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Sample records for mixed-waste ii performance

  1. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  2. Performance Modeling Applied to the Treatment and Disposal of a Mixed Waste at the SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cook, J.R.; Whited, A.R.; Field, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    Performance modeling for Low Level Mixed Waste disposal was conducted using the measured leach rates from a number of vitrified waste formulations. The objective of the study was to determine if the improved durability of a vitrified mixed waste would allow trench disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Leaching data were compiled from twenty-nine diverse reference glasses, encompassing a wide range of exposed glass surface area to leachant volume ratios (SA/V), and various leachant solutions; all of which had been leached at 90 degrees Celsius, using the MCC-1 or PCT procedures (ASTM Procedures C1220-92 and C1285-94, respectively). The normalized leach rates were scaled to the ambient disposal temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, and compared to the allowable leach rate of uranium - which would meet the performance assessment requirements. The results indicated that a glass of above average durability (vs. the reference glasses) would meet the uranium leaching concentration for direct SRS trench disposal.

  3. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James; Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  4. Comparison of TCLP and long-term PCT performance on low-level mixed waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-06-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating technologies for conversion of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) into a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification is one of the preferred technologies since it is capable of consistently producing a durable, leach resistant wasteform, while simultaneously minimizing disposal volumes. Since vitrification of LLMW is a relatively new concept, final wasteform specifications have not been developed. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed the Product Consistency Test (PCI), which is a 7-day leaching procedure for glass. Comparison indicates that both tests have merit where LLMW glasses are concerned. The TCLP is an important test for determining the release of metals and for allowing the wasteform to be delisted while the PCT is more useful for determining consistent production of durable glass. It is a better indicator of the behavior of glass in disposal site conditions. Most aggressive leaching of common oxide glasses occurs under caustic rather than acidic conditions, therefore it is necessary to perform both tests. Further tests will be conducted using additional glass compositions and variations in the TCLP and the PCT.

  5. 1999 Annual Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Correction - Action Report (Volumes I, II, and III)

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    2000-06-14

    This Corrective Action Report (CAR) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is being prepared to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit Number SC1 890 008 989, dated October 31, 1999. This CAR compiles and presents all groundwater sampling and monitoring activities that are conducted at the MWMF. As set forth in previous agreements with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), all groundwater associated with the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) (comprised of the MWMF, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground) will be addressed under this RCRA Permit. This CAR is the first to be written for the MWMF and presents monitoring activities and results as an outcome of Interim Status and limited Permitted Status activities. All 1999 groundwater monitoring activities were conducted while the MWMF was operated during Interim Status. Changes to the groundwater monitoring program were made upon receipt of the RCRA Permit, where feasible. During 1999, 152 single-screened and six multi-screened groundwater monitoring wells at the BGC monitored groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer as required by the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR), settlement agreements 87-52-SW and 91-51-SW, and RCRA Permit SC1 890 008 989. However, overall compliance with the recently issued RCRA Permit could not be implemented until the year 2000 due to the effective date of the RCRA Permit and scheduling of groundwater monitoring activities. Changes have been made to the groundwater monitoring network to meet Permit requirements for all 2000 sampling events.

  6. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James; Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2005-11-01

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. At least one-hundred realizations were simulated for each scenario defined in the performance assessment. Conservative values and assumptions were used to define values and distributions of uncertain input parameters when site data were not available. Results showed that exposure to tritium via the air pathway exceeded the regulatory metric of 10 mrem/year in about 2% of the simulated realizations when the receptor was located at the MWL (continuously exposed to the air directly above the MWL). Simulations showed that peak radon gas fluxes exceeded the design standard of 20 pCi/m{sup 2}/s in about 3% of the realizations if up to 1% of the containers of sealed radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade in the future. If up to 100% of the containers of radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade, 30% of the realizations yielded radon surface fluxes that exceeded the design standard. For the groundwater pathway, simulations showed that none of the radionuclides or heavy metals (lead and cadmium) reached the groundwater during

  7. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  8. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  9. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  10. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  11. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  12. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  13. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  14. The mixed waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to {approximately}$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at {approximately}$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability.

  15. Mixed Waste Focus Area -- Waste form initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-07-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI.

  16. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  17. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-12-31

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.

  18. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

  19. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  20. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost.

  1. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers.

  2. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  3. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  4. Mixed waste minimization in a research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes minimization efforts and processes for mixed waste generated by research facilities. Waste stream assessment and treatment, and database management for various research-related waste streams is detailed.

  5. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  6. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  7. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  8. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  9. Overview of robotics for Mixed Waste Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Operations Robotics program is developing robotics technology to make the handling and treatment of Department of Energy mixed waste; better, faster, safer and cheaper. This technology will provide remote operations and not require humans to be in contact with this radioactive and hazardous waste. The technology includes remote handling and opening of waste containers, remote removal of waste from the containers, remote characterization and sorting of the waste, and remote treatment and disposition of the waste. The initial technology development program culminated in an integrated demonstration in November 1993 and each aspect of this technology is described.

  10. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  11. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  12. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper.

  13. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  14. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator.

  15. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  16. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ``blank`` monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  17. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1992-10-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na{sub 2}O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO{sub 2}) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  18. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B. ); Ramsey, W.G. . Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na[sub 2]O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO[sub 2]) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  19. Mixed waste treatment capabilities at Envirocare

    SciTech Connect

    Rafati, A.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation gives an overview of the business achievements and presents a corporate summary for the whole handling company Envirocare located in Clive, Utah. This company operates a permitted low-level radioactive and mixed waste facility which handles waste from the United States Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Defense, and Fortune 500 companies. A description of business services and treatment capabilities is presented.

  20. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, M.F.

    1991-08-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility of the Savannah River Plant received hazardous and solid low level radioactive wastes from 1972 until 1986. Because this facility did not have a permit to receive hazardous wastes, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure was performed between 1987 and 1990. This closure consisted of dynamic compaction of the waste trenches and placement of a 3-foot clay cap, a 2-foot soil cover, and a vegetative layer. Operations of the waste disposal facility, tests performed to complete the closure design, and the construction of the closure cap are discussed herein.

  2. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of salt-containing, mixed waste residues each year. One of the obvious treatment solutions for these salt-containing wastes is to immobilize the hazardous components to meet Environmental Protection Agency/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA/RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thus rendering the mixed waste to a radioactive waste only classification. One proposed solution is to use thermal treatment via vitrification to immobilize the hazardous component and thereby substantially reduce the volume, as well as provide exceptional durability. However, these melter systems involve expensive capital apparatus with complicated off-gas systems. In addition, the vitrification of high salt waste may cause foaming and usually requires extensive development to specify glass

  3. VAC*TRAX - Thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 260{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost. This paper describes the VAC*TRAX thermal desorption process, as well as results from the pilot testing program. Also, the design and application of the full-scale treatment system is presented. Materials tested to date include spiked soil and debris, power plant trash and sludge contaminated with solvents, PCB contaminated soil, solvent-contaminated uranium mill-tailings, and solvent and PCB-contaminated sludge and trash. Over 70 test runs have been performed using the pilot VAC*TRAX system, with more than 80% of the tests using mixed waste as the feed material.

  4. Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

    1997-11-01

    A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Michael L.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.; Chapman, Chris C.; Peters, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  6. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals.

  7. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel.

  8. Mixed waste paper as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kersletter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K. )

    1991-10-01

    A successful recycling program requires several components: education and promotion, convenient collection service, and most importantly, a market for collected materials. In Washington state, domestic markets currently have, or are building, the capacity to use most of the glass, newsprint, aluminum, tin cans, and corrugated materials that are collected. Unfortunately, markets for mixed waste paper (MWP), a major component of the state's solid waste stream, have been slow to develop and are unable to absorb the tremendous volumes of material generated. The American Paper Stock Institute classifies MWP as low grade paper such as magazines, books, scrap paper, non-corrugated cardboard (boxboard/chipboard), and construction paper. When viewed as part of a curbside collection program MWP consists primarily of catalogs, binder paper, magazines, brochures, junk mail, cereal boxes, and other household packaging items. A comprehensive analysis of Washington State's solid waste stream showed that during 1988, Washington citizens generated approximately 460,000 tons of mixed waste paper. No small amount, this is equivalent to more than 10% of the total solid waste generated in the state, and is expected to increase. Current projections of MWP generation rates indicated that Washington citizens could discard as much as 960,000 tons of MWP by the year 2010 making it one of the single largest components of the state's solid waste stream. This paper reports on the use of MWP as fuel source.

  9. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  10. Chemical treatment of mixed waste at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Honigford, L.; Sattler, J.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams.

  11. Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today!

    SciTech Connect

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.; Sattler, J.

    1996-02-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams.

  12. Task 1.6 -- Mixed waste treatment. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, J.R.

    1997-08-01

    Mixed-waste sites make up the majority of contaminated sites, yet remediation techniques used at such sites often target only the most prevalent contaminant. A better understanding of site situation (i.e., most common types of contamination), current remediation techniques, and combinations of techniques would provide insight into areas in which further research should be performed. The first half of this task program year consisted of a survey of common types of mixed-wastes sites and a detailed literature search of the remediation techniques and combinations of techniques that were currently available. From this information, an assessment of each of the techniques was made and combined into various ways appropriate to mixed-waste protocol. This activity provided insight into areas in which further research should be performed.

  13. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  14. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  15. [Mixed Waste Focus Area]. Monthly progress report summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    During November 1994, a Call for Proposals to lead the implementation team of the Mixed Waste Focus Area was issued by DOE-HQ. Interested Sites prepared proposals to lead the MWFA and responded to DOE-HQ on December 1, 1994. DOE-ID was selected to lead the MWFA on December 15, 1994. As this report is being published, the Mixed Waste Integrated Program is being transitioned to the Mixed Waste Focus Area. Transition is scheduled to be complete by March 31, 1995. This report contains summaries of individual research projects which demonstrate the development of technology to treat mixed waste throughout the DOE complex.

  16. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  17. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues.

  18. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: Demonstrating technologies to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ``waste contaminated with chemically hazardous [governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)] and radioactive species [governed by US Department of energy (DOE) orders].`` The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed-waste treatment technologies tat meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations of fixed-hearth plasma arc and vitrification systems will be used to determine whether these processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. MWIP also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process.

  19. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  20. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  1. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

  2. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-03-03

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

  3. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  4. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  5. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  6. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-11-18

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  7. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE`s Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP`s charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program.

  8. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  9. Recycling of mixed wastes using Quantum-CEP{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Sameski, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the process that M4 Environmental Management, Inc., is commercializing for the treatment of mixed wastes. He summarizes the types of wastes which the process can be applied to, the products which come out of the process, and examples of various waste streams which have been processed. The process is presently licensed to treat mixed wastes and the company has in place contracts for such services. The process uses a molten metal bath to catalyze reactions which break the incoming products down to an atomic level, and allow different process steams to be tapped at the output end.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER MICROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE USING KINETIC MIXER PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; MILIAN,L.W.; ADAMS,J.W.

    1997-11-01

    Thermokinetic mixing was investigated as an alternative processing method for polyethylene microencapsulation, a technology well demonstrated for treatment of hazardous, low-level radioactive and low-level mixed wastes. Polyethylene encapsulation by extrusion has been previously shown to be applicable to a wide range of waste types but often pretreatment of the wastes is necessary due to process limitations regarding the maximum waste moisture content and particle size distribution. Development testing was conducted with kinetic mixing in order to demonstrate technology viability and show improved process applicability in these areas. Testing to establish process capabilities and relevant operating parameters was performed with waste surrogates including an aqueous evaporator concentrate and soil. Using a pilot-scale kinetic mixer which was installed and modified for this program, the maximum waste moisture content and particle size was determined. Following process development with surrogate wastes, the technology was successfully demonstrated at BNL using actual mixed waste.

  11. Ceramicrete stabilization of low-level mixed wastes - a complete story

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S.Y.; Strain, R.V.

    1997-03-01

    During the last three years, Ceramicrete (chemically bonded phosphate ceramics) have been investigated at Argonne-East for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE`s) mixed wastes, for which conventional high-temperature treatments cannot be used because of volatiles and pyrophorics present in these wastes. This paper summarizes the development of Ceramicrete and provides the current technology status. We discuss our early investigations with surrogates that are typical of DOE mixed wastes, subsequent testing with actual waste streams, and scale-up of the process to an operational level. Current efforts include testing the process at an operational level for an ash waste stream from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and obtaining sufficient information to prepare a technology performance report.

  12. Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.; Goldblatt, S.D.; Moslander, J.E.; Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Zigmond, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    DETOX{sup SM}, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration.

  13. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Design basis integrated operations plan (Title I design)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) will be a fully integrated, pilotscale facility for the demonstration of low-level, organic-matrix mixed waste treatment technologies. It will provide the bridge from bench-scale demonstrated technologies to the deployment and operation of full-scale treatment facilities. The MWMF is a key element in reducing the risk in deployment of effective and environmentally acceptable treatment processes for organic mixed-waste streams. The MWMF will provide the engineering test data, formal evaluation, and operating experience that will be required for these demonstration systems to become accepted by EPA and deployable in waste treatment facilities. The deployment will also demonstrate how to approach the permitting process with the regulatory agencies and how to operate and maintain the processes in a safe manner. This document describes, at a high level, how the facility will be designed and operated to achieve this mission. It frequently refers the reader to additional documentation that provides more detail in specific areas. Effective evaluation of a technology consists of a variety of informal and formal demonstrations involving individual technology systems or subsystems, integrated technology system combinations, or complete integrated treatment trains. Informal demonstrations will typically be used to gather general operating information and to establish a basis for development of formal demonstration plans. Formal demonstrations consist of a specific series of tests that are used to rigorously demonstrate the operation or performance of a specific system configuration.

  14. Feasibility of using biological degradation for the on-sitetreatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-04-20

    This research was conducted to investigate the feasibility of applying microbial biodegradation as a treatment technology for wastes containing radioactive elements and organic solvents (mixed wastes). In this study, we focused our efforts on the treatment of wastes generated by biomedical research as the result of purifying tritium labeled compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These wastes are typically 80 percent water with 20 percent acetonitrile or methanol or a mixture of both. The objective was to determine the potential of using biodegradation to treat the solvent component of tritiated mixed waste to a concentration below the land disposal restriction standard (1mg/L for acetonitrile). Once the standard is reached, the remaining radioactive waste is no longer classified as a mixed waste and it can then be solidified and placed in a secure landfill. This investigation focused on treating a 10 percent acetonitrile solution, which was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for HPLC waste, in a bioreactor. The results indicated that the biodegradation process could treat this solution down to less than 1 mg/L to meet the land disposal restriction standard.

  15. Opportunities for artificial intelligence application in computer- aided management of mixed waste incinerator facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. It is designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This facility, known as the TSCA Incinerator, services seven DOE/OR installations. This incinerator was recently authorized for production operation in the United States for the processing of mixed (radioactively contaminated-chemically hazardous) wastes as regulated under TSCA and RCRA. Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. These requirements impact the characteristics and disposition of incinerator residues, limits the quality of liquid and gaseous effluents, limit the characteristics and rates of waste feeds and operating conditions, and restrict the handling of the waste feed inventories. This incinerator facility presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. Demonstrated computer-aided management systems could be transferred to future mixed waste incinerator facilities.

  16. Opportunities for artificial intelligence application in computer- aided management of mixed waste incinerator facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. It is designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This facility, known as the TSCA Incinerator, services seven DOE/OR installations. This incinerator was recently authorized for production operation in the United States for the processing of mixed (radioactively contaminated-chemically hazardous) wastes as regulated under TSCA and RCRA. Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. These requirements impact the characteristics and disposition of incinerator residues, limits the quality of liquid and gaseous effluents, limit the characteristics and rates of waste feeds and operating conditions, and restrict the handling of the waste feed inventories. This incinerator facility presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. Demonstrated computer-aided management systems could be transferred to future mixed waste incinerator facilities.

  17. Environmental Protection Agency update on mixed waste regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.

    1989-11-01

    This paper is divided into discussion of the following four basic areas: (1) dual regulation; (2) the state role; (3) an overview of current agency activities; and (4) current issues. The first area, dual regulation of mixed waste, requires the cooperation between regulatory agencies, whether federal or state, for managing the chemical and radioactive aspects of mixed waste. Dual or joint regulation of mixed waste is now a well established fact. The second area is state involvement. Dual regulation involves not only the EPA, DOE, and NRC, but also state authorities. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is implemented for the most part by the individual states. Congress intended that the states be the primary implementers of RCRA and created provisions in the Act to authorize state programs. The third area discussed in this paper is concerned with EPA`s progress on current issues. EPA has progressed on several promises to create strong centralized guidance. Fourth and finally, there are many issues outstanding and some may have direct specific significant impact on DOE facility operations. Perhaps the biggest outstanding issue is how the land disposal restrictions will affect the treatment, storage, and disposal of mixed waste at DOE facilities.

  18. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1.

  19. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  20. Risk assessment of mixed waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Montague, D.F.; Holton, G.A.; King, C.M.

    1987-12-31

    As part of its ongoing efforts to ensure environmental regulation compliance at DOE facilities, DOE published on April 26, 1985, a notice of intent to write an Environmental Impact Statement on Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection (Groundwater EIS) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). To perform a human health risk assessment of each waste site for each closure action considered, DuPont organized a project team led by personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and supported by outside contractors specializing in risk assessment work. As part of that team, JBF Associates, Inc. (JBFA) performed an atmospheric containment transport analysis and human health risk assessment of nonradioactive contaminants from SRP waste sites. For each waste site, three closure actions were examined: (1) excavate the site, backfill it, and cap it followed by regular groundwater monitoring (Option 1); (2) backfill and cap the site followed by regular groundwater monitoring (Option 2); and (3) no remedial action, regular groundwater monitoring, and some site maintenance work (Option 3). The human health risk assessment performed by JBFA estimated the public and worker risks from contaminants released to the atmosphere from each waste site for each closure option. This paper first presents the methodology JBFA used to estimate the public and worker risks attributable to the inhalation and ingestion of airborne, nonradioactive contaminants. Following the description of the analysis methodology, the authors present the risk results for the waste sites that were due to atmospherically released nonradioactive contaminants. Both worker risks and public risks are presented. Finally, the authors present the results and conclusions derived from their analysis of the risk from airborne, nonradioactive contaminants.

  1. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene.

  2. R D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Devgun, J.S.; Brown, J.J.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Dual regulation of Department of Energy mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to discuss the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) experience with dual regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended, and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, of mixed waste and to describe one mechanism for the resolution of inconsistencies that may arise. To date, the department has not identified any unresolvable inconsistency between the AEA and RCRA, although technical differences are being discussed among DOE, EPA, and state regulators at several locations. As long as the flexibilities of RCRA are explored with careful consideration of the radiological hazard of each mixed-waste stream, the potential for inconsistencies between AEA and RCRA that DOE must resolve is expected to remain small.

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), copper, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, mercury, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in one Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) well. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  5. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  6. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  7. Mixed waste management at the National Institutes of Health

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    This article is an overview of the operations of the National Institutes of Health and describes what kind of wastes are generated from its various research programs. Chemical, radioactive, biohazardous, and mixed wastes are generated from seven major processes including: liquid scintillation counting, gel fixing and washing, liquid chromatography, filter and blot washing, protein precipitation, autoradiography, and radioimmunoassay. A description of waste minimization techniques and current waste disposal procedures is included.

  8. Compatibility of packaging components with simulant mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the US have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (US DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). Based on these national requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program provides a basis to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, the authors present the results of the second phase of this testing program. The first phase screened five liner materials and six seal materials towards four simulant mixed wastes. This phase involved the comprehensive testing of five candidate liner materials to an aqueous Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The comprehensive testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials a matrix of four gamma radiation doses ({approximately} 1, 3, 6, and 40 kGy), three temperatures (18, 50, and 60 C), and four exposure times (7, 14, 28, and 180 days). Following their exposure to these combinations of conditions, the materials were evaluated by measuring five material properties. These properties were specific gravity, dimensional changes, hardness, stress cracking, and mechanical properties.

  9. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  10. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.; Ulerich, N.; Nocito, T.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective of this three-phase program is to develop an integrated process for treating asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The integrated process will attempt to minimize processing and disposal costs. The objectives of Phase 1 were to establish the technical feasibility of asbestos decomposition, inorganic radionuclide nd heavy metal removal, and organic volatilization. Phase 1 resulted in the successful bench-scale demonstration of the elements required to develop a mixed waste treatment process for asbestos-containing material (ACM) contaminated with radioactive metals, heavy metals, and organics. Using the Phase 1 data, a conceptual process was developed. The Phase 2 program, currently in progress, is developing an integrated system design for ACM waste processing. The Phase 3 program will target demonstration of the mixed waste processing system at a DOE facility. The electromagnetic mixed waste processing system employs patented technologies to convert DOE asbestos to a non-hazardous, radionuclide-free, stable waste. The dry, contaminated asbestos is initially heated with radiofrequency energy to remove organic volatiles. Second,the radionuclides are removed by solvent extraction coupled with ion exchange solution treatment. Third, the ABCOV method converts the asbestos to an amorphous silica suspension at low temperature (100{degrees}C). Finally the amorphous silica is solidified for disposal.

  11. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Polyethylene macroencapsulation - mixed waste focus area. OST reference No. 30

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The lead waste inventory throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has been estimated between 17 million and 24 million kilograms. Decontamination of at least a portion of the lead is viable but at a substantial cost. Because of various problems with decontamination and its limited applicability and the lack of a treatment and disposal method, the current practice is indefinite storage, which is costly and often unacceptable to regulators. Macroencapsulation is an approved immobilization technology used to treat radioactively contaminated lead solids and mixed waste debris. (Mixed waste is waste materials containing both radioactive and hazardous components). DOE has funded development of a polyethylene extrusion macroencapsulation process at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) that produces a durable, leach-resistant waste form. This innovative macroencapsulation technology uses commercially available single-crew extruders to melt, convey, and extrude molten polyethylene into a waste container in which mixed waste lead and debris are suspended or supported. After cooling to room temperature, the polyethylene forms a low-permeability barrier between the waste and the leaching media.

  14. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  15. Design considerations for an intelligent mobile robot for mixed-waste inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sias, F.R.; Dawson, D.M.; Schalkoff, R.J.; Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1993-06-01

    Large quantities of low-level radioactive waste are stored in steel drums at various Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the United States. Much of the stored waste qualifies as mixed waste and falls under Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations that require periodic inspection. A semi-autonomous mobile robot is being developed during Phase 1 of a DOE contract to perform the inspection task and consequently reduce the radiation exposure of inspection personnel to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). The nature of the inspection process, the resulting robot design requirements, and the current status of the project are the subjects of this paper.

  16. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  17. Effects of mixed waste simulants on transportation packaging plastic components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes.

  18. Closure of a mixed waste landfill: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    1990-12-31

    Much experience has been gained during the closure of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and many lessons were learned. This knowledge was applied to other closures at SRS yielding decreased costs, schedule enhancement, and increased overall project efficiency. The next major area of experience to be gained at SRS in the field of waste site closures will be in the upkeep, maintenance, and monitoring of clay caps. Further test programs will be required to address these requirements.

  19. Closure of a mixed waste landfill: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Much experience has been gained during the closure of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and many lessons were learned. This knowledge was applied to other closures at SRS yielding decreased costs, schedule enhancement, and increased overall project efficiency. The next major area of experience to be gained at SRS in the field of waste site closures will be in the upkeep, maintenance, and monitoring of clay caps. Further test programs will be required to address these requirements.

  20. 183-H Basin Mixed Waste Analysis and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis report is to provide data necessary to support treatment and disposal options for the low-level mixed waste from the 183-H solar evaporation ponds. In 1973, four of the 16 flocculation and sedimentation basins were designated for use as solar evaporation basins to provide waste reduction by natural evaporation of liquid chemical wastes from the 300 Area fuel fabrication facilities. The primary purpose of this effort is to gather chemical and bulk property data for the waste in the drums/boxes of sediment removed from the basin at Central Waste Complex.

  1. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes.

  2. VAC*TRAX - thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

    1995-10-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 2600{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost.

  3. Stabilization of a mixed waste sludge for land disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, S.E.; Zander, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    A solidification and stabilization technique was developed for a chemically complex mixed waste sludge containing nitrate processing wastes, sewage sludge and electroplating wastewaters, among other wastes. The sludge is originally from a solar evaporation pond and has high concentrations of nitrate salts; cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations of concern; and low levels of organic constituents and alpha and beta emitters. Sulfide reduction of nitrate and precipitation of metallic species, followed by evaporation to dryness and solidification of the dry sludge in recycled high density polyethylene with added lime was determined to be a satisfactory preparation for land disposal in a mixed waste repository. The application of post-consumer polyethylene has the added benefit of utilizing another problem-causing waste product. A modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure was used to determine required treatment chemical dosages and treatment effectiveness. The waste complexity prohibited use of standard chemical equilibrium methods for prediction of reaction products during treatment. Waste characterization followed by determination of thermodynamic feasibility of oxidation and reduction products. These calculations were shown to be accurate in laboratory testing. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-16

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE`s commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex.

  5. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  6. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Sandia National Laboratory Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis B.

    2015-12-01

    This special analysis evaluates whether the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream (ASLA000001007, Revision 4) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream consists of debris from classified nuclear weapons components (SNL 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream had no significant effect on the maximum mean and 95th percentile results for the resident air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream increases the mean air pathway and all-pathways annual TED from approximately 100 to 200 years after closure. Addition of the SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream inventory shifts the maximum TED to approximately 100 years after closure and increases the TED for several alternative exposure scenarios. The maximum mean and the 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  7. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2002-06-10

    The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

  8. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2001-06-11

    The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

  9. Preliminary data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, S.C.; Goering, T.J.; McVey, M.D.; Strong, W.R.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The test was performed from December 1993 through 1995 as part of the environmental Restoration Project`s Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation of the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the test was to measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils near the Mixed Waste Landfill. The instantaneous profile test and instrumentation are described, and the pressure and moisture content data from the test are presented. These data may be useful for understanding the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils in Technical Area 3 and for model validation, verification, and calibration.

  10. Norfolk Southern boxcar blocking/bracing plan for the mixed waste disposal initiative project. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Seigler, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs will dispose of mixed waste no longer deemed useful. This project is one of the initial activities used to help meet this goal. The project will transport the {approximately}46,000 drums of existing stabilized mixed waste located at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and presently stored in the K-31 and K-33 buildings to an off-site commercially licensed and permitted mixed waste disposal facility. Shipping and disposal of all {approximately}46,000 pond waste drums ({approximately}1,000,000 ft{sup 3} or 55,000 tons) is scheduled to occur over a period of {approximately}5--10 years. The first shipment of stabilized pond waste should transpire some time during the second quarter of FY 1994. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., proposes to line each of the Norfolk Southem boxcars with a prefabricated, white, 15-mm low-density polyethylene (LDPE) liner material. To avoid damaging the bottom of the polyethylene floor liner, a minimum .5 in. plywood will be nailed to the boxcars` nailable metal floor. At the end of the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative (MWDI) Project workers at the Envirocare facility will dismantle and dispose of all the polyethylene liner and plywood materials. Envirocare of Utah, Inc., located in Clive, Utah, will perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Energy Systems. Energy Systems will also perform a health physic survey and chemically and radiologically decontaminate, if necessary, each of the rail boxcars prior to them being released back to Norfolk Southem Railroad.

  11. Trial Burn Activities for a Mixed Waste Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, M.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is located on the Savannah River Site (SRS), owned by the U. S. Department of Energy and managed by BNFL, Inc. for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. SRS received permits from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region IV to construct and operate the CIF, a hazardous, radioactive mixed waste incinerator. This paper presents the results of the trial burn conducted on the CIF in April 1997 which is the initial demonstration of compliance with the permits. The incinerator is currently operating under approved post-trial burn conditions while the trial burn results are being evaluated. A final operating permit is expected the fall of 1998.

  12. Photochemical oxidation: A solution for the mixed waste dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Prellberg, J.W.; Thornton, L.M.; Cheuvront, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Numerous technologies are available to remove organic contamination from water or wastewater. A variety of techniques also exist that are used to neutralize radioactive waste. However, few technologies can satisfactorily address the treatment of mixed organic/radioactive waste without creating unacceptable secondary waste products or resulting in extremely high treatment costs. An innovative solution to the mixed waste problem is on-site photochemical oxidation. Liquid-phase photochemical oxidation has a long- standing history of successful application to the destruction of organic compounds. By using photochemical oxidation, the organic contaminants are destroyed on-site leaving the water, with radionuclides, that can be reused or disposed of as appropriate. This technology offers advantages that include zero air emissions, no solid or liquid waste formation, and relatively low treatment cost. Discussion of the photochemical process will be described, and several case histories from recent design testing, including cost analyses for the resulting full-scale installations, will be presented as examples.

  13. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  14. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  16. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-12-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 1] (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  19. Vendor assessments of radioactive/mixed waste processing/disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bourassa, J.; Piscitello, T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper was developed based on Yankee Atomic Electric Company experiences gained through the performance of vendor assessments of radioactive and mixed waste processing and disposal facilities. This paper will provide insights to companies or organizations who have radioactive and/or mixed waste which requires disposal. The paper will discuss the technical, legal and programmatic issues which should be considered when evaluating waste processing and/or disposal options. The discussion focuses on the methods utilized for the preparation, performance and reporting of assessments of waste disposal vendors. The paper includes a discussion of the scope and purpose of the assessment process, and the methodologies and approach taken to evaluate the technical and programmatic areas. This paper provides guidance and direction to those individuals involved in evaluating the capabilities of the waste processing and or disposal vendors. The paper is also a resource which identifies regulatory and industry guidance available for consideration in the planning for a waste disposal/processing vendor assessment. The company needs to determine what is the most practical disposal method. This disposal method may be a combination of waste processing and direct disposal, which is consistent with the methodologies utilized by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company at the Yankee Nuclear Power Station and by other Yankee plants. Due to the anticipated/active need for utilizing a number of vendors for performing these activities, the determination has been made that assessments of the vendors supplying the services are required to ensure that activities are being effectively performed in order to minimize potential liabilities. The assessments need to consider not only the technical aspects of the operations, but also require an evaluation of the quality system(s) being utilized to ensure the consistent and effective implementation of applicable process controls.

  20. Transportable Vitrification System: Operational experience gained during vitrification of simulated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.

    1996-11-21

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation`s (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste.

  1. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  2. USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    LAGERRAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined.

  3. Protable Analyzer Based on Microfluidic/Nanoengineered electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Wang, PhD

    2007-11-30

    This project aimed on the development of compact microchip sensing devices for on-site monitoring of pollutants in contaminated DOE sites. As described in this report, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the on-site detection of toxic metals and for interfacing microfluidic (Lab-on-Chip) sensing devices with the real world. This activity has been very productive and has already been described in 12 research papers (published in major international journals). The resulting microchip sensor technology should allow testing for toxic metals and other major pollutants to be performed more rapidly, inexpensively, and reliably in a field setting. These new analytical capabilities resulted from the generous DOE support will facilitate the characterization and remediation of mixed waste contaminated sites.

  4. High temperature vitrification of surrogate Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Schumacher, R.F.; Spatz, T.L.; Newsom, R.A.; Circeo, L.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-11-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been funded through the DOE Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to investigate high-temperature vitrification technologies for the treatment of diverse low-level and mixed wastes. High temperature vitrification is a likely candidate for processing heterogeneous solid wastes containing low levels of activity. Many SRS wastes fit into this category. Plasma torch technology is one high temperature vitrification method. A trial demonstration of plasma torch processing is being performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology on surrogate SRS wastes. This effort is in cooperation with the Engineering Research and Development Association of Georgia Universities (ERDA) program. The results of phase 1 of these plasma torch trials will be presented.

  5. Lessons learned from start-up testing of a mixed waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes Burns, H.; Burns, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Start-up testing of a new mixed waste incinerator, the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF), has been completed at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS). The incinerator is equipped with an air pollution control system (APCS) that includes a wet quench and scrubber followed by dry air filtration using high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The system was designed with optimum materials to maximize reliability, runtime, and ease of maintenance. Changes to the CIF operation and materials have been made to maximize system performance and minimize corrosion. This paper presents a brief overview of the incinerator design philosophy, pilot-scale testing results, and some of the lessons learned during the start-up testing of the CIF.

  6. Comparison of modified sulfur cement and hydraulic cement for encapsulation of radioactive and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of solidification/stabilization systems for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste, both in the commercial sector and at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, utilize hydraulic cement (such as portland cement) to encapsulate waste materials and yield a monolithic solid waste form for disposal. A new and innovative process utilizing modified sulfur cement developed by the US Bureau of Mines has been applied at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the encapsulation of many of these problem'' wastes. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material, and as such, it can be heated above it's melting point (120{degree}C), combined with dry waste products to form a homogeneous mixture, and cooled to form a monolithic solid product. Under sponsorship of the DOE, research and development efforts at BNL have successfully applied the modified sulfur cement process for treatment of a range of LLWs including sodium sulfate salts, boric acid salts, and incinerator bottom ash and for mixed waste contaminated incinerator fly ash. Process development studies were conducted to determine optimal waste loadings for each waste type. Property evaluation studies were conducted to test waste form behavior under disposal conditions by applying relevant performance testing criteria established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for LLW) and the Environmental Protection Agency (for hazardous wastes). Based on both processing and performance considerations, significantly greater waste loadings were achieved using modified sulfur cement when compared with hydraulic cement. Technology demonstration of the modified sulfur cement encapsulation system using production-scale equipment is scheduled for FY 1991. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Separating mixed waste plastics in a flotation column

    SciTech Connect

    Biddulph, M.W.; Chow, P.S.; Cloke, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes efforts to develop a continuous separation technique for mixed waste plastics to facilitate subsequent recycling. Selective wetting of the surfaces is used as the separating criterion, and Critical Surface Tension values for various commercial plastic materials have been determined. This has demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Although the technique has been applied using solvent systems, the method investigated here is the use of surface active agents. Previously batch systems have been reported, but the development of a continuous process requires a much better understanding of dynamic surface tension effects. Detailed studies of the effects of air bubble size and particle size have been made using very high speed video techniques. From these observations, the collision behavior of a bubble against the plastic surface was found to be markedly affected by bubble size, impact velocity, roughness of surface and the surface tension of the surfactant solution, and permanent adhesion to the surface required a contact time for film thinning, rupturing and forming the contact angle. The experiments demonstrated the desirability of small bubbles and low impact velocities. Recovery was influenced significantly by particle size. Actual separations have been achieved in a bench top apparatus, and extended to a water elutriator 4.3 metres in height and 15 cm diameter. A mathematical model has been fitted to the behavior of particles in the column, and the effective axial diffusivity is quite similar to the {open_quotes}free stream{close_quotes} single fluid values. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  9. Vitrification development plan for US Department of Energy mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.; Lucerna, J.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    This document is a general plan for conducting vitrification development for application to mixed wastes owned by the US Department of Energy. The emphasis is a description and discussion of the data needs to proceed through various stages of development. These stages are (1) screening at a waste site to determine which streams should be vitrified, (2) waste characterization and analysis, (3) waste form development and treatability studies, (4) process engineering development, (5) flowsheet and technical specifications for treatment processes, and (6) integrated pilot-scale demonstration. Appendices provide sample test plans for various stages of the vitrification development process. This plan is directed at thermal treatments which produce waste glass. However, the study is still applicable to the broader realm of thermal treatment since it deals with issues such as off-gas characterization and waste characterization that are not necessarily specific to vitrification. The purpose is to provide those exploring or considering vitrification with information concerning the kinds of data that are needed, the way the data are obtained, and the way the data are used. This will provide guidance to those who need to prioritize data needs to fit schedules and budgets. Knowledge of data needs also permits managers and planners to estimate resource requirements for vitrification development.

  10. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  11. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. ); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. . Energy Systems Group)

    1991-05-13

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Nocito, T.; Vaux, W.G.; Snyder, T.

    1994-12-31

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the US nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCBs, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay, and fission products of DOE operations. To allow disposal, the asbestos must be converted chemically, followed by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives. An attempt was made to apply techniques that have already proved successful in the mining, oil, and metals processing industries to the development of a multi-stage process to remove and separate hazardous chemical radioactive materials from asbestos. This process uses three methods: ABCOV chemicals which converts the asbestos to a sanitary waste; dielectric heating to volatilize the organic materials; and electrochemical processing for the removal of heavy metals, RCRA wastes and radionuclides. This process will result in the destruction of over 99% of the asbestos; limit radioactive metal contamination to 0.2 Bq alpha per gram and 1 Bq beta and gamma per gram; reduce hazardous organics to levels compatible with current EPA policy for RCRA delisting; and achieve TCLP limits for all solidified waste.

  13. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  14. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during third quarter 1994. Sixty-four (51%) of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 22 (18%) wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during third quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during second quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was elevated in only one well during second quarter 1994, was elevated again during third quarter. Mercury, which was elevated during first quarter 1994, was elevated again in one well. Dichloromethane was elevated in two wells for the first time in several quarters.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. During second quarter 1994, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, or tritium exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in approximately half of the downgradient wells at the MWMF. Consistent with historical trends, elevated constituent levels were found primarily in Aquifer Zone. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during second quarter 1994. Sixty-two of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 23 wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during second quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during first quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was not elevated in any well during first quarter 1994, was elevated in one well during second quarter. Copper, mercury, and nonvolatile beta were elevated during first quarter 1994 but not during second quarter.

  17. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  18. Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Waste: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Halada, Gary P

    2008-04-10

    In order to understand the susceptibility of transuranic and mixed waste to microbial degradation (as well as any mechanism which depends upon either complexation and/or redox of metal ions), it is essential to understand the association of metal ions with organic ligands present in mixed wastes. These ligands have been found in our previous EMSP study to limit electron transfer reactions and strongly affect transport and the eventual fate of radionuclides in the environment. As transuranic waste (and especially mixed waste) will be retained in burial sites and in legacy containment for (potentially) many years while awaiting treatment and removal (or remaining in place under stewardship agreements at government subsurface waste sites), it is also essential to understand the aging of mixed wastes and its implications for remediation and fate of radionuclides. Mixed waste containing actinides and organic materials are especially complex and require extensive study. The EMSP program described in this report is part of a joint program with the Environmental Sciences Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Stony Brook University portion of this award has focused on the association of uranium (U(VI)) and transuranic analogs (Ce(III) and Eu(III)) with cellulosic materials and related compounds, with development of implications for microbial transformation of mixed wastes. The elucidation of the chemical nature of mixed waste is essential for the formulation of remediation and encapsulation technologies, for understanding the fate of contaminant exposed to the environment, and for development of meaningful models for contaminant storage and recovery.

  19. Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

    2004-02-01

    A zero-release offgas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotarykiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release offgas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the offgas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the offgas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the offgas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing offgas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system offgas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  4. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  5. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchynka, D.

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  6. Mixed Waste Management Facility FSS Well Data Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. No constituent exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  7. A Survey of Mixed-Waste HEPA Filters in the DOE Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Felicione, F. S.; Barber, D. B.; Carney, K. P.

    2002-02-28

    A brief investigation was made to determine the quantities of spent, mixed-waste HEPA filters within the DOE Complex. The quantities of both the mixed-waste filters that are currently being generated, as well as the legacy mixed-waste filters being stored and awaiting disposition were evaluated. Seven DOE sites representing over 89% of the recent HEPA filter usage were identified. These sites were then contacted to determine the number of these filters that were likely destined to become mixed waste and to survey the legacy-filter quantities. Inquiries into the disposition plans for the filters were also made. It was determined that the seven sites surveyed possess approximately 500 m3 of legacy mixed-waste HEPA filters that will require processing, with an annual generation rate of approximately 25 m3. No attempt was made to extrapolate the results of this survey to the entire DOE Complex. These results were simply considered to be the lower bound of the totality of mixed-waste HEPA filters throughout the Complex. The quantities determined encourage the development of new treatment technologies for these filters, and provide initial data on which an appropriate capacity for a treatment process may be based.

  8. Demonstration of ATG Process for Stabilizing Mercury (<260 ppm) Contaminated Mixed Waste. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference # 2407

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Based on efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of wastes contaminated with <260 ppm mercury and with radionuclides stored at various DOE sites is estimated to be approximately 6,000 m3). At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. Extraction methods are required to remove mercury from waste containing >260 ppm levels, but below 260 ppm Hg contamination levels the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not require removal of mercury from the waste. Steps must still be taken, however, to ensure that the final waste form does not leach mercury in excess of the limit for mercury prescribed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At this time, the limit is 0.20 mg/L. However, in the year 2000, the more stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) of 0.025 mg/L will be used as the target endpoint. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. It must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. To date, no standard method of stabilization has been developed and proven for such varying waste types as those within the DOE complex.

  9. In-situ stabilization of TRU/mixed waste project at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Milian, L.W.; Heiser, J.H.; Adams, J.W.; Rutenkroeger, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, buried waste poses a threat to the environment by means of contaminant transport. Many of the sites contain buried waste that is untreated, prior to disposal, or insufficiently treated, by today`s standards. One option to remedy these disposal problems is to stabilize the waste in situ. This project was in support of the Transuranic/Mixed Buried Waste - Arid Soils product line of the Landfill Focus Area, which is managed currently by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (BNL) provided the analytical laboratory and technical support for the various stabilization activities that will be performed as part of the In Situ Stabilization of TRU/Mixed Waste project at the INEL. More specifically, BNL was involved in laboratory testing that included the evaluation of several grouting materials and their compatibility, interaction, and long-term durability/performance, following the encapsulation of various waste materials. The four grouting materials chosen by INEL were: TECT 1, a two component, high density cementious grout, WAXFIX, a two component, molten wax product, Carbray 100, a two component elastomeric epoxy, and phosphate cement, a two component ceramic. A simulated waste stream comprised of sodium nitrate, Canola oil, and INEL soil was used in this study. Seven performance and durability tests were conducted on grout/waste specimens: compressive strength, wet-dry cycling, thermal analysis, base immersion, solvent immersion, hydraulic conductivity, and accelerated leach testing.

  10. Task 1.6 - mixed waste. Topical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    For fifty years, the United States was involved in a nuclear arms race of immense proportions. During the majority of this period, the push was always to design new weapons, produce more weapons, and increase the size of the arsenal, maintaining an advantage over the opposition in order to protect U.S. interests. Now that the {open_quotes}Cold War{close_quotes} is over, we are faced with the imposing tasks of dismantling, cleaning up, and remediating the wide variety of problems created by this arms race. An overview of the current status of the total remediation effort within the DOE is presented in the DOE publication {open_quotes}ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 1995{close_quotes} (EM 1995). Not all radioactive waste is the same though; therefore, a system was devised to categorize the different types of radioactive waste. These categories are as follows: spent fuel; high-level waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; mixed waste; and uranium-mill tailings. Mixed waste is defined to be material contaminated with any of these categories of radioactive material plus an organic or heavy metal component. However, for this discussion, {open_quotes}mixed waste{close_quote} will pertain only to low-level mixed waste which consists of low-level radioactive waste mixed with organic solvents and or heavy metals. The area of {open_quotes}mixed-waste characterization, treatment, and disposal{close_quotes} is listed on page 6 of the EM 1995 publication as one of five focus areas for technological development, and while no more important than the others, it has become an area of critical concern for DOE. Lacking adequate technologies for treatment and disposal, the DOE stockpiled large quantities of mixed waste during the 1970s and 1980s. Legislative changes and the need for regulatory compliance have now made it expedient to develop methods of achieving final disposition for this stockpiled mixed waste.

  11. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  12. Testing of low temperature stabilization alternatives for salt-containing mixed wastes -- approach and results to date

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, V.; Loomis, G.; Biyani, R.K.; Smith, G.; Spence, R.; Wagh, A.

    1998-07-01

    Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The following five alternative salt waste stabilization technologies were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: (1) Phosphate Bonded Ceramics, (2) Sol-gel, (3) Polysiloxane, (4) Polyester Resin, and (5) Enhanced Concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates as specified by the MWFA. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability can then be equally compared to the requirements originally specified. In addition to the selected test results provided in this paper, the performance of each alternative stabilization technology, will be documented in formal MWFA Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs).

  13. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T.

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  14. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  15. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  16. Nondestructive Waste Assay Using Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2123

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    This project was supported by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and the Federal Environmental Technology Center (FETC) to develop an improved nondestructive assay (NDA) capability that uses gamma-ray computed tomography and gamma-energy spectral analysis techniques to perform waste assay measurements. It was the intent of the Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) development and demonstration project to enhance the overall utility of waste assay through the implementation of techniques that can accommodate known measurement complications, e.g., waste matrix and radioactive material distribution heterogeneities. This technology can measure the radionuclide content in all types of waste regardless of their classification as low level (LLW), transuranic (TRU) or mixed (MLLW or MTRU). The nondestructive waste assay capability needed to support Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste characterization needs is necessarily a function of the waste form configurations in inventory. These waste form configurations exhibit a number of variables impacting assay system response that must be accounted for to ensure valid measurement data. Such variables include: matrix density, matrix elemental composition, matrix density distribution, radioactive material radionuclidic/isotopic composition, radioactive material physical/chemical form, and physical distribution in the waste matrix. Existing nondestructive assay technologies have identified capability limits with respect to these variables. Certain combinations of these variables result in waste configurations within the capability of one or more of the existing systems. Other combinations that are prevalent in the inventory are outside of the capability of such systems.

  17. The utilization of uranium industry technology and relevant chemistry to leach uranium from mixed-waste solids

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for the chemical extraction of uranium from a number of refractory uranium-containing minerals found in nature have been in place and employed by the uranium mining and milling industry for nearly half a century. These same methods, in conjunction with the principles of relevant uranium chemistry, have been employed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to chemically leach depleted uranium from mixed-waste sludge and soil. The removal of uranium from what is now classified as mixed waste may result in the reclassification of the waste as hazardous, which may then be delisted. The delisted waste might eventually be disposed of in commercial landfill sites. This paper generally discusses the application of chemical extractive methods to remove depleted uranium from a biodenitrification sludge and a storm sewer soil sediment from the Y-12 weapons plant in Oak Ridge. Some select data obtained from scoping leach tests on these materials are presented along with associated limitations and observations which might be useful to others performing such test work. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties.

  19. Grand Junction projects office mixed-waste treatment program, VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.R.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses an indirectly heated, batch vacuum dryer to thermally desorb organic compounds from mixed wastes. This process hazards analysis evaluated 102 potential hazards. The three significant hazards identified involved the inclusion of oxygen in a process that also included an ignition source and fuel. Changes to the design of the MTU were made concurrent with the hazard identification and analysis; all hazards with initial risk rankings of 1 or 2 were reduced to acceptable risk rankings of 3 or 4. The overall risk to any population group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  20. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  1. Vitrification of surrogate mixed wastes in a graphite electrode arc melter

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Ball, L.

    1995-11-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of various types of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feed mixtures were processed with added soil from the INEL. Objectives being evaluated include (1) equipment capability to achieve desired process conditions and vitrification products for different feed compositions, (2) slag and metals tapping capability, (3) partitioning of transuranic elements and toxic metals among the furnace products, (4) slag, fume, and metal products characteristics, and (5) performance of the feed, furnace and air pollution control systems. The tests were successfully completed in mid-April 1995. A very comprehensive process monitoring, sampling and analysis program was included in the test program. Sample analysis, data reduction, and results evaluation are currently underway. Initial results indicate that the furnace readily processed around 20,000 lb of widely ranging feed mixtures at feedrates of up to 1,100 lb/hr. Continuous feeding and slag tapping was achieved. Molten metal was also tapped twice during the test program. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled as expected by a modified air pollution control system.

  2. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  3. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  4. A testing program to evaluate the effects of simulant mixed wastes on plastic transportation packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.; Dickman, P.T.

    1997-08-01

    Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl rubber, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). These plastics were first screened in four simulant mixed wastes. The liner materials were screened using specific gravity measurements and seal materials by vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements. For the screening of liner materials, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals. The tests also indicated that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. Those materials which passed the screening tests were subjected to further comprehensive testing in each of the simulant wastes. The materials were exposed to four different radiation doses followed by exposure to a simulant mixed waste at three temperatures and four different exposure times (7, 14, 28, 180 days). Materials were tested by measuring specific gravity, dimensional, hardness, stress cracking, VTR, compression set, and tensile properties. The second phase of this Testing Program involving the comprehensive testing of plastic liner has been completed and for seal materials is currently in progress.

  5. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  6. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1999-07-20

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  7. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1997-07-15

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  8. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  9. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

  10. Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Colombo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

  11. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE`s analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992).

  12. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented.

  13. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  14. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring continued at the Savannah River Plant. During second quarter 1993, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), dichloromethane (methylene chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  15. Safety evaluation of the Mixed Waste Storage Building (Building 643-43E)

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J.M.

    1992-01-27

    A safety evaluation has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Storage Building (MWSB) at the Savannah River Site. The results of this evaluation are compared with those contained in the Burial Ground Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The MWSB will function as an interim storage facility for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated mixed waste. It will meet all applicable standards set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the South Carolina Department of Health and Environment Control (SCDHEC), and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders.

  16. Testing cleanable/reuseable HEPA prefilters for mixed waste incinerator air pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, B.W.; Paul, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the US DOE Savannah River Site is undergoing preoperational testing. The CIF is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes from site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing incinerators, air pollution control experience, and recommendations from consultants. This approach resulted in a facility design using experience from other operating hazardous/radioactive incinerators. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Operation of the pilot facility has provided long-term performance data of integrated systems and critical facility components. This has reduced facility startup problems and helped ensure compliance with facility performance requirements. Technical support programs assist in assuring all stakeholders the CIF can properly treat combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive wastes. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas strewn before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Thermoplastic encapsulation of commercial reactor low level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1995-05-01

    Conventional hydraulic cement solidification is the primary technology employed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities for treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. The extensive use of cement as a solidification binder has been based on its availability, relative low cost, processability, and high alkalinity (beneficial for immobilizing toxic metals). However, a chemical hydration reaction necessary to set and cure the waste form limits the type and quantity of waste that can be incorporated due to possible interferences between the waste and binder material. Alternative encapsulation technologies have been sought under DOE sponsorship that provide increases in waste stream compatibility, waste loading potential, and waste form performance at lower costs. The Environmental & Waste Technology Center (E&WTC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several low temperature encapsulation processes for improved treatment of commercial reactor and DOE waste streams, using low-density polyethylene and sulfur polymer. Process development studies have shown successful process applicability to a wide range of wastes including evaporator concentrates, such as sodium sulfate and borate salts, incinerator ash and ion exchange resins. Waste form performance studies have been conducted to characterize waste form behavior under disposal conditions in accordance with testing criteria specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Based on processing and performance considerations, dramatic waste loading improvements compared with conventional hydraulic cement have been achieved. For example, the polyethylene process has been shown to encapsulate up to 70 dry wt% evaporator salt concentrates, compared with a maximum of about 12 dry wt% for the best hydraulic cement formation.

  18. Mixed waste landfill monitoring prototype test design for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this contract is to design the prototype tests necessary for the verification of the measurement methods proposed for the Mixed Waste Disposal Facility. The design is limited to the hydrological performance of the measurement methods. It does not include the mechanical testing of the methods proposed. The test site is to be selected and when approved, construction drawings provided. The contract also includes testing of vitrified clay pipe as the liner of choice for the passages under the landfill. The tests are to be done of both he hydrologic and the mechanical capability of the pipe. The test bed construction is to be supervised as it is being done by the construction contractor monitored by LANL. This contract does not include the logical subsequent work of performance of the measurements in the test bed. Since this contract was received by September 15, with the work to be completed by September 30, only that work possible in the short time was performed. That included the design of the test bed, the purchase of the vitrified clay pipe and the mechanical tests of the pipe, and the purchase of the SEAMIST systems for testing in the clay pipe. None of those could be delivered in time for flow tests to be done on the clay pipe. The mechanical tests were done as part of the pipe purchase and are reported here. The contract was not extended beyond September 30 for lack of funds. This report is therefore limited to the preliminary design of the test bed and to the specification of the orders for the materials. The hope is that funding will be restored to the program for the completion of the design and measurement effort.

  19. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  20. Compliance matrix for the mixed waste disposal facilities, trenches 31 and 34, burial ground 218-W-5. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.D.

    1995-05-03

    This document provides a listing of applicable regulatory requirements to the Mixed Waste Disposal trenches. After the listing of regulations to be followed is a listing of documents that show how the regulations are being implemented and followed for the Mixed Waste trenches.

  1. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  2. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  3. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  4. Analysis and stabilization of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s multiphase mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-05-19

    Five drums of mixed waste were accepted from LBL during FY 1994; they contain inorganic acids and compounds, as well as organic reagents and radioactive materials. This document defines the work plan for stabilization and characterization of the waste in three of these 5 drums.

  5. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  6. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities.

  7. Response of elastomeric packaging components to a corrosive simulant mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the US have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these national requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at SNL. In this paper, the authors present the results of Part B of the second phase of this testing program. The first phase screened five liner materials and six seal materials towards four simulant mixed wastes. Part A of the second phase involved the comprehensive testing of five candidate liner materials to an aqueous Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. Part B involved similar testing on elastomeric materials, ethylene-propylene and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber. The comprehensive testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to a matrix of four gamma radiation doses ({approximately}1, 3, 6, and 40 kGy), three temperatures (18, 50, and 60 C), and four exposure times (7, 14, 28, and 180 days). Following their exposure to these combinations of conditions, the materials were evaluated by measuring six material properties. These properties were specific gravity, dimensional changes, hardness, vapor transport rates, compression set, and mechanical properties.

  8. Favorable Decision Upholding Radioactive/Hazardous Mixed Waste Storage Civil Enforcement Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a copy of the U.S. Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) decision in Edison Electric Institute, et al. v. EPA, No. 91-1586, which upheld the EPA's August 29, 1991, radioactive/hazardous 'mixed waste' storage civil enforcement policy

  9. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-12-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

  11. Vitrification as a low-level radioactive mixed waste treatment technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; No, Hyo J.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is developing plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated onsite. The ultimate objective of this project is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the annual generation and historic stockpiles of selected LLMW streams. This project is currently in the process of identifying a range of processible glass compositions that can be produced from actual mixed wastes and additives, such as boric acid or borax. During the formulation of these glasses, there has been an emphasis on maximizing the waste content in the glass (70 to 90 wt %), reducing the overall final waste volume, and producing a stabilized low-level radioactive waste glass. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced alkali borosilicate glasses that pass the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals well above the expected levels in actual wastes, also pass the TCLP test. These results provide compelling evidence that the vitrification system and the glass waste form will be robust enough to accommodate expected variations in the LLMW streams from ANL-E. Approximately 40 crucible melts will be studied to establish a compositional envelope for vitrifying ANL-E mixed wastes. Also being determined is the identity of volatilized metals or off-gases that will be generated.

  12. Vitrification of low-level radioactive mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Rosine, S.D.; No, H.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is proceeding with plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated on-site. The objective is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the entire annual generation of selected LLMW streams. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced sodium borosilicate glasses under conditions achievable in commercially available melters. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals above the expected levels in actual wastes, pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Earlier evaluations of the likely off-gases that will result from vitrification indicated that the primary off-gases will include compounds of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}. These evaluations are being experimentally confirmed with a mass spectrometer analysis of the gases evolved from samples of the ANL-E wastes. The composition of the melter feed can be adjusted to minimize volatilization of some components, if necessary. The full-scale melter will be designed to handle the annual generation of at least three LLMW waste streams: evaporator concentrator bottoms sludge (ECB), storage tank sludge (STS), and HEPA filter media. Each waste stream is mixed waste by virtue of its failure to pass the TCLP test with respect to toxic metal leaching. Additional LLMW streams under consideration for vitrification include historical mixed waste glass from past operations and spent abrasive from a planned decontamination facility.

  13. HARMONIC CAVITY PERFORMANCE FOR NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    BLEDNYKH, A.; KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; ROSE, J.; TOWNE, N.; WANG, J.M.

    2005-05-15

    NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-high brightness storage ring planned to succeed the present NSLS rings at BNL. Ultralow emittance combined with short bunch length means that it is critical to minimize the effects of Touschek scattering and coherent instabilities. Improved lifetime and stability can be achieved by including a third-harmonic RF cavity in the baseline design. This paper describes the required harmonic RF parameters and the expected system performance.

  14. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M.

    1994-08-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control.

  15. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  16. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  17. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuehe Lin; Glen E. Fryxell; Wassana Yantasee; Guodong Liu; Zheming Wang

    2006-06-01

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species.

  18. Guidelines for generators to meet HWHF acceptance requirements for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Berkeley Lab. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1996-06-01

    This document provides performance standards that one, as a generator of hazardous chemical, radioactive, or mixed wastes at the Berkeley Lab, must meet to manage their waste to protect Berkeley Lab staff and the environment, comply with waste regulations and ensure the continued safe operation of the workplace, have the waste transferred to the correct Waste Handling Facility, and enable the Environment, Health and Safety (EH and S) Division to properly pick up, manage, and ultimately send the waste off site for recycling, treatment, or disposal. If one uses and generates any of these wastes, one must establish a Satellite Accumulation Area and follow the guidelines in the appropriate section of this document. Topics include minimization of wastes, characterization of the wastes, containers, segregation, labeling, empty containers, and spill cleanup and reporting.

  19. An Effective Waste Management Process for Segregation and Disposal of Legacy Mixed Waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, Anne K.; Meyer, Dann; Rellergert, Carla A.; Schriner, Joseph A.

    1998-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well- defined, properly characterized, and precisely inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried through this process. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this paper is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

  20. SEPARATION AND EXTRACTION OF PLUTONIUM IN MIXED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur E. Desrosiers, ScD, CHP; Robert Kaiser, ScD; Jason Antkowiak; Justin Desrosiers; Josh Jondro; Adam Kulczyk

    2002-12-13

    The Sonatol process uses ultrasonic agitation in fluorinated surfactant solutions to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. The current work applies the Sonatol process to the decontamination of heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibits excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents transportation of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Bartlett Services, Inc. (BSI) designed and fabricated a prototype decontamination system within a replica of a Savannah River Site glovebox. In Phase I, BSI conducted cold testing with surrogate waste material to verify that the equipment, operating procedures, and test protocols would support testing with Pu-238 in Phase II. The surrogate waste material is representative of known constituents of legacy job control waste. Two sub-micron sized Pu-238 simulants were added to the surrogate waste so that decontamination could be tested. The first simulant was an Osram Sylvania Phosphor 2284C powder that fluoresces under ultraviolet light. The use of the fluorescent simulant allows rapid, inexpensive system startup testing because residuals can be assayed using a digital camera. The results of digital pixel analysis (DPA) are available immediately and do not require use of licensed material. The second simulant, which was used for integrated cold testing, was a cerium oxide powder that was activated in a research reactor neutron flux and assayed by photon spectroscopy. The surrogate transuranic (TRU) waste material was contaminated with Pu-238 simulants and loaded into the cleaning chamber, where the surrogates were ultrasonically agitated and rinsed. The decontaminated materials were then assayed for surface contamination by DPA to establish optimum operating parameters and provide process quality control. Selected samples were sent to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for neutron activation analysis (NAA). NAA testing

  1. Disposal of mixed waste: Technical, institutional, and policy factors

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Letourneau, M.J.; Case, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    In conjunction with the affected States as part of their interactions required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, the Department of Energy has been developing a process for a disposal configuration for its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This effort, spanning more than two years, has reduced the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. The remaining 15 sites have been subjected to a performance evaluation to determine their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. The process has included institutional and policy factors as well as strictly technical analyses, and technical analyses must be supported by technical analyses, and technical analyses must be performed within a framework which includes some institutional considerations, with the institutional considerations selected for inclusion largely a matter of policy. While the disposal configuration process is yet to be completed, the experience to date offers a viable approach for solving some of these issues. Additionally, several factors remain to be addressed before an MLLW disposal configuration can be developed.

  2. Modeling Topaz-II system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Klein, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The US acquisition of the Topaz-11 in-core thermionic space reactor test system from Russia provides a good opportunity to perform a comparison of the Russian reported data and the results from computer codes such as MCNP (Ref. 3) and TFEHX (Ref. 4). The comparison study includes both neutronic and thermionic performance analyses. The Topaz II thermionic reactor is modeled with MCNP using actual Russian dimensions and parameters. The computation of the neutronic performance considers several important aspects such as the fuel enrichment and location of the thermionic fuel elements (TFES) in the reactor core. The neutronic analysis included the calculation of both radial and axial power distribution, which are then used in the TFEHX code for electrical performance. The reactor modeled consists of 37 single-cell TFEs distributed in a 13-cm-radius zirconium hydride block surrounded by 8 cm of beryllium metal reflector. The TFEs use 90% enriched [sup 235]U and molybdenum coated with a thin layer of [sup 184]W for emitter surface. Electrons emitted are captured by a collector surface with a gap filled with cesium vapor between the collector and emitter surfaces. The collector surface is electrically insulated with alumina. Liquid NaK provides the cooling system for the TFEs. The axial thermal power distribution is obtained by dividing the TFE into 40 axial nodes. Comparison of the true axial power distribution with that produced by electrical heaters was also performed.

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-09-08

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs.

  4. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  5. Microbial community dynamics in mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of mixed waste.

    PubMed

    Supaphol, Savaporn; Jenkins, Sasha N; Intomo, Pichamon; Waite, Ian S; O'Donnell, Anthony G

    2011-03-01

    This paper identifies key components of the microbial community involved in the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion (AD) of mixed waste at Rayong Biogas Plant, Thailand. The AD process is separated into three stages: front end treatment (FET); feed holding tank and the main anaerobic digester. The study examines how the microbial community structure was affected by the different stages and found that seeding the waste at the beginning of the process (FET) resulted in community stability. Also, co-digestion of mixed waste supported different bacterial and methanogenic pathways. Typically, acetoclastic methanogenesis was the major pathway catalysed by Methanosaeta but hydrogenotrophs were also supported. Finally, the three-stage AD process means that hydrolysis and acidogenesis is initiated prior to entering the main digester which helps improve the bioconversion efficiency. This paper demonstrates that both resource availability (different waste streams) and environmental factors are key drivers of microbial community dynamics in mesophilic, anaerobic co-digestion.

  6. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present.

  7. Development of mixed-waste analysis capability for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; TenKate, L.B.; Wroblewski, A.

    1995-03-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) are typically configured with ventilation to capture potentially toxic and corrosive gases emitted from the vaporization of sample aliquots. When radioactive elements are present, additional concerns (such as meeting safety guidelines and ALARA principles) must be addressed. This report describes a modification to a GFAAS that provides additional containment of vaporized sample aliquots. The modification was found to increase containment by a factor of 80, given expected operating conditions. The use of the modification allows more mixed-waste samples to be analyzed, permits higher levels of radioactive samples to be analyzed, or exposes the analyst to less airborne radioactivity. The containment apparatus was attached to a Perkin-Elmer Zeeman 5000 spectrophotometer for analysis of mixed-waste samples; however, it could also be used on other systems and in other applications where greater containment of vaporized material is desired.

  8. Mixed waste landfill cell construction at energy solutions LLC: a regulator's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lukes, G.C.; Willoughby, O.H.

    2007-07-01

    A small percentage of the property that EnergySolutions' (formerly Envirocare) operates at Clive, Utah is permitted by the State of Utah as a treatment, storage and disposal facility for mixed waste. Mixed Waste is defined as a hazardous waste (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261.3) that also has a radioactive component. Typically, the waste EnergySolutions receives at its mixed waste facility is contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds while also contaminated with radioactivity. For EnergySolutions, the largest generator of mixed waste is the United States Department of Energy. However, EnergySolutions also accepts a wide variety of mixed waste from other generators. For many wastes, EnergySolutions goes through the process of characterization and acceptance (if appropriate) of the waste, treating the waste (if necessary), confirmation that the waste meets Land Disposal Restriction, and disposal of the waste in its mixed waste landfill cell (MWLC). EnergySolutions originally received its State-issued Part B (RCRA) permit in 1990. The Permit allows a mixed waste landfill cell footprint that covers roughly 10 hectares and includes 20 individual 'sumps'. EnergySolutions chose to build small segments of the landfill cell as waste receipts dictated. Nearly 16 years later, EnergySolutions has just completed its Phase V construction project. 18 of the 20 sumps in the original design have been constructed. The last two sumps are anticipated to be its Phase VI construction project. Further expansion of its mixed waste disposal landfill capacity beyond the current design would require a permit modification request and approval by the Executive Secretary of the Utah Solid and Hazardous Waste Control Board. Construction of the landfill cell is governed by the Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control manual of its State-issued Permit. The construction of each sump is made up of (from the bottom up): a foundation; three feet of engineered clay

  9. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  10. Advanced robotics handling and controls applied to Mixed Waste characterization, segregation and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Grasz, E.; Huber, L.; Horvath, J.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Ryon, R.

    1994-11-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Mixed Waste Operations program of the Department of Energy Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), a key emphasis is developing a total solution to the problem of characterizing, handling and treating complex and potentially unknown mixed waste objects. LLNL has been successful at looking at the problem from a system perspective and addressing some of the key issues including non-destructive evaluation of the waste stream prior to the materials entering the handling workcell, the level of automated material handling required for effective processing of the waste stream objects (both autonomous and tele-operational), and the required intelligent robotic control to carry out the characterization, segregation, and waste treating processes. These technologies were integrated and demonstrated in a prototypical surface decontamination workcell this past year.

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean) wells. No elevated constituents were exhibited in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters.

  14. Selective reduction of Cr(VI) in chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) mixed waste streams using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shan; Jiang, Wenjun; Rashid, Mamun; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2015-02-03

    The highly toxic Cr(VI) is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) in the presence of arsenate, As(V), and copper, Cu(II). The rapid conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI) reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI) is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II) and As(V) does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI) reduction. The Cr(VI) reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  15. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  16. Final closure cover for a Hanford radioactive mixed waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.D.

    1996-02-06

    This study provides a preliminary design for a RCRA mixed waste landfill final closure cover. The cover design was developed by a senior class design team from Seattle University. The design incorporates a layered design of indigenous soils and geosynthetics in a layered system to meet final closure cover requirements for a landfill as imposed by the Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303 implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendix 2 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, Laboratory permeability, and compaction characteristics representative of Kaolin clays from the aiken, South Carolina vicinity. Included in this report are daily field reports Nos. 1 to 54. (KJD)

  18. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  19. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  20. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that employs

  1. The Mixed Waste Management Facility monthly report and revised FY95 plan, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains the project summary, as well as the financial summary for the Mixed Waste Management Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Detailed accomplishments and milestone status are reported in the Task Summaries. The major accomplishments during this reporting period are included the following areas: preliminary design; systems integration; briefings for the Environmental Programs Scientific Advisory Committee; integrated cost/scheduling estimating system; feed preparation; mediated electrochemical oxidation; and molten salt oxidation.

  2. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  3. Measurements and Models for Hazardous chemical and Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Laurel A. Watts; Cynthia D. Holcomb; Stephanie L. Outcalt; Beverly Louie; Michael E. Mullins; Tony N. Rogers

    2002-08-21

    Mixed solvent aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. Not only does the chemical process industry create large quantities of aqueous waste, but the majority of the waste inventory at the DOE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is mixed solvent aqueous waste. In addition, large quantities of waste are expected to be generated in the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical properties is essential. The goal of this work is to develop a phase equilibrium model for mixed solvent aqueous solutions containing salts. An equation of state was sought for these mixtures that (a) would require a minimum of adjustable parameters and (b) could be obtained from a available data or data that were easily measured. A model was developed to predict vapor composition and pressure given the liquid composition and temperature. It is based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, adapted to include non-volatile and salt components. The model itself is capable of predicting the vapor-liquid equilibria of a wide variety of systems composed of water, organic solvents, salts, nonvolatile solutes, and acids or bases. The representative system o water + acetone + 2-propanol + NaNo3 was selected to test and verify the model. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and phase density measurements were performed for this system and its constituent binaries.

  4. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

  5. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

  6. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  7. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-02-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex.

  8. Remotely controlled reagent feed system for mixed waste treatment Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Bowers, J.S.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    LLNL has developed and installed a large-scale. remotely controlled, reagent feed system for use at its existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). LLNL`s Tank Farm is used to treat aqueous low-level and mixed wastes prior to vacuum filtration and to remove the hazardous and radioactive components before it is discharged to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP) via the sanitary sewer in accordance with established limits. This reagent feed system was installed to improve operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need for manual handling of various reagents used in the aqueous waste treatment processes. This was done by installing a delivery system that is controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The system consists of a pumping station, four sets of piping to each of six 6,800-L (1,800-gal) treatment tanks, air-actuated discharge valves at each tank, a pH/temperature probe at each tank, and the PLC-based control and monitoring system. During operation, the reagents are slowly added to the tanks in a preprogrammed and controlled manner while the pH, temperature, and liquid level are continuously monitored by the PLC. This paper presents the purpose of this reagent feed system, provides background related to LLNL`s low-level/mixed waste treatment processes, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  9. Measurement and Model for Hazardous Chemical and Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Michael E. Mullins; Tony N. Rogers; Stephanie L. Outcalt; Beverly Louie; Laurel A. Watts; Cynthia D. Holcomb

    2002-07-30

    Mixed solvent aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. Not only does the chemical process industry create large quantities of aqueous waste, but the majority of the waste inventory at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is mixed solvent aqueous waste. In addition, large quantities of waste are expected to be generated in the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical properties is essential. The goal of this work is to develop a phase equilibrium model for mixed solvent aqueous solutions containing salts. An equation of state was sought for these mixtures that (a) would require a minimum of adjustable parameters and (b) could be obtained from a available data or data that were easily measured. A model was developed to predict vapor composition and pressure given the liquid composition and temperature. It is based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, adapted to include non-volatile and salt components. The model itself is capable of predicting the vapor-liquid equilibria of a wide variety of systems composed of water, organic solvents, salts, nonvolatile solutes, and acids or bases. The representative system of water + acetone + 2-propanol + NaNO3 was selected to test and verify the model. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and phase density measurements were performed for this system and its constituent binaries.

  10. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  11. Toxicity of Water and Sediment Samples Collected in the Vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility, 1995 and 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-07-01

    Three rounds of toxicity tests were conducted on water collected from eleven locations in the vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility and four reference locations between January 1995 and April 1996.

  12. Real-Time Broad Spectrum Characterization of Hazardous Mixed Waste by Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson Jr., Charles W.

    2000-12-31

    The goal of this project was to expand the range of chemical species that may be detected by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) in environmental, and specifically in Mixed Waste, monitoring and characterization applications. Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) functions as a near real-time monitor: there is little to no sample preparation and t analysis time is seconds to minutes. MIMS can be implemented as a flow injection technique, where samples, standards, and method blanks can be sequentially analyzed in a continuous fashion. The membrane acts as an interface between the sample (air or water) and the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Transport of the analyte through the membrane occurs by the process of pervaporation. This process is described by adsorption to the outer surface of the membrane, diffusion through the membrane, and desorption from the inner membrane surface into a helium gas flow or into vacuum. The driving force for this work is the need for a rapid, sensitive, and broadly applicable tool for characterizing organic and metal-containing contaminants in a variety of DOE (and other) waste streams. In all characterization scenarios, a balance must be struck between evaluation of the hazards and their extent at a waste site, and the resources available for the overall mitigation of that risk. In the case of chemically, physically, and geometrically homogeneous waste, the situation is aided by the ability to reasonably assume that any sample collected is representative of the overall site constituents. However, few real environmental challenges are homogeneous. As a result, detailed sampling plans must be prepared, and chemical analyses must be performed on a number of samples in order to identify areas of contamination and assess further options. For many years, the chemical analysis part of this process has been accomplished by delivering the samples to a (typically) physically remote laboratory, where very detailed, and

  13. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James; McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

    2003-06-01

    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  14. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 {degrees}C) at {ge} 900{degrees}C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL`s studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO{sub x}, emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO{sub x}, emissions are relatively low ( < 5 ppm) at temperatures < 1000{degrees}C. However, most (85--100%) of the nitrogen in the feed as organic nitrate or amine was released as NO{sub x}, The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls.

  15. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchynka, D.

    1995-12-31

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. Versatility of the treatment technology, volume reduction and containment of the radioactive component of the mixed waste streams are three criteria to be considered when evaluating potential treatment technologies. The ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process being developed under this R and D contract is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of a mixed waste stream to an energy-rich synthesis gas while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganic species (metals and acid gases) on a macroporous, carbon-based char. The latter is mixed with the waste stream prior to entering the reactor. Substoichiometric amounts of oxidant are fed into the top portion of the cylindrical reactor generating a thin, radial thermochemical reaction zone. This zone generates all the necessary heat to promote the highly endothermic reduction of the organic components in the waste in the lower portion of the reactor, producing, principally, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The solid by-product is a regenerated carbon char that, depending on the inorganic loading, is capable for reuse. The in situ scrubbing of contaminants by the char within the reactor coupled with a char filter for final polishing produce an exceptionally clean synthesis gas effluent suitable for on-site generation of heat, steam or electricity. Despite the elevated temperatures in the thermochemical reaction zone, the reductive nature of the process precludes formation of nitrogen oxides and halogenated organic compound by-products.

  16. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-22

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

  17. Disposal of low-level and low-level mixed waste: audit report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-03

    The Department of Energy (Department) is faced with the legacy of thousands of contaminated areas and buildings and large volumes of `backlog` waste requiring disposal. Waste management and environmental restoration activities have become central to the Department`s mission. One of the Department`s priorities is to clean up former nuclear weapons sites and find more effective and timely methods for disposing of nuclear waste. This audit focused on determining if the Department was disposing of low-level and low-level mixed waste in the most cost-effective manner.

  18. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  19. Integrated chemical/biological treatment of paint stripper mixed waste: Metals toxicity and separation

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Grumbine, R.K.; Foreman, T.; Hanners, J.L.; Brainard, J.R.; Sauer, N.N.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The DOE complex has generated vast quantities of complex heterogeneous mixed wastes. Paint stripper waste (PSW) is a complex waste that arose from decontamination and decommissioning activities. It contains paint stripper, cheesecloth, cellulose-based paints with Pb and Cr, and suspect Pu. Los Alamos National Laboratory has 150--200 barrels of PSW and other national laboratories such as Rocky Flats Plant have many more barrels of heterogeneous waste. Few technologies exist that can treat this complex waste. Our approach to solving this problem is the integration of two established technologies: biodegradation and metals chelation.

  20. Nevada test site low-level and mixed waste repository design in the unsaturated zone

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.A.; Warren, D.M.; USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV )

    1989-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is used for shallow land disposal of Low-Level Radioactive (LLW) and for retrievable disposal of Mixed Wastes (MW) from various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The site is situated in southern Nevada, one of the most arid regions of the United States. Design considerations include vadose zone monitoring in lieu of groundwater monitoring, stringent waste acceptance and packaging criteria, a waste examination and real-time radiography facility, and trench design. 4 refs.

  1. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  2. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2003-06-01

    The specific aims of this project are to: (1) Clone and express broad spectrum oxygenases in D. radiodurans with a target TCE degradation rate of 1 nmol/min/mg protein, (2) analyze and upregulate stress response systems in D. radiodurans, and (3) test survival and activities of these strains in artificial mixtures of contaminants, designed to simulate DOE mixed waste streams, using bench-scale treatment reactors. In addition, we proposed to generate a set of new genetic tools to carry out this work. In this report, progress is described in the development of new tools and in the study of solvent resistance, heat shock regulation, and polyP metabolism.

  3. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required.

  6. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  7. Mixed waste chemical compatibility: A testing program for plastic packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the United States have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). The design requirements for both hazardous [49 CFR 173.24 (e)(1)] and radioactive [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging @d any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] and Type B (10 CFR 71.43) packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program attempts to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. This program has been described in considerable detail in an internal SNL document, the Chemical Compatibility Test Plan & Procedure Report (Nigrey 1993).

  8. Hanford/Rocky Flats collaboration on development of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to treat mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Brown, C.M.; Teter, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    Proposals for demonstration work under the Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area, during the 1996 through 1997 fiscal years included two applications of supercritical carbon dioxide to mixed waste pretreatment. These proposals included task RF15MW58 of Rocky Flats and task RL46MW59 of Hanford. Analysis of compatibilities in wastes and work scopes yielded an expectation of substantial collaboration between sites whereby Hanford waste streams may undergo demonstration testing at Rocky Flats, thereby eliminating the need for test facilities at Hanford. This form of collaboration is premised the continued deployment at Rocky Flats and the capability for Hanford samples to be treated at Rocky Flats. The recent creation of a thermal treatment contract for a facility near Hanford may alleviate the need to conduct organic extraction upon Rocky Flats wastes by providing a cost effective thermal treatment alternative, however, some waste streams at Hanford will continue to require organic extraction. Final site waste stream treatment locations are not within the scope of this document.

  9. Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, Peter; Kalb, Paul D.; Heiser, III, John H.

    1997-11-14

    The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

  10. Mixed waste management plans at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.; Sattler, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwestern Ohio. The facility began production of uranium metal products in the early 1950`s and continued processing of uranium ore concentrates until 1989. The facility used a variety of chemical and metallurgical processes to manufacture uranium metals for use at other DOE sites across the country. Because of the chemical and metallurgical processes employed at the site, some hazardous wastes as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were generated during the manufacture of the uranium metal products. Because of uranium metal`s radioactive properties, the hazardous wastes generated at the facility typically contain some radioactivity. Wastes which contain both a hazardous component subject to RCRA regulation and a radioactive component subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 are described as mixed waste. In 1989, the FEMP was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) requiring cleanup of the facility`s radioactive and chemical contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This paper examines the regulatory requirements associated with development of the plan used to manage mixed wastes at the FEMP. In addition, the paper discusses the strategies used to integrate the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) with CERCLA response actions.

  11. Appropriateness of mechanistic and non-mechanistic models for the application of ultrafiltration to mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Henry; Ghosehajra, Malay

    2007-07-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) How appropriate is the use of a basic filtration equation to the application of ultrafiltration of mixed waste, and (2) How appropriate are non-parametric models for permeate rates (volumes)? To answer these questions, mechanistic and non-mechanistic approaches are developed for permeate rates and volumes associated with an ultrafiltration/mixed waste system in dia-filtration mode. The mechanistic approach is based on a filtration equation which states that t/V vs. V is a linear relationship. The coefficients associated with this linear regression are composed of physical/chemical parameters of the system and based the mass balance equation associated with the membrane and associated developing cake layer. For several sets of data, a high correlation is shown that supports the assertion that t/V vs. V is a linear relationship. It is also shown that non-mechanistic approaches, i.e., the use of regression models to are not appropriate. One models considered is Q(p) = a*ln(Cb)+b. Regression models are inappropriate because the scale-up from a bench scale (pilot scale) study to full-scale for permeate rates (volumes) is not simply the ratio of the two membrane surface areas. (authors)

  12. Disposition of Mixed Waste Organics at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, E.M.; Coriz, F.; Schreiber, S.B.; Balkey, S.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1999-02-01

    Twenty-six organic solution items totaling 37 L had been stored in the Plutonium Facility vault at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, some for up to 18 years. They were residues from analytical analyses of radioactive solutions. All items had a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defined hazardous waste combined with special nuclear materials (SNM) and were stored as a mixed waste in a vault room pending disposition. Seventeen items had plutonium concentrations above established discard limits for organics. Due to their age, the containers were not suitable for long-term storage because a container failure would contaminate the vault area and personnel. Therefore, an aqueous-based flowsheet was developed to remove the plutonium so that the items could be discarded. The procedure was a wash with either sodium fluoride and/or potassium hydroxide solution followed by absorbing the discardable organic residues on vermiculite. When this approach did not work permission was obtained to discard the items as a transuranic (TRU) mixed waste without further treatment. The remaining nine solution items were consolidated into two items, repackaged, and stored for future disposition. The overall effort required approximately four months to disposition all the items. This report details the administrative and regulatory requirements that had to be addressed, the results of processing, and the current status of the items.

  13. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976{sup 2}(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act{sup 3}. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order{sup 1} (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress.

  14. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE`s needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities.

  15. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford. CERCLA treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J; Koegler, S S; Kuhn, W L; Lowery, P S; Winkelman, R G

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test`s successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  16. Mercury contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Stabilize Elemental Mercury Wastes. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 1675

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation process has not been tested (Tyson 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scaleable equipment is needed that can: produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during processing to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-hour worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.

  17. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  18. Innovative cross-flow membrane system for volume reduction of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, W.

    1997-10-01

    In this task, SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., and the Institute of Gas Technology are completing engineering development leading to a full-scale demonstration of the SpinTek ST-II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System (ST-II) under a Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA) with the Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown. The SpinTek ST-II technology will be scaled-up, and a two-stage ST-II system will be designed, constructed, and operated on both surrogate and actual feed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LRWTF). Results from these studies on both surrogate and actual wastewater streams will also be used by LANL personnel to produce a model for determining the applicability and economics of the SpinTek ST-II system to other DOE waste and process streams. The ST-II is a unique, compact cross-flow membrane system having several advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems. Staff at LANL have performed pilot-scale testing with the SpinTek technology to evaluate its feasibility for enhanced radionuclide removal from wastewater at its 5- to 8-million-gallon-per-year LRWTF. Recent data have shown the system`s capabilities to remove radionuclides from the waste stream at concentration factors greater than 2000:1, and performance has exceeded both conventional and all other advanced technologies examined.

  19. Development of chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    1997-11-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been developed by acid-base reactions between magnesium oxide and an acid phosphate at room temperature for stabilizing U.S. Department of Energy's low-level mixed waste streams that include hazardous chemicals and radioactive elements. Newberyite (MgHPOsb4.3Hsb2O)-rich magnesium phosphate ceramic was formed by an acid-base reaction between phosphoric acid and magnesium oxide. The reaction slurry, formed at room-temperature, sets rapidly and forms stable mineral phases of newberyite, lunebergite, and residual MgO. Rapid setting also generates heat due to exothermic acid-base reaction. The reaction was retarded by partially neutralizing the phosphoric acid solution by adding sodium or potassium hydroxide. This reduced the rate of reaction and heat generation and led to a practical way of producing novel magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic. This ceramic was formed by reacting stoichiometric amount of monopotassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, MgO, and water, forming pure-phase of MgKPOsb4.6Hsb2O (MKP) with moderate exothermic reaction. Using this chemically bonded phosphate ceramic matrix, low-level mixed waste streams were stabilized, and superior waste forms in a monolithic structure were developed. The final waste forms showed low open porosity and permeability, and higher compression strength than the Land Disposal Requirements (LDRs). The novel MKP ceramic technology allowed us to develop operational size waste forms of 55 gal with good physical integrity. In this improved waste form, the hazardous contaminants such as RCRA heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, etc) were chemically fixed by their conversion into insoluble phosphate forms and physically encapsulated by the phosphate ceramic. In addition, chemically bonded phosphate ceramics stabilized radioactive elements such U and Pu. This was demonstrated with a detailed stabilization study on cerium used as a surrogate (chemically equivalent but nonradioactive

  20. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the real-time analysis of mixed waste samples containing Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Barefield, J.E. II; Koskelo, A.C.; Multari, R.A.; Cremers, D.A.; Gamble, T.K.; Han, C.Y.

    1995-05-01

    In this report, the use of Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze mixed waste samples containing Sr is discussed. The mixed waste samples investigated include vitrified waste glass and contaminated soil. Compared to traditional analysis techniques, the laser-based method is fast (i.e., analysis times on the order of minutes) and essentially waste free since little or no sample preparation is required. Detection limits on the order of pmm Sr were determined. Detection limits obtained using a fiber optic cable to deliver laser pulses to soil samples containing Cr, Zr, Pb, Be, Cu, and Ni will also be discussed.

  2. Demonstration of NFS DeHg Process for Stabilizing Mercury (<260 ppm) Contaminated Mixed Waste. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2229

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Based on efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of wastes contaminated with < 260 ppm mercury and with radionuclides stored at various DOE sites is estimated to be approximately 6,000 m3 (Conley, Morris, Osborne-Lee, and Hulet 1998). At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. Extraction methods are required to remove mercury from waste containing >260 ppm levels, but below 260 ppm Hg contamination levels, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not require removal of mercury from the waste. Steps must still be taken, however, to ensure that the final waste form does not leach mercury in excess of the limit for mercury prescribed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At this time, the limit is 0.20mg/L. However, in the year 2000, the more stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) of 0.025 mg/L will be used as the target endpoint. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards and to be feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. To date, no standard method of stabilization has been developed and proven for such varying waste types as those within the DOE complex.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report summarizes the information gathered in constructing the clay cap test section. The purpose of the test section was to determine compaction characteristics of four representative kaolin clays and demonstrate in-situ permeability for these clays of 1 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} cm/sec or less. The final technical specifications with regard to maximum clod size, acceptable ranges of placement water content, lift thickness, and degree of compaction will be based on experience gained from the test section. The data derived from this study will also be used in the development of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) methods to be used during actual cap construction of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Closure project. 7 tabs.

  4. The Mixed Waste Management Facility closure and expansion at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, M.F.; Frye-O`Bryant, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    Process wastes containing radioactive and hazardous constituents have been generated throughout the operational history of the Savannah River Site. Solid wastes containing low level radionuclides were buried in Low Level Radioactive Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). Until 1986, waste containing lead and cadmium was disposed of in the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) portion of LLRWDF. Between 1986 and 1990, waste containing F-listed hazardous rags were buried. Current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations prohibit the disposal of these hazardous wastes at nonpermitted facilities. This paper describes the closure activities for the MWMF, completed in 1990 and plans proposed for the expansion of this closure to include the LLRWDF suspect solvent rag trenches.

  5. The Mixed Waste Management Facility closure and expansion at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, M.F.; Frye-O'Bryant, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Process wastes containing radioactive and hazardous constituents have been generated throughout the operational history of the Savannah River Site. Solid wastes containing low level radionuclides were buried in Low Level Radioactive Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). Until 1986, waste containing lead and cadmium was disposed of in the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) portion of LLRWDF. Between 1986 and 1990, waste containing F-listed hazardous rags were buried. Current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations prohibit the disposal of these hazardous wastes at nonpermitted facilities. This paper describes the closure activities for the MWMF, completed in 1990 and plans proposed for the expansion of this closure to include the LLRWDF suspect solvent rag trenches.

  6. Development of radiological profiles for U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, B.D.; Meshkov, N.K.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.

    1995-03-01

    Radiological profiles have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) that are under the management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). These profiles have been used in the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS) to support the analysis of environmental and health risks associated with the various waste management strategies. The radiological characterization of DOE LLMWs is generally inadequate and has made it difficult to develop a site- and waste-stream-dependent radiological profile for LLMWs. On the basis of the operational history of the DOE sites, a simple model was developed to generate site-dependent and waste-stream-independent radiological profiles for LLMWs. This paper briefly discusses the assumptions used in this model and the uncertainties in the results.

  7. Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-02

    This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas.

  8. First Commercial US Mixed Waste Vitrification Facility: Permits, Readiness Reviews, and Delisting of Final Wasteform

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Norford, S.W.; Diener, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Co. (WSRC) contracted GTS Duratek (Duratek) to construct and operate the first commercial vitrification facility to treat an F-006 mixed (radioactive/hazardous) waste in the United States. The permits were prepared and submitted to the South Carolina state regulators by WSRC - based on a detailed design by Duratek. Readiness Assessments were conducted by WSRC and Duratek at each major phase of the operation (sludge transfer, construction, cold and radioactive operations, and a major restart) and approved by the Savannah River Department of Energy prior to proceeding. WSRC prepared the first `Upfront Delisting` petition for a vitrified mixed waste. Lessons learned with respect to the permit strategy, operational assessments, and delisting from this `privatization` project will be discussed.

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  11. Mixed waste management facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1995 and 1995 summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1995, seven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene, gross alpha, lead, mercury, and tetrachloroethylene also exceeded final PDWS in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in three Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  12. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994.

  13. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and haematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350{degrees}C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy`s mixed waste streams.

  14. Characterization of mixed waste for sorting and inspection using non-intrusive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Ryon, R.W.; Bull, N.L.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of mixed wastes (that is, radioactive and otherwise hazardous) requires that all hazardous, non-conforming, and radioactive materials be identified, localized, and quantified. With such information, decisions can be made regarding whether the item is treatable or has been adequately treated. Much of the required information can be gained without taking representative samples and analyzing them in a chemistry laboratory. Non-intrusive methods can be used to provide this information on-line at the waste treatment facility. Ideally, the characterization would be done robotically, and either automatically or semi-automatically in order to improve efficiency and safety. For the FY94 Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) project, a treatable waste item is defined as a homogeneous metal object that has external radioactive or heavy metal hazardous contamination. Surface treatment of some kind would therefore be the treatment method to be investigated. The authors developed sorting and inspection requirements, and assessed viable non-intrusive techniques to meet these requirements. They selected radiography, computed tomography and X-ray fluorescence. They have characterized selected mock waste items, and determined minimum detectable amounts of materials. They have demonstrated the efficiency possible by integrating radiographic with tomographic data. Here, they developed a technique to only use radiographic data where the material is homogeneous (fast), and then switching to tomography in those areas where heterogeneity is detected (slower). They also developed a tomographic technique to quantify the volume of each component of a mixed material. This is useful for such things as determining ash content. Lastly, they have developed a document in MOSAIC, an Internet multi-media browser. This document is used to demonstrate the ability to share data and information world-wide.

  15. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Evaluation of tubular reactor designs for supercritical water oxidation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for industrial waste treatment and is being developed for treatment of the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. In the SCWO process, wastes containing organic material are oxidized in the presence of water at conditions of temperature and pressure above the critical point of water, 374 C and 22.1 MPa. DOE mixed wastes consist of a broad spectrum of liquids, sludges, and solids containing a wide variety of organic components plus inorganic components including radionuclides. This report is a review and evaluation of tubular reactor designs for supercritical water oxidation of US Department of Energy mixed waste. Tubular reactors are evaluated against requirements for treatment of US Department of Energy mixed waste. Requirements that play major roles in the evaluation include achieving acceptable corrosion, deposition, and heat removal rates. A general evaluation is made of tubular reactors and specific reactors are discussed. Based on the evaluations, recommendations are made regarding continued development of supercritical water oxidation reactors for US Department of Energy mixed waste.

  17. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  18. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  19. The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Paff, S. W; Doody, S.

    2003-02-25

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and

  20. Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1998-02-25

    This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.`s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices.

  1. Mixed Waste Focus Area/Characterization Monitoring Sensor Technology Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project End-User Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    G. K. Becker; M. E. McIlwain; M. J. Connolly

    1998-11-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) in conjunction with the Characterization Monitoring and Sensor Technology (CMST) crosscut program identified the need to objectively evaluate the capability of nondestructive waste assay (NDA) technologies. This was done because of a general lack of NDA technology performance data with respect to a representative cross section of waste form configurations comprising the Department of Energy (DOE) contact-handled alpha contaminated [e.g., transuranic (TRU) waste]. The overall objective of the Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was to establish a known and unbiased NDA data and information base that can be used to support end-user decisions with regards to technology system selection and to support technology development organizations in identifying technology system deficiencies. The primary performance parameters evaluated in the CEP were measurement bias and relative precision. The performance of a given NDA technology is a direct function of the attributes represented by the waste matrix configuration. Such attributes include matrix density, matrix elemental composition, radionuclidic composition, radionuclide mass loading, and the spatial variation of these components. Analyzing the manner in which bias and precision vary as a function of test sample attribute and NDA technology provides a foundation for deriving performance capability and limitation statements and determines which waste matrix attributes, or combinations of attributes, are compatible or incompatible with existing technologies. The CEP achieved the stated end-user objective. The data indicate that the nondestructive waste assay systems evaluated have a definite capability to perform assay of contact-handled TRU waste packaged in 55-gallon drums. There is, however, a performance envelope where this capability exists, an area near the envelope boundaries where it is questionable, and a realm outside the envelope where the technologies do not perform. Therefore

  2. Image processing algorithm design and implementation for real-time autonomous inspection of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Shaaban, K.M.; Carver, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The ARIES {number_sign}1 (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform autonomous visual inspection leading to a classification as `acceptable` or `suspect`. Specific topics described include vision system design methodology, algorithmic structure,hardware processing structure, and image acquisition hardware. Most of these capabilities were demonstrated at the ARIES Phase II Demo held on Nov. 30, 1995. Finally, Phase III efforts are briefly addressed.

  3. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  4. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

  5. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  6. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr{sup VI} to Cr{sup III} from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions.

  7. Mixed Waste Treatment Cost Analysis for a Range of GeoMelt Vitrification Process Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L. E.

    2002-02-27

    GeoMelt is a batch vitrification process used for contaminated site remediation and waste treatment. GeoMelt can be applied in several different configurations ranging from deep subsurface in situ treatment to aboveground batch plants. The process has been successfully used to treat a wide range of contaminated wastes and debris including: mixed low-level radioactive wastes; mixed transuranic wastes; polychlorinated biphenyls; pesticides; dioxins; and a range of heavy metals. Hypothetical cost estimates for the treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste were prepared for the GeoMelt subsurface planar and in-container vitrification methods. The subsurface planar method involves in situ treatment and the in-container vitrification method involves treatment in an aboveground batch plant. The projected costs for the subsurface planar method range from $355-$461 per ton. These costs equate to 18-20 cents per pound. The projected cost for the in-container method is $1585 per ton. This cost equates to 80 cents per pound. These treatment costs are ten or more times lower than the treatment costs for alternative mixed waste treatment technologies according to a 1996 study by the US Department of Energy.

  8. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes--Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mary E. Lidstrom

    2003-12-26

    Aqueous mixed low level wastes (MLLW) containing radionuclides, solvents, and/or heavy metals represent a serious current and future problem for DOE environmental management and cleanup. In order to provide low-cost treatment alternatives under mild conditions for such contained wastes, we have proposed to use the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. This project has focused on developing D. radiodurans strains for dual purpose processes: cometabolic treatment of haloorganics and other solvents and removal of heavy metals from waste streams in an above-ground reactor system. The characteristics of effective treatment strains that must be attained are: (a) high biodegradative and metal binding activity; (b) stable treatment characteristics in the absence of selection and in the presence of physiological stress; (c) survival and activity under harsh chemical conditions, including radiation. The result of this project has been a suite of strains with high biodegradative capabilities that are candidates for pilot stage treatment systems. In addition, we have determined how to create conditions to precipitate heavy metals on the surface of the bacterium, as the first step towards creating dual-use treatment strains for contained mixed wastes of importance to the DOE. Finally, we have analyzed stress response in this bacterium, to create the foundation for developing treatment processes that maximize degradation while optimizing survival under high stress conditions.

  9. Recovery and removal of mercury from mixed wastes. Final report, September 1994--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.F.; Weyand, T.E.; Koshinski, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    In recognition of the major environmental problem created by mercury contamination of wastes and soils at an estimated 200,000 sites along US natural gas and oil pipelines and at a number of government facilities, including Oak Ridge, Savannah River, Hanford, and Rocky Flats, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking an effective and economical process for removing mercury from various DOE waste streams in order to allow the base waste streams to be treated by means of conventional technologies. In response to the need for Unproved mercury decontamination technology, Mercury Recovery Services (MRS) has developed and commercialized a thermal treatment process for the recovery of mercury from contaminated soils and industrial wastes. The objectives of this program were to: demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the MRS process to successfully remove and recover mercury from low-level mixed waste containing mercury compounds (HgO, HgS, HgCl{sub 2}) and selected heavy metal compounds (PbO, CdO); determine optimum processing conditions required to consistently reduce the residual total mercury content to 1 mg/kg while rendering the treated product nontoxic as determined by TCLP methods; and provide an accurate estimate of the capital and operating costs for a commercial processing facility designed specifically to remove and recovery mercury from various waste streams of interest at DOE facilities. These objectives were achieved in a four-stage demonstration program described within with results.

  10. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  11. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  12. Delphi`s DETOXSM process: Preparing to treat high organic content hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Goldblatt, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center is sponsoring a full-scale technology demonstration of Delphi Research, Inc.`s patented DETOX{sup SM} catalytic wet chemical oxidation waste treatment process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The process is being developed primarily to treat hazardous and mixed wastes within the DOE complex as an alternative to incineration, but it has significant potential to treat wastes in the commercial sector. The results of the demonstration will be intensively studied and used to validate the technology. A critical objective in preparing for the demonstration was the successful completion of a programmatic Operational Readiness Review. Readiness Reviews are required by DOE for all new process startups. The Readiness Review provided the vehicle to ensure that Delphi was ready to start up and operate the DETOX{sup SM} process in the safest manner possible by implementing industry accepted management practices for safe operation. This paper provides an overview of the DETOX{sup SM} demonstration at SRS, and describes the crucial areas of the Readiness Review that marked the first steps in Delphi`s transition from a technology developer to an operating waste treatment services provider.

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Groundwater Monitoring Report: Fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), total radium, mercury, and lead exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread contaminants; 55 (49%) wells exhibited elevated tritium activities, and 24 (21%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Tritium and trichloroethylene levels exceeding the PDWS also occurred in several wells in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree). Levels of manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, and trichlorofluoromethane that exceeded Flag 2 criteria were found in one or more wells beneath the MWMF. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units at the MWMF contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, total radium, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), lead, mercury, manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, or trichlorofluoromethane. Groundwater samples from 81 (72%) of the monitoring wells at the MWMF and adjacent facilities contained elevated levels of several contaminants.

  14. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  16. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  17. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  18. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  19. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year.

  1. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms.

  2. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  3. Status and performance of the CDF Run II silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jason; /LBL, Berkeley

    2004-11-01

    In 2001, an upgraded silicon detector system was installed in the CDF II experiment on the Tevatron at Fermilab. The complete system consists of three silicon microstrip detectors: SVX II with five layers for precision tracking, Layer 00 with one beampipe-mounted layer for vertexing, and two Intermediate Silicon Layers located between SVX II and the main CDF II tracking chamber. Currently all detectors in the system are operating at or near design levels. The performance of the combined silicon system is excellent in the context of CDF tracking algorithms, and the first useful physics results from the innermost Layer 00 detector have been recently documented. Operational and monitoring efforts have also been strengthened to maintain silicon efficiency through the end of Run 2 at the Tevatron.

  4. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

  5. THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

    2002-02-25

    A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

  6. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg_sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  7. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  8. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  9. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species. The electrochemical sensors being invest igated are based on a new class of nanoengineered sorbents, Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS). SAMMS are highly efficient sorbents due to their interfacial chemistry that can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) will be performed on two classes of electrodes: the SAMMS modified carbon paste electrodes, and the SAMMS thin film immobilized on microelectrode arrays. Interfacial chemistry and electrochemistry of metal species on the surfaces of SAMMS-based electrodes will be studied. This fundamental knowledge is required for predicting how the sensors will perform in the real wastes which consist of many interferences/ligands and a spectrum of pH levels. The best electrode for each specific waste constituent will be integrated onto the portable microfluidic platform. Efforts will also be focused on testing the portable microfluidics/electrochemical sensor systems with the selected MW and T RU waste samples

  10. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  11. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  12. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  13. "Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER62492 "Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites"

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Daly, Ph.D.

    2005-03-17

    2000 closely matches the Aims proposed in our second NABIR application and is summarized as follows. We have further refined expression vectors for D. radiodurans and successfully tested engineered strains in natural DOE sediment and groundwater samples. Further, we have shown that D. geothermalis is transformable with plasmids and integration vectors designed for D. radiodurans. This was demonstrated by engineering Hg(II)-resistant D. geothermalis strains capable of reducing Hg(II) at elevated temperatures and under chronic irradiation. Additionally, we showed that D. geothermalis, like D. radiodurans, is naturally capable of reducing U(VI), Cr(VI), and Fe(III). These characteristics support the prospective development of this thermophilic radiophile for bioremediation of radioactive mixed waste environments with temperatures as high as 55 C, of which there are many examples. Our annotation of the D. radiodurans genome has been an important guide throughout this project period and continues to be a source of inspiration in the development of new genetic technologies dedicated to this bacterium. For example, our genome analyses have enabled us to achieve engineering goals that were unattainable in our first NABIR project (1997-2000), where uncertainties relating to its metabolic configuration prevented efforts to expand its metabolic capabilities. As just one example, we showed that D. radiodurans has a functioning tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle glyoxylate bypass which could be integrated with toluene oxidation. And, we successfully engineered D. radiodurans to derive carbon and energy from complete toluene mineralization and showed that toluene oxidation can be coupled to cellular biosynthesis, survival, as well as its native and engineered metal reducing capabilities. We have also constructed a whole genome microarray for D. radiodurans covering {approx}94% of its predicted genes and have successfully used the array to examine the response of cells to radiation and

  14. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  15. Multicriteria decision methodology for selecting technical alternatives in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Berry, J.B.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) has as one of its tasks the identification of a decision methodology and key decision criteria for the selection methodology. The aim of a multicriteria analysis is to provide an instrument for a systematic evaluation of distinct alternative projects. Determination of this methodology will clarify (1) the factors used to evaluate these alternatives, (2) the evaluator`s view of the importance of the factors, and (3) the relative value of each alternative. The selected methodology must consider the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) decision-making criteria for application to the analysis technology subsystems developed by the DOE Office of Technology Development. This report contains a compilation of several decision methodologies developed in various national laboratories, institutions, and universities. The purpose of these methodologies may vary, but the core of the decision attributes are very similar. Six approaches were briefly analyzed; from these six, in addition to recommendations made by the MWIP technical support group leaders and CERCLA, the final decision methodology was extracted. Slight variations are observed in the many methodologies developed by different groups, but most of the analyzed methodologies address similar aspects for the most part. These common aspects were the core of the methodology suggested in this report for use within MWIP for the selection of technologies. The set of criteria compiled and developed for this report have been grouped in five categories: (1) process effectiveness, (2) developmental status, (3) life-cycle cost, (4) implementability, and (5) regulatory compliance.

  16. Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to incineration for the treatment of organic mixed wastes. Estimated costs for waste treatment using the process are from $2.50/kg to $25.00/kg, depending on the size of the unit and the amount of waste processed. Process units can be mobile for on-site treatment of wastes. Results from phase 1 and 2, design and engineering studies, are described.

  17. The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

  18. The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

  19. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND OTHER ACTINIDES IN TRANSURANIC AND MIXED WASTES.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2003-07-06

    The presence of the actinides Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am in transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes is a major concern because of their potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contamination of the environment. The toxicity of the actinide elements and the long half-lives of their isotopes are the primary causes for concern. In addition to the radionuclides the TRU waste consists a variety of organic materials (cellulose, plastic, rubber, chelating agents) and inorganic compounds (nitrate and sulfate). Significant microbial activity is expected in the waste because of the presence of organic compounds and nitrate, which serve as carbon and nitrogen sources and in the absence of oxygen the microbes can use nitrate and sulfate as alternate electron acceptors. Biodegradation of the TRU waste can result in gas generation and pressurization of containment areas, and waste volume reduction and subsidence in the repository. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of actinides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. Microbial activity could affect the chemical nature of the actinides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of actinides in solution. Under appropriate conditions, dissolution or immobilization of actinides is brought about by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions of microorganisms. Dissolution of actinides by microorganisms is brought about by changes in the Eh and pH of the medium, by their production of organic acids, such as citric acid, siderophores and extracellular metabolites. Immobilization or precipitation of actinides is due to changes in the Eh of the environment, enzymatic reductive precipitation (reduction from higher to lower oxidation state), biosorption, bioaccumulation, biotransformation of actinides complexed

  20. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation`s allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered.

  1. Design And Performance Of The Stratospheric Aerosol And Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaun, N. H.; Mauldin, L. E.; McCormick, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance data are presented for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experi-ment II (SAGE II) instrument, which has been developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). SAGE II is designed to monitor globally the vertical distribution of strato-spheric aerosols, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide by measuring the extinction of solar radiation through the earth's atmosphere during the ERBS observatory solar occultations. Solar radiation is reflected from a flat scanning mirror into a Cassegrain type telescope, which forms a solar image on the entrance slit of a grating spectrometer. The SAGE II instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) is scanned along the vertical solar diameter by the elevation scan mirror. The entire optical system is contained within an azimuth gimbal which tracks the solar radiometric centroid during the data event. This spectrometer, with help from three interference filters, isolates seven spectral wavelengths ranging from 0.385 micrometers to 1.02 micrometers. All seven channels use silicon photodiode detectors oper-ated in the photovoltaic mode. Detector outputs are multiplexed into a serial data stream for readout by the ERBS telemetry system. Each output is sampled 64 times per second and digitized to 12 bit resolution. SAGE II is a third generation instrument following the highly successful SAM II and SAGE programs.

  2. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  3. PERFORMANCE OF THE DIAGNOSTICS FOR NSLS-II LINAC COMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller III, R.; Padrazo, D.; Wang, G.M.; Heese, R.; Hseuh H.-C.; Johanson, M.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Pinayev, I.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.

    2011-03-28

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state of the art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The transfer lines not only provide a means to deliver the beam from one machine to another, they also provide a suite of diagnostics and utilities to measure the properties of the beam to be delivered. In this paper we discuss the suite of diagnostics that will be used to commission the NSLS-II linac and measure the beam properties. The linac to booster transfer line can measure the linac emittance with a three screens measurement or a quadrupole scan. Energy and energy spread are measured in a dispersive section. Total charge and charge uniformity are measured with wall current monitors in the linac and transformers in the transfer line. We show that the performance of the diagnostics in the transfer line will be sufficient to ensure the linac meets its specifications and provides a means of trouble shooting and studying the linac in future operation.

  4. Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 0236

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-processing route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO2 precursor during sol-gel processing. When combined, the polymer and SiO2 precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the

  5. FY 1992 Annual report: Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report to Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Kahle, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats (RFP). Tests were performed with nonradioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for the contaminated oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for the cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. The following operating and system parameters were studied: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, effect of current density, and use of ultrasonic agitation. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 98% or greater and coulombic efficiencies close to 50% were obtained in both small- and large-scale systems. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems.

  6. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

  7. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  8. Closure of a unique mixed waste storage canal at the Dept. of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Etheridge, J.T.; Thompson, W.T.

    1994-09-01

    At the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) a unique closure was accomplished for a storage canal that contained both hazardous chemical contaminants controlled by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive contaminants controlled by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). During 1991 and 1992, after approvals were received from the DOE and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), subcontractors to DOE`s Construction Manager were mobilized and remote controlled equipment was operated on site to remove the RCRA and radioactive contamination (referred to hereafter as mixed wastes) from the 3001 Storage Canal at ORNL. After numerous {open_quotes}surprises{close_quotes} during the removal activities, each requiring problem resolution and approvals from DOE and TDEC, the canal closure was completed in September 1992 and final closure certification was submitted to TDEC in October 1992. The following discussion describes the learning experiences that ORNL and DOE acquired from a RCRA closure project for a mixed waste storage canal containing high radiation levels. The project was successful, especially since worker exposures were minimized, but was lengthy, requiring 30 months from notification of a leak in the canal until final demobilization of the subcontractor, and expensive to complete (total overall cost of $3 million).

  9. Project report: Tritiated oil repackaging highlighting the ISMS process. Historical radioactive and mixed waste disposal request validation and waste disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Schriner, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) was established to define a framework for the essential functions of managing work safely. There are five Safety Management Functions in the model of the ISMS process: (1) work planning, (2) hazards analysis, (3) hazards control, (4) work performance, and (5) feedback and improve. Recent activities at the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility underscored the importance and effectiveness of integrating the ISMS process to safely manage high-hazard work with a minimum of personnel in a timely and efficient manner. This report describes how project personnel followed the framework of the ISMS process to successfully repackage tritium-contaminated oils. The main objective was to open the boxes without allowing the gaseous tritium oxide, which had built up inside the boxes, to release into the sorting room. The boxes would be vented out the building stack until tritium concentration levels were acceptable. The carboys would be repackaged into 30-gallon drums and caulked shut. Sealing the drums would decrease the tritium off-gassing into the RMWMF.

  10. Mercury Contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Demonstration of DeHgSM Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 1675

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation process has not been tested (Tyson 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scalable equipment is needed that can produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during processing to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-h worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.

  11. II-VI Materials-Based High Performance Intersubband Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Arvind Pawan

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) light is of vital technological importance because of its application in trace-gas absorption spectroscopy, imaging, free-space communication or infrared countermeasures. Thus the ability to generate and detect mid-IR light at low cost and preferably, at room temperature is of utmost importance. High performance quantum cascade (QC) lasers - mid-IR light sources based on optical transitions in thin quantum wells, and intersubband infrared detectors - namely the quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) and quantum cascade detectors (QCDs), have rapidly advanced, due to excellent material quality of III-V materials. In spite of this tremendous success, there lie challenges such as lack of efficient short-wavelength emitters or broadband detectors - challenges that arise from intrinsic materials properties. As a central theme in this thesis, we look at a new class of materials, the II-VI based ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe system, to close technological gaps and develop high performance infrared light sources and detectors in the entire mid-IR regime. To that end, we first demonstrate the flexibility that the combination of II-VI materials and band structure engineering allows by developing various QWIPs, QCDs and QC emitters at different wavelengths, not easily achieved by other materials. The performance of these first-of-their-kind detectors is already comparable to existing commercial solutions. To fully realize the potential of this new material system, we also developed a room-temperature broadband infrared detector detecting between 3 and 6 mum with record responsivity. With this technology, it is now possible to monolithically integrate high performance mid-IR lasers and detectors for on-chip applications. One of the challenges with all intersubband detectors is that they do not absorb normally incident light, like most conventional detectors. In order to make intersubband detectors attractive to commercial exploration, we develop a novel method to

  12. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 2, Site specific---California through Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  13. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  14. Analysis of instantaneous profile test data from soils near the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, T.J.; McVey, M.D.; Strong, W.R.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The purpose of the test was to measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils near the Mixed Waste Landfill, including the relations between hydraulic conductivity, moisture content, and soil water tension. A 4.7 meter by 4.7 meter plot was saturated with water to a depth of 2 meters, and the wetting and drying responses of the vertical profile were observed. These data were analyzed to obtain in situ measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic properties.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  20. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  1. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  2. Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report, FY 1993 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Murguia, L.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is an aqueous process which destroys hazardous organics by oxidizing a mediator at the anode of an electrochemical cell; the mediator in turn oxidizes the organics within the bulk of the electrolyte. With this process organics can be nearly completely destroyed, that is, the carbon and hydrogen present in the hydrocarbon are almost entirely mineralized to carbon dioxide and water. The MEO process is also capable of dissolving radioactive materials, including difficult-to-dissolve compounds such as plutonium oxide. Hence, this process can treat mixed wastes, by destroying the hazardous organic components of the waste, and dissolving the radioactive components. The radioactive material can be recovered if desired, or disposed of as non-mixed radioactive waste. The process is inherently safe, since the hazardous and radioactive materials are completely contained in the aqueous phase, and the system operates at low temperatures (below 80{degree}C) and at ambient pressures.

  3. Compliance matrix for the Mixed Waste Disposal Facilities, Trenches 31 and 34, burial ground 218-W-5. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carlyle, D.W.

    1994-12-30

    The purpose of the Trench 31 and 34 Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Compliance Matrix is to provide objective evidence of implementation of all regulatory and procedural--institutional requirements for the disposal facilities. This matrix provides a listing of the individual regulatory and procedural--institutional requirements that were addressed. Subject matter experts reviewed pertinent documents that had direct or indirect impact on the facility. Those found to be applicable were so noted and listed in Appendix A. Subject matter experts then extracted individual requirements from the documents deemed applicable and listed them in the matrix tables. The results of this effort are documented in Appendix B. The implementing compliance documentation for WHC-CM manuals is not included in Appendix B because these are, by definition, implementing documents.

  4. Decontamination and treatment of high level liquid mixed waste to meet regulatory compliance issues outlined in Federal Facilities Agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    High-Level Radioactive Liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) located south of Aiken, SC. Treatment and disposal of this liquid Hazardous and Radioactive (Mixed) Waste required the negotiation and approval of a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the DOE, EPA and the South Carolina state regulatory agency. This agreement which also addresses many other waste sites at SRS was approved in January 1993. Included in this FFA were schedule information, operating parameters and secondary containment requirements that the DOE committed to as part of an ongoing Environmental Restoration mission at the site. Obtaining compliance with this FFA and other environmental regulations at such a unique facility provided a challenging obstacle for treatment of this liquid waste.

  5. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  6. DOE-EMSP Project Report FY 04: Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Joseph

    2004-11-02

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species. The electrochemical sensors being investigate d are based on a new class of nanoengineered sorbents, Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS). SAMMS are highly efficient sorbents due to their interfacial chemistry that can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) will be performed on two classes of electrodes: the SAMMS modified carbon paste electrodes, and the SAMMS thin film immobilized on microelectrode arrays. Interfacial chemistry and electrochemistry of metal species on the surfaces of SAMMS-based electrodes will be studied. This fundamental knowledge is required for predicting how the sensors will perform in the real wastes which consist of many interferences/ligands and a spectrum of pH levels. The best electrode for each specific waste constituent will be integrated onto the portable microfluidic platform. Efforts will also be focused on testing the portable microfluidics/electrochemical sensor systems with the selected MW and TRU waste samples

  7. Performance of plasma opening switches for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II)

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Sweeney, M.A.; Moore, W.B.S.; Mowrer, G.R.; Simpson, W.W.; Zagar, D.M.; Grasser, T.; McDougal, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    During 1987 and 1988, Plasma Opening Switch (POS) experiments have been continued with the goal of providing voltage and power gain on the PBFA II ion beam accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The experiments have developed a POS that has a rugged plasma source, will open rapidly, and will couple to a high-impedance load. The initial erosion switch design with improved plasma uniformity does not couple to these loads. Therefore, we have abandoned further development of this switch for voltage and power gain. Three alternate designs have been developed, tested, and are found to have better performance with the high-impedance loads. These new switches employ magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. A summary of the switch configurations, their theory of operation, and the experimental results is presented and discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Wastes: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Halada, Gary P.

    2004-12-01

    I. To characterize the biodegradation of cellulosic materials using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. II. To develop an electrochemical/spectroscopic methodology to characterize TRU waste microbial transformation III. To develop molecular models of TRU complexes in order to understand microbial transformation In all cases, objectives are designed to compliment the efforts from other team members, and will be periodically coordinated through the lead P.I. at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), A.J. Francis.

  9. Long-Term Stewardship of Mixed Wastes: Passive Reactive Barriers for Simultaneous In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent, Heavy Metal, and Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, Robin; Cunningham, Al; Peyton, Brent

    2005-06-01

    The collaborative project was designed to evaluate the possibility developing a subsurface remediation technology for mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites using a group of common soil bacteria of the genus Cellulomonas. We have been gaining a better understanding of microbial transformation of chromium, uranium, iron minerals, and trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Cellulomonas spp. in simulated subsurface environments.

  10. Federal Register Notice: State Authorization To Regulate the Hazardous Components of Radioactive Mixed Wastes Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is today publishing a notice that in order to obtain and maintain authorization to administer and enforce a hazardous waste program pursuant to Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), States must have authority to regulate the hazardous components of 'radioactive mixed wastes.

  11. Performance of CDF calorimeter simulation for Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    C. Currat

    2002-09-19

    The upgraded CDF II detector has collected first data during the initial operation of the Tevatron accelerator in Run II. The simulation of the CDF electromagnetic and hadronic central and upgraded plug (forward) calorimeter is based on the Gflash calorimeter parameterization package used within the GEANT based detector simulation of the Run II CDF detector. We present the results of tuning the central and plug calorimeter response to test beam data.

  12. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy’s (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (i) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (ii) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (iii) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  13. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  14. ER Operations Installation of Three FLUTe Soil-Vapor Monitoring Wells (MWL-SV03 MWL-SV04 and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill.

    SciTech Connect

    Copland, John Robin

    2014-09-01

    This installation report describes the May through July 2014 drilling activities performed for the installation of three multi-port soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), which is located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration. The MWL is designated as Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 76 and is located in Technical Area (TA) III (Figure 1-1). The locations of the three soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) are shown in Figure 1-2

  15. Regulatory review of closure, post-closure and perpetual care funds at the energy solutions, LLC mixed waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby III, O.H.; Lukes, G.C.

    2007-07-01

    EnergySolutions, LLC operates its Mixed Waste Facility at Clive, Utah under the provisions of its State-issued Part B Permit. The facility accepts waste that contains both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Utah is an EPA Agreement State and therefore the Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) is authorized to regulate the hazardous waste operations at the facility. The radioactive portion of the waste is regulated by the Utah Division of Radiation Control. 40 CFR 264.142 outlines the facility requirements for Closure Costs. The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with the rules. For many years the State of Utah had relied on the facility's estimate of closure costs as the amount that needed to be funded. This amount is reviewed annually and adjusted for inflation and for changes at the facility. In 2004 the agency and the facility requested bids from independent contractors to provide their estimate for closure costs. Three engineering firms bid on the project. The facility funded the project and both the agency and the facility chose one of the firms to provide an independent estimate. The engineering firms met with both parties and toured the facility. They were also provided with the current closure cost line items. Each firm provided an estimated cost for closure of the facility at the point in the facility's active life that would make the closure most expensive. Included with the direct costs were indirect line items such as overhead, profit, mobilization, hazardous working conditions and regulatory oversight. The agency and the facility reviewed the independent estimates and negotiated a final Closure and Post-Closure Cost Estimate for the Mixed Waste Facility. There are several mechanisms allowed under the rules to fund the Closure and Post- Closure Care Funds. EnergySolutions has chosen to fund their costs through the use of an insurance policy. Changing mechanisms from

  16. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage: Phase 5, Project W-113

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    This Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate Project W-113 specific plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). The SDRD is prepared after the completion of the project Conceptual Design report (CDR) and prior to the initiation of definitive design. Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Title I and Title II design. The Solid Waste Retrieval Project (W-113) SDRD has been restructured from the equipment based outline used in previous SDRDs to a functional systems outline. This was done to facilitate identification of deficiencies in the information provided in the initial draft SDRD and aid design confirmation. The format and content of this SDRD adhere as closely as practicable to the requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices for Functional Design Criteria.

  17. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751.

  18. Determining the biomass fraction of mixed waste fuels: A comparison of existing industry and {sup 14}C-based methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, G.K.P.; Hayward, S.; Tripney, B.G.; Cook, G.T.; Naysmith, P.; Herbert, B.M.J.; Garnett, M.H; Wilkinson, M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compares industry standard and {sup 14}C methods for determining bioenergy content of MSW. • Differences quantified through study at an operational energy from waste plant. • Manual sort and selective dissolution are unreliable measures of feedstock bioenergy. • {sup 14}C methods (esp. AMS) improve precision and reliability of bioenergy determination. • Implications for electricity generators and regulators for award of bio-incentives. - Abstract: {sup 14}C analysis of flue gas by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were used to determine the biomass fraction of mixed waste at an operational energy-from-waste (EfW) plant. Results were converted to bioenergy (% total) using mathematical algorithms and assessed against existing industry methodologies which involve manual sorting and selective dissolution (SD) of feedstock. Simultaneous determinations using flue gas showed excellent agreement: 44.8 ± 2.7% for AMS and 44.6 ± 12.3% for LSC. Comparable bioenergy results were obtained using a feedstock manual sort procedure (41.4%), whilst a procedure based on selective dissolution of representative waste material is reported as 75.5% (no errors quoted). {sup 14}C techniques present significant advantages in data acquisition, precision and reliability for both electricity generator and industry regulator.

  19. Expedited technology demonstration project (Revised mixed waste management facility project) Project baseline revision 4.0 and FY98 plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M. G.

    1997-10-01

    The re-baseline of the Expedited Technology Demonstration Project (Revised Mixed Waste Facility Project) is designated as Project Baseline Revision 4.0. The last approved baseline was identified as Project Baseline Revision 3.0 and was issued in October 1996. Project Baseline Revision 4.0 does not depart from the formal DOE guidance followed by, and contained in, Revision 3.0. This revised baseline document describes the MSO and Final Forms testing activities that will occur during FY98, the final year of the ETD Project. The cost estimate for work during FY98 continues to be $2.OM as published in Revision 3.0. However, the funds will be all CENRTC rather than the OPEX/CENTRC split previously anticipated. LLNL has waived overhead charges on ETD Project CENRTC funds since the beginning of project activities. By requesting the $2.OM as all CENTRC a more aggressive approach to staffing and testing can be taken. Due to a cost under- run condition during FY97 procurements were made and work was accomplished, with the knowledge of DOE, in the Feed Preparation and Final Forms areas that were not in the scope of Revision 3.0. Feed preparation activities for FY98 have been expanded to include the drum opening station/enclosure previously deleted.

  20. Determination of renewable energy yield from mixed waste material from the use of novel image analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Wagland, S T; Dudley, R; Naftaly, M; Longhurst, P J

    2013-11-01

    Two novel techniques are presented in this study which together aim to provide a system able to determine the renewable energy potential of mixed waste materials. An image analysis tool was applied to two waste samples prepared using known quantities of source-segregated recyclable materials. The technique was used to determine the composition of the wastes, where through the use of waste component properties the biogenic content of the samples was calculated. The percentage renewable energy determined by image analysis for each sample was accurate to within 5% of the actual values calculated. Microwave-based multiple-point imaging (AutoHarvest) was used to demonstrate the ability of such a technique to determine the moisture content of mixed samples. This proof-of-concept experiment was shown to produce moisture measurement accurate to within 10%. Overall, the image analysis tool was able to determine the renewable energy potential of the mixed samples, and the AutoHarvest should enable the net calorific value calculations through the provision of moisture content measurements. The proposed system is suitable for combustion facilities, and enables the operator to understand the renewable energy potential of the waste prior to combustion.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring of Low-Level Mixed-Waste Loading during Polyethylene Microencapsulation using Transient Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Roger W.; Kalb, Paul D.; McClelland, John F.; Ochiai, Shukichi

    1999-04-15

    In polyethylene microencapsulation, low-level mixed waste (LLMW) is homogenized with molten polyethylene and extruded into containers, resulting in a lighter, lower-volume waste form than cementation and grout methods produce. Additionally, the polyethylene-based waste form solidifies by cooling, with no risk of the waste interfering with cure, as may occur with cementation and grout processes. We have demonstrated real-time monitoring of the polyethylene encapsulation process stream using a noncontact device based on transient infrared spectroscopy (TIRS). TIRS can acquire mid-infrared spectra from solid or viscous liquid process streams, such as the molten, waste-loaded polyethylene stream that exits the microencapsulation extruder. The waste loading in the stream was determined from the TIRS spectra using partial least squares techniques. The monitor has been demonstrated during the polyethylene microencapsulation of nitrate-salt LLMW and its surrogate, molten salt oxidation LLMW and its surrogate, and flyash. The monitor typically achieved a standard error of prediction for the waste loading of about 1% by weight with an analysis time under 1 minute.

  2. Performance of parallel flow HeII heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Chang, Y.; Witt, R. J.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    Previous studies of HeII heat exchangers have focused on tube-in-shell designs. The present paper examines the properties of a parallel flow HeII heat exchanger formed from two 254 mm lengths of copper channel having nominal rectangular dimensions 2 mm × 4 mm. Heaters positioned at the inlets and outlets of both channels permit the simulation of a variety of physically plausible boundary conditions. An iterative numerical method, based on one-dimensional energy balances in each channel with coupling through a heat transfer term, is presented and agrees well with the experimental results. As with tube-in-shell designs, parallel flow HeII heat exchangers may exhibit unusual temperature profiles.

  3. Cyanide destruction/immobilization of residual sludge - mixed waste focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Innovative Technology Summary Reports are designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They are also designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. Each report describes a technology, system, or process that has been developed and tested with funding from DOE`s Office of Science and Technology (OST). A report presents the full range of problems that a technology, system, or process will address and its advantages to the DOE cleanup in terms of system performance, cost, and cleanup effectiveness. Most reports include comparisons to baseline technologies as well as other competing technologies. Information about commercial availability and technology readiness for implementation is also included. Innovative Technology Summary Reports are intended to provide summary information. References for more detailed information are provided in an appendix. Efforts have been made to provide key data describing the performance, cost, and regulatory acceptance of the technology. If this information was not available at the time of publication, the omission is noted.

  4. Status and performance of the CDF Run II silicon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Boveia, A.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The CDF Run II silicon detector with its 8 layers of double- and single-sided silicon microstrip sensors and a total 722,432 readout channels is one of the largest silicon detector devices currently in use by a HEP experiment. We report our experience commissioning and operating this complex device during the first 4 years of Run II. As the luminosity delivered by the Tevatron increases, we have observed measurable effects of radiation damage in studies of charge collection and noise versus applied bias voltage at many different integrated luminosities. We discuss these studies and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector.

  5. Pay for Performance Proposals in Race to the Top Round II Applications. Briefing Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The Education Commission of the States reviewed all 36 Race to the Top (RttT) round II applications. Each of the 36 states that applied for round II funding referenced pay for performance under the heading of "Improving teacher and principal effectiveness based on performance." The majority of states outlined pay for performance…

  6. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  7. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    This research effort aims at developing a portable analytical system for fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, on-site monitoring of toxic transition metals and radionuclides in contaminated DOE Sites. The portable devices will be based on Microscale Total Analytical systems ( -TAS) or ''Lab-on-a-chip'' in combination with electrochemical (stripping-voltammetric) sensors. The resulting microfluidics/electrochemical sensor system would allow testing for toxic metals to be performed more rapidly, inexpensively, and reliably in a field setting. Progress Summary/Accomplishments: This report summarizes the ASU activity over the second year of the project. In accordance to our original objectives our studies have focused on various fundamental and practical aspects of sensing and microchip devices for monitoring metal contaminants. As described in this section, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the on-site detection of toxic metals and for interfacing microchips with the real world.

  8. Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1998-06-26

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

  9. The Multi-Attribute Task Battery II (MATB-II) Software for Human Performance and Workload Research: A User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Myer, Robert R.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MAT Battery). is a computer-based task designed to evaluate operator performance and workload, has been redeveloped to operate in Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating systems.MATB-II includes essentially the same tasks as the original MAT Battery, plus new configuration options including a graphical user interface for controlling modes of operation. MATB-II can be executed either in training or testing mode, as defined by the MATB-II configuration file. The configuration file also allows set up of the default timeouts for the tasks, the flow rates of the pumps and tank levels of the Resource Management (RESMAN) task. MATB-II comes with a default event file that an experimenter can modify and adapt

  10. Department of Energy Waste Information Network: Hazardous and mixed waste data management

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Information Network (WIN) was developed through the efforts of the DOE Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Office (SO) to meet the programmatic information needs of the Director, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. WIN's key objective is to provide DOE Headquarters (HQ), DOE Operations Offices, and their contractors with an information management tool to support environmental restoration and waste management activities and to promote technology transfer across the DOE complex. WIN has evolved in various stages of growth driven by continued identification of user needs. The current system provides seven key features: technical information systems, bulletin boards, data file transfer, on-line conferencing, formal concurrence system, electronic messaging, and integrated spreadsheet/graphics. WIN is based on Digital Equipment Corporation;s (DEC) VAXcluster platform and is currently supporting nearly 1,000 users. An interactive menu system, DEC's ALL-IN-1 (1), provides easy access to all applications. WIN's many features are designed to provide the DOE waste management community with a repository of information management tools that are accessible, functional, and efficient. The type of tool required depends on the task to be performed, and WIN is equipped to serve many different needs. Each component of the system is evaluated for effectiveness for a particular purpose, ease of use, and quality of operation. The system is fully supported by project managers, systems analysts, and user assistance technicians to ensure subscribers of continued, uninterrupted service. 1 ref.

  11. Process Control for Simultaneous Vitrification of Two Mixed Waste Streams in the Transportable Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.D.; Jantzen, C.M.; Brown, K.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.

    1998-05-01

    Two highly variable mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste sludges were simultaneously vitrified in an EnVitCo Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) deployed at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The TVS was the result of a cooperative effort between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and EnVitCo to design and build a transportable melter capable of vitrifying a variety of mixed low level wastes.The two waste streams for the demonstration were the dried B and C Pond sludges at the K-25 site and waste water sludge produced in the Central Neutralization Facility from treatment of incinerator blowdown. Large variations occurred in the sodium, calcium, silicon, phosphorus, fluorine and iron content of the co- blended waste sludges: these elements have a significant effect on the process ability and performance of the final glass product. The waste sludges were highly reduced due to organics added during processing, coal-pile runoff (coal and sulfides), and other organics, including wood chips. A batch-by-batch process control model was developed to control glass viscosity, liquidus, and reduction/oxidation, assuming that the melter behaved as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor.

  12. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Trujillo, G.

    1994-08-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs.

  13. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  14. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  15. Innovative systems for mixed waste retrieval and/or treatment in confined spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fekete, L.J.; Ghusn, A.E.

    1993-03-01

    Fernald established operations in 1951 and produced uranium and other metals for use at other DOE facilities. A part of the sitewide remediation effort is the removal, treatment, and disposal of the K-65 wastes from Silos 1 and 2. These silos contain radium-bearing residues from the processing of pitchblende ore. An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis was prepared to evaluate the removal action alternatives using the preliminary characterization data and select a preferred alternative. The selected alternative consisted of covering the K-65 residues and the silo dome. The remediation of the K-65 wastes consists of the retrieval and treatment of the wastes prior to final disposal, which has not yet been determined. Treatment will be performed in a new facility to be built adjacent to the silos. The wastes must be retrieved from silos in an efficient and reliable way and delivered to the treatment facility. The first challenge of covering the wastes with bentonite has been successfully met. The second phase of retrieving the wastes from the silos is not due for a few years. However, conceptual design and configuration of the retrieval system have been developed as part of the Conceptual Design Report. The system is based on the utilization of hydraulic mining techniques, and is based on similar successful applications. This report describes the emplacement of the bentonite grant and the design for the slurry retrieval system.

  16. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  17. Controls on NAPL migration pathways in a mixed-waste rail yard, Dunsmuir, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidry, Lauren N.

    On a rail yard site impacted with multiple spills of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), NAPL was actively being transported in a subsurface pathway to a nearby stream. While significant quantities of NAPL were immobile on the site, further understanding of the active pathway requires understanding the site transport mechanism(s). The mixing of surface water and groundwater, and the flow conditions capable of producing a suitable environment for biochemical processes were evaluated. Additionally, a hydrogeophysical framework for evaluating sites with multiple long-term impacts was suggested. Evaluation of the site was performed by data integration of geophysical, geochemical, and hydrogeologic data. Geophysical data included 71 electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) datasets across the site. Geochemical data included onsite well data, stream data, and regional well data. Hydrogeologic data included borings and head data incorporated into a site groundwater model. These datasets were used to generate a GIS database of site data to produce maps of site parameters relative to geophysical and geologic features. Additionally principal component analysis (PCA) and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were used to identify anomalous wells for the site. Results of the hydrogeologic analysis indicates during high stream flow events, groundwater chemical constituents become homogenized and diluted across the site. During baseflow, chemical constituents increase in concentration in the northern end of the site due to biodegradation. The results of the EMMA analysis demonstrate geochemical constituents in the northern area of the field site were outliers from the regional and onsite samples. The southern end of the site, while impacted, reflects concentrations of background waters. This complex surface water/groundwater mixing process at the site periodically dilutes the thermally active environment, which appears to be required to mobilize NAPL. A revised hydrogeophysical framework

  18. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  19. Separation techniques for the clean-up of radioactive mixed waste for ICP-AES/ICP-MS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swafford, A.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-03-17

    Two separation techniques were investigated for the clean-up of typical radioactive mixed waste samples requiring elemental analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These measurements frequently involve regulatory or compliance criteria which include the determination of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List (TAL). These samples usually consist of both an aqueous phase and a solid phase which is mostly an inorganic sludge. Frequently, samples taken from the waste tanks contain high levels of uranium and thorium which can cause spectral interferences in ICP-AES or ICP-MS analysis. The removal of these interferences is necessary to determine the presence of the EPA TAL elements in the sample. Two clean-up methods were studied on simulated aqueous waste samples containing the EPA TAL elements. The first method studied was a classical procedure based upon liquid-liquid extraction using tri-n- octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane. The second method investigated was based on more recently developed techniques using extraction chromatography; specifically the use of a commercially available Eichrom TRU[center dot]Spec[trademark] column. Literature on these two methods indicates the efficient removal of uranium and thorium from properly prepared samples and provides considerable qualitative information on the extraction behavior of many other elements. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the extraction behavior of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List. Experimental studies on these two methods consisted of determining whether any of the analytes were extracted by these methods and the recoveries obtained. Both methods produced similar results; the EPA target analytes were only slightly or not extracted. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated and found to be comparable.

  20. Leaching of brominated flame retardants from mixed wastes in lysimeters under conditions simulating landfills in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Hirata, Osamu; Takigami, Hidetaka; Noma, Yukio; Tachifuji, Ayako; Matsufuji, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    In developing countries, wastes are usually not separated before being disposed of in solid-waste landfills, most of which are open dumps without adequate measures to prevent environmental pollution. To understand the leaching behavior of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from waste consumer products in landfills, we have been conducting a long-term landfill lysimeter experiment since 2006 under conditions designed to mimic three types of landfill conditions in developing countries: aerobic, semi-aerobic, and anaerobic. Pilot-scale lysimeters (60-cm i.d.) were filled with a 400-cm layer of mixed wastes consisting of 35 wt% food, 20 wt% paper, 20 wt% paper pulp, 13 wt% plastic, 10 wt% wood chips, 1 wt% glass, and 1 wt% metals, proportions that are typical of unsorted municipal solid waste in Asian developing countries. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, tribromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes in leachate samples collected from the lysimeters during the first 3.5 years of the experiment, to evaluate BFR elution behavior in early-stage landfills. Under all three conditions, BFR elution started at the beginning of the experiment. The BFR concentrations in the leachates from the aerobic lysimeter tended to be lower than those from the anaerobic lysimeter, suggesting that the presence of air inside landfills considerably reduces BFR elution to the surrounding environment. During the 3.5-year experiment, BFR outflow from the lysimeters was only 0.001-0.58% of the total BFRs in the loaded waste; that is, most of the BFRs in the waste remained in the lysimeters.

  1. A new approach for simultaneous determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) using 2-thiophenaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone as reagent by solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Varinder; Aulakh, Jatinder Singh; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2007-11-05

    A new method is proposed herein for the sorption, separation and simultaneous determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) using 2-thiophenaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (TPTS) as a reagent by solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection. The method is based upon the sorption of metal complexes on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber from aqueous solution followed by desorption in the desorption chamber of solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPME-HPLC) interface. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography using acetonitrile:water (65:35) as an eluent on a C18 column has been used to achieve the separation. The effects of agitation, addition of salts, extraction time and desorption time are examined to obtain optimized conditions. The detection limits for Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) are 9, 6, 1 and 7 ng L(-1) based on 3sigma of blank response. The precision is calculated to be less than 3.5% (R.S.D.) for all species. A 10 time enhancement in the signal is observed for SPME when compared with direct analysis. The method is successfully applied to several synthetic mixtures without interference from other common metal ions such as Mo(VI), V(V), Ag(I), Sn(IV), Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The proposed method is tested for the determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) in alloys and water samples spiked with these metal ions.

  2. Eight Pulse Performance of DARHT Axis II - Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Martin E.

    2015-12-08

    The DARHT-II accelerator produces a 1.65-kA, 17-MeV beam in a 1600-ns pulse. Standard operation of the DARHT Axis II accelerator involves extracting four short pulses from the 1.6 us long macro-pulse produced by the LIA. The four short pulses are extracted using a fast kicker in combination with a quadrupole septum magnet and then transported for several meters to a high-Z material target for conversion to x-rays for radiography. The ability of the DARHT Axis 2 kicker to produce more than the standard four pulse format has been previously demonstrated. This capability was developed to study potential risks associated with beam transport during an initial commissioning phase at low energy (8 MeV) and low current (1.0 kA).The ability of the kicker to deliver more than four pulses to the target has been realized for many years. This note describes the initial results demonstrating this capability.

  3. Joint Integration Test Facility (JITF) Engineering II Performance Measurement Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Technology Management Reform Act of 1966 (also known as the Clinger-Cohen Act) and the Government Performance and Results Act of 1997, which requires...This report contains the performance measurement plan for the Joint Integration Test Facility. This is an initial plan to comply with the Information

  4. Meteor burst communications. II - Upgrading performance doesn't cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, R. L.

    1982-09-01

    It is shown that the performance of meteor burst communications (MBC) can be improved without increases in cost, through an upgrading of conventional techniques to provide optimum performance. It is noted that the selection of a modulation technique is a decisive factor in the determination of error rate performance and consequent channel capacity, efficiency, throughput and data integrity, and that coherent biphase phase shift keyed modulation is a simply implemented and optimum technique for meteor burst transmission. This technique in turn calls for a carrier recovery burst frame synchronization sequence. Attention is also given to unique word detection, aperture generation, carrier recovery, bit timing recovery, bit count integrity, and on-line encription techniques that may be applied for further performance improvements.

  5. Performing Arts Management and Law. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman, Joseph

    Performing arts management and law are reviewed in detail in these volumes. Special attention is paid to the issue of copyright, both the current law and proposed changes, in the light of technological changes in the media used by the arts. Volume I describes the scope covered by this work, and discusses the market place, copyright, and contract.…

  6. Prediction of Successful Nursing Performance. Part I and Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwirian, Patricia M.

    Two of three phases of a study were conducted to (1) assess the state of the art on the prediction of nursing clinical performance and (2) obtain current information from nursing education programs about prediction criteria in use by them. Phase one involved a review of the 1965 through 1975 literature pertaining to studies that focused on the…

  7. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.

  8. SKA weak lensing- II. Simulated performance and survey design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaldi, Anna; Harrison, Ian; Camera, Stefano; Brown, Michael L.

    2016-12-01

    We construct a pipeline for simulating weak lensing cosmology surveys with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), taking as inputs telescope sensitivity curves; correlated source flux, size and redshift distributions; a simple ionospheric model; source redshift and ellipticity measurement errors. We then use this simulation pipeline to optimize a 2-yr weak lensing survey performed with the first deployment of the SKA (SKA1). Our assessments are based on the total signal to noise of the recovered shear power spectra, a metric that we find to correlate very well with a standard dark energy figure of merit. We first consider the choice of frequency band, trading off increases in number counts at lower frequencies against poorer resolution; our analysis strongly prefers the higher frequency Band 2 (950-1760 MHz) channel of the SKA-MID telescope to the lower frequency Band 1 (350-1050 MHz). Best results would be obtained by allowing the centre of Band 2 to shift towards lower frequency, around 1.1 GHz. We then move on to consider survey size, finding that an area of 5000 deg2 is optimal for most SKA1 instrumental configurations. Finally, we forecast the performance of a weak lensing survey with the second deployment of the SKA. The increased survey size (3π steradian) and sensitivity improves both the signal to noise and the dark energy metrics by two orders of magnitude.

  9. PacRIM II: A review of AirSAR operations and system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moller, D.; Chu, A.; Lou, Y.; Miller, T.; O'Leary, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the AirSAR system, its expected performance, and quality of data obtained during that mission. We discuss the system hardware calibration methodologies, and present quantitative performance values of radar backscatter and interferometric height errors (random and systematic) from PACRIM II calibration data.

  10. Off-normal performance of EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor) driver fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Fryer, R.M.; Koenig, J.F.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    The off-normal performance of EBR-II Mark-II driver fuel has been more than satisfactory as demonstrated by robust reliability under repeated transient overpower and undercooled loss-of-flow tests, by benign run-beyond-cladding-breach behavior, and by forgiving response to fabrication defects including lack of bond. Test results have verified that the metallic driver fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events. This behavior has allowed EBR-II to operate in a combined steady-state and transient mode to provide test capability without limitation from the metallic driver fuel.

  11. Analysis of Topaz-II thermionic fuel element performance using TFEHX

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.C. ); Pawlowski, R.A. )

    1993-01-20

    Data reported by Russian Scientists and engineers for the TOPAZ-II single cell thermionic fuel elments (TFE) is compared with analytical results calculated using the TFEHX computer program in order to benchmark the code. The results of this comparison show good agreement with the TOPAZ-II results over a wide range of power inputs, cesium vapor pressures, and other design variables. Future refinements of the TFEHX methodology should enhance the performance of the code to better predict single cell TFE behavior.

  12. CMS Physics Technical Design Report, Volume II: Physics Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMS Collaboration

    2007-06-01

    CMS is a general purpose experiment, designed to study the physics of pp collisions at 14 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It currently involves more than 2000 physicists from more than 150 institutes and 37 countries. The LHC will provide extraordinary opportunities for particle physics based on its unprecedented collision energy and luminosity when it begins operation in 2007. The principal aim of this report is to present the strategy of CMS to explore the rich physics programme offered by the LHC. This volume demonstrates the physics capability of the CMS experiment. The prime goals of CMS are to explore physics at the TeV scale and to study the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking—through the discovery of the Higgs particle or otherwise. To carry out this task, CMS must be prepared to search for new particles, such as the Higgs boson or supersymmetric partners of the Standard Model particles, from the start-up of the LHC since new physics at the TeV scale may manifest itself with modest data samples of the order of a few fb -1 or less. The analysis tools that have been developed are applied to study in great detail and with all the methodology of performing an analysis on CMS data specific benchmark processes upon which to gauge the performance of CMS. These processes cover several Higgs boson decay channels, the production and decay of new particles such as Z' and supersymmetric particles, B s production and processes in heavy ion collisions. The simulation of these benchmark processes includes subtle effects such as possible detector miscalibration and misalignment. Besides these benchmark processes, the physics reach of CMS is studied for a large number of signatures arising in the Standard Model and also in theories beyond the Standard Model for integrated luminosities ranging from 1 fb -1 to 30 fb -1 . The Standard Model processes include QCD, B -physics, diffraction, detailed studies of the top quark properties, and electroweak physics

  13. Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Baker, M.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhandari, P.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borders, J.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bowman, B.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Camus, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chambelland, J. P.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Collaudin, B.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; Cuttaia, F.; Damasio, C.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gavila, E.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guyot, G.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Israelsson, U.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Lee, R.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melot, F.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mora, J.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nash, A.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prina, M.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, C.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Wilson, P.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zhang, B.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20 K for LFI and 0.1 K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency coverage led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could satisfy these needs; a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, Spitzer, AKARI), could not. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (<20 K), a 4He Joule-Thomson cooler (4.7 K), and a 3He-4He dilution cooler (1.4 K and 0.1 K). The flight system was at ambient temperature at launch and cooled in space to operating conditions. The HFI bolometer plate reached 93 mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the rest of Planck, andoperates at a mean temperature of 384 K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope baffle operates at 42.3 K and the telescope primary mirror operates at 35.9 K. The temperatures of key parts of the instruments are stabilized by both active and passive methods. Temperature fluctuations are driven by changes in the distance from the Sun, sorption cooler cycling and fluctuations in gas-liquid flow, and fluctuations in cosmic ray flux on the dilution and bolometer plates. These fluctuations do not compromise the science data.

  14. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  15. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management; The Delphi Groupe, Inc.; J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2012-01-31

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  16. Performance of a small centrifugal pump in He I and He II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.; Daney, D. E.; Steward, W. G.

    1988-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a small centrifugal pump in He I and He II are determined over the temperature range of 1.6 to 4.2 K. The single-stage pump is powered by a close-coupled cryogenic induction motor. In the absence of cavitation, pump performance (head and capacity) was found to be identical for He I and He II. Developed heads up to 16 m and capacities of up to 900 liters/hr are obtained at 7000 rpm. A three-blade screw inducer was shown to require much less suction head than a six-blade propeller inducer.

  17. Performance of a small centrifugal pump in He I and He II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludtke, P. R.; Daney, D. E.; Steward, W. G.

    The performance characteristics of a small centrifugal pump in He I and He II are determined over the temperature range of 1.6 to 4.2 K. The single-stage pump is powered by a close-coupled cryogenic induction motor. In the absence of cavitation, pump performance (head and capacity) was found to be identical for He I and He II. Developed heads up to 16 m and capacities of up to 900 liters/hr are obtained at 7000 rpm. A three-blade screw inducer was shown to require much less suction head than a six-blade propeller inducer.

  18. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  19. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 2, Site specific---California through Idaho. [Waste mixtures of hazardous materials and low-level radioactive wastes or transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  20. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 2001 Annual Update (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, B.

    2001-04-30

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity scheduled milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  1. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  2. Comparison of violet diode laser with CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatayama, H.; Kato, J.; Inoue, A.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-02-01

    The violet diode laser (405nm) has recently begun to be studied for surgical use and authors reported the soft tissue could be effectively incised by irradiation power of even less than 1W. The wavelength of this laser is highly absorbed by hemoglobin, myoglobin or melanin pigment. Cutting or ablating soft tissues by lower irradiation power might be preferable for wound healing. The CO II laser is known to be preferable for low invasive treatment of soft tissues and widely used. The CO II laser light (10.6μm) is highly absorbed by water and proper for effective ablation of soft tissues. In this paper, we report the comparison of the violet diode laser with the CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues. Tuna tissue was used as an experimental sample. In the case of the violet diode laser, extensive vaporization of tissue was observed after the expansion of coagulation. Carbonization of tissue was observed after the explosion. On the other hand, consecutive vaporization and carbonization were observed immediately after irradiation in the case of CO II laser. The violet diode laser could ablate tissue equivalently with the CO II laser and coagulate larger area than the CO II laser. Therefore the violet diode laser might be expectable as a surgical tool which has excellent hemostatis.

  3. Predictors of performance on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Parts I and II*

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Angela R.; Harvey, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for success on Parts I and II of the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) written examinations. Methods Two validity studies were conducted to examine the criterion validity of Logan College assessments for Part I and II NBCE scores. Both studies consisted of a longitudinal design to examine the validity of entrance grade point average (GPA), in-program chiropractic course content GPA, and an institutional practice exam on Parts I and II of the NBCE. Results Analyses revealed that Part I GPA and practice exam scores combined accounted for 72% of the variance within Part I NBCE scores. Furthermore, every subtest of the Part I NBCE could be reliably predicted by course performance. In the 2nd study, Part I GPA, Part I NBCE score, and Part II GPA accounted for 75% of the variance within Part II NBCE scores. Conclusions Internal training and educational assessments (eg, course grades and practice exams) proved to be strong determinants of NBCE performance above and beyond initial levels of preparedness, thus validating the impact of the chiropractic curriculum on NBCE test achievement. PMID:24611459

  4. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  5. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, Sivaraman; Wong, Chi F.; Buckley, Leo P.

    1994-01-01

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  6. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Waste at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Denise Lach; Stephanie Sanford

    2006-09-01

    A consensus workshop was developed and convened with ten state regulators to characterize concerns regarding emerging bioremediation technology to be used to clean-up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at US DOE sites. Two questions were explored: integrated questions: (1) What impact does participation in a consensus workshop have on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of state regulators regarding bioremediation technology? (2) How effective is a consensus workshop as a strategy for eliciting and articulating regulators’ concerns regarding the use of bioremediation to clean up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at U.S. Department of Energy Sites around the county? State regulators met together for five days over two months to learn about bioremediation technology and develop a consensus report of their recommendations regarding state regulatory concerns. In summary we found that panel members: - quickly grasped the science related to bioremediation and were able to effectively interact with scientists working on complicated issues related to the development and implementation of the technology; - are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, implementation (e.g., institutional controls), and long-term effectiveness of the technology; - are concerned equally about technological and implementation issues; and - believed that the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation was appropriate and useful. Finally, regulators wanted decision makers at US DOE to know they are willing to work with DOE regarding innovative approaches to clean-up at their sites, and consider a strong relationship between states and the DOE as critical to any effective clean-up. They do not want perceive themselves to be and do not want others to perceive them as barriers to successful clean-up at their sites.

  7. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately 100 flights executed over the course of 2 years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet, but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over-read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub-optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water and may also be susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II responds much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  8. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  9. Usability of Operational Performance Support Tools - Findings from Sea Test II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky; Litaker, Harry; McGuire, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Sea Test II, aka NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations 17(NEEMO 17) took place in the Florida Aquarius undersea habitat. This confined underwater environment provides a excellent analog for space habitation providing similarities to space habitation such as hostile environment, difficult logistics, autonomous operations, and remote communications. This study collected subjective feedback on the usability of two performance support tools during the Sea Test II mission, Sept 10-14, 2013; Google Glass and iPAD. The two main objectives: - Assess the overall functionality and usability of each performance support tool in a mission analog environment. - Assess the advantages and disadvantages of each tool when performing operational procedures and Just-In-Time-Training (JITT).

  10. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  11. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. II: creativity, the performing arts and ecological validity.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    As a continuation of a review of evidence of the validity of cognitive/affective gains following neurofeedback in healthy participants, including correlations in support of the gains being mediated by feedback learning (Gruzelier, 2014a), the focus here is on the impact on creativity, especially in the performing arts including music, dance and acting. The majority of research involves alpha/theta (A/T), sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) and heart rate variability (HRV) protocols. There is evidence of reliable benefits from A/T training with advanced musicians especially for creative performance, and reliable benefits from both A/T and SMR training for novice music performance in adults and in a school study with children with impact on creativity, communication/presentation and technique. Making the SMR ratio training context ecologically relevant for actors enhanced creativity in stage performance, with added benefits from the more immersive training context. A/T and HRV training have benefitted dancers. The neurofeedback evidence adds to the rapidly accumulating validation of neurofeedback, while performing arts studies offer an opportunity for ecological validity in creativity research for both creative process and product.

  12. ECMWF MACC-II evaluation of performances with MPLNET Lidar network at NASA Goddard Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Benedetti, Angela; Lewis, Jasper

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol vertical distribution is a critical parameter for most of the common aerosol forecast models. In this study are evaluated the performances of the MACC-II ECMWF aerosol model in forecasting aerosol extinction profiles and planetary boundary layer height versus the new V3 measured MPLNET Lidar extinction retrievals taken as reference at continuous operational site Goddard Space Flight Center, MD, USA. The model is evaluated at different assimilation stages: no assimilation, MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) assimilation and MODIS AOD plus lidar CALIPSO assimilation. The sensitivity study of the model is also investigated respect to the assimilation process..Assessing the model performances it is the first step for future near-real time lidar data assimilation into MACC-II aerosol model forecast.

  13. High-performance IR thermography system based on Class II Thermal Imaging Common Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ian G.

    1991-03-01

    The Class II Thermal Imaging Common Modules were originally developed for the U.K. Ministry of Defence as the basis of a number of high performance thermal imaging systems for use by the British Armed Forces. These systems are characterized by high spatial resolution, high thermal resolution and real time thermal image update rate. A TICM II thermal imaging system uses a cryogenically cooled eight element Cadmium- Mercury-Telluride (CMT) SPRITE (Signal PRocessing In The Element) detector which is mechanically scanned over the thermal scene to be viewed. The TALYTHERM system is based on a modified TICM II thermal image connected to an IBM PC-AT compatible computer having image processing hardware installed and running the T.E.M.P.S. (Thermal Emission Measurement and Processing System) software package for image processing and data analysis. The operation of a TICM II thermal imager is briefly described highlighting the use of the SPRITE detector which coupled with a serial/parallel scanning technique yields high temporal, spatial and thermal resolutions. The conversion of this military thermal image into thermography system is described, including a discussion of the modifications required to a standard imager. The technique for extracting temperature information from a real time thermal image and how this is implemented in a TALYTHERM system is described. The D.A.R.T. (Discrete Attenuation of Radiance Thermography) system which is based on an extensively modified TICM II thermal imager is also described. This system is capable of measuring temperatures up to 1000 degrees C whilst maintaining the temporal and spatial resolutions inherent in a TICM II imager. Finally applications of the TALYTHERM in areas such as NDT (Non Destructive Testing), medical research and military research are briefly described.

  14. Particle identification performance of the prototype aerogel RICH counter for the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, S.; Adachi, I.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kakuno, H.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kumita, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovic, E.; Yusa, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a new type of particle identification device, called an aerogel ring imaging Cherenkov (ARICH) counter, for the Belle II experiment. It uses silica aerogel tiles as Cherenkov radiators. For detection of Cherenkov photons, hybrid avalanche photo-detectors (HAPDs) are used. The designed HAPD has a high sensitivity to single photons under a strong magnetic field. We have confirmed that the HAPD provides high efficiency for single-photon detection even after exposure to neutron and γ -ray radiation that exceeds the levels expected in the 10-year Belle II operation. In order to confirm the basic performance of the ARICH counter system, we carried out a beam test at the using a prototype of the ARICH counter with six HAPD modules. The results are in agreement with our expectations and confirm the suitability of the ARICH counter for the Belle II experiment. Based on the in-beam performance of the device, we expect that the identification efficiency at 3.5 GeV/c is 97.4% and 4.9% for pions and kaons, respectively. This paper summarizes the development of the HAPD for the ARICH and the evaluation of the performance of the prototype ARICH counter built with the final design components.

  15. 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    PAZINATTO, Flavia Bittencourt; GIONORDOLI NETO, Ranulfo; WANG, Linda; MONDELLI, José; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations. Filtek P60 was compared with Filtek Z250, which are both indicated for posterior restorations but differ in terms of handling characteristics. The null hypothesis tested was that there is no difference in the clinical performance of the two resin composites in posterior teeth. Material and Methods Thirty-three patients were treated by the same operator, who prepared 48 Class I and 42 Class II cavities, which were restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z250 or Single Bond/Filtek P60 restorative systems. Restorations were evaluated by two independent examiners at baseline and after 56 months, using the modified USPHS criteria. Data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests (a=0.05). Results After 56 months, 25 patients (31 Class I and 36 Class II) were analyzed. A 3% failure rate occurred due to secondary caries and excessive loss of anatomic form for P60. For both restorative systems, there were no significant differences in secondary caries and postoperative sensitivity. However, significant changes were observed with respect to anatomic form, marginal discoloration, and marginal adaptation. Significant decreases in surface texture were observed exclusively for the Z250 restorations. Conclusions Both restorative systems can be used for posterior restorations and can be expected to perform well in the oral environment. PMID:22858698

  16. Performance study of a thermal-envelope house: Phase II. Cooling performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akridge, J. M.; Benton, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal envelope house is shown to perform much better than conventional houses without mechanical refrigeration and better than one would expect from most passively cooled houses in the hot-humid climate of Georgia. Peak temperatures inside the house were 8 to 15/sup 0/F below peak ambient temperatures. Peak inside temperature measured during the test period was 80/sup 0/F with an outside ambient peak of 93/sup 0/F. Air flow rates within the envelope were less than 1 ft/sec even when the attic fan was operating. The earth cooling tubes provided noticeable sensible cooling to the house. Exit temperatures from the cooling tubes were between 72 to 76/sup 0/F, depending upon the air velocity through the tubes. The thermal chimney performed poorly as an air mover, especially when used to induce flow through the earth cooling tubes. The performance of the earth cooling tube could be improved by using the attic fan to increase the air flow through the cooling tubes and to insure it flowed in the cooling tube, through the envelope and out the thermal chimney. Being an exhaust fan, the attic fan created a negative pressure in the house. While this increased air flow through the cooling tubes, it also increased air infiltration through the building shell, thus increasing load. The humidity level within the living space remains relatively high year-round due to low rates of air infiltration and water vapor transmission through the building skin. The problem is aggravated during the summer by the introduction of cool moist air from the cooling tubes to the envelope and frequently to the inner space. While the cooling tubes are able to reduce the sensible load, and they are incapable of significantly reducing humidity or latent loads. This results in relatively comfortable air temperatures but uncomfortable humidities within the living space.

  17. High resolution imaging with multilayer telescopes: resolution performance of the MSSTA II telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Walker, Arthur B. C. II; Gore, David B.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, T. W. Jr.; Boerner, P. F. X.

    2000-04-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) is a sounding rocket-borne observatory composed of a set of normal-incidence multilayer-coated telescopes that obtained selected bandpass spectroheliograms (44 to 1550 Aa) of the solar atmosphere. These spectroheliograms were recorded on specially fabricated XUV and FUV 70-mm Kodak film. Rocket launches of this instrument payload took place in 1991 (MSSTA I) and 1994 (MSSTA II) at the White Sands Missile Test Range in New Mexico, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sounding rocket experiment program. Immediately prior to the 1994 launch, visible light focusing tests of each telescope were performed in situ using a 1951 standard Air Force high-resolution test target, to measure optical resolution performance. We determined that the MSSTA II telescopes performed at diffraction-limited resolutions down to 0.70 arcsec at visible wavelengths. Based on these measurements, we calculate an upper bound to the focusing errors that incorporate the sum of all uncorrelated system focus errors that affect resolution performance. Coupling these upper bound estimates with the in-band diffraction limits, surface scattering errors and payload pointing jitter, we demonstrate that 11 of 19 MSSTA II telescopes--having negligible figures of focus errors in comparison to the corresponding visible diffraction limits--performed at sub arcsecond resolution at their operational FUV/EUV/XUV wavelengths during flight. We estimate the in-band performance down to 0.14{+-}0.08 arcsec. (c) 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  18. Nitrogen-doped 9-cell cavity performance in a test cryomodule for LCLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Gonnella, D. Eichhorn, R.; Furuta, F.; Ge, M.; Hall, D.; Ho, V.; Hoffstaetter, G.; Liepe, M. O'Connell, T.; Posen, S.; Quigley, P.; Sears, J.; Veshcherevich, V.; Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.; Sergatskov, D. A.

    2015-01-14

    The superconducting RF linac for Linac Coherent Light Source-II calls for 1.3 GHz 9-cell cavities with an average intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0} of 2.7 × 10{sup 10} at 2.0 K and 16 MV/m accelerating gradient. Two niobium 9 cell cavities, prepared with nitrogen-doping at Fermilab, were assembled into the Cornell Horizontal Test Cryomodule (HTC) to test cavity performance in a cryomodule that is very similar to a full LCLS-II cryomodule. The cavities met LCLS-II specifications with an average quench field of 17 MV/m and an average Q{sub 0} of 3 × 10{sup 10}. The sensitivity of the cavities' residual resistance to ambient magnetic field was determined to be 0.5 nΩ/mG during fast cool down. In two cool downs, a heater attached to one of the cavity beam tubes was used to induce large horizontal temperature gradients. Here, we report on the results of these first tests of nitrogen-doped cavities in a cryomodule, which provide critical information for the LCLS-II project.

  19. Bioelectrochemical Reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO in a Biofilm Electrode Reactor: Performance, Mechanism, and Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yinfeng; Zhao, Jingkai; Li, Meifang; Zhang, Shihan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei

    2016-04-05

    A biofilm electrode reactor (BER) is proposed to effectively regenerate Fe(II)EDTA, a solvent for NOx removal from flue gas, from Fe(II)EDTA-NO, a spent solution. In this study, the performance, mechanism, and kinetics of the bioelectrochemical reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO were investigated. The pathways of Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction were investigated via determination of nitrogen element balance in the BER and an abiotic electrode reactor. The experimental results indicate that the chelated NO (Fe(II)EDTA-NO) is reduced to N2 with N2O as an intermediate. However, the oxidation of NO occurred in the absence of Fe(II)EDTA in abiotic reactors. Furthermore, the accumulation of N2O was suppressed with the help of electricity. The preponderant electron donor for reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was also confirmed via analysis of the electron conservation. About 87% of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was reduced using Fe(II)EDTA as the electron donor in the presence of both glucose and cathode electrons while the cathode electrons were utilized for the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA to Fe(II)EDTA. Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of bioelectrochemical reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO were also calculated. The maximum reduction rate of Fe(II)EDTA-NO was 13.04 mol m(-3) h(-1), which is 50% higher than that in a conventional biofilter.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger in Run I and Upgrades for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Dai

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has taken data at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV during Run I (2009-2013). The LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of about 20 fb-1 in 2012, which required dedicated strategies to ensure the highest possible physics output while effectively reducing the event rate. The Muon High Level Trigger has successfully adapted to the changing environment from low instantaneous luminosity (1032 cm-2 s-1) in 2010 to the peak high instantaneous luminosity (1034 cm-2 s-1). The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analyses involving muons in the final state. We will present the excellent performance achieved during Run I. In preparation for the next data taking period (Run II) several hardware and software upgrades to the ATLAS Muon Trigger have been performed to deal with the increased trigger rate expected at higher centre-of-mass energy and increased instantaneous luminosity. We will highlight the development of novel algorithms that have been developed to maintain a highly efficient event selection while reducing the processing time by a factor of three. In addition, the two stages of the high level trigger that was deployed in Run I will be merged for Run II. We will discuss novel approaches that are being developed to further improve the trigger algorithms for Run II and beyond.

  1. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Moreno, P.; Valero, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived to receive and process the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as to configure it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  2. Performance in He II of a centrifugal pump with a jet pump inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daney, D. E.; Ludtke, P. R.; Kashani, A.

    1989-05-01

    The tendency of turbopumps operating in He II to cavitate makes their use in zero gravity questionable because of the zero net positive suction head (NPSH) available at the pump inlet. This paper investigates a jet pump, positioned at the inlet of a centrifugal pump with a screw inducer, as a means of operating a centrifugal pump at zero or lower NPSH. Pump performance in He II was measured as a function of NPSH for six different combinations of primary and secondary nozzles. Suction heads down to -91 mm were measured for a 3-percent reduction in developed head. These are referenced to the leading edge of the screw inducer, which is 100 mm above the jet pump inlet. Because cavitation at the primary jet always precedes cavitation in the jet pump secondary nozzle, the reverse (pressure driven) flow through a porous plug as a means of obtaining a subcooled primary jet was also tested. These tests were inconclusive.

  3. Effect of hole transport on performance of infrared type-II superlattice light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Youxi; Suchalkin, Sergey; Kipshidze, Gela; Hosoda, Takashi; Westerfeld, David; Shterengas, Leon; Belenky, Gregory; Laikhtman, Boris

    2015-04-28

    The effect of hole transport on the performance of infrared light emitting diodes (LED) was investigated. The active area of the LEDs comprised two type-II superlattices with different periods and widths connected in series. Electroluminescence spectra of the devices with different positions of long wave and mid wave superlattice sections were mostly contributed by the superlattice closest to the p-contact. The experimental results indicate that due to suppressed vertical hole transport, the recombination of electrically injected electrons and holes in a type II superlattice LED active region takes place within a few superlattice periods near p-barrier. Possible reason for the effect is reduction of hole diffusion coefficient in an active area of a superlattice LED under bias.

  4. Demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. Progress report SF2-3-MW-35, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.; Shell, T.; Farmer, J.C.; Adamson, M.

    1996-01-27

    Direct Chemical Oxidation is an emerging ``omnivorous`` waste destruction technique which uses one of the strongest known oxidants (ammonium peroxydisulfate) to convert organic solids or liquids to carbon dioxide and their mineral constituents. The process operates at ambient pressure and at moderate temperatures (80--100 C) where organic destruction is rapid without catalysts. The byproduct (ammonium sulfate) is benign and may be recycled using commercial electrolysis equipment. The authors have constructed and initially tested a bench-scale facility (batch prereactor and plug-flow reactor) which allows treatability tests on any solid or liquid organic waste surrogate, with off-gas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Shake-down tests of the plug flow reactor on model chemical ethylene glycol confirmed earlier predictive models. Pre-reactor tests on water-immiscible substances confirmed destruction of cotton rags (cellulose), kerosene, tributyl phosphate and triethylamine. The process is intended to provide an all-aqueous, ambient pressure destruction technique for difficult materials not suitable or fully accepted for conventional incineration. Such wastes include solid and liquid mixed wastes containing incinerator chars, halogenated and nitrogenated wastes, oils and greases, and chemical or biological warfare agents.

  5. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.

  6. Sampling and analysis of water from Upper Three Runs and its wetlands near Tank 16 and the Mixed Waste Management Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.

    1994-06-01

    In April and September 1993, sampling was conducted to characterize the Upper Three Runs (UTR) wetland waters near the Mixed Waste Management Facility to determine if contaminants migrating from MWMF are outcropping into the floodplain wetlands. For the spring sampling event, 37 wetlands and five stream water samples were collected. Thirty-six wetland and six stream water samples were collected for the fall sampling event. Background seepline and stream water samples were also collected for both sampling events. All samples were analyzed for RCRA Appendix IX volatiles, inorganics appearing on the Target Analyte List, tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and gross radiological activity. Most of the analytical data for both the spring and fall sampling events were reported as below method detection limits. The primary exceptions were the routine water quality indicators (e.g., turbidity, alkalinity, total suspended solids, etc.), iron, manganese, and tritium. During the spring, cadmium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, potassium-40, ruthenium-106, and trichloroethylene were also detected above the MCLs from at least one location. A secondary objective of this project was to identify any UTR wetland water quality impacts resulting from leaks from Tank 16 located at the H-Area Tank Farm.

  7. Human Performance Review of the Retail Repair Parts Supply System. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    R L KEESEE. B B CAMDEN, R M POWERS UNCLASSIFIED 1NEL-TM- 3 -80-VOL-I NL 11111112.211L Hill ’ IIII 1 1 1 -11IL25=14 44 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CH*T...NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANVARDS-2963- Technical Memorandum 3 -80 - HUMAN PERFORMANCE REVIEW OF THE RETAIL REPAIR PARTS SUPPLY SYSTEM VOLUME II 1 FINAL...forandum 3 -80 HUMAN PERFORMANCEJEVIEW OF THE XETAIL lP7AIR( f P RTS SUPPLY SYST M f ., " 1 .. UM UoL ._ (L XINAL UPT.!7 ’F J6 j+77 Richard S.j Camden

  8. Summary of WPT FOA phase II demonstration performed on July 21, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Perry T.; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-08-01

    This summary provides details of the activities, presentations and hardware demonstrations performed at the International Transportation Innovation Center (iTiC) in Greenville, South Carolina as deliverables for the wireless power transfer (WPT) FOA #000667 phase II gateway. This report does not attempt to identify all encompassing efforts from each of the partners leading up to the demonstration, but will attempt to provide a record which briefly describes the project deliverables met and expectations from the Department of Energy (DOE) as action items agreed to during the wrap-up session on July 21, 2015.

  9. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM 2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... II Equivalent Samplers Performance test Specifications Acceptance criteria § 53.62 Full Wind Tunnel... Results: 95% ≤ Rc ≤ 105%. § 53.63 Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test Liquid VOAG produced aerosol at 2...

  10. Performance of Superconducting Magnet Prototypes for LCLS-II Linear Accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Andreev, Nikolai; DiMarco, Joseph; ...

    2017-01-05

    The new LCLS-II Linear Superconducting Accelerator at SLAC needs superconducting magnet packages installed inside SCRF Cryomodules to focus and steer an electron beam. Two magnet prototypes were built and successfully tested at Fermilab. Magnets have an iron dominated configuration, quadrupole and dipole NbTi superconducting coils, and splittable in the vertical plane configuration. Magnets inside the Cryomodule are conductively cooled through pure Al heat sinks. Both magnets performance was verified by magnetic measurements at room temperature, and during cold tests in liquid helium. Test results including magnetic measurements are discussed. Special attention was given to the magnet performance at low currentsmore » where the iron yoke and the superconductor hysteresis effects have large influence. Both magnet prototypes were accepted for the installation in FNAL and JLAB prototype Cryomodules.« less

  11. Physics performance and upgrade for Run II of the ATLAS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglioranzi, S.

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle trajectories in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. The operation and performance of the pixel detector during the first years of LHC running are described. More than 96% of the detector modules were operational during this period, with an average intrinsic hit efficiency larger than 99%. The alignment of the detector was found to be stable at the few-micron level over long periods of time. Detector material description, tracking performances in Run I and expectations for the upcoming Run II are presented.

  12. Performance of Superconducting Magnet Prototypes for LCLS-II Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Andreev, Nikolai; DiMarco, Joseph; Makarov, Alexander; Tartaglia, Michael; Velev, George

    2016-12-30

    The new LCLS-II Linear Superconducting Accelerator at SLAC needs superconducting magnet packages installed inside SCRF Cryomodules to focus and steer an electron beam. Two magnet prototypes were built and successfully tested at Fermilab. Magnets have an iron dominated configuration, quadrupole and dipole NbTi superconducting coils, and splittable in the vertical plane configuration. Magnets inside the Cryomodule are conductively cooled through pure Al heat sinks. Both magnets performance was verified by magnetic measurements at room temperature, and during cold tests in liquid helium. Test results including magnetic measurements are discussed. Special attention was given to the magnet performance at low currents where the iron yoke and the superconductor hysteresis effects have large influence. Both magnet prototypes were accepted for the installation in FNAL and JLAB prototype Cryomodules.

  13. Output power characteristics and performance of TOPAZ II Thermionic Fuel Element No. 24

    SciTech Connect

    Luchau, D.W.; Bruns, D.R.; Izhvanov, O.; Androsov, V.

    1996-03-01

    A final report on the output power characteristics and capabilities of single cell TOPAZ II Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) No. 24 is presented. Thermal power tests were conducted for over 3000 hours to investigate converter performance under normal and adverse operating conditions. Experiments conducted include low power testing, high power testing, air introduction to the interelectrode gap, collector temperature optimization, thermal modeling, and output power characteristic measurements. During testing, no unexpected degradation in converter performance was observed. The TFE has been removed from the test stand and returned to Scientific Industrial Association {open_quote}{open_quote}LUCH{close_quote}{close_quote} for materials analysis and report. This research was conducted at the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Facility at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) as a part of the Topaz International Program (TIP) by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Developing a strategy and closure criteria for radioactive and mixed waste sites in the ORNL remedial action program: Regulatory interface

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    Some options for stabilization and treatment of contaminated sites can theoretically provide a once-and-for-all solution (e.g., removal or destruction of contaminants). Most realizable options, however, leave contaminants in place (in situ), potentially isolated by physical or chemical, but more typically, by hydrologic measures. As a result of the dynamic nature of the interactions between contaminants, remedial measures, and the environment, in situ stablization measures are likely to have limited life spans, and maintenance and monitoring of performance become an essential part of the scheme. The length of formal institutional control over the site and related questions about future uses of the land and waters are of paramount importance. Unique features of the ORNL site and environs appear to be key ingredients in achieving the very long term institutional control necessary for successful financing and implementation of in situ stabilization. Some formal regulatory interface is necessary to ensure that regulatory limitations and new guidance which can affect planning and implementation of the ORNL Remedial Action Program are communicated to ORNL staff and potential technical and financial limitations which can affect schedules or alternatives for achievement of long-term site stabilization and the capability to meet environmental regulations are provided to regulatory bodies as early as possible. Such an interface should allow decisions on closure criteria to be based primarily on technical merit and protection of human health and the environment. A plan for interfacing with federal and state regulatory authorities is described. 93 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

  16. SU-E-J-35: Clinical Performance Evaluation of a Phase II Proton CT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Mandapaka, A; Ghebremedhin, A; Farley, D; Giacometti, V; Vence, N; Bashkirov, V; Patyal, B; Schulte, R; Plautz, T; Zatserklyaniy, A; Johnson, R; Sadrozinski, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop the methodology to evaluate the clinical performance of a Phase II Proton CT scanner Methods: Range errors on the order of 3%-5% constitute a major uncertainty in current charged particle treatment planning based on Hounsfield Unit (HU)-relative stopping power (RSP) calibration curves. Within our proton CT collaboration, we previously developed and built a Phase I proton CT scanner that provided a sensitive area of 9 cm (axial) × 18 cm (in-plane). This scanner served to get initial experience with this new treatment planning tool and to incorporate lessons learned into the next generation design. A Phase II scanner was recently completed and is now undergoing initial performance testing. It will increase the proton acquisition rate and provide a larger detection area of 9 cm x 36 cm. We are now designing a comprehensive evaluation program to test the image quality, imaging dose, and range uncertainty associated with this scanner. The testing will be performed along the lines of AAPM TG 66. Results: In our discussion of the evaluation protocol we identified the following priorities. The image quality of proton CT images, in particular spatial resolution and low-density contrast discrimination, will be evaluated with the Catphan600 phantom. Initial testing showed that the Catphan uniformity phantom did not provide sufficient uniformity; it was thus replaced by a cylindrical water phantom. The imaging dose will be tested with a Catphan dose module, and compared to a typical cone beam CT dose for comparable image quality. Lastly, we developed a dedicated dosimetry range phantom based on the CIRS pediatric head phantom HN715. Conclusion: A formal evaluation of proton CT as a new tool for proton treatment planning is an important task. The availability of the new Phase II proton CT scanner will allow us to perform this task. This research is supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the NIH under award number R01

  17. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  18. Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2008-07-14

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron laser facilities requires x-ray optical systems with extremely high performance, generally of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of such optics requires adequate, highly accurate metrology and dedicated instrumentation. Previously, we suggested ways to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used to characterize x-ray optics at long spatial wavelengths. The main way is use of a CCD detector and corresponding technique for calibration of photo-response non-uniformity [J. L. Kirschman, et al., Proceedings of SPIE 6704, 67040J (2007)]. The present work focuses on the performance and characteristics of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory. This includes a review of the overall aspects of the design, control system, the movement and measurement regimes for the stage, and analysis of the performance by a slope measurement of a highly curved super-quality substrate with less than 0.3 microradian (rms)slope variation.

  19. SERVER DEVELOPMENT FOR NSLS-II PHYSICS APPLICATIONS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, G.; Kraimer, M.

    2011-03-28

    The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. The server software under development is available via an open source sourceforge project named epics-pvdata, which consists of modules pvData, pvAccess, pvIOC, and pvService. Examples of two services that already exist in the pvService module are itemFinder, and gather. Each service uses pvData to store in-memory transient data, pvService to transfer data over the network, and pvIOC as the service engine. The performance benchmarking for pvAccess and both gather service and item finder service are presented in this paper. The performance comparison between pvAccess and Channel Access are presented also. For an ultra low emittance synchrotron radiation light source like NSLS II, the control system requirements, especially for beam control are tight. To control and manipulate the beam effectively, a use case study has been performed to satisfy the requirement and theoretical evaluation has been performed. The analysis shows that model based control is indispensable for beam commissioning and routine operation. However, there are many challenges such as how to re-use a design model for on-line model based control, and how to combine the numerical methods for modeling of a realistic lattice with the analytical techniques for analysis of its properties. To satisfy the requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture for the software framework for beam commissioning and operation is critical. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating and plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service

  20. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Bezzubov, V.; Denisov, D.; Evdokimov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Shchukin, A.; Vasilyev, I.

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  1. Hybrid systems process mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chertow, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    Some technologies, developed recently in Europe, combine several processes to separate and reuse materials from solid waste. These plants have in common, generally, that they are reasonably small, have a composting component for the organic portion, and often have a refuse-derived fuel component for combustible waste. Many European communities also have very effective drop-off center programs for recyclables such as bottles and cans. By maintaining the integrity of several different fractions of the waste, there is a less to landfill and less to burn. The importance of these hybrid systems is that they introduce in one plant an approach that encompasses the key concept of today's solid waste planning; recover as much as possible and landfill as little as possible. The plants also introduce various risks, particularly of finding secure markets. There are a number of companies offering various combinations of materials recovery, composting, and waste combustion. Four examples are included: multiple materials recovery and refuse-derived fuel production in Eden Prairie, Minnesota; multiple materials recovery, composting and refuse-derived fuel production in Perugia, Italy; composting, refuse-derived fuel, and gasification in Tolmezzo, Italy; and a front-end system on a mass burning waste-to-energy plant in Neuchatel, Switzerland.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative analysis of the

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-11-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  4. Performance evaluation and optimization of the MiniPET-II scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajtos, Imre; Emri, Miklos; Kis, Sandor A.; Opposits, Gabor; Potari, Norbert; Kiraly, Beata; Nagy, Ferenc; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents results of the performance of a small animal PET system (MiniPET-II) installed at our Institute. MiniPET-II is a full ring camera that includes 12 detector modules in a single ring comprised of 1.27×1.27×12 mm3 LYSO scintillator crystals. The axial field of view and the inner ring diameter are 48 mm and 211 mm, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the NEMA-NU4 performance parameters of the scanner. In addition, we also investigated how the calculated parameters depend on the coincidence time window (τ=2, 3 and 4 ns) and the low threshold settings of the energy window (Elt=250, 350 and 450 keV). Independent measurements supported optimization of the effective system radius and the coincidence time window of the system. We found that the optimal coincidence time window and low threshold energy window are 3 ns and 350 keV, respectively. The spatial resolution was close to 1.2 mm in the center of the FOV with an increase of 17% at the radial edge. The maximum value of the absolute sensitivity was 1.37% for a point source. Count rate tests resulted in peak values for the noise equivalent count rate (NEC) curve and scatter fraction of 14.2 kcps (at 36 MBq) and 27.7%, respectively, using the rat phantom. Numerical values of the same parameters obtained for the mouse phantom were 55.1 kcps (at 38.8 MBq) and 12.3%, respectively. The recovery coefficients of the image quality phantom ranged from 0.1 to 0.87. Altering the τ and Elt resulted in substantial changes in the NEC peak and the sensitivity while the effect on the image quality was negligible. The spatial resolution proved to be, as expected, independent of the τ and Elt. The calculated optimal effective system radius (resulting in the best image quality) was 109 mm. Although the NEC peak parameters do not compare favorably with those of other small animal scanners, it can be concluded that under normal counting situations the MiniPET-II imaging capability assures remarkably

  5. Selective recovery of Pd(II) from extremely acidic solution using ion-imprinted chitosan fiber: Adsorption performance and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuo; Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Tao; Mao, Juan; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2015-12-15

    A novel, selective and acid-resisting chitosan fiber adsorbent was prepared by the ion-imprinting technique using Pd(II) and epichlorohydrin as the template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. The resulting ion-imprinted chitosan fibers (IIF) were used to selectively adsorb Pd(II) under extremely acidic synthetic metal solutions. The adsorption and selectivity performances of IIF including kinetics, isotherms, pH effects, and regeneration were investigated. Pd(II) rapidly adsorbed on the IIF within 100 min, achieving the adsorption equilibrium. The isotherm results showed that the maximum Pd(II) uptake on the IIF was maintained as 324.6-326.4 mg g(-1) in solutions containing single and multiple metals, whereas the Pd(II) uptake on non-imprinted fibers (NIF) decreased from 313.7 to 235.3 mg g(-1) in solution containing multiple metals. Higher selectivity coefficients values were obtained from the adsorption on the IIF, indicating a better Pd(II) selectivity. The amine group, supposedly the predominant adsorption site for Pd(II), was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pH value played a significant role on the mechanism of the selective adsorption in the extremely acidic conditions. Furthermore, the stabilized performance for three cycles of sorption/desorption shows a potential for further large-scale applications.

  6. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class...

  7. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class...

  8. Performance Evaluation of Alcohol-Gasoline Blends in 1980 Model Automobiles. Phase II. Methanol-Gasoline Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    renovation, re-inspection, and acceptance by CRC. These cars comprised three models by three automobile makers and two engine-emissions control groups for...EVALUATION OF ALCOHOL.GASOLINE BLENDS IN 1980 MODEL AUTOMOBILES PHASE II METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDS January 1984 APPROVrD FOR pUBLIC RELEASE" DISTRIBUTION...Members: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ALCOHOL-GASOLINE BLENDS IN 1980 MODEL AUTOMOBILES : PHASE II - METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDS (CRC Report No. 536) -I

  9. Performance confirmation of the Belle II imaging Time Of Propogation (iTOP) prototype counter

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Alan; Liu, Yang; Belhorn, Matt; Browder, Thomas; Varner, Gary; Andrew, Matt; Rosen, Marc; Barrett, Matthew; Nishimura, Kurtis; Anderson, Eric Iijima, Toru; /Nagoya U. /PNL, Richland

    2011-10-17

    The Bell Detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider performed extremely well, logging an integrated luminosity an order of magnitude higher than the design baseline. With this inverse attobarn of integrated luminosity, time-dependent CP-violation inn the 3rd generation beauty quarks was firmly established, and is now a precision measurement. Going beyond this to explore if the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism is the only contributor to quark-mixing, and to interrogate the flavor sector for non-standard model enhancements, requires a detector and accelerator capable of topping this world-record luminosity by more than an order of magnitude. The Belle II detector at the upgraded Super-KEKB accelerator has been designed to meet this highly ambitious goal of operating at a luminosity approaching 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Such higher event rates and backgrounds require upgrade of essentially all detector subsystems, as well as their readout. Comparing the Belle composite (threshold Aerogel + Time of Flight) particle identification (PID) system with the DIRC employed by BaBar, quartz radiator internal Cherenkov photon detection proved to have higher kaon efficiency and lower pion fake rates. However, because the detector structure and CsI calorimeter will be retained, an improved barrel PID must fit within a very narrow envelope, as indicated in Figure 1. To effectively utilize this space, a more compact detector concept based on the same quartz radiators, but primarily using photon arrival time was proposed. This Time Of Propagation (TOP) counter was studied in a number of earlier prototype tests. Key to the necessary 10's of picosecond single-photon timing has been the development of the so-called SL-10 Micro-Channel Plate Photo-Multiplier Tube (MCP-PMT), which has demonstrated sub-40 ps single photon Transit Time Spread TTS. Further simulation study of this detector concept indicated that a focusing mirror in the forward direction, as well as a

  10. Graphene field-effect transistors with tunable sensitivity for high performance Hg (II) sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Baijun; Zhang, Dongzhi; Sun, Yan'e.; Liu, Jingjing

    2016-10-01

    Graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) capped with ionophore were fabricated to demonstrate the highly sensitive and selective detection of Hg (II) ions in solution. We systematically investigated the ion detection performances and sensing mechanism of this 2D material. Due to its ambipolar nature, graphene can work as either an n-type or a p-type sensor when a gate voltage is applied to switch its carrier characteristic, resulting in completely different sensing performances. The strong dependence of sensitivity on gate voltage was also investigated. Graphene FETs in optimal regimes were able to detect Hg2+ down to 0.1 ppb, one-fold lower than the World Health Organization tolerance level. Hg2+ ions can be effectively detected over a wide range of concentration (from 0.1 ppb to 1000 ppb) with graphene conductance change following the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorption on surface, and the time constant for ion adsorption extracted was only 3.5 s, approximately. The transfer characteristics of graphene FETs capped with mercury ionophore did not show obvious change by the existence of arsenite ions, demonstrating good selectivity. Our results illustrate the potential utility of ionophore integrated graphene FETs for monitoring heavy metal ions in solution.

  11. Enhanced oxygen reduction performance by novel pyridine substituent groups of iron (II) phthalocyanine with graphene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lili; Lv, Guojun; He, Xingquan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel iron (II) tetrapyridyloxyphthalocyanine decorated graphene (FeTPPc/Gr) is synthesized through a simple solvothermal method. The catalytic performance of the fabricated FeTPPc/Gr for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is accessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and i-t chronoamperometry methods. The FeTPPc/Gr composite catalyst for the ORR displays an enhanced electrocatalytic activity compared with other FePc/Gr catalysts. More importantly, the proposed FeTPPc/Gr catalyst towards the ORR outperforms the commercial Pt/C catalyst in terms of higher diffusion-limiting current, more positive onset potential and half-wave potential, better stability and tolerance to methanol crossover. The improved ORR performance is attributed to the activity of peripheral pyridine substituents in the FePc, which facilitate O2 absorption and increase the additional active sites. Based on our experimental results, designing novel metal-N4 macrocycles and incorporating them into graphene or graphene derivatives, with both optimal activity and durability for the ORR, may hold great promise for application in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  12. Design and performance of the PEP-II B-Factory HER QDA quadrupole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, J.; Behne, D.; Kendall, C.M.; Yamamoto, R.; Yokota, T.; Tanabe, J.

    1997-10-01

    The High Energy Ring (HER) in Stanford Linear Accelerator Center`s PEP-II B-Factory employs two high field quality quadrupole magnets, labeled QD4, for final horizontal beam de-focusing at a gradient of {approximately}75.65 kG/m. An asymmetric, septum quadrupole design is required for QD4. Due to space constraints, the magnetic field is shaped with both the iron and the coil. Each coil has fifteen conductors. A perturbation analysis was performed using the Poisson code in order to locate the ideal position of the individual conductors. Manufacturing and assembly tolerances of +/- 0.5 mm of each conductor were required to maintain an integrated field quality of multipole content of b{sub n}/b{sub 2}{le}0.0001 for n=3-15 at a radius of 59.0 mm. The steel core of the magnet is 1.425 m long and is comprised of 1.5 mm thick laminations. A cut out in the steel core is required to allow the Low Energy Ring beam to pass through the side of the magnet. A double shield is in place to allow the LER beam to remain field free. The pole tip shape is a simple hyperbola without any end contours. The design and performance of the QD4 magnet is presented.

  13. Performance calculations of the X-ray powder diffraction beamline at NSLS-II.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianbo; Ghose, Sanjit; Dooryhee, Eric

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II is a multi-purpose high-energy X-ray diffraction beamline with high throughput and high resolution. The beamline uses a sagittally bent double-Laue crystal monochromator to provide X-rays over a large energy range (30-70 keV). In this paper the optical design and the calculated performance of the XPD beamline are presented. The damping wiggler source is simulated by the SRW code and a filter system is designed to optimize the photon flux as well as to reduce the heat load on the first optics. The final beamline performance under two operation modes is simulated using the SHADOW program. For the first time a multi-lamellar model is introduced and implemented in the ray tracing of the bent Laue crystal monochromator. The optimization and the optical properties of the vertical focusing mirror are also discussed. Finally, the instrumental resolution function of the XPD beamline is described in an analytical method.

  14. Left ventricular performance in type-II diabetics with first acute myocardial infarction: A radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, E.M.; Karimeddini, M.K.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Dey, H.M.; Antar, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    To assess myocardial performance in diabetics following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), resting gated radionuclide studies with Tc-99m were performed within two weeks of the onset of symptoms in matched groups of 18 type-II diabetics with their first clinical AMI (D-AMI), 20 nondiabetics with their first AMI (ND-AMI), and 20 nondiabetic noncardiac controls. Eighty-three percent of D-AMI and 50% of ND-AMI had left ventricular ejection fractions below 2 SD of normal. Diabetics had a significantly lower resting LVEF than nondiabetics (p<0.05). All patients with LVEF < 35% were diabetics. LV mean ejection and filling rates were similar in diabetics and nondiabetics. While 72% of diabetics showed abnormal wall motion in 5 or more segments (out of 9), only 45% of the nondiabetics were this extensively affected. Seventy-two percent of the diabetics showed one or more of akinesis and 39% had one or more areas of dyskinesis, compared to 30% and 5% of the nondiabetics respectively. The authors conclude that the extent, as well as the severity of the left ventricular impairment is more evident in the diabetics than in the nondiabetics, following the first acute MI.

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from

  16. Design, performance and control of the CDF Run II Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Badgett, William F., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Run II Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of the CDF Detector at Fermilab's Tevatron accelerator has been operational since July 2001. CDF DAQ has collected over 350 inverse picobarns of proton-antiproton collision data with high efficiency. An overview of the design of the pipelined, deadtime-less trigger and data acquisition system will be presented. CDF can receive and process a maximum crossing rate of once per 132 ns, with the rate reduced in three stages to the final output of approximately 1 to 2 terabytes per day. The DAQ system is controlled and monitored via a suite of Java based control software, with connections to front end VME crate processors running VxWorks/C and back end Oracle databases. Included are a flexible and easy to use Run Control java application and associated system monitoring applications, both stand-alone and web based. The performance and operational experience of three years will be presented, including data taking efficiencies and through-put, and the role of intelligent software in tagging and solving problems. We also review future upgrades designed to increase data collection rates to cope with increased Tevatron luminosity.

  17. Keck II laser guide star AO system and performance with the TOPTICA/MPBC laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Jason C. Y.; Wizinowich, Peter; Wetherell, Ed; Lilley, Scott; Cetre, Sylvain; Ragland, Sam; Medeiros, Drew; Tsubota, Kevin; Doppmann, Greg; Otarola, Angel; Wei, Kai

    2016-07-01

    The Keck II Laser Guide Star (LGS) Adaptive Optics (AO) System was upgraded from a dye laser to a TOPTICA/MPBC Raman-Fibre Amplification (RFA) laser in December 2015. The W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) has been operating its AO system with a LGS for science since 2004 using a first generation 15 W dye laser. Using the latest diode pump laser technology, Raman amplification, and a well-tuned second harmonic generator (SHG), this Next Generation Laser (NGL) is able to produce a highly stable 589 nm laser beam with the required power, wavelength and mode quality. The beam's linear polarization and continuous wave format along with optical back pumping are designed to improve the sodium atom coupling efficiency over previously operated sodium-wavelength lasers. The efficiency and operability of the new laser has also been improved by reducing its required input power and cooling, size, and the manpower to operate and maintain it. The new laser has been implemented on the telescope's elevation ring with its electronics installed on a new Nasmyth sub-platform, with the capacity to support up to three laser systems for future upgrades. The laser is projected from behind the telescope's secondary mirror using the recently implemented center launch system (CLS) to reduce LGS spot size. We will present the new laser system and its performance with respect to power, stability, wavelength, spot size, optical repumping, polarization, efficiency, and its return with respect to pointing alignment to the magnetic field. Preliminary LGSAO performance is presented with the system returning to science operations. We will also provide an update on current and future upgrades at the WMKO.

  18. Does the APACHE II score predict performance of activities of daily living in patients discharged from a weaning center?

    PubMed Central

    Rojek-Jarmuła, Anna; Hombach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data regarding the functional status of patients after prolonged mechanical ventilation are scarce, and little is known about its clinical predictors. Aim To investigate whether the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission may predict performance in activities of daily living on discharge from a weaning center. Material and methods All consecutive patients admitted between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were enrolled (n = 130). During this period, 15 subjects died, and 115 were successfully discharged (34 women; 81 men). APACHE II was calculated based on the worst values taken during the first 24 hours after admission. On discharge, the Barthel Index (BI) and its extended version, the Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), were assessed. Results Median BI was 20 points (IQR 5; 40), and ERBI was 20 points (–50; 40). There was no correlation between APACHE II and either BI (R = –0.07; p = 0.47) or ERBI (R = –0.07; p = 0.44). APACHE II predicted the need for assistance with bathing (AUROC = 0.833; p < 0.001), grooming (AUROC = 0.823; p < 0.001), toilet use (AUROC = 0.887; p < 0.001), and urination (AUROC = 0.658; p = 0.04). APACHE II had no impact on any ERBI items associated with ventilator weaning, including the need of further mechanical ventilation (AUROC = 0.534; p = 0.65) or tracheostomy (AUROC = 0.544; p = 0.42). Conclusions Although APACHE II cannot predict the overall functional status in patients discharged from a weaning center, it helps identify subjects who will need support with bathing, grooming, and toilet use. The APACHE II score is inadequate to predict performance in activities associated with further respiratory support. PMID:28096834

  19. Development of advanced blanket performance under irradiation and system integration through JUPITER-II project

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Katsunori; Kohyama, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru; Namba, C.; Terai, T.; Kunugi, T.; Muroga, Takeo; Hasegawa, Akira; Sagara, A.; Berk, S.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sze, Dai Kai; Petti, D. A.; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Morley, Neil B.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Snead, Lance L.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes an outline of the activities of the JUPITER-II collaboration (japan-USA program of Irradiation/Integration test for Fusion Research-II), Which has bee carried out through six years (2001-2006) under Phase 4 of the collabroation implemented by Amendment 4 of Annex 1 to the DOE (United States Department of Energy)-MEXT (Ministry of Education ,Culture,Sports,Science and Technology) Cooperation. This program followed the RTNS-II Program (Phase1:1982-4986), the FFTF/MOTA Program (Phase2:1987-1994) and the JUPITER Program (Phase 3: 1995-2000) [1].

  20. High performance type II superlattice focal plane array with 6μm cutoff wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kouhei; Machinaga, Ken-ichi; Balasekaran, Sundararajan; Kawahara, Takahiko; Migita, Masaki; Inada, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Michito; Murooka, Junpei; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kimata, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The cutoff wavelength of 6μm is preferable for the full usage of the atmospheric window in the mid-wavelength region. An InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) is the only known infrared material that has a theoretically predicted high performance and also the cutoff wavelength can be easily controlled by changing the thickness of InAs and GaSb. In this study, we used a p-i-n structure with InAs/GaSb T2SL absorber and also barrier layers which was grown on a Tedoped GaSb substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. A mesa-type focal plane array (FPA) with 320×256 pixels and 30μm pixel pitch was fabricated. Mesa structures were formed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with halogen gas mixture. Prior to the deposition of the SiO2 passivation film, N2 plasma treatment was applied for reducing the dark currents. Measured dark current of the sensor was 4x10-7A/cm2 at temperature of 77K and reverse bias of -20mV. The quantum efficiency was 0.35 and the detectivity was 4.1x1012cm/Hz1/2W. The sensor array was hybridized with the commercially available readout integrated circuit using indium bumps. The noise equivalent differential temperature measured with F/2.3 optics was 31mK at 77K. The operability was over 99%. This FPA is suitable for full usage of the atmospheric window in the mid-wavelength region.

  1. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  2. Performance discrepancies on the California Verbal Learning Test--Second Edition (CVLT-II) in the standardization sample.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus

    2006-12-01

    The standardization data for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II; D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 2000) were used to evaluate the base rate of 6 specific discrepancies between various key variables. The results indicated that CVLT-II performance discrepancies should equal or exceed 1 or 1.5 z score points (depending on the individual comparison) in the hypothesized direction to be considered potentially unusual. However, because about 1 in 3 persons in the standardization sample displayed at least 1 such large discrepancy, it is concluded that these base rates should be viewed only as a starting point for interpretation.

  3. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance During the 2003 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Delnore, Victor E.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Grainger, C. A.; Delene, D.; Wolff, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor was deployed onboard the University of North Dakota Citation II aircraft in the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) from Nov 19 through December 14, 2003. TAMDAR is designed to measure and report winds, temperature, humidity, turbulence and icing from regional commercial aircraft (Daniels et. al., 2004). TAMDAR icing sensor performance is compared to a) in situ validation data from the Citation II sensor suite, b) Current Icing Potential products developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and available operationally on the NOAA Aviation Weather Center s Aviation Digital Data Server (ADDS) and c) NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) cloud microphysical products.

  4. Enhanced performance of Zn(II)-doped lead-acid batteries with electrochemical active carbon in negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Hu, Chen; Chen, Liying; Zhang, Dong; Ding, Ping; Chen, Dong; Liu, Hao; Chen, Jian; Wu, Xianzhang; Lai, Xiaokang

    2016-10-01

    The effect and mechanism of Zn(II) on improving the performances of lead-acid cell with electrochemical active carbon (EAC) in negative mass is investigated. The hydrogen evolution of the cell is significantly reduced due to the deposition of Zn on carbon surface and the increased porosity of negative mass. Zn(II) additives can also improve the low-temperature and high-rate capacities of the cell with EAC in negative mass, which ascribes to the formation of Zn on lead and carbon surface that constructs a conductive bridge among the active mass. Under the co-contribution of EAC and Zn(II), the partial-state-of-charge cycle life is greatly prolonged. EAC optimizes the NAM structure and porosity to enhance the charge acceptance and retard the lead sulfate accumulation. Zn(II) additive reduces the hydrogen evolution during charge process and improves the electric conductivity of the negative electrode. The cell with 0.6 wt% EAC and 0.006 wt% ZnO in negative mass exhibits 90% reversible capacity of the initial capacity after 2100 cycles. In contrast, the cell with 0.6 wt% EAC exhibits 84% reversible capacity after 2100 cycles and the control cell with no EAC and Zn(II) exhibits less than 80% reversible capacity after 1350 cycles.

  5. Noise Attenuation Performance of the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) with the Lightning II Generation II Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    1 Figure 2. a. F-35 Lightning II Gen II HMD b. Original ANR Earcups...Integrated System Ltd (HISL) active noise reduction ( ANR ) earcups (part number JS02591, Figure 2b), and a MBU-23/P oxygen mask with customized...F-35 Lightning II Gen II HMD b. Original ANR Earcups Table 1. JSAM-JSF Requirement (baseline Gen II HMD total attenuation data collected in

  6. PERFORMANCE OF THE LEAD/LIQUID ARGON SHOWER COUNTER SYSTEM OF THE MARK II DETECTOR AT SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, G S; Blocker, C A; Briggs, D D; Carithers, W C; Dieterle, W E; Eaton, M W; Lankford, A J; Pang, C Y; Vella, E N; Breidenbach, M; Dorfan, J M; Hanson, G; Hitlin, D G; Jenni, P; Luth, V

    1980-05-01

    The shower counter system of the SLAC-LBL Mark II detector is a large lead/liquid argon system of the type pioneered by Willis and Radekal; however, it differs in most details and is much larger than other such detectors currently in operation, It contains, for example, 8000 liters of liquid argon and 3000 channels of low noise electronics, which is about eight times the size of the system of Willis et al. in the CERN ISR. This paper reports, with little reference to design, on the operation and performance of the Mark II system during approximately a year and a half of operation at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's e{sup +}-e{sup -} facility, SPEAR. The design and construction of the system have previously been described and a detailed discussion of all aspects -- design, construction, operation, and performance -- is in preparation.

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS: PHASE II. PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impu...

  8. Operation and performance of the PEP-II prototype longitudinal damping system at ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1995-05-01

    A modular programmable longitudinal feedback system has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R+D program. This system is based on a family of VME and VXI packaged signal processing functions which implement a general purpose digital feedback controller for accelerators with bunch spacings of 2 ns. A complete PEP-II prototype system has been configured and installed for use at the LBL Advanced Light Source. The system configuration used for tests at the ALS is described and results are presented showing the action of the feedback system. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of grow-damp transients which quantify growth rates without feedback, damping rates with feedback, and identify unstable modes.

  9. MightySat II.1 Hyperspectral Imager: Summary of On-Orbit Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    system is composed of a telescope and a re-imaging system4 (Figure 1). The telescope is a 165mm clear aperture Ritchey - Cretien design.3 The system...tolerances. Camera Lens Assembly Interferometer Telescope Figure 1: Exploded view of the Fourier Transform Hyperspectral Instrument on-board MightySat II.1...launch (as of 2 July 2001). The temperature sensors are located on or near the telescope (HSITT), interferometer (HSIIT), and the camera (HSICT). All

  10. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  11. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  12. Microphysics of Clouds with the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS). Part II: Implementation and Performance in GEOS II GCM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1999-09-01

    A prognostic cloud scheme named the Microphysics of Clouds with the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS) and the Simple Biosphere Model have been implemented in a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) II GCM at a 4° latitude × 5° longitude × 20 sigma-layer resolution. The McRAS GCM was integrated for 50 months. The integration was initialized with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis of observations for 1 January 1987 and was forced with the observed sea surface temperatures and sea-ice distribution; on land, the permanent ice and vegetation properties (biomes and soils) were climatological, while the soil moisture and snow cover were prognostic. The simulation shows that the McRAS GCM yields realistic structures of in-cloud water and ice, and cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) even though the cloudiness has some discernible systematic errors. The simulated intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) has a realistic time mean structure and seasonal cycle. The simulated CRF is sensitive to vertical distribution of cloud water, which can be affected hugely with the choice of minimum in-cloud water for the onset of autoconversion or critical cloud water amount that regulates the autoconversion itself. The generation of prognostic cloud water is accompanied by reduced global precipitation and interactive CRF. These feedbacks have a profound effect on the ITCZ. Even though somewhat weaker than observed, the McRAS GCM simulation produces robust 30-60-day oscillations in the 200-hPa velocity potential. Comparisons of CRFs and precipitation produced in a parallel simulation with the GEOS II GCM are included.Several seasonal simulations were performed with the McRAS-GEOS II GCM for the summer (June-July-August) and winter (December-January-February) periods to determine how the simulated clouds and CRFs would be affected by (i) advection of clouds, (ii) cloud-top entrainment instability, (iii) cloud water inhomogeneity correction, and

  13. Proton electrolyte membrane properties and direct methanol fuel cell performance. II. Fuel cell performance and membrane properties effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, V. S.; Schirmer, J.; Reissner, R.; Ruffmann, B.; Silva, H.; Mendes, A.; Madeira, L. M.; Nunes, S. P.

    In order to study the relationship between the properties of proton electrolyte membranes (PEMs), obtained through standard characterization methods, and the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance, inorganic-organic hybrid membranes, modified via in situ hydrolysis, were used in a membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) for DMFC application. The membranes, the characterization of which was performed in the previous paper of this series, were based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree (SD) of 87% and were loaded with different amounts of zirconium oxide (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 wt.%). The standard characterization methods applied were impedance spectroscopy (proton conductivity), water uptake, and pervaporation (permeability to methanol). The MEAs were characterized investigating the DMFC current-voltage polarization curves, constant voltage current (CV, 35 mV), and open-circuit voltage (OCV). The fuel cell ohmic resistance (null phase angle impedance, NPAI) and CO 2 concentration in the cathode outlet were also measured. The characterization results show that the incorporation of the inorganic oxide in the polymer network decreases the DMFC current density for CV experiments, CO 2 concentration in the cathode outlet for both OCV and CV experiments and, finally, the maximum power density output. The opposite effect was verified in terms of the NPAI (ohmic resistance) for both OCV and CV experiments. A good agreement was found between the studied DMFC performance parameters and the characterization results evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, water uptake and pervaporation experiments.

  14. Operating Performance of the Low Group Delay Woofer Channel in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D; Van Winkle, D.; Fox, J.; /SLAC

    2005-06-22

    In PEP-II collider a dedicated low group-delay processing channel has been developed in order to provide high damping rates necessary to control the fast-growing longitudinal eigen modes driven by the fundamental impedances of the RF cavities. A description of the digital processing channel operating at 9.81 MHz and capable of supporting finite impulse response (FIR) controllers with up to 32 taps will be presented. A prototype system has been successfully commissioned in the High-Energy Ring (HER) in May 2004. Operating experiences with the prototype and the newly determined limits on achievable longitudinal damping will be discussed and illustrated with experimental data.

  15. Innovative technology summary report: Houdini{trademark} I and II remotely operated vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up and closing 273 large, aging, underground tanks the department has used for storing approximately 1 million gal of high- and low-level radioactive and mixed waste. The waste`s radioactivity precludes humans from working in the tanks. A remote-controlled retrieval method must be used. The Houdini robot addresses the need for vehicle-based, rugged, remote manipulation systems that can perform waste retrieval, characterization, and inspection tasks. Houdini-I was delivered to ORNL in September 1996, deployed in a cold test facility in November, and first deployed in the gunite tanks in June 1997. Since then, it has seen continuous (still on-going) service at ORNL, providing a critical role in the cleanup of two gunite tanks, W-3 and W-4, in the GAAT NTF. Houdini-I has proven rugged, capable of waste retrieval, and able to withstand high reaction force operations such as wall core sampling. It`s even able to operate while hanging, which was the case when Houdini was used to cut and remove cables and steel pipes hanging below manways in Tank W-3. Based upon the lessons learned at ORNL, Houdini`s design has been completely overhauled. A second generation system, Houdini-II, is now being built.

  16. Preliminary Results of Nene II Engine Altitude-chamber Performance Investigation. 2; Altitude Performance using 18.41-inch Diameter-jet Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstron, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D.; Vincent, K. R.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the altitude performance characteristics of the Nene II engine and its components. The present paper presents preliminary results obtained using a jet nozzle of 18.41 inches in diameter, giving an area equal to 96.4 percent of the area of the standard jet nozzle of this engine. The test results presented are for conditions simulating altitudes from seal level to 50,000 feet and ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 2.70. The ram pressure ratios correspond to flight Mach numbers between zero and 1.28.

  17. Impact of improvements in HYLIFE-II on safety, performance and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.; Lee, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    The HYLIFE-II conceptual design has evolved and improved continually over the past four years to its present form. This paper describes the latest FY93 versions, Reference Case H1-B (nominally 1 GWe output) and the Enhanced Case H2-B (nominally 2 GWe net output), which take advantage of improvements in the tritium management system to eliminate the intermediate loops and the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX`s). The improvements in the heat transport system and the steam power plant are described and the resulting cost reductions are evaluated. The new estimated cost of electricity (in 1990 dollars) is 5.1 {cents}/kWh for Reference Case H1-B and 3.6 {cents}/kWh for the Enhanced Case H2-B. In order to make a more equitable comparison of HYLIFE-II with two recent IFE (inertial fusion energy) studies sponsored by the DOE, namely OSIRIS and PROMETHEUS, the authors have revised their design concept in many important ways. The overall reactor concept and an overview of the latest design is given by Moir, et al. This paper will focus on those changes which have impacted the heat transport and power conversion systems and the overall cost of electricity.

  18. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database. (TEM)

  19. Direct synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles from iron(II) carboxymethylcellulose and their performance as NMR contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Delmarcio Gomes; Hiroshi Toma, Sergio; de Melo, Fernando Menegatti; Carvalho, Larissa Vieira C.; Magalhães, Alvicler; Sabadini, Edvaldo; dos Santos, Antônio Domingues; Araki, Koiti; Toma, e. Henrique E.

    2016-01-01

    Iron(II) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been successfully employed in the synthesis of hydrophylic magnetite nanoparticles stabilized with a biopolymer coating, aiming applications in NMR imaging. The new method encompasses a convenient one-step synthetic procedure, allowing a good size control and yielding particles of about 10 nm (core size). In addition to the biocompatibility, the nanoparticles have promoted a drastic reduction in the transverse relaxation time (T2) of the water protons. The relaxivity rates have been investigated as a function of the nanoparticles concentration, showing a better performance in relation to the common NMR contrast agents available in the market.

  20. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: II. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to examine the performance of five North American bioreactor landfills. This paper represents the second of a two part series and addresses biological and chemical aspects of bioreactor performance including gas production and management, and l...

  1. RADIOLOGICAL RECLAMATION PERFORMANCE SUMMARY. VOLUME II. EVALUATION AND CONDENSATION OF DATA FOR PREPLANNING OF RECOVERY OPERATIONS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    compilation summarizing the performance of land reclamation methods and equipment. The tabled entries were gathered from 18 different experiments and...operations. The results are tabulated so as to show the response of various reclamation methods ’ performance to such parameters as rate of coverage, effort

  2. Performance study of whole-body, multislice positron computed tomograph: POSITOLOGICA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, K.; Murayama, H.; Nohara, N.; Okajima, K.; Tanaka, E.; Tomitani, T.; Veda, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    1983-02-01

    A 3-detector ring, 5-slice whole-body positron CT has been developed and is being tested. The PCT, POSITOLOGICA-II, has a total of 480 BGO's (160/ring), and employs continuous rotation scan (0.5rps). By using a 15mm wide BGO, a 9.2mm FWHM spatial resolution for reconstructed image is obtained at the center of FOV. Measured phantom diameter dependence of the true count rate shows good agreement with theoretically anticipated characteristics, including maximum sensitivity at around 30cm dia. Sensitivities for 20cm dia. phantom are 28 and 38 kcps/..mu..Ci/ml for in-plane and cross-plane, respectively, including scattered coincidences. Relative system detection efficiency measured with a line source at FOV center is 96% at 15ns time window (90% at 12ns), basing on 100% efficiency in 2024ns.

  3. Preparation of PAN Fiber Supported Iron(II) Phthalocyanine Complex and Its Photocatalytic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian-Tao; Han, Zhen-Bang; Zhang, Jian-Fei

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterogeneous Fenton catalyst was prepared by immobilizing iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) onto the amidoximated Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber through axial coordination bonds. The obtained catalyst was characterized using XRD and DRS technique, and then used for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible irradiation. The results indicated that optimum FePc concentration in the dispersion solution is 7.5 g/L, and the amidoxime groups having great coordination ability significantly facilitate anchoring FePc onto the catalyst. FePc immobilization led to the catalyst with decreased crystallinity region and obvious absorption feature in the visible region. In addition, the catalyst was found to be an efficient catalyst for oxidation elimination of RhB by activating H2O2 under visible irradiation.

  4. High- and Reproducible-Performance Graphene/II-VI Semiconductor Film Hybrid Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fan; Jia, Feixiang; Cai, Caoyuan; Xu, Zhihao; Wu, Congjun; Ma, Yang; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    High- and reproducible-performance photodetectors are critical to the development of many technologies, which mainly include one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure based and film based photodetectors. The former suffer from a huge performance variation because the performance is quite sensitive to the synthesis microenvironment of 1D nanostructure. Herein, we show that the graphene/semiconductor film hybrid photodetectors not only possess a high performance but also have a reproducible performance. As a demo, the as-produced graphene/ZnS film hybrid photodetector shows a high responsivity of 1.7 × 107 A/W and a fast response speed of 50 ms, and shows a highly reproducible performance, in terms of narrow distribution of photocurrent (38–65 μA) and response speed (40–60 ms) for 20 devices. Graphene/ZnSe film and graphene/CdSe film hybrid photodetectors fabricated by this method also show a high and reproducible performance. The general method is compatible with the conventional planar process, and would be easily standardized and thus pay a way for the photodetector applications. PMID:27349692

  5. High- and Reproducible-Performance Graphene/II-VI Semiconductor Film Hybrid Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fan; Jia, Feixiang; Cai, Caoyuan; Xu, Zhihao; Wu, Congjun; Ma, Yang; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Min

    2016-06-28

    High- and reproducible-performance photodetectors are critical to the development of many technologies, which mainly include one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure based and film based photodetectors. The former suffer from a huge performance variation because the performance is quite sensitive to the synthesis microenvironment of 1D nanostructure. Herein, we show that the graphene/semiconductor film hybrid photodetectors not only possess a high performance but also have a reproducible performance. As a demo, the as-produced graphene/ZnS film hybrid photodetector shows a high responsivity of 1.7 × 10(7) A/W and a fast response speed of 50 ms, and shows a highly reproducible performance, in terms of narrow distribution of photocurrent (38-65 μA) and response speed (40-60 ms) for 20 devices. Graphene/ZnSe film and graphene/CdSe film hybrid photodetectors fabricated by this method also show a high and reproducible performance. The general method is compatible with the conventional planar process, and would be easily standardized and thus pay a way for the photodetector applications.

  6. Selectively engaging β-arrestins at the angiotensin II type 1 receptor reduces blood pressure and increases cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; DeWire, Scott M; Yamashita, Dennis; Rominger, David H; Nguyen, Lisa; Schiller, Kevin; Whalen, Erin J; Gowen, Maxine; Lark, Michael W

    2010-12-01

    Biased G protein-coupled receptor ligands engage subsets of the receptor signals normally stimulated by unbiased agonists. However, it is unclear whether ligand bias can elicit differentiated pharmacology in vivo. Here, we describe the discovery of a potent, selective β-arrestin biased ligand of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. TRV120027 (Sar-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-D-Ala-OH) competitively antagonizes angiotensin II-stimulated G protein signaling, but stimulates β-arrestin recruitment and activates several kinase pathways, including p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Src, and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation via β-arrestin coupling. Consistent with β-arrestin efficacy, and unlike unbiased antagonists, TRV120027 increased cardiomyocyte contractility in vitro. In rats, TRV120027 reduced mean arterial pressure, as did the unbiased antagonists losartan and telmisartan. However, unlike the unbiased antagonists, which decreased cardiac performance, TRV120027 increased cardiac performance and preserved cardiac stroke volume. These striking differences in vivo between unbiased and β-arrestin biased ligands validate the use of biased ligands to selectively target specific receptor functions in drug discovery.

  7. iQ-Check Salmonella II: real-time polymerase chain reaction test kit. Performance Tested Method 010803.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Wendy F; Sidi, Caroline D; Tourniaire, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    iQ-Check Salmonella II is a real-time PCR kit for detection of Salmonella in foods. Specific oligonucleotide probes are used to detect target DNA during the amplification, by hybridizing to the amplicons. These probes are linked to a fluorophore, which fluoresces only when hybridized to the target sequence. As part of an Emergency Response Validation due to a massive outbreak and subsequent recall, peanut butter was tested to compare the performance of iQ-Check Salmonella II to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method for detection of Salmonella. A single enrichment in buffered peptone water was used for a reduced enrichment time of 21 +/- 1 h over the 48 h reference method. There was no significant difference in the performance of the iQ-Check kit when compared to the FDA-BAM method, as determined by Chi-square analysis. All samples identified as positive by iQ-Check were confirmed by reference method protocol.

  8. Cryogenic Field Measurement of Pr2Fe14B Undulator and Performance Enhancement Options at the NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, T.; Chubar, O.; Harder, David A.; Lehecka, Michael; Rank, James; Rakowsky, George; Spataro, Charles

    2009-09-27

    Short period (14.5mm) hybrid undulator arrays composed of Praseodymium Iron Boron (Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) magnets (CR53, NEOMAX, Inc.) and vanadium permendur poles have been fabricated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Unlike Neodymium Iron Boron (Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) magnets which exhibit spin reorientation at temperatures below 150K, PrFeB arrays monotonically increase performance with lower operating temperature. It opens up the posibility for use in operating a cryo-permanent magnet undulator (CPMU) in the range of 40K to 60K where very efficient cryocoolers are available. Magnetic flux density profiles were measured at various temperature ranges from room temperature down to liquid helium (LHe) using the Vertical Testing Facility (VTF) at the National Snchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). Temperature variations of phase error have been characterized. In addition, we examined the use of textured Dysprosium (Dy) poles to replace permendur poles to obtain further improvement in performance.

  9. Phase II dose-response trials: A simulation study to compare analysis method performance under design considerations.

    PubMed

    Rekowski, Jan; Köllmann, Claudia; Bornkamp, Björn; Ickstadt, Katja; Scherag, André

    2017-02-21

    Phase II trials are intended to provide information about the dose-response relationship and to support the choice of doses for a pivotal phase III trial. Recently, new analysis methods have been proposed to address these objectives, and guidance is needed to select the most appropriate analysis method in specific situations. We set up a simulation study to evaluate multiple performance measures of one traditional and three more recent dose-finding approaches under four design options and illustrate the investigated analysis methods with an example from clinical practice. Our results reveal no general recommendation for a particular analysis method across all design options and performance measures. However, we also demonstrate that the new analysis methods are worth the effort compared to the traditional ANOVA-based approach.

  10. Effects of artemisinin on photosystem II performance of Microcystis aeruginosa by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Acharya, Kumud; Hao, Xiangyang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yong; Li, Yiping

    2012-12-01

    Effects of artemisinin (derived from Artemisia annua) on the photosynthetic activity of Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated by using chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence transient O-J-I-P and JIP-test after exposure to elevated artemisinin concentration. High artemisinin concentration resulted in a significant suppression in photosynthesis and respiration. Results showed that the OJIP curves flattened and the maximal fluorescence yield reached at the J step under artemisinin stress. The decreased values of the energy needed for the RCs' closure (Sm) and the number of oxidation and reduction (N) suggested that the reduction times of primary bound plastoquinone (Q(A)) was also decreased. The absorption flux (ABS/RC) per photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the electron transport flux (ET(0)/RC) decreased with increasing artemisinin concentration. Excess artemisinin had little effect on the trapping flux (TR(0)/RC). The results showed that the decrease of photosynthesis in exposure to excess artemisinin may be a result of the inactivation of PSII reaction centers and the inhibition of electron transport in the acceptor side.

  11. RNAP II CTD tyrosine 1 performs diverse functions in vertebrate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Jing-Ping; Li, Wencheng; Hoque, Mainul; Tian, Bin; Manley, James L

    2014-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II largest subunit (Rpb1) contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) that plays multiple roles during transcription. The CTD is composed of consensus Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 repeats, in which Ser, Thr and Tyr residues can all be phosphorylated. Here we report analysis of CTD Tyr1 using genetically tractable chicken DT40 cells. Cells expressing an Rpb1 derivative with all Tyr residues mutated to Phe (Rpb1-Y1F) were inviable. Remarkably, Rpb1-Y1F was unstable, degraded to a CTD-less form; however stability, but not cell viability, was fully rescued by restoration of a single C-terminal Tyr (Rpb1-25F+Y). Cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic Rpb1 was phosphorylated exclusively on Tyr1, and phosphorylation specifically of Tyr1 prevented CTD degradation by the proteasome in vitro. Tyr1 phosphorylation was also detected on chromatin-associated, hyperphosphorylated Rpb1, consistent with a role in transcription. Indeed, we detected accumulation of upstream antisense (ua) RNAs in Rpb1-25F+Y cells, indicating a role for Tyr1 in uaRNA expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02112.001 PMID:24842995

  12. Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. II - Systems performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Jawad A.; Brackett, Charles A.

    1989-08-01

    A technique based on optical orthogonal codes was presented by Salehi (1989) to establish a fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (FO-CDMA) communications system. The results are used to derive the bit error rate of the proposed FO-CDMA system as a function of data rate, code length, code weight, number of users, and receiver threshold. The performance characteristics for a variety of system parameters are discussed. A means of reducing the effective multiple-access interference signal by placing an optical hard-limiter at the front end of the desired optical correlator is presented. Performance calculations are shown for the FO-CDMA with an ideal optical hard-limiter, and it is shown that using a optical hard-limiter would, in general, improve system performance.

  13. Cognitive performance deficits in a simulated climb of Mount Everest - Operation Everest II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Banderet, L. E.; Smith, M. G.; Houston, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The automated performance test system employed compact computer design; automated test administrations, data storage, and retrieval; psychometric properties of stability and reliability; and factorial richness. Significant impairments of cognitive function were seen for three of the five tests in the battery; on two tests, grammatical reasoning and pattern comparison, every subject showed a substantial decrement.

  14. Literacy and Numeracy in Australian Schools, Item Report; Australian Studies in School Performance, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, S.F.; Lewis, R.

    This study, carried out in 1975-1976 and reported in this document, focused on the following aims: to identify specific tasks and competencies associated with basic literacy and numeration skills which children in Australia need to master; to prepare appropriate performance (criterion-referenced) tests to measure levels of competence in the basic…

  15. Design and performance of a laser guide star system for the Keck II telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H. W., LLNL

    1998-05-18

    A laser system to generate sodium-layer guide stars has been designed, built and delivered to the Keck Observatory in Hawaii. The system uses frequency doubled YAG lasers to pump liquid dye lasers and produces 20 W of average power. The design and performance results of this laser system are presented.

  16. Global Positioning System Control/User Segments. Volume II. System Error Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADIO NAVIGATION, *NAVIGATION SATELLITES, * POSITION FINDING, *NAVIGATION COMPUTERS, *IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION, GLOBAL , EPHEMERIDES, TRADE OFF...ANALYSIS, SPACEBORNE, ERRORS, VELOCITY, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, DIGITAL COMPUTERS, MEMORY DEVICES, TIME SIGNALS, SITE SELECTION, GROUND STATIONS, MOTION, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, ALGORITHMS, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), USER NEEDS, S BAND, L BAND.

  17. Performance of the VLT Planet Finder SPHERE. II. Data analysis and results for IFS in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Alberi, M.; Antichi, J.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Fantinel, D.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Giro, E.; Henning, T.; Kasper, M.; Langlois, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Pavlov, A.; Puget, P.; Salasnich, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Sissa, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Waters, R.; Wildi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We present the performance of the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) of SPHERE, the high-contrast imager for the ESO VLT telescope designed to perform imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planets, obtained from tests performed at the Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble facility during the integration phase of the instrument. Methods: The tests were performed using the instrument software purposely prepared for SPHERE. The output data were reduced applying the SPHERE data reduction and handling software, adding an improved spectral deconvolution procedure. To this aim, we prepared an alternative procedure for the spectral subtraction exploiting the principal component analysis algorithm. Moreover, a simulated angular differential imaging procedure was also implemented to estimate how the instrument performed once this procedure was applied at telescope. The capability of the IFS to faithfully retrieve the spectra of the detected faint companions was also considered. Results: We found that the application of the updated version of the spectral deconvolution procedure alone, when the algorithm throughput is properly taken into account, gives us a 5σ limiting contrast of the order of 5 × 10-6 or slightly better. The further application of the angular differential imaging procedure on these data should allow us to improve the contrast by one order of magnitude down to around 7 × 10-7 at a separation of 0.3 arcsec. The application of a principal component analysis procedure that simultaneously uses spectral and angular data gives comparable results. Finally, we found that the reproducibility of the spectra of the detected faint companions is greatly improved when angular differential imaging is applied in addition to the spectral deconvolution.

  18. Economy of effort in different speaking conditions. II. Kinematic performance spaces for cyclical and speech movements.

    PubMed

    Perkell, Joseph S; Zandipour, Majid

    2002-10-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the kinematic manipulations used by speakers in different speaking conditions are influenced by kinematic performance limits. A range of kinematic parameter values was elicited by having seven subjects produce cyclical CV movements of lips, tongue blade and tongue dorsum (/ba/, /da/, /ga/), at rates ranging from 1 to 6 Hz. The resulting measures were used to establish speaker- and articulator-specific kinematic performance spaces, defined by movement duration, displacement and peak speed. These data were compared with speech movement data produced by the subjects in several different speaking conditions in the companion study (Perkell et al., 2002). The amount of overlap of the speech data and cyclical data varied across speakers, from almost no overlap to complete overlap. Generally, for a given movement duration, speech movements were larger than cyclical movements, indicating that the speech movements were faster and were produced with greater effort, according to the performance space analysis. It was hypothesized that the cyclical movements of the tongue and lips were slower than the speech movements because they were more constrained by (coupled to) the relatively massive mandible. To test this hypothesis, a comparison was made of cyclical movements in maxillary versus mandibular frames of reference. The results indicate that the cyclical movements were not strongly constrained by mandible movements. The overall results generally indicate that the cyclical task did not succeed in defining the upper limits of kinematic performance spaces within which the speech data were confined. Thus, the hypothesis that performance limits influence speech kinematics could not be tested effectively. The differences between the speech and cyclical movements may be due to other factors, such as differences in speakers' "skill" with the two types of movement, or the size of the movements--the speech movements were larger

  19. VINE-A NUMERICAL CODE FOR SIMULATING ASTROPHYSICAL SYSTEMS USING PARTICLES. II. IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-10-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose 'GRAPE' hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE

  20. Vine—A Numerical Code for Simulating Astrophysical Systems Using Particles. II. Implementation and Performance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-10-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose "GRAPE" hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE