-rats show no confusion between sucrose and NaCl in this paradigm. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of US Government 2016.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorothymol, mixed cresols, m-cresol, o-cresol, p-cresol, isopropyl cresols, thymol, o-cymen-5-ol, and carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Sodium p-Chloro-m-Cresol, p-Chloro-m-Cresol (PCMC), Mixed Cresols, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, p-Cresol, Isopropyl Cresols, Thymol, Chlorothymol, o-Cymen-5-ol, and Carvacrol are substituted phenols used as cosmetic biocides/preservatives and/or fragrance ingredients. Only PCMC, Thymol, and o-Cymen-5-ol are reported to be in current use, with the highest concentration of use at 0.5% for o-Cymen-5-ol in perfumes. The use of PCMC in cosmetics is restricted in Europe and Japan. Cresols can be absorbed through skin, the respiratory tract, and the digestive tract; metabolized by the liver; and excreted by the kidney as glucuronide and sulfate metabolites. Several of these cresols increase the dermal penetration of other agents, including azidothymidine. In acute oral toxicity studies, LD50 values were in the 200 to 5000 mg/kg day-1 range across several species. In short-term studies in rats and mice, an o-Cresol, m-Cresol, p-Cresol or m-Cresol/p-Cresol mixture at 30,000 ppm in the diet produced increases in liver and kidney weights, deficits in liver function, bone marrow hypocellularity, irritation to the gastrointestinal tract and nasal epithelia, and atrophy of female reproductive organs. The no observed effect levels (NOEL) of o-Cresol was 240 mg/kg in mink and 778 mg/kg in ferrets in short-term feeding studies, with no significant dose-related toxicity (excluding body weight parameters). In mice, 0.5% p-Cresol, but neither m-Cresol nor o-Cresol, caused loss of pigmentation. Short-term and subchronic oral toxicity tests performed with various cresols using mice, rats, hamsters, and rabbits resulted in no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for mice of 625 ppm and rats of 50 mg/kg day-1, although the NOEL was 2000 ppm in a chronic study using rats. In rabbits, < or =160 mg/kg PCMC was found to produce irritation and erythema, but no systemic effects. Hamsters dosed with 1.5% p-Cresol in diet for 20 weeks had a greater incidence of mild and moderate forestomach hyperplasia

  3. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 Ω m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 Ω m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 μV K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 μV K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  4. Naproxen sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  5. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  8. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet Images Sodium content References Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the ...

  9. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  10. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... osmolality Urine sodium Treatment The cause of low sodium must be diagnosed and treated. If cancer is the cause of the condition, then radiation, chemotherapy , or surgery to remove the tumor may correct the sodium imbalance. Other treatments depend on the specific type ...

  11. Sodium in feline nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V

    2016-08-23

    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  12. Increased dietary sodium is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Brunelli, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary sodium is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, hypervolemia and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Thus, restriction is almost universally recommended. However, the evidence on which these assumptions are based is limited. We undertook a post-hoc analysis of the Hemodialysis Study with available dietary, clinical and laboratory information. Linear regression models were fit to estimate associations of dietary sodium with ultrafiltration requirement, blood pressure and nutritional indices. Cox regression models were fit to estimate the association of dietary sodium intake, sodium:calorie intake, sodium:potassium intake and prescribed sodium restriction with all-cause mortality. Complete data were available in 1770 subjects, of whom 44% were male, 63% were black and 44% were diabetic. Mean age was 58 (±14) years; median dietary sodium intake was 2080 (IQR: 1490-2850) mg/day. After case-mix adjustment, higher reported dietary sodium was associated with greater ultrafiltration requirement, caloric and protein intake; sodium:calorie intake ratio associated with greater UF requirement; sodium:potassium ratio associated with higher serum sodium. None were associated with pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure. Higher baseline reported dietary sodium, sodium:calorie ratio and sodium:potassium ratio were independently associated with greater all-cause mortality. No associations between prescribed dietary sodium restriction and mortality were observed. Higher reported dietary sodium intake is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis subjects. Randomized trials are warranted to determine whether dietary sodium restriction improves survival. PMID:22418981

  13. Renal sodium handling and sodium sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Frame, Alissa A.; Wainford, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity. This review highlights recent advances that have provided new insight into the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure, with a focus on genetic, inflammatory, dietary, sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress mechanisms that influence renal sodium excretion. Increased understanding of the multiple integrated mechanisms that regulate the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and refine dietary guidelines designed to treat and prevent hypertension. PMID:28680820

  14. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  15. Stability of Colistimethate Sodium in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, W.; Fuchs, E. J.; Griffiss, J. M.; Salata, R. A.; Blumer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Colistimethate sodium, increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, spontaneously hydrolyzes to form colistin A (polymyxin E1) and B (polymyxin E2/B) when mixed with water. High levels of these active breakdown products at the time of administration have been associated with nephrotoxicity and even death. In this study, reconstituted colistimethate sodium was shown to be stable (<1.0% colistin A/B formation) for up to 24 h when stored at 21, 0, −20, and −70°C. PMID:23070159

  16. Cation modulation of hemoglobin interaction with sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS). III: Calcium interaction with R- and mixed spin states of hemoglobin S at pH 5.0: the musical chair paradox.

    PubMed

    Nwamba, Charles O; Chilaka, Ferdinand C; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of Ca(2+) (0-500 µM) and a membrane mimic (0.60 mM SDS) with both the R- and mixed spin states hemoglobin S (HbS) as a function of time. These interactions were carried out at pH 5.0. We aim at ascertaining if there is or are differences in the UV-Visible spectra of such interactions to account for the dynamics of calcium ion concentrations [Ca(2+)] in initiating structures which may ultimately suggest HbS polymerization and or resistance to Plasmodium attack. From our results, we conclude that (a) simultaneous interaction of 40 µM Ca(2+) and 0.60 mM SDS with the R state protein would promote structural formations that can "lock up" the protein for nucleation on the membranes and or become cytotoxic to the parasite; (b) simultaneous R state HbS-SDS or R state HbS-Ca(2+) would lead to enhanced hemin formation and less deoxyHb species. This condition is unlikely to precipitate polymerization in the HbS but the resulting hemin would poison the parasite; (c) the mixed spin state HbS-SDS and 40 µM Ca(2+) interaction yields more toxic products to that of the interaction of the mixed spin HbS-SDS with 500 µM Ca(2+) thus suggesting why the 40 µM Ca(2+) is important in parasite Hb proteolysis; and (d) pronounced structural changes on interaction with SDS and Ca(2+) are more in the R state to the mixed spin state.

  17. Miscibility of sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the adsorbed film and aggregate.

    PubMed

    Iyota, Hidemi; Krastev, Rumen

    2009-04-01

    The adsorption, micelle formation, and salting out of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of sodium chloride were studied from the viewpoint of their mixed adsorption and aggregate formation. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of a sodium chloride-sodium dodecyl sulfate mixture was measured as a function of the total molality and composition of the mixture. Phase diagrams of adsorption and aggregate formation were obtained by applying thermodynamic equations to the surface tension. Judging from the phase diagrams, sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate are miscible in the adsorbed film at very large composition of sodium chloride and in the salted-out crystalline particle, while they are immiscible in the micelle. The miscibilities in the adsorbed film, micelle, and crystalline particle increase in the following order: particle > adsorbed film > micelle. The difference in miscibility among the oriented states was ascribed to the difference in geometry between the adsorbed film and micelle and to the interaction between bilayer surfaces in the particle.

  18. Stability of octreotide acetate decreases in a sodium bisulfate concentration-dependent manner: compatibility study with morphine and metoclopramide injections.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kouichi; Wada, Junko; Ohkubo, Jun; Nitta, Atsumi; Ikezaki, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Miyako; Handa, Aya; Tanaka, Mai; Murakami, Nozomu; Kashii, Tatsuhiko; Kitazawa, Hidenori

    2015-05-01

    Sodium bisulfate is known to affect the stability of octreotide. However, the critical concentration of sodium bisulfate is not known. Therefore, we assessed the critical concentration of sodium bisulfate needed to preserve the stability of octreotide using actual drugs containing sodium bisulfate. Although morphine and metoclopramide preparations are considered to be compatible with octreotide, some of their products are known to contain sodium bisulfate. Thus, octreotide was mixed with preparations of sodium bisulfate solutions at serial concentrations and morphine and metoclopramide preparations containing sodium bisulfate, and octreotide stability was then evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography. Octreotide concentrations decreased significantly at a sodium bisulfate concentration of 0.1 mg/mL or higher after 10 days when octreotide was mixed with sodium bisulfate solutions at various concentrations. A significant decrease in octreotide concentrations also occurred when it was mixed with morphine and metoclopramide preparations containing sodium bisulfate and stored for 10 days; however, slight decreases were observed in the mixture with both preparations and were within the clinically acceptable range for morphine preparations. These results indicate that the residual rate of octreotide decreases with time in a sodium bisulfate concentration-dependent manner when octreotide was mixed with morphine or metoclopramide. However, this incompatibility may be clinically acceptable when the final sodium bisulfate concentration is lower than 0.1 mg/mL and the mixed solution is used within 7 days.

  19. New mixed ligand palladium(II) complexes based on the antiepileptic drug sodium valproate and bioactive nitrogen-donor ligands: Synthesis, structural characterization, binding interactions with DNA and BSA, in vitro cytotoxicity studies and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Leila; Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Tavakol, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    The complexes [Pd(valp)2(imidazole)2] (1), [Pd(valp)2(pyrazine)2] (2) (valp is sodium valproate) have been synthesized and characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C{1H} NMR and UV-Vis spectrometry. The interaction of complexes with CT-DNA has been investigated using spectroscopic tools and viscosity measurement. In each case, the association constant (Kb) was deduced from the absorption spectral study and the number of binding sites (n) and the binding constant (K) were calculated from relevant fluorescence quenching data. As a result, a non-covalent interaction between the metal complex and DNA was suggested, which could be assigned to an intercalative binding. In addition, the interaction of 1 and 2 was ventured with bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. Through these techniques, the apparent association constant (Kapp) and the binding constant (K) could be calculated for each complex. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of the complexes against four different cancer cell lines proved that the complexes exhibited cytotoxic specificity and significant cancer cell inhibitory rate. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to provide more evidence about the observed data. The majority of trans isomers were supported not only by energies, but also by the similarity of its calculated IR frequencies, UV adsorptions and NMR chemical shifts to the experimental values.

  20. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  1. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  2. Iron bioavailability from a lipid-based complementary food fortificant mixed with millet porridge can be optimized by adding phytase and ascorbic acid but not by using a mixture of ferrous sulfate and sodium iron EDTA.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Mitchikpe, Evariste; Tossou, Felicien; Hessou, Joamel; Zeder, Christophe; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-08-01

    Home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) is a promising approach to improve bioavailable iron and energy intake of young children in developing countries. To optimize iron bioavailability from an LNS named complementary food fortificant (CFF), 3 stable isotope studies were conducted in 52 young Beninese children. Test meals consisted of millet porridge mixed with CFF and ascorbic acid (AA). Study 1 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals with meals fortified with a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA. Study 2 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals without or with extra AA. Study 3 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortified meals with meals containing phytase added prior to consumption, once without or once with extra AA. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes. In study 1, iron absorption from FeSO4 (8.4%) was higher than that from the mixture of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 (5.9%; P < 0.05). In study 2, the extra AA increased absorption (11.6%) compared with the standard AA concentration (7.3%; P < 0.001). In study 3, absorption from meals containing phytase without or with extra AA (15.8 and 19.9%, respectively) increased compared with meals without phytase (8.0%; P < 0.001). The addition of extra AA to meals containing phytase increased absorption compared with the test meals containing phytase without extra AA (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that phytase and AA, and especially a combination of the two, but not a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA would be useful strategies to increase iron bioavailability from a CFF mixed with cereal porridge.

  3. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  4. No Sodium in Enceladus' Vapor Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Burger, M. H.; Johnson, R. E.; Kargel, J. S.; Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Dougherty, M.; Achilleos, N.

    2009-05-01

    The discovery of water vapor and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fueled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. The presence or absence of sodium chloride salt, expected in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core, offers clues. While sodium has been detected in particles escaping Enceladus (Postberg et al., submitted), by far the vast majority of mass escapes in gaseous form. Here we report results from a groundbased spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus which places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapor plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity. The low sodium content of escaping vapor, plus the small fraction of salt-bearing particles, argues against a scenario in which a deep, salty ocean fuels a near-surface geyser through cracks in the crust. The observed low-sodium vapor is consistent with a wide variety of alternative eruption hypotheses from liquid water or from ice, and offers significant constraints on each. The combination of Cassini and groundbased data may be insufficient to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  5. Characterization of Gelatin-Sodium Alginate Complex Coacervation System

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Ujwala A.; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2009-01-01

    A gelatin and sodium alginate complex coacervation system was studied and an effect of pH and colloid mixing ratios on coacervation was investigated. A colloid mixing ratio at which optimum coacervation occurred varied with the coacervation pH. Viscometric, turbidity and coacervate dry yield investigations were used to investigate optimum conditions for complex coacervation. Optimum coacervation occurred at pH 3.5 at a gelatin sodium alginate ratio 4:1. Coacervate and equilibrium fluid was analyzed for gelatin and sodium alginate contents and yields calculated on the basis of chemical analysis showed that optimum coacervation occurred at 25% sodium alginate fraction at pH 3.5. PMID:20490302

  6. Development of a Stable Leavening System for Bakery Mixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    due to interaction with moisture in the product during prolonged high temperature storage. A variety of methods was tried which would provide a... method was developed into a two layered bakery mix, separating the sodium bicarbonate from the moisture containing ingredients of the mix. Physical...in a layered mix method were successful in preventing the premature escape of carbon dioxide.

  7. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  8. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  9. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  10. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  11. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate is usually not very toxic. However, if you swallow very large amounts, you may have symptoms. In this rare situation, long-term effects, even death, are possible if you do not receive quick and aggressive treatment.

  12. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy.

  13. [Disorders of sodium metabolism].

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Torres, D

    1991-08-01

    We do not know why sodium was chosen to fill the extracellular space while potassium occupies the intracellular area. The sodium/potassium pump was placed in charge of maintaining this separation. The usual sodium blood concentration, in vertebrates, and in all ages, ranges from 135 to 145 mmol/L, although it may decrease with age. The maintenance of its concentration within these limits, as well as the total amount locally deposited are regulated by an intertwined net of sensors and effectors found in the Central Nervous System, in the cardiovascular apparatus including the right auricle, in the kidneys and adrenal glands, or indirectly due to a number of factors which act on the sodium/potassium pump--for examples the thyroid hormone, the digestive system and the skin. The changes in the metabolism and regulation of water and sodium may cause an excess (hypernatremia) or a deficit (hyponatremia) in the concentration of sodium in plasma--either extreme can be fatal. The prompt correction of these changes should include treating the causes while taking into consideration the time they took to occur. The most frequent cause of these changes in children is diarrheal disease and its inadequate treatment. The correct administration of the oral rehydrating solution recommended by the World Health Organization can prevent fatal endings.

  14. Bleaching of a discoloured non-vital tooth: use of a sodium perborate/water paste as the bleaching agent.

    PubMed

    Macey-Dare, L V; Williams, B

    1997-03-01

    Bleaching materials containing hydrogen peroxide have been used successfully for the treatment of discoloured non-vital teeth; however, their use has occasionally been associated with external root resorption. Some evidence exists that sodium perborate mixed with water is as effective as sodium perborate mixed with hydrogen peroxide. A case is presented which supports this and a step-by-step technique is described.

  15. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  16. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate ranged from negligible to severe, depending on the species tested and the molar ratio and concentration tested. Sodium Metasilicate was negative in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), but a delayed-type hypersensitivity response was observed in mice. Potassium Silicate was nonirritating in two acute eye irritation studies in rabbits. Sodium Metasilicate (42.4% H2O) was corrosive to the rabbit eye. Sodium Silicate was a severe eye irritant in some eye irritation studies, but was irritating or nonirritating in others. A skin freshener containing Sodium Silicate was nonirritating. Sodium Metasilicate was nonmutagenic in bacterial cells. Rats given Sodium Silicate (600 and 1200 ppm of added silica) in the drinking water in reproductive studies produced a reduced number of offspring: to 67% of controls at 600 ppm and to 80% of controls at 1200 ppm. Three adult rats injected intratesticularly and subcutaneously with 0.8 mM/kg of Sodium Silicate showed no morphological changes in the testes and no effect on the residual spermatozoa in the ductus deferens. Sodium Metasilicate (37% in a detergent) mixed with water was a severe skin irritant when tested on intact and abraded human skin, but 6%, 7%, and 13% Sodium Silicate were negligible skin irritants to intact and abraded human skin. Sodium Silicate (10% of a 40% aqueous solution) was negative in a repeat-insult predictive patch test in humans. The same aqueous solution of Sodium Silicate was considered a mild irritant under normal use conditions in a study of cumulative irritant properties. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognized the irritation potential of these ingredients, especially in leave-on products. However, because these ingredients have limited dermal absorption and Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS direct food substance, the Panel deemed the ingredients safe for use in cosmetic products in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment, when

  18. Consumer awareness of salt and sodium reduction and sodium labeling.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2012-09-01

    Reduction of dietary sodium by reduction of sodium in foods is a current industry target. Quantitative information on consumer knowledge of sodium and reduction of dietary sodium is limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize consumer knowledge and awareness of sodium and salt reduction in foods. Consumers (n = 489) participated in a quantitative internet survey designed to gather knowledge and attitudes towards dietary sodium, sodium in foods, and health. Eating habits and food consumption characteristics, knowledge of salt and sodium, and interest in health and wellness were probed. Saltiness believe and sodium knowledge indices were calculated based on correct responses to salt levels in food products. Kano analysis was conducted to determine the role of nutrition labels and satisfaction/dissatisfaction of foods. Consumers were aware of the presence of sodium in "salty" foods, and that sodium was part of salt. People who had a family history of certain diseases associated with a higher intake of dietary sodium did not necessarily have more knowledge of the relationship between sodium intake and a specific disease compared to consumers with no family history. Sodium content on the food label panel did not influence consumer dissatisfaction; however, sodium content did not necessarily increase consumer product satisfaction either. The addition of a healthy nutrient (that is, whole grain, fiber) into a current food product was appealing to consumers. For nutrient labeling, a "reduced" claim was more appealing to consumers than a "free" claim for "unhealthy" nutrients such as fat, sodium, and sugar. This study demonstrated the current state of consumer knowledge on sodium and salt reduction, and consumer perception of the relationship between diets high in sodium and many chronic diseases. Information that may contribute to consumer satisfaction on nutrition panel labeling was also determined. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... community Use our Virtual Library Treatment and outcomes back to top Because most people with mixed dementia are diagnosed with a single type of dementia, physicians often base their prescribing decisions on the type of dementia ...

  20. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate on biomechanical properties of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Chng, Hui Kheng; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H

    2002-02-01

    This study compared the ultimate tensile strength, micropunch shear strength, and microhardness of bleached and unbleached human dentin. Forty-four intact premolars were root canal treated and randomly divided into four groups. Bleaching agents were sealed in pulp chambers, as in clinical use. Group 1 (control) was treated with water, group 2 with 30% hydrogen peroxide, group 3 with sodium perborate mixed with water, and group 4 with sodium perborate mixed with 30% hydrogen peroxide. The teeth were stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The teeth were then sectioned and biomechanical tests were carried out on dentin specimens that were obtained from all teeth. Intracoronal bleaching with 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate used either alone or in combination weakened dentin. Hydrogen peroxide alone tended to be more damaging than sodium perborate used alone or sodium perborate mixed with hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  2. Mercury Sodium Tail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft is stitched together from thousands of observations made over the past 4 years by the MASCS/UVVS instrument, which measures sunlight scattered off of Mercury tenuous atmosphere. Scattered sunlight gives the sodium a bright orange glow. This scattering process also gives sodium atoms a push - this "radiation pressure" is strong enough, during parts of Mercury's year, to strip the atmosphere and give Mercury a long glowing tail. Someone standing on Mercury's nightside at the right time of year would see a faint orange similar to a city sky illuminated by sodium lamps! Instrument: Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS)/Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19418

  3. Development of a mesospheric sodium laser beacon for atmospheric adaptive optics. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeys, T.H.

    1991-12-31

    The authors have developed laser sources of sodium-resonance radiation based on the sum-frequency mixing of Nd:YAG laser radiation. The sources are suitable for generating a fluorescence spot in the earth`s mesospheric sodium layer for use in adaptive optics compensation. Taking into account the sodium fluorescence lifetime, Doppler broadening, hyperfine structure, radiative saturation, optical pumping, and radiation pressure, we can optimize the intensity of the fluorescence by using spectral and temporal tailoring of the laser radiation.

  4. Effect of Alcohol on the Spreading Ability of Sodium Hypochlorite Endodontic Irrigant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Research Progress Sodium Hypochlorite Endodontic Irrigant Report (Interim) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU THOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s...depressant significantly increased the ability of the sodium hypochlorite endodontic irrigant to penetrate in vitro. A freshly mixed solution containing 30...by The C. V. Mosby Company) Effect of alcohol on the spreading ability of sodium hypochlorite endodontic irrigant Walter T. Cunningham, D.D.S., M.S

  5. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  6. Using Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate for Foaming Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satin, Lukáš; Likavčan, Lukáš; Košík, Miroslav; Rantuch, Peter; Bílik, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    All plastics products are made of the essential polymer mixed with a complex blend of materials known collectively as additives. Without additives, plastics would not work, but with them, they can be made safer, cleaner, tougher and more colourful. Additives cost money, but by reducing production costs and making products live longer, they help us save money and conserve the world's precious raw material reserves. In fact, our world would be a lot less safe, a lot more expensive and a great deal duller without the additives that turn basic polymers into useful plastics. One of these additives is sodium bicarbonate. Influence of sodium bicarbonate on properties of the product made of polystyrene was observed in the research described in this paper. Since polystyrene is typically used as a material for electrical components, the mechanical properties of tensile strength and inflammability were measured as a priority. Inflammability parameters were measured using a cone calorimeter.

  7. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  8. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  9. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  10. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  11. The sodium zenocorona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    A recent narrow-band-filtered CCD image by Mendillo et al. (1990) has shown that a sodium corona, produced near Io, extends at least 400 Jupiter radii in the planet's equatorial plane. Isophotes indicate that the polar to equatorial extents are in about 1 to 3 proportions. The image can be reproduced by a model which includes both a high- and an intermediate-speed distribution, with source rates of 2.2 and 1.1 x 10 exp 26 atoms/s, respectively. The high-speed distribution was ejected from Io with a velocity tangential to the satellite orbit of 57 km/s (about 74 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 25 km/s. This distribution likely corresponds to a charge exchange source of plasma torus sodium ions which are neutralized in the near-Io atmosphere and are ejected relative to Jupiter with a corotational velocity (74 km/s) plus a thermal ion (25 km/s) Maxwellian distribution. The intermediate speed distribution was ejected from Io with a tangential speed near 20 km/s (37 km/s relative to Jupiter) plus an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of about 12 km/s. This distribution corresponds to the same nonthermal sodium atoms earlier identified near Io in the sodium directional features (Pilcher et al., 1984).

  12. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-02-06

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  13. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  14. Sodium content in major brands of US packaged foods, 2009.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Cathleen; Maalouf, Joyce; Yuan, Keming; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle P; Levings, Jessica; Moshfegh, Alanna; Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Merritt, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Most Americans consume more sodium than is recommended, the vast majority of which comes from commercially packaged and restaurant foods. In 2010 the Institute of Medicine recommended that manufacturers reduce the amount of sodium in their products. The aim was to assess the sodium content in commercially packaged food products sold in US grocery stores in 2009. With the use of sales and nutrition data from commercial sources, we created a database with nearly 8000 packaged food products sold in major US grocery stores in 2009. We estimated the sales-weighted mean and distribution of sodium content (mg/serving, mg/100 g, and mg/kcal) of foods within food groups that contribute the most dietary sodium to the US diet. We estimated the proportion of products within each category that exceed 1) the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) limits for sodium in foods that use a "healthy" label claim and 2) 1150 mg/serving or 50% of the maximum daily intake recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Products in the meat mixed dishes category had the highest mean and median sodium contents per serving (966 and 970 mg, respectively). Products in the salad dressing and vegetable oils category had the highest mean and median concentrations per 100 g (1072 and 1067 mg, respectively). Sodium density was highest in the soup category (18.4 mg/kcal). More than half of the products sold in 11 of the 20 food categories analyzed exceeded the FDA limits for products with a "healthy" label claim. In 4 categories, >10% of the products sold exceeded 1150 mg/serving. The sodium content in packaged foods sold in major US grocery stores varied widely, and a large proportion of top-selling products exceeded limits, indicating the potential for reduction. Ongoing monitoring is necessary to evaluate the progress in sodium reduction. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Emission control of sodium compounds and their formation mechanisms during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuyoshi Takuwa; Ichiro Naruse

    2007-07-01

    In order to control emissions of sodium compounds during coal combustion, the sorbent injection technology is tested during coal combustion. Kaolin is selected as the sorbent to absorb vapors of sodium compounds evolved from the coals. In the combustion experiments, the kaolin is physically mixed with coal. Two types of coal, which have the similar coal properties, are burned. Combustion tests are conducted, using an electrically heated drop tube furnace, to study effect of kaolin addition on the capture characteristics of sodium compounds. In order to elucidate fundamentals on transformation behaviors of sodium compounds during hydrogen-air combustion, chemical kinetic simulation by elementary reactions relating to sodium compounds is also performed, varying the reaction atmosphere. As a result, the kaolin can effectively capture the vapor of sodium compounds even during coal combustion. The capture efficiency depends on the coal type. The sodium compounds for the coals, which produce many fine particles with size of less than 1 {mu}m, tend to be effectively captured by the kaolin. According to the kinetic simulation of sodium species, difference of the reaction atmosphere affects occurrence species of sodium vapor. In the combustion region, the sodium compounds become metallic sodium vapor in any reaction atmospheres due to occurrence of the reducing radical species. HCl gas rather than SO{sub 2} gas plays an important role to transform gaseous sodium compounds. 44 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Increased dietary sodium is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mc Causland, Finnian R; Waikar, Sushrut S; Brunelli, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Dietary sodium is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, hypervolemia, and mortality in hemodialysis patients; hence, sodium restriction is almost universally recommended. Since the evidence upon which to base these assumptions is limited, we undertook a post-hoc analysis of 1770 patients in the Hemodialysis Study with available dietary, clinical, and laboratory information. Within this cohort, 772 were men, 1113 black, and 786 diabetic, with a mean age of 58 years and a median dietary sodium intake of 2080 mg/day. After case-mix adjustment, linear regression modeling found that higher dietary sodium was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement, caloric and protein intake; sodium to calorie intake ratio was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement; and sodium to potassium ratio was associated with higher serum sodium. No indices were associated with the pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure. Cox regression modeling found that higher baseline dietary sodium and the ratio of sodium to calorie or potassium were each independently associated with greater all-cause mortality. No association between a prescribed dietary sodium restriction and mortality were found. Thus, higher reported dietary sodium intake is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients. Randomized trials will be necessary to determine whether dietary sodium restriction improves survival.

  17. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: an antidotal role for sodium nitrite?

    PubMed

    Hall, A H; Rumack, B H

    1997-06-01

    In 2 separate incidents, 6 patients were poisoned with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in sewer gas. In the first incident, mixing acid- and sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaners in a confined space resulted in 4 poisonings and 2 deaths. Three would-be rescuers were seriously poisoned and 1 died. Two survivors had neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite appeared to have some clinical efficacy in 1 case. The second incident involved 2 patients working on a pump in a sewage pond. A patient lying on a raft close to the pond surface was seriously poisoned; sodium nitrite was clinically efficacious and this patient survived without developing neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite deserves further clinical study as a potential H2S antidote.

  19. Vital signs: food categories contributing the most to sodium consumption - United States, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    2012-02-10

    Most of the U.S. population consumes sodium in excess of daily guidelines (<2,300 mg overall and 1,500 mg for specific populations). Excessive sodium consumption raises blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, the nation's first and fourth leading causes of death. Identifying food categories contributing the most to daily sodium consumption can help reduction. Population proportions of sodium consumption from specific food categories and sources were estimated among 7,227 participants aged ≥2 years in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Mean daily sodium consumption was 3,266 mg, excluding salt added at the table. Forty-four percent of sodium consumed came from 10 food categories: bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, pizza, poultry, soups, sandwiches, cheese, pasta mixed dishes, meat mixed dishes, and savory snacks. For most of these categories, >70% of the sodium consumed came from foods obtained at a store. For pizza and poultry, respectively, 51% and 27% of sodium consumed came from foods obtained at fast food/pizza restaurants. Mean sodium consumption per calorie consumed was significantly greater for foods and beverages obtained from fast food/pizza or other restaurants versus stores. Average sodium consumption is too high, reinforcing the importance of implementing strategies to reduce U.S. sodium intake. Nationwide, food manufacturers and restaurants can strive to reduce excess sodium added to foods before purchase. States and localities can implement policies to reduce sodium in foods served in institutional settings (e.g., schools, child care settings, and government cafeterias). Clinicians can counsel most patients to check food labels and select foods lower in sodium.

  20. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  1. The influence of sodium carbonate on sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation and solubility in sodium aluminate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kali; Gerson, Andrea R.; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Smart, Roger St. C.

    1997-01-01

    Isothermal batch precipitation experiments have been carried out in synthetic Bayer liquors to investigate the effects of sodium carbonate concentration on both silica solubility and the crystallisation of sodium aluminosilicates. At both 90 and 160°C cancrinite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate of space group P6 3) is the stable solid phase. Sodalite (generically defined as a sodium aluminosilicate with space group P4¯3n seed transforms to cancrinite at both these temperatures. A high concentration of sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor causes a decrease in the rate of conversion of sodalite to cancrinite. The solubility of both cancrinite and sodalite decreases as the concentration of sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor is increased. For instance at 90°C and with 40.0 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in the synthetic liquor after 13 days the sodium aluminosilicate concentration is 0.52 g dm -3 compared to 0.85 g dm -3 with 4.6 g dm -3 of sodium carbonate in solution. At 160°C the sodium aluminosilicate concentration is 0.47 g dm -3 with 40.0 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in solution after 13 days and 0.79 g dm -3 with 4.6 g dm -3 sodium carbonate in solution. Throughout all these experiments a progressive loss of carbonate from the sodium aluminosilicate crystallisation products was observed as a function of time.

  2. Hanford site sodium management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1995-09-25

    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  3. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  4. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  5. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  6. Introduction to sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Peters, Colin H; Ruben, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are present in many tissue types within the human body including both cardiac and neuronal tissues. Like other channels, VGSCs activate, deactivate, and inactivate in response to changes in membrane potential. VGSCs also have a similar structure to other channels: 24 transmembrane segments arranged into four domains that surround a central pore. The structure and electrical activity of these channels allows them to create and respond to electrical signals in the body. Because of their distribution throughout the body, VGSCs are implicated in a variety of diseases including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and neuropathic pain. As such the study of these channels is essential. This brief review will introduce sodium channel structure, physiology, and pathophysiology.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate...

  11. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  12. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  13. Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

  14. Acute localized exanthematous pustulosis caused by cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam*

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yan-Jing; Jin, Shu-Bin; Han, Xiang-Chun; Zheng, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Acute localized exanthematous pustulosis is a localized variant of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which is characterized by the eruption of multiple scattered pustules following drug administration. A 72-year-old woman presented with multiple erythematous pustules on her face, which had appeared two days after using cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam. Histopathological findings showed subcorneal pustules and mixed inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis. The pustules resolved within about two weeks after the patient discontinued the antibiotics. This report discusses the case of a woman with a cutaneous drug reaction consistent with acute localized exanthematous pustulosis that occurred after cefoperazone and sodium sulbactam were administered. PMID:28099605

  15. Microbubble cloud characterization by nonlinear frequency mixing.

    PubMed

    Cavaro, M; Payan, C; Moysan, J; Baqué, F

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the fourth generation forum, France decided to develop sodium fast nuclear reactors. French Safety Authority requests the associated monitoring of argon gas into sodium. This implies to estimate the void fraction, and a histogram indicating the bubble population. In this context, the present letter studies the possibility of achieving an accurate determination of the histogram with acoustic methods. A nonlinear, two-frequency mixing technique has been implemented, and a specific optical device has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. The acoustically reconstructed histograms are in excellent agreement with those obtained using optical methods.

  16. Mixed Conducting Electrodes for Better AMTEC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret; Williams, Roger; Homer, Margie; Lara. Liana

    2003-01-01

    Electrode materials that exhibit mixed conductivity (that is, both electronic and ionic conductivity) have been investigated in a continuing effort to improve the performance of the alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC). These electrode materials are intended primarily for use on the cathode side of the sodium-ion-conducting solid electrolyte of a sodium-based AMTEC cell. They may also prove useful in sodium-sulfur batteries, which are under study for use in electric vehicles. An understanding of the roles played by the two types of conduction in the cathode of a sodium-based AMTEC cell is prerequisite to understanding the advantages afforded by these materials. In a sodium-based AMTEC cell, the anode face of an anode/solid-electrolyte/cathode sandwich is exposed to Na vapor at a suitable pressure. Upon making contact with the solid electrolyte on the anode side, Na atoms oxidize to form Na+ ions and electrons. Na+ ions then travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. Na+ ions leave the electrolyte at the cathode/electrolyte interface and are reduced by electrons that have been conducted through an external electrical load from the anode to the cathode. Once the Na+ ions have been reduced to Na atoms, they travel through the cathode to vaporize into a volume where the Na vapor pressure is much lower than it is on the anode side. Thus, the cathode design is subject to competing requirements to be thin enough to allow transport of sodium to the low-pressure side, yet thick enough to afford adequate electronic conductivity. The concept underlying the development of the present mixed conducting electrode materials is the following: The constraint on the thickness of the cathode can be eased by incorporating Na+ -ionconducting material to facilitate transport of sodium through the cathode in ionic form. At the same time, by virtue of the electronically conducting material mixed with the ionically conducting material, reduction of Na+ ions to Na atoms can

  17. Preparation and evaluation of thin-film sodium tungsten bronzes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, H. E.; Fielder, W. L.; Singer, J.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Thin films of sodium tungsten bronze (NaxWO3) were investigated as reversible sodium ion electrodes for solid electrolytes. The films were made by electron beam evaporation of the three phases, W metal, Na2WO4, and WO3, followed by sintering. The substrates were sodium beta alumina disks and glass slides. X-ray diffraction analyses of the films showed that sintering in dry nitrogen with prior exposure to air lead to mixed phases. Sintering in vacuum with no air exposure produced tetragonal I bronze with a nominal composition of Na0.31WO3, single phase within the limits of X-ray diffraction detectability. The films were uniform and adherent on sodium beta alumina substrates. The ac and dc conductivities of the beta alumina were measured with the sodium tungsten bronze films as electrodes. These experiments indicated that the tetragonal I bronze electrodes were not completely reversible. This may have resulted from sodium ion blocking within the bronze film or at the bronze beta alumina interface. Methods for attempting to make more completely reversible electrodes are suggested.

  18. Effects of chloramines and sodium hypochlorite on carious dentin.

    PubMed

    Tonami, Ken-ichi; Araki, Kouji; Mataki, Shiro; Kurosaki, Norimasa

    2003-06-01

    In chemo-mechanical caries removal procedures, chloramines are typically used for chemical softening of carious dentin. However, the specific effect of chloramines to be compared to sodium hypochlorite has not been sufficiently clarified. In present study, the effect of chloramines used in the Carisolv-system on carious dentin mechanical properties and morphology were investigated, using Vickers hardness test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sections of permanent teeth with dentin caries were treated with chloramines, prepared by mixing amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, and leucine) with sodium hypochlorite or with sodium hypochlorite alone or with purified water. There was a tendency that the application of the sodium hypochlorite solution softened the sound dentin and/or inner layer of carious dentin more than the application of the chloramines solution did. In SEM observations, the application of chloramines resulted in opening dentinal tubules in the outer layer of carious dentin: Occluded dentinal tubules were seen after sodium hypochlorite application. There is a possibility that the amino acids in the Carisolv-system decrease the aggressive effect of sodium hypochlorite on sound dentin and/or inner layer of carious dentin and also would enhance the disrupting effect on degenerated collagen in carious dentin outer layer.

  19. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  20. Astronomy and Sodium Lighting,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    o-... 0 -23- rincreased Oxygen Atoms , Soodum Oxygen Atoms Peckg trom LPS Ligh t Level Limit Motel Br-ue Green...Yellow Orcrge Red Fig. 5 - San Jose 1979 with bPS street lights New Sodium Peaks frome Oxyge.n Atom’s HPS Oxygen Atoms Full Growth Light Level- 1990...Light LevelI 1979 Light Level I L Light Level - 0 Lmt Broad Specr ,,m Excess Li;hl SVoel Blue Gpen Yelloo Oro-’e Red Fig. 6 -- Sarn Jose with 11PS street

  1. Sodium intake and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alanna C; Ness, Roberta B

    2011-01-01

    Sodium consumption is a target for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) is well-established, but the relationship with CVD is less clear. This review focuses on studies investigating the association between sodium intake and CVD within five principal subgroups: age, underlying BP, gender, body size, and ethnicity. We conclude that sodium reduction results in decreased CVD risk in the general population, and some susceptible subgroups may especially benefit from preventive efforts. Older individuals, those with underlying elevated BP, and those with increased body size may benefit most, but men and women of all ages, ethnicities, and normotensives also experience reduced CVD risk in relation to lowered sodium intake. Public health policy to reduce sodium intake in the United States would have significant cost-savings, far greater than the cost of intervention, and would also result in a significant gain in quality-adjusted life years.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Sodium MRI in Multiple Sclerosis is Compatible with Intracellular Sodium Accumulation and Inflammation-Induced Hyper-Cellularity of Acute Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Biller, Armin; Pflugmann, Isabella; Badde, Stephanie; Diem, Ricarda; Wildemann, Brigitte; Nagel, Armin M.; Jordan, J.; Benkhedah, Nadia; Kleesiek, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The cascade of inflammatory pathogenetic mechanisms in multiple sclerosis (MS) has no specific conventional MRI correlates. Clinicians therefore stipulate improved imaging specificity to define the pathological substrates of MS in vivo including mapping of intracellular sodium accumulation. Based upon preclinical findings and results of previous sodium MRI studies in MS patients we hypothesized that the fluid-attenuated sodium signal differs between acute and chronic lesions. We acquired brain sodium and proton MRI data of N = 29 MS patients; lesion type was defined by the presence or absence of contrast enhancement. N = 302 MS brain lesions were detected, and generalized linear mixed models were applied to predict lesion type based on sodium signals; thereby controlling for varying numbers of lesions among patients and confounding variables such as age and medication. Hierarchical model comparisons revealed that both sodium signals average tissue (χ2(1) = 27.89, p < 0.001) and fluid-attenuated (χ2(1) = 5.76, p = 0.016) improved lesion type classification. Sodium MRI signals were significantly elevated in acute compared to chronic lesions compatible with intracellular sodium accumulation in acute MS lesions. If confirmed in further studies, sodium MRI could serve as biomarker for diagnostic assessment of MS, and as readout parameter in clinical trials promoting attenuation of chronic inflammation. PMID:27507776

  4. Influence of sodium borate on the early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    SciTech Connect

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Dhoury, Mélanie; Cau Dit Coumes, Céline; Mercier, Cyrille; Revel, Bertrand; Le Bescop, Patrick; Damidot, Denis

    2015-04-15

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are potential candidates for the conditioning of radioactive wastes with high sodium borate concentrations. This work thus investigates early age hydration of two CSA cements with different gypsum contents (0 to 20%) as a function of the mixing solution composition (borate and NaOH concentrations). Gypsum plays a key role in controlling the reactivity of cement. When the mixing solution is pure water, increasing the gypsum concentration accelerates cement hydration. However, the reverse is observed when the mixing solution contains sodium borate. Until gypsum exhaustion, the pore solution pH remains constant at ~ 10.8, and a poorly crystallized borate compound (ulexite) precipitates. A correlation is established between this transient precipitation and the hydration delay. Decreasing the gypsum content in the binder, or increasing the sodium content in the mixing solution, are two ways of reducing the stability of ulexite, thus decreasing the hydration delay.

  5. Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.

  6. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  7. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  8. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  9. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  10. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  11. Influence of stimulated Raman scattering on the conversion efficiency in four wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, R.; Moore, M.A.; Garrett, W.R.; Payne, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Secondary nonlinear optical effects following parametric four wave mixing in sodium vapor are investigated. The generated ultraviolet radiation induces stimulated Raman scattering and other four wave mixing process. Population transfer due to Raman transitions strongly influences the phase matching conditions for the primary mixing process. Pulse shortening and a reduction in conversion efficiency are observed. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for

  13. Bacterial sodium channels: models for eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels are made up of four linked homologous but different transmembrane domains. Bacteria express sodium channels comprised of four identical subunits, each being analogous to a single homologous domain of their eukaryotic counterparts. Key elements of primary structure are conserved between bacterial and eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels. The simple protein structure of the bacterial channels has allowed extensive structure-function probes of key regions as well as allowing determination of several X-ray crystallographic structures of these channels. The structures have revealed novel features of sodium and calcium channel pores and elucidated the structural importance of many of the conserved features of primary sequence. The structural information has also formed the basis for computational studies probing the basis for sodium and calcium selectivity and gating.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Initiative Give choices to consumers to help them reduce sodium in their diet by: Stocking lower sodium foods. Asking food manufacturers ... health outcomes of a high-sodium diet. Help reduce sodium in people's diets. Encourage reductions in the amount of sodium in ...

  15. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for definition of... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... drug products intended for rectal administration containing dibasic sodium phosphate and/or monobasic...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this... that contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for... drug products intended for rectal administration containing dibasic sodium phosphate and/or monobasic...

  17. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  18. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  5. Stability of aztreonam and ampicillin sodium-sulbactam sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, P P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-04-01

    The stability of aztreonam, ampicillin sodium, and sulbactam sodium admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature and under refrigeration was studied. Each of the following admixtures was prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection: (1) aztreonam 10 mg/mL; (2) ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt); and (3) aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL, and sulbactam 10 mg/mL. Three minibags of each admixture were stored at room temperature and three were refrigerated. Every 12 hours, up to 96 hours, the admixtures were visually inspected and 5-mL samples were withdrawn for high-performance liquid chromatography and pH testing. No color change or precipitation was observed in any sample. In admixtures containing ampicillin, ampicillin was the first or only drug to lose more than 10% of initial concentration. In the ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 32 hours at room temperature and 68 hours refrigerated. In the aztreonam-ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours refrigerated. Aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt), and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable in combination for up to 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours under refrigeration.

  6. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride

  7. Photoionization of sodium clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.I.; Dao, P.D.; Farley, R.W.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Sodium clusters, Na/sub x/ (2< or =x< or =8), were produced in a supersonic jet by coexpansion with argon and subjected to analysis via photoionization coupled with mass spectrometry. The present measurements, made at somewhat higher resolution than earlier literature studies, yield ionization potentials in excellent agreement for x = 1 to 4 and x = 7, and reveal heretofore unreported structure in the post-threshold spectra. The present measurements enable a more definitive assignment of the ionization potentials, giving a lower value for x = 6 and pointing to lower ones for x = 5 and 8. The frequently discussed odd--even alternation in ionization potentials is no longer evident beyond the pentamer. Values for the binding energies of Na to Na/sup +//sub x/ (3< or =x< or =8) are deduced.

  8. Mixed cryoglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B

  9. Mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-09-16

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B

  10. Dietary sodium manipulation and asthma.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Zara; McKeever, Tricia

    2011-03-16

    There is a wide geographical variation in the prevalence of asthma and observational studies have suggested that dietary sodium may play a role. To assess the effect of dietary sodium manipulation on asthma control. We carried out a search using the Cochrane Airways Group asthma register. We searched the bibliographies of included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for additional studies. We carried out the most recent search in November 2010. We considered only RCTs that involved dietary sodium reduction or increased sodium intake in patients with asthma. Both review authors assessed study and extracted data. We conducted data analyses in RevMan 5 using mean differences and random effects. We identified a total of nine studies in relation to sodium manipulation and asthma, of which five were in people with asthma (318 participants), and four in people with exercise-induced asthma (63 participants). There were no significant benefits of salt restriction on the control of asthma. There was some evidence from the exercise-induced asthma studies that a low sodium diet may improve lung function after exercise and possibly baseline lung function, but this is based on findings from a very small numbers of participants. This review did not find any evidence that dietary sodium reduction significantly improves asthma control. Although dietary sodium reduction may result in improvements in lung function in exercise-induced asthma, the clinical significance of this effect is unclear.

  11. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  12. Sodium-glucose cotransport

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Fenton, Robert A.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are important mediators of glucose uptake across apical cell membranes. SGLT1 mediates almost all sodium-dependent glucose uptake in the small intestine, while in the kidney SGLT2, and to a lesser extent SGLT1, account for more than 90% and nearly 3%, respectively, of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Although the recent availability of SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has increased the number of clinical studies, this review has a focus on mechanisms contributing to the cellular regulation of SGLTs. Recent findings Studies have focused on the regulation of SGLT expression under different physiological/pathophysiological conditions, for example diet, age or diabetes mellitus. Several studies provide evidence of SGLT regulation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, protein kinase C, glucagon-like peptide 2, insulin, leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), with-no-K[Lys] kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (Wnk/SPAK) and regulatory solute carrier protein 1 (RS1) pathways. Summary SGLT inhibitors are important drugs for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Although the contribution of SGLT1 for absorption of glucose from the intestine as well as SGLT2/SGLT1 for renal glucose reabsorption has been comprehensively defined, this review provides an up-to-date outline for the mechanistic regulation of SGLT1/SGLT2. PMID:26125647

  13. Mixed Hydrotropy: Novel Science of Solubility Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, R. K.; Jagwani, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional furosemide tablets are practically insoluble in water, have slow onset of action (45-60 min) and poor bioavailability (39-53%), and therefore cannot be given in emergency clinical situations like hypertension or pulmonary edema. So purpose of research was to provide a fast dissolving oral dosage form of furosemide, which can provide quick onset of action by using concept of mixed hydrotropy. Initially solubility of furosemide was determined individually in 4 hydrotropic agents namely urea, sodium acetate, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate at concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/v solutions using purified water as solvent. Highest solubility was obtained in 40% sodium benzoate solution. Then different combinations of 2, 3 and 4 hydrotropic agents in different ratios were used to determine solubility, so that total concentration of hydrotropic agents was always 40%. Highest solubility was obtained in solution of urea+sodium benzoate+sodium citrate at optimum ratio of 15:20:5. This optimized combination was utilized in preparing solid dispersions by common solvent technique using distilled water as solvent. Solid dispersions were evaluated for flow properties, XRD, DSC, SEM and were also compressed to form tablets. Dissolution studies of conventional and prepared tablets were done using USP Type II apparatus. It was concluded that the concept of mixed hydrotropic solid dispersion is novel, safe and cost-effective technique for enhancing bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by dissolving drug in nonionized form. The magical enhancement in solubility of furosemide is clear indication of its potential to be used in future for other poorly water-soluble drugs in which low bioavailability is major concern. PMID:22303061

  14. Partial sodium replacement in tilapia steak without loss of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Lázaro, César A; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte-Júnior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium tilapia steaks restructured with microbial transglutaminase. Polyphosphate (0.4%), condiment mixes-onion powder and garlic powder (2.5%), water (10.0%), transglutaminase (1.0%), and different types of salts (1.5%) were mixed with non-commercial sized fillets. Substitution of NaCl by KCl or MgCl2 (at 50% each) affected quality attributes and decreased (P < 0.05) consumer acceptability. The tri-salt steaks (KCl, MgCl2, and NaCl at 1:1:2 ratio) improved some attributes and increased (P < 0.05) acceptability and purchase intention. We conclude that potassium and magnesium chlorides are possible replacers of salt (NaCl) in restructured tilapia steaks and potentially decrease the risk factor for heart failure associated with high sodium consumption.

  15. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  16. Fe-catalyzed thermal conversion of sodium lignosulfonate to graphene

    Treesearch

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Sodium lignosulfonate (LS) from sulfite pulping processing was used as a carbon source to synthesize graphene. LS was mixed with Fe nanoparticles (FeNPs) as a catalyst and thermally treated at 1000 °C for 1 h. The Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that graphene sheets were formed in LS thermally treated with FeNPs (Fe-HTLS). Scanning...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No... neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  18. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  19. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (p<0.05). Among children who consumed a school meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no

  20. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dialysis unphysiology and sodium balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2009-12-01

    Dialysis unphysiology was first discussed by Carl Kjellstrand in 1975 for the possible negative effects of the unphysiology of intermittent dialysis treatment. Current hemodialysis practices are still unphysiologic because they cannot keep blood chemistries within normal limits, both before and after dialysis. In addition, the discontinuous nature of hemodialysis causes saw-tooth volume fluctuations, and the extracellular fluid volume expansion during the interdialytic period may lead to hypertension and adverse cardiovascular consequences. Sodium, which is accumulated over the interdialytic period, may be divided into two fractions. The one is the fraction of osmotically active sodium which is mainly confined to the extracellular space, and the other is that of water-free (osmotically inactive) sodium which diffuses into the intracellular space. Both contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension because the former may act to expand extracellular fluid volume and the latter may cause vasoconstriction in the long run by increasing cytosolic concentration of calcium in the vascular smooth muscle cells. Even in intensive hemodialysis, it may take several weeks to months for water-free sodium storage in the vascular smooth muscle cells to be relieved. This may be an explanation for the lag phenomenon, i.e., the delay of blood pressure decrease after normalization of extracellular fluid volume shown in the Tassin experience. Modest restriction of dietary sodium intake, the dialytic session length long enough to maintain a high ultrafiltration volume, and the reasonably low dialysate sodium concentration are required to avoid unphysiology of positive sodium balance in current hemodialysis practice.

  2. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Peiper, J. Christopher

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  3. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  4. A new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linfeng; Tang, Jiuyao

    2009-08-01

    This work proposes a new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface for solar cells with sodium hypochlorite. A mixed solution consisting of 5 wt% sodium hypochlorite and 10 vl% ethanol has been found that results in a homogeneous pyramidal structure, and an optimal size of pyramids on the silicon surface. The textured silicon surface exhibits a lower average reflectivity (about 10.8%) in the main range of solar spectrum (400-1000 nm).

  5. Sodium intake and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Karppanen, Heikki; Mervaala, Eero

    2006-01-01

    In current diets, the level of sodium is very high, whereas that of potassium, calcium, and magnesium is low compared with the level in diets composed of unprocessed, natural foods. We present the biologic rationale and scientific evidence that show that the current salt intake levels largely explain the high prevalence of hypertension. Comprehensive reduction of salt intake, both alone and particularly in combination with increases in intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, is able to lower average blood pressure levels substantially. During the past 30 years, the one-third decrease in the average salt intake has been accompanied by a more than 10-mm Hg fall in the population average of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a 75% to 80% decrease in both stroke and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland. There is no evidence of any harmful effects of salt reduction. Salt-reduction recommendations alone have a very small, if any, population impact. In the United States, for example, the per capita use of salt increased by approximately 55% from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s. We deal with factors that contribute toward increasing salt intakes and present examples of the methods that have contributed to the successful salt reduction in Finland.

  6. Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y. |

    1996-08-01

    Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

  7. Emulsification/internal gelation as a method for preparation of diclofenac sodium-sodium alginate microparticles.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mahmoud M; El-Rasoul, Saleh Abd; Auda, Sayed H; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Emulsification/internal gelation has been suggested as an alternative to extrusion/external gelation in the encapsulation of several compounds including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium. The objective of the present study was a trial to formulate diclofenac sodium as controlled release microparticles that might be administered once or twice daily. This could be achieved via emulsification/internal gelation technique applying Box-Behnken design to choose these formulae. Box-Behnken design determined fifteen formulae containing specified amounts of the independent variables, which included stirring speed in rpm (X1), drug:polymer ratio (X2) and the surfactant span 80% (X3). The dependent variables studied were cumulative percent release after two hours (Y1), four hours (Y2) and eight hours (Y3). The prepared microparticles were characterized for their production yield, sizes, shapes and morphology, entrapment efficiency and Diclofenac sodium in vitro release as well. The results showed that the production yield of the prepared diclofenac sodium microparticles was found to be between 79.55% and 97.41%. The formulated microparticles exhibited acceptable drug content values that lie in the range 66.20-96.36%. Also, the data obtained revealed that increasing the mixing speed (X1) generally resulted in decreased microparticle size. In addition, scanning electron microscope images of the microparticles illustrated that the formula contains lower span concentration (1%) in combination with lower stirring speed (200 rpm) which showed wrinkled, but smooth surfaces. However, by increasing surfactant concentration, microspheres' surfaces become smoother and slightly porous. Kinetic treatment of the in vitro release from drug-loaded microparticles indicated that the zero order is the drug release mechanism for the most formulae.

  8. Sodium management in dialysis by conductivity.

    PubMed

    Bosetto, A; Bene, B; Petitclerc, T

    1999-07-01

    The determination of dialysate sodium concentration is one of the challenges of dialysis prescription, because no accurate information on the predialytic sodium overload is available. Too low dialysate sodium is responsible for intradialytic intolerance symptoms, whereas too high sodium may lead to long-term water sodium overload with cardiovascular hazards (hypertension, left heart failure). We propose here a biofeedback system based on noninvasive repeated measures of ionic dialysance and plasma water conductivity used here as a surrogate of plasma water sodium. This system achieves a stable postdialytic sodium pool and subsequently a dialysate sodium concentration adapted to the inter dialytic sodium load. This new tool in dialysate sodium prescription aims at reducing the morbidity related to patient sodium balance impairment.

  9. Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D.; Virkar, A.; Joshi, A.

    1994-08-01

    The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification.

  10. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids.

    PubMed

    Amalan, Arul; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Upadhya, Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Addition of disinfectant to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can eliminate the disinfection step to avoid dimensional changes associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various disinfectant mixing liquids on the properties of commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Four commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Zelgan, Vignette, Tropicalgin, and Algitex) were mixed with disinfectant liquid containing chlorhexidine (0.1 and 0.2%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.5%). After mixing with disinfectant liquids, materials were evaluated for pH changes during gelation, gelation time, flow, gel strength, permanent deformation and detail reproduction. Significant changes in gelation time were observed in irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials upon mixing with disinfectant liquids. In general, chlorhexidine increased the gelation time, whereas sodium hypochlorite reduced it. However, no significant changes in the flow were observed both with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Gel strength was found to decrease when mixed with chlorhexidine, whereas an increase in gel strength was observed upon mixing with sodium hypochlorite. Permanent deformation of the most irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was below the specification limit even after mixing with disinfectant liquids. Sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the surface detail reproduction, whereas no change in detail reproduction was observed with chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions.

  11. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids

    PubMed Central

    Amalan, Arul; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Upadhya, Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background: Addition of disinfectant to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can eliminate the disinfection step to avoid dimensional changes associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various disinfectant mixing liquids on the properties of commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Materials and Methods: Four commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Zelgan, Vignette, Tropicalgin, and Algitex) were mixed with disinfectant liquid containing chlorhexidine (0.1 and 0.2%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.5%). After mixing with disinfectant liquids, materials were evaluated for pH changes during gelation, gelation time, flow, gel strength, permanent deformation and detail reproduction. Results: Significant changes in gelation time were observed in irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials upon mixing with disinfectant liquids. In general, chlorhexidine increased the gelation time, whereas sodium hypochlorite reduced it. However, no significant changes in the flow were observed both with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Gel strength was found to decrease when mixed with chlorhexidine, whereas an increase in gel strength was observed upon mixing with sodium hypochlorite. Permanent deformation of the most irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was below the specification limit even after mixing with disinfectant liquids. Sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the surface detail reproduction, whereas no change in detail reproduction was observed with chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions. PMID:23878566

  12. Lifetime of Sodium Beta-Alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium Hydroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 April 2007 – 01 April 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lifetime of Sodium Beta-alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium ...ABSTRACT Summary: Sodium metal can be made by electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide in sodium beta-alumina membrane electrolysis cells...However, there are some uncertainties about the lifetime of the sodium beta-alumina membranes in contact with molten sodium hydroxide. The main objective

  13. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  14. Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

  15. HIGH TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF SODIUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    turboelectric systems utilizing sodium ass the working fluid to 2500F. This report covers the status of the measurement program and presents thermoelectric stability data for several noble metal thermocouples at 2500F.

  16. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  17. Sodium and sugar in complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle P; Yuan, Keming; Park, Sohyun; Merritt, Robert

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the sodium and sugar content of US commercial infant and toddler foods. We used a 2012 nutrient database of 1074 US infant and toddler foods and drinks developed from a commercial database, manufacturer Web sites, and major grocery stores. Products were categorized on the basis of their main ingredients and the US Food and Drug Administration's reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion (RACC). Sodium and sugar contents and presence of added sugars were determined. All but 2 of the 657 infant vegetables, dinners, fruits, dry cereals, and ready-to-serve mixed grains and fruits were low sodium (≤140 mg/RACC). The majority of these foods did not contain added sugars; however, 41 of 79 infant mixed grains and fruits contained ≥1 added sugar, and 35 also contained >35% calories from sugar. Seventy-two percent of 72 toddler dinners were high in sodium content (>210 mg/RACC). Toddler dinners contained an average of 2295 mg of sodium per 1000 kcal (sodium 212 mg/100 g). Savory infant/toddler snacks (n = 34) contained an average of sodium 1382 mg/1000 kcal (sodium 486 mg/100 g); 1 was high sodium. Thirty-two percent of toddler dinners and the majority of toddler cereal bars/breakfast pastries, fruit, and infant/toddler snacks, desserts, and juices contained ≥1 added sugar. Commercial toddler foods and infant or toddler snacks, desserts, and juice drinks are of potential concern due to sodium or sugar content. Pediatricians should advise parents to look carefully at labels when selecting commercial toddler foods and to limit salty snacks, sweet desserts, and juice drinks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Crystallization of Local Anesthetics When Mixed With Corticosteroid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyeoncheol; Park, Jihong; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Woo Hyung; Leigh, Ja-Ho; Lee, Jin Joo; Chung, Sun G.; Lim, Chaiyoung; Park, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate at which pH level various local anesthetics precipitate, and to confirm which combination of corticosteroid and local anesthetic crystallizes. Methods Each of ropivacaine-HCl, bupivacaine-HCl, and lidocaine-HCl was mixed with 4 different concentrations of NaOH solutions. Also, each of the three local anesthetics was mixed with the same volume of 3 corticosteroid solutions (triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and betamethasone sodium phosphate). Precipitation of the local anesthetics (or not) was observed, by the naked eye and by microscope. The pH of each solution and the size of the precipitated crystal were measured. Results Alkalinized with NaOH to a certain value of pH, local anesthetics precipitated (ropivacaine pH 6.9, bupivacaine pH 7.7, and lidocaine pH 12.9). Precipitation was observed as a cloudy appearance by the naked eye and as the aggregation of small particles (<10 µm) by microscope. The amount of particles and aggregation increased with increased pH. Mixed with betamethasone sodium phosphate, ropivacaine was precipitated in the form of numerous large crystals (>300 µm, pH 7.5). Ropivacaine with dexamethasone sodium phosphate also precipitated, but it was only observable by microscope (a few crystals of 10–100 µm, pH 7.0). Bupivacaine with betamethasone sodium phosphate formed precipitates of non-aggregated smaller particles (<10 µm, pH 7.7). Lidocaine mixed with corticosteroids did not precipitate. Conclusion Ropivacaine and bupivacaine can precipitate by alkalinization at a physiological pH, and therefore also produce crystals at a physiological pH when they are mixed with betamethasone sodium phosphate. Thus, the potential risk should be noted for their use in interventions, such as epidural steroid injections. PMID:26949665

  19. The effect of sage, sodium erythorbate and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate on the quality of turkey meatballs stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M

    2010-12-01

    1. The combined effect of sage (S), sodium erythorbate (SE), a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate (MIX) and vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs stored at 4°C was investigated. The physicochemical properties (colour, MDA, AV, pH, water activity), microbiological quality characteristics (counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, fungi, coliforms and Clostridium sp.) and flavour attributes of meatballs were determined. 2. The values of the colour parameters L*, a* and b* were affected by the additives and packaging method. The colour of meatballs was better protected by sodium erythorbate than by sage or a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate. The additives effectively stabilised lipids against oxidation and slowed down hydrolytic changes in turkey meatballs. Sage and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate showed stronger antioxidant properties than sodium erythorbate added alone. Products with additives were characterised by better sensory quality than control samples. Sage and MIX prevented the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. All additives inhibited the growth of coliforms. 3. MAP was more effective than VP in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality stability of cooked turkey meatballs. However, VP appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in turkey meatballs.

  20. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate on the microhardness of human enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Lewinstein, I; Hirschfeld, Z; Stabholz, A; Rotstein, I

    1994-02-01

    The effect of 30% hydrogen peroxide and a paste of sodium perborate mixed with hydrogen peroxide at different temperatures and time intervals on the microhardness of human enamel and dentin was examined. Intact extracted human teeth were sectioned, embedded in acrylic resin, polished, and divided into four test groups related to surface treatment. The groups were 30% hydrogen peroxide at 37 degrees C, 30% hydrogen peroxide at 50 degrees C in an illuminated chamber, a paste of sodium perborate mixed with hydrogen peroxide at 37 degrees C, and a paste of sodium perborate mixed with hydrogen peroxide at 50 degrees C in an illuminated chamber. Teeth treated with distilled water at either 37 degrees C or 50 degrees C served as controls. The results indicated that treatment with 30% hydrogen peroxide reduced the microhardness of both enamel and dentin. This reduction was statistically significant after 5-min treatment for the dentin and after 15-min treatment for the enamel (p < 0.05). Treatment with sodium perborate mixed with hydrogen peroxide did not alter the microhardness of either the enamel or dentin at the tested temperatures and time intervals. It is therefore suggested that the use of high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide for bleaching purposes should be limited. Sodium perborate appears to be a less damaging bleaching agent.

  1. Europa's sodium atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Leblanc, F.

    2007-08-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is exposed to intense ion and electron flux that erodes the surface, launching atoms and molecules into ballistic trajectories to form a tenuous atmosphere (e.g., Johnson et al., "Jupiter," book, 2004). One component of that atmosphere is neutral atomic sodium, which has been observed many times by Earth-based telescopes (e.g., Leblanc et al., Icarus, 2005). When the Cassini spacecraft viewed Europa during an eclipse by Jupiter its visible camera revealed spatially nonuniform emission (Porco et al., Science, 2003, Supporting Online Material). The Cassini eclipse observations were performed with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and clear filters (Porco et al., 2003). Clear filters provide sensitivity to the wavelength range 200-1050 nm, with maximum sensitivity at 611 nm (Porco et al., 2004). Within that wavelength range there are a number of lines that might contribute to the observed glow. These include the electron impact-induced excitation of Na (Kim, Phys. Rev. A, 2001), O (Fig. 4 Smyth and Marconi, Icarus, 2006), K, and SO2 (Ajello et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1992). Ions may also make a small contribution to these same processes (e.g., Allen et al., Phys. Rev. A, 1988). Of these, electron excitation of Na D line emission is likely the dominant emission in eclipse. Using an atmospheric model described by Cassidy et al. (2007), we successfully model those emissions by assuming that the Na atoms are ejected preferentially from Europa's trailing hemisphere dark terrain, which may be rich in Na-containing salt hydrates. We will discuss those results and, if available, discuss similar observations by the recent New Horizons Jupiter flyby.

  2. Integrating Sodium Reduction Strategies in the Procurement Process and Contracting of Food Venues in the County of Los Angeles Government, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N.; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010–2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County’s sodium reduction agenda. PMID:24322811

  3. Integrating sodium reduction strategies in the procurement process and contracting of food venues in the County of Los Angeles government, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Mugavero, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010-2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County's sodium reduction agenda.

  4. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  5. Central regulation of sodium appetite.

    PubMed

    Geerling, Joel C; Loewy, Arthur D

    2008-02-01

    Sodium appetite, the behavioural drive to ingest salt, is stimulated by prolonged physiological sodium deficiency in many animal species. The same neural mechanisms that are responsible for sodium appetite in laboratory animals may influence human behaviour as well, with particular relevance to the dietary salt intake of patients with diseases such as heart failure, renal failure, liver failure and salt-sensitive hypertension. Since the original experimental work of Curt Richter in the 1930s, much has been learned about the regulation of salt-ingestive behaviour. Here, we review data from physiology, pharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurobehavioural investigations into the stimulatory and inhibitory signals that regulate sodium appetite. A rudimentary framework is proposed for the brain circuits that integrate peripheral information representing the need for sodium with neural signals for the gustatory detection of salt in order to drive a motivated ingestive response. Based on this model, areas of remaining uncertainty are highlighted where future information would allow a more detailed understanding of the neural circuitry responsible for sodium appetite.

  6. Sodium Intake among US School-Aged Children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Quader, Zerleen S; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah A; Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Burdg, Jinee P; Moshfegh, Alanna; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Gunn, Janelle P; Mugavero, Kristy; Cogswell, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake, which occurs among 90% of US school-aged children. To describe major food sources, places obtained, and eating occasions contributing to sodium intake among US school-aged children. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A nationally representative sample of 2,142 US children aged 6 to 18 years who completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Population proportions of sodium intake from major food categories, places, and eating occasions. Statistical analyses accounted for the complex survey design and sampling. Wald F tests and t tests were used to examine differences between subgroups. Average daily sodium intake was highest among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (3,565±120 mg), lowest among girls (2,919±74 mg). Little variation was seen in average intakes or the top five sodium contributors by sociodemographic characteristics or weight status. Ten food categories contributed to almost half (48%) of US school-aged children's sodium intake, and included pizza, Mexican-mixed dishes, sandwiches, breads, cold cuts, soups, savory snacks, cheese, plain milk, and poultry. More than 80 food categories contributed to the other half of children's sodium intake. Foods obtained from stores contributed 58% of sodium intake, fast-food/pizza restaurants contributed 16%, and school cafeterias contributed 10%. Thirty-nine percent of sodium intake was consumed at dinner, 31% at lunch, 16% from snacks, and 14% at breakfast. With the exception of plain milk, which naturally contains sodium, the top 10 food categories contributing to US schoolchildren's sodium intake during 2011-2012 comprised foods in which sodium is added during processing or preparation. Sodium is consumed throughout the day from multiple foods and locations, highlighting the importance of sodium reduction across the US food supply. Published by Elsevier

  7. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... “Determination of Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which is...

  8. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... “Determination of Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which is...

  9. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  10. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not... sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including...

  11. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  12. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  13. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is...

  14. Are reductions in population sodium intake achievable?

    PubMed

    Levings, Jessica L; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-10-16

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  15. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  19. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium sesquicarbonate (Na2CO3·NaHCO3·2H2O, CAS Reg. No..., centrifugation, and drying; (2) double refining of trona ore, a naturally occurring impure sodium...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  12. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists as... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  3. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be safely used as a preservative for... temperature. The quantity of sodium pentachlorophenate used shall not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  6. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  9. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  10. Self-diffusion of sodium ions in compacted sodium montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaki, Tamotsu; Fujishima, Atsushi; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Diffusion of sodium ions through compacted sodium montmorillonite in a water-saturated state was studied to obtain fundamental information for performance assessments of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Basal spacings obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements indicated a decrease in the interlamellar spacing with increasing dry density of the montmorillonite; the three-water-layer hydrate was observed at low dry density, and the two-water-layer hydrate was observed at high dry density, whereas both were observed at dry densities between 1.4 and 1.5 Mg/m{sup 3}. Activation energies from 14.1 to 24.7 kJ/mol were obtained from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium ions. Activation energies lower than that for the diffusion of sodium ions in free water were found for montmorillonite specimens with dry densities of {le} 1.2 Mg/m{sup 3}, while higher activation energies were observed at dry densities {ge} 1.4 Mg/m{sup 3}. The pore water diffusion model, the general model used for migration of nuclides, is based on geometric parameters; however, findings cannot be explained by only the changes in the geometric parameters. Possible explanations for the dry density dependence of the activation energy are changes in the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficients of sodium ions on the montmorillonite, changes in the diffusion process with an increase in dry density, or both.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  12. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    PubMed

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March

  13. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  14. Two barriers for sodium in vascular endothelium?

    PubMed Central

    Oberleithner, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelium plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Recently, it has been shown that a 5% increase of plasma sodium concentration (sodium excess) stiffens endothelial cells by about 25%, leading to cellular dysfunction. Surface measurements demonstrated that the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), an anionic biopolymer, deteriorates when sodium is elevated. In view of these results, a two-barrier model for sodium exiting the circulation across the endothelium is suggested. The first sodium barrier is the eGC which selectively buffers sodium ions with its negatively charged prote-oglycans.The second sodium barrier is the endothelial plasma membrane which contains sodium channels. Sodium excess, in the presence of aldosterone, leads to eGC break-down and, in parallel, to an up-regulation of plasma membrane sodium channels. The following hypothesis is postulated: Sodium excess increases vascular sodium permeability. Under such con-ditions (e.g. high-sodium diet), day-by-day ingested sodium, instead of being readily buffered by the eGC and then rapidly excreted by the kidneys, is distributed in the whole body before being finally excreted. Gradually, the sodium overload damages the organism. PMID:22471931

  15. Sodium-hydrogen exchange system in LLC-PK/sub 1/ epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, A.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium influx into LLC-PK/sub 1/ cells has been characterized. The main amiloride-sensitive pathway for sodium entry through the apical membrane in this cell line is sodium-hydrogen exchange with an apparent K/sub m/ for sodium of 19 mM. Influx is pH dependent and is amiloride sensitive with K/sub 1/2/ of 30 ..mu..M. Inhibition of the sodium transport by protons is consistent with an interaction of H/sup +/ ions at a single site having an apparent pK/sub H/ of 7.2. These data are similar to those reported previously for brush border membrane (BBM) isolated from kidney proximal tubule. However, in contrast to previously published reports, H/sup +/ does not compete with amiloride in blocking /sup 22/Na/sup +/ influx and exhibits a mixed inhibition with sodium ions. The latter, together with a direct and independent assessment of amiloride and sodium interaction, indicates that amiloride does not compete with sodium for the same site. Possible explanations for the discrepancy in the literature concerning the interaction of Na/sup +/, H/sup +/, and amiloride with the Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchanger and the characteristics of the Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange system in LLC-PK/sub 1/ are discussed.

  16. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  17. Sources and correlates of sodium consumption in the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Hendrie, Gilly; Nowson, Caryl; Grimes, Carley A; Riley, Malcolm; Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-10-01

    High sodium intake during infancy and early childhood can change salt preference and blood pressure trajectories across life, representing a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Describing young children's sodium intake is important for informing effective targets for sodium reduction. This study aimed to describe food sources and demographic and behavioral correlates of sodium intake in 295 young Australian children using three unscheduled 24-hour recalls (when children were 9 and then 18 months of age) with mothers participating within an existing randomized controlled trial, the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program. Differences in individual-level and family-level demographic and behavioral variables were assessed across tertiles of sodium density (mg/1,000 kcal). Descriptive statistics were used to describe food-group contributions to total energy and sodium intakes at both ages. Mean sodium intake was 486 mg (standard deviation=232 mg) at 9 months and had more than doubled to 1,069 mg (standard deviation=331 mg) at 18 months of age. Fifty-four percent of children at 18 months exceeded the Recommended Daily Upper Level for sodium intake, with bread, cheese, breakfast cereal, soup, and mixed dishes all important sources of sodium at both ages. Yeast extracts, processed meats, and bread products became important additional sources at 18 months. A greater proportion of children in the highest sodium-density tertile had ceased breastfeeding and had commenced solids at an earlier age. The key food sources of sodium for children younger than 2 years are those that contribute to the whole population's high salt burden and highlight the essential role governments and food industry must play to reduce salt in commonly consumed foods. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs

    PubMed Central

    Cantarella, Raquel de Araújo; de Oliveira, Juliana Kravetz; Dorbandt, Daniel M.; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015) with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013), increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001), most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  19. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Raquel de Araújo; de Oliveira, Juliana Kravetz; Dorbandt, Daniel M; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015) with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013), increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001), most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  20. Shared solvation of sodium ions in alcohol-water solutions explains the non-ideality of free energy of solvation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kathrin M; Bergmann, Ulf; Hodeck, Kai F; Könnecke, René; Schade, Ulrich; Aziz, Emad F

    2011-09-14

    In order to explain the discrepancies between theories and experiments regarding the non-ideality in the free energy of solvation, here we present a microscopic picture of sodium ions dissolved in water-alcohol mixed solvents. We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe the K-edge of sodium ions in mixed solvents of water and alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and in the respective pure solvents. In the mixed solvents a shared solvation of the sodium ions is observed. We find that specifically the water component plays a key role in stabilizing the solvation shell in mixed solvents, which was revealed by a selective photochemical process occurring only in the pure alcohol solvents. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  1. No sodium in the vapour plumes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.; Burger, Matthew H.; Schaller, Emily L.; Brown, Michael E.; Johnson, Robert E.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Dougherty, Michele K.; Achilleos, Nicholas A.

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of water vapour and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fuelled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. Sodium chloride (that is, salt) is expected to be present in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core. Here we report a ground-based spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus that places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapour plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity. The low sodium content of escaping vapour, together with the small fraction of salt-bearing particles, argues against a situation in which a near-surface geyser is fuelled by a salty ocean through cracks in the crust. The lack of observable sodium in the vapour is consistent with a wide variety of alternative eruption sources, including a deep ocean, a freshwater reservoir, or ice. The existing data may be insufficient to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  2. No sodium in the vapour plumes of Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nicholas M; Burger, Matthew H; Schaller, Emily L; Brown, Michael E; Johnson, Robert E; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Dougherty, Michele K; Achilleos, Nicholas A

    2009-06-25

    The discovery of water vapour and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fuelled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. Sodium chloride (that is, salt) is expected to be present in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core. Here we report a ground-based spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus that places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapour plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity. The low sodium content of escaping vapour, together with the small fraction of salt-bearing particles, argues against a situation in which a near-surface geyser is fuelled by a salty ocean through cracks in the crust. The lack of observable sodium in the vapour is consistent with a wide variety of alternative eruption sources, including a deep ocean, a freshwater reservoir, or ice. The existing data may be insufficient to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  3. Development of Mesospheric Sodium Laser Beacon for Atmospheric Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeys, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    A solid-state source of long pulse length, sodium-resonance radiation was developed for the purpose of generating an artificial star in the earth's mesospheric sodium layer. This radiation is generated by sum-frequency mixing the output of a 1.064 micron Nd:YAG laser with the output of a 1.319-micron Nd:YAG laser. By operating these lasers at wavelengths very close to the peak of their tuning curves, it is possible to match the wavelength of the sum-frequency radiation to that of the sodium D2 adsorption wavelength. Two pulsed laser systems were constructed, one producing as much as 0.6 J of sodium resonance radiation at a 10-Hz repetition rate and another producing as much as 24 mJ at a 840-Hz repetition rate. In both laser systems, the 1.06-micron and 1.32-micron Nd:YAG lasers are configured as mode-locked master oscillators followed by power amplifiers. Other aspects of this project are presented.

  4. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  5. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  6. Pilot testing of sodium thiosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Brna, T.G.

    1986-11-01

    Pilot plant tests have been conducted to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed sulfur dioxide (SO)/sub 2/ was reduced by more than 50 percent in the presence of 100 to 200 ppm of thiosulfate ion in the scrubbing slurry. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) scaling was eliminated and the unsaturated (with respect to gypsum) operation mode was maintained by the addition of sodium thiosulfate. Other benefits of sodium thiosulfate addition observed at the pilot plant included improvement in solids dewatering properties for limestone processes and improvement in SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency for magnesium-enhanced lime/limestone processes.

  7. Pilot testing of sodium thiosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Brna, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The article gives results of pilot-plant tests to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation-inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue-gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed SO/sub 2/ was reduced by more than 50% in the presence of 100-200 ppm of thiosulfate ion in the scrubbing slurry. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) scaling was eliminated and the unsaturated (with respect to gypsum) operation mode was maintained by the addition of sodium thiosulfate. Other benefits of sodium thiosulfate addition observed at the pilot plant included improvement in solids dewatering properties for limestone processes and improvement in SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency for magnesium-enhanced lime/limestone processes.

  8. Contact allergy to sodium sulfite and its relationship to sodium metabisulfite.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Thomas; Mitra, Angana; Wilkinson, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Sulfites are in widespread use as preservatives/antioxidants. There is increasing recognition of allergic contact dermatitis caused by sodium metabisulfite; however, contact allergy to sodium sulfite is less well recognized. We sought to establish the prevalence of positive patch test reactions to sodium sulfite in our patient population and investigate its relationship with sodium metabisulfite. Over a 4-month period, 183 patients referred for patch testing were tested with sodium sulfite 1% pet. in addition to sodium metabisulfite 1% pet., which already forms part of our baseline series. Positive allergic reactions occurred to sodium metabisulfite in 5.5% of the tested patients and to sodium sulfite in 3.8% of the tested patients. Sixty per cent of patients with a positive reaction to sodium metabisulfite were positive to sodium sulfite. Only 1 patient (0.6%) with a negative reaction to sodium metabisulfite showed a positive reaction to sodium sulfite. This study shows that the majority of patients with positive reactions to sodium metabisulfite are also positive to sodium sulphite. Routinely patch testing with sodium sulfite is probably unnecessary, as most patients with positive reactions will also react to sodium metabisulfite. Clinicians should consider advising patients to avoid sodium sulfite and other sulfites when a positive allergic reaction to sodium metabisulfite occurs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode. PMID:26925554

  10. Top sources of dietary sodium from birth to age 24 mo, United States, 2003–201012345

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gunn, Janelle P; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium intake is high in US children. Data are limited on the dietary sources of sodium, especially from birth to age 24 mo. Objective We identified top sources of dietary sodium in US children from birth to age 24 mo. Design Data from the NHANES 2003–2010 were used to examine food sources of sodium (population proportions and mean intakes) in 778 participants aged 0–5.9 mo, 914 participants aged 6–11.9 mo, and 1219 participants aged 12–23.9 mo by sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, mean dietary sodium intake was low in 0–5.9-moold children, and the top contributors were formula (71.7%), human milk (22.9%), and commercial baby foods (2.2%). In infants aged 6–11.9 mo, the top 5 contributors were formula (26.7%), commercial baby foods (8.8%), soups (6.1%), pasta mixed dishes (4.0%), and human milk (3.9%). In children aged 12–23.9 mo, the top contributors were milk (12.2%), soups (5.4%), cheese (5.2%), pasta mixed dishes (5.1%), and frankfurters and sausages (4.6%). Despite significant variation in top food categories across racial/ethnic groups, commercial baby foods were a top food contributor in children aged 6–11.9 mo, and frankfurters and sausages were a top food contributor in children aged 12–23.9 mo. The top 5 food categories that contributed to sodium intake also differed by sex. Most of the sodium consumed (83–90%) came from store foods (e.g., from the supermarket). In children aged 12–23.9 mo, 9% of sodium consumed came from restaurant foods, and 4% of sodium came from childcare center foods. Conclusions The vast majority of sodium consumed comes from foods other than infant formula or human milk after the age of 6 mo. Although the majority of sodium intake was from store foods, after age 12 mo, restaurant foods contribute significantly to intake. Reducing the sodium content in these settings would reduce sodium intake in the youngest consumers. PMID:25762806

  11. Top sources of dietary sodium from birth to age 24 mo, United States, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gunn, Janelle P; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Sodium intake is high in US children. Data are limited on the dietary sources of sodium, especially from birth to age 24 mo. We identified top sources of dietary sodium in US children from birth to age 24 mo. Data from the NHANES 2003-2010 were used to examine food sources of sodium (population proportions and mean intakes) in 778 participants aged 0-5.9 mo, 914 participants aged 6-11.9 mo, and 1219 participants aged 12-23.9 mo by sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, mean dietary sodium intake was low in 0-5.9-mo-old children, and the top contributors were formula (71.7%), human milk (22.9%), and commercial baby foods (2.2%). In infants aged 6-11.9 mo, the top 5 contributors were formula (26.7%), commercial baby foods (8.8%), soups (6.1%), pasta mixed dishes (4.0%), and human milk (3.9%). In children aged 12-23.9 mo, the top contributors were milk (12.2%), soups (5.4%), cheese (5.2%), pasta mixed dishes (5.1%), and frankfurters and sausages (4.6%). Despite significant variation in top food categories across racial/ethnic groups, commercial baby foods were a top food contributor in children aged 6-11.9 mo, and frankfurters and sausages were a top food contributor in children aged 12-23.9 mo. The top 5 food categories that contributed to sodium intake also differed by sex. Most of the sodium consumed (83-90%) came from store foods (e.g., from the supermarket). In children aged 12-23.9 mo, 9% of sodium consumed came from restaurant foods, and 4% of sodium came from childcare center foods. The vast majority of sodium consumed comes from foods other than infant formula or human milk after the age of 6 mo. Although the majority of sodium intake was from store foods, after age 12 mo, restaurant foods contribute significantly to intake. Reducing the sodium content in these settings would reduce sodium intake in the youngest consumers. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide reduces sodium intake and sodium excretion in dehydrated rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Roberto L; Constancio, Juliana; Vendramini, Regina C; Fracasso, José F; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to find out if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered intraperitoneally affects sodium and water intake and renal excretion in dehydrated rats. LPS (0.3-5 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited 0.3M NaCl intake induced by subcutaneous injection of the diuretic furosemide (FURO, 10 mg/kg b.w.) combined with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril (CAP, 5 mg/kg b.w.). Only the highest doses of LPS (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) inhibited water intake induced by FURO/CAP. LPS (0.6 mg/kg) reduced urinary volume and sodium excretion, but had no effect on mean arterial pressure or heart rate of rats treated with FURO/CAP. LPS (0.3-5.0 mg/kg) abolished intracellular thirst and reduced by 50% the urine sodium concentration of rats that received 2 ml of 2M NaCl by gavage. LPS (0.3-5.0 mg/kg) also reduced thirst in rats treated with FURO alone (10 mg/rat sc). The results suggest that LPS has a preferential, but not exclusive, inhibitory effect on sodium intake and on intracellular thirst. The inhibition of hydro-mineral intake and the antinatriuresis caused by LPS in dehydrated rats may contribute to the multiple effects of the endotoxin on fluid and electrolyte balance and be part of the strategy to cope with infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

  14. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    In Brief Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes. PMID:26246681

  15. Oxygen release of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) and sodium perborate combination.

    PubMed

    Celik, E U; Türkün, M; Yapar, A G D

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) on oxygen release from sodium perborate and to compare it with sodium perborate-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and sodium perborate-distilled water mixtures. Six groups were evaluated: control groups (groups I-III), sodium perborate was mixed with distilled water or 3% or 30% H(2)O(2); experimental groups (groups IV-VI), sodium perborate was mixed with TAED in different ratios and then distilled water was added to these mixtures. The amount of oxygen released from the samples was measured with a digital oxygen meter at room temperature (25 degrees C) and body temperature (37 degrees C) after 1 min, 1-6 h and 12 h and on each day up to 1 week. The results were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's tests. The TAED groups demonstrated significantly higher amounts of released oxygen after 1 min and 1 h at 25 degrees C and 1 min at 37 degrees C (P < 0.05). At all other measurement times, the amount of TAED in each mixture did not alter the amount or speed of oxygen release (P > 0.05). Tetra acetyl ethylene diamine groups achieved their maximum oxygen release 2 h earlier at 25 degrees C and 1 h earlier at 37 degrees C than the other groups. Thus, TAED accelerated oxygen release from sodium perborate-distilled water mixtures regardless of its proportions up to 24 h.

  16. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  17. Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

    1995-06-01

    Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

  18. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  19. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  20. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  1. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  2. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique. PMID:28771193

  3. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno; Padrão, Patrícia

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus(®) was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  4. Formation and structure of cubic particles of sodium magnesium fluoride (neighborite).

    PubMed

    Sevonkaev, Igor; Goia, Dan V; Matijević, Egon

    2008-01-01

    Uniform cubic particles of neighborite (NaMgF3) were prepared by mixing solutions of magnesium chloride and sodium fluoride, followed by aging for extended periods of time (up to 3 h). Such particles could be obtained directly either by using sodium fluoride in sufficient excess, or by first producing spherical particles of magnesium fluoride and converting them into neighborite cubes by admixing sodium fluoride. It was shown that both MgF2 and NaMgF3 particles so prepared are polycrystalline and that in both procedures to form neighborite a two stage reaction takes place. In the first stage nanosize subunits of MgF2 are formed, which are subsequently converted in the presence of excess sodium fluoride to neighborite crystallites. The latter are then reorganized into larger subunits that constitute colloidal cubes.

  5. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  11. 67 FR 2454 - Sodium Azide From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sodium Azide From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... determine whether termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on sodium azide from...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or... animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or... animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or... animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or... animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white to yellow powder....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium palmitate. 186.1771 Section 186.1771 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1771 Sodium palmitate. (a) Sodium palmitate (C16H31O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or a granular...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  18. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  19. Mixing in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2011-01-07

    Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

  20. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The... produced by reacting anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The... produced by reacting anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The technical grade is prepared... sodium acetate and acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The... produced by reacting anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The... produced by reacting anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food...

  15. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat...

  16. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium hydroxide. The salt is not found to occur naturally. (b) The ingredient meets the.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as an antimicrobial agent as...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda... sodium hydroxide. The salt is not found to occur naturally. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as an antimicrobial agent as...

  20. 66 FR 60220 - Sodium Azide From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-12-03

    ... COMMISSION Sodium Azide From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on sodium azide from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on sodium azide from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  1. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  2. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams...) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 5 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2... milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See No...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 497-19-8) is produced...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate....

  13. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  14. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  4. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  3. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7724 Sodium alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....