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Sample records for mizoram northeast india

  1. Chordodes mizoramensis (Nematomorpha, Gordiida), a new species of horsehair worm from Mizoram, North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Lalramliana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Chordodes mizoramensis, a new species of freshwater gordiid horsehair worm, is described from Mizoram, NE India on the basis of scanning electron microscopic and morphometric studies. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in that the apical filaments of the crowned areoles are branched several times, a pattern that has not been observed in other species. An additional distinguishing character is that it has more bulging areoles, which are distributed among simple areoles alone or in groups, do not form clear patterns. PMID:21594136

  2. Characterization of aerosols from biomass burning--a case study from Mizoram (Northeast), India.

    PubMed

    Badarinath, K V S; Madhavi Latha, K; Kiran Chand, T R; Gupta, Prabhat K; Ghosh, A B; Jain, S L; Gera, B S; Singh, Risal; Sarkar, A K; Singh, Nahar; Parmar, R S; Koul, S; Kohli, R; Nath, Shambhu; Ojha, V K; Singh, Gurvir

    2004-01-01

    Physical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Northeastern region, India analyzed based on measurements made during February 2002. Large spatial extent of Northeastern Region moist tropical to moist sub-tropical forests in India have high frequency of burning in annual dry seasons. Characterization of resultant trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning is important for the atmospheric radiative process. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed to be high during burning period compared to pre- and post-burning days. Peak period of biomass burning is highly correlated with measured AOD and total columnar water vapor. Size distribution of aerosols showed bimodal size distribution during burning day and unimodal size distribution during pre- and post-burning days. Size distribution retrievals from biomass burning aerosols show dominance of accumulation mode particles. Weighted mean radius is high (0.22 microm) during burning period. Columnar content of aerosols observed to be high during burning period in addition to the drastic reduction of visibility. During the burning day Anderson sampler measurements showed dominance of accumulation mode particles. The diurnal averaged values of surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing af biomass burning aerosols varies from -59 to -87 Wm(-2) on different days. Measured and modeled solar irradiances are also discussed in the paper.

  3. Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

  4. A Case for Plane-Strain during the Development of the Indo-Burma Fold-Thrust Belt in Tripura and Mizoram, Northeast India (23-24°N; 91-93°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indo-Burma fold-thrust belt (FTB) in northeast India and Myanmar records shortening of a forearc prism resulting from ongoing collision of the Burma microplate and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. A >5 km thick succession of deep water, deltaic and tidal as well as fluvial deposits that span the Oligocene to present were deformed to form a ~400 km wide FTB between 91.5-96°E longitude. India-Eurasia convergence across the Indo-Burma region trends northeast and is highly oblique to the northerly structural trend of the FTB. According to geodetic data, 21 mm/yr of dextral shear and 18 mm/yr of approximately east-west shortening must be accommodated within the FTB between the active thrust front in Bangladesh (90.5°E) and the Sagaing Fault in Myanmar (96°E). This paper presents new surface geologic data collected along a ~250 km transect that crosses 15 anticline-syncline pairs between the cities of Argatala (~91.2°E) and Champhai (93.3°E), the part of FTB exposing syn-Himalayan sediment, to determine the degree of noncoaxial shear that is accommodated internally within the belt. Results indicate that the majority of the folds are upright or asymmetric horizontal folds that are either concentric or have a narrow hinge (chevron folds) and form open—closed interlimb angles which generally tighten from the foreland toward the hinterland. A cylindrical best fit describes the data well and shows dominantly east-west shortening with a horizontal north-trending regional fold axis (005/01 ± 2°). Shortening was partly accommodated by flexural slip. Flexural slip-lineations (n=32) are subperpendicular to the regional fold axis. In some locations the limbs of folds are breached by thrust faults that dip either east or west and strike north. Incremental strain axes calculated from the flexural-slip surfaces and thrust faults (n=61) indicate horizontal west-trending shortening (279/03 ± 8°) and vertical extension that is kinematically compatible with folding. Altogether

  5. Funalichnus bhubani isp. nov. from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower -Middle Miocene) of Aizawl, Mizoram, India

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Rajkonwar, Chinmoy; Patel, Satish Jaychandbhai

    2013-01-01

    A new ichnospecies of the ichnogenus Funalichnus Pokorný is described from the Middle Bhuban Unit, Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower - Middle Miocene) of Aizawl, Mizoram, India. Funalichnus bhubani isp. Nov. Is a large burrow displaying cylindrical segments that are oriented nearly perpendicular to the bedding plane. The new ichnospecies can be identified on the basis of general form, size, unlined passive filling and twisted rod-like structure. The association of Funalichnus bhubani isp. Nov. With Arenicolites, Diplocraterion, Ophiomorpha Psilonichnus Skolithos and Thalassinoides points to its bathymetric restriction. The deep extension of the burrow in clastic sediments provides a favourable condition for preservation in the shoreface environment and occurrence in fine- to medium-grained clastic sediments may be a preservational preference. PMID:24204992

  6. Funalichnus bhubani isp. nov. from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower -Middle Miocene) of Aizawl, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Rajkonwar, Chinmoy; Patel, Satish Jaychandbhai

    2013-01-01

    A new ichnospecies of the ichnogenus Funalichnus Pokorný is described from the Middle Bhuban Unit, Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower - Middle Miocene) of Aizawl, Mizoram, India. Funalichnus bhubani isp. Nov. Is a large burrow displaying cylindrical segments that are oriented nearly perpendicular to the bedding plane. The new ichnospecies can be identified on the basis of general form, size, unlined passive filling and twisted rod-like structure. The association of Funalichnus bhubani isp. Nov. With Arenicolites, Diplocraterion, Ophiomorpha Psilonichnus Skolithos and Thalassinoides points to its bathymetric restriction. The deep extension of the burrow in clastic sediments provides a favourable condition for preservation in the shoreface environment and occurrence in fine- to medium-grained clastic sediments may be a preservational preference.

  7. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  8. Physicochemical and disintegrant properties of glutinous rice starch of Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Pachuau, Lalduhsanga; Dutta, Rajat Subhra; Roy, Probin Kumar; Kalita, Pratap; Lalhlenmawia, H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the current work is to characterize the physicochemical and disintegrant properties of a starch obtained from a novel glutinous rice variety from Mizoram, India. Different properties such as total starch, apparent amylose content, protein and moisture content, along with micromeritic properties were evaluated. Viscosity was determined by Brookfield viscometer, DSC and FTIR spectroscopic analyses were also performed. The disintegrant efficiency was evaluated after dicalcium phosphate tablets were prepared using the starch as binder-disintegrant at different concentrations. The total starch content was found to be 83.48% with 2.83% crude protein and 10.22% moisture content. The average particle size of the starch was also found to be 11.39μm. DSC and FTIR analysis shows the starch possesses typical characteristics of starches. Results from disintegration efficiency study also showed that the starch possesses significant disintegration property and the disintegration efficiency increases with increase in concentration of the starch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Variations of soil radon concentrations along Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Jaishi, Hari Jaishi; Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-11-01

    The present study concerns measurements of radon emissions from soil carried out during March to July 2013 at Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India. In this study, continuous radon monitoring in soil was done by using LR-115 type II nuclear track detector (Kodak-Pathe, France make), and the exposed films were replaced weekly. A negative correlation coefficient (-0.47) between radon concentration and barometric pressure was found during the investigation period. The average radon concentration was observed to be 1785.71 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 633.07 Bq m(-3). The maximum and minimum values of radon concentration during this period were found to be 3693.88 and 904.76 Bq m(-3), respectively. An anomalous increase in radon concentration was observed on 112th day (i.e. on 14 June 2013) during the investigation period just 1 d prior to the event of M 3.5, which occurred within 120-km distance from the monitoring site.

  10. p53 codon 72 polymorphism interactions with dietary and tobacco related habits and risk of stomach cancer in Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Mridul; Devi, K Rekha; Phukan, Rup Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Deka, Manab; Puia, Lalhriat; Sailo, Lalrinliana; Lalhmangaihi, T; Barua, Debajit; Rajguru, Sanjib Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of p53 codon 72 polymorphism, dietary and tobacco habits with reference to risk of stomach cancer in Mizoram, India. A total of 105 histologically confirmed stomach cancer cases and 210 age, sex and ethnicity matched healthy population controls were included in this study. The p53 codon 72 polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. H. pylori infection status was determined by ELISA. Information on various dietary and tobacco related habits was recorded with a standard questionnaire. This study revealed that overall, the Pro/ Pro genotype was significantly associated with a higher risk of stomach cancer (OR, 2.54; 95%CI, 1.01-6.40) as compared to the Arg/Arg genotype. In gender stratified analysis, the Pro/Pro genotype showed higher risk (OR, 7.50; 95%CI, 1.20-47.0) than the Arg/Arg genotype among females. Similarly, the Pro/Pro genotype demonstrated higher risk of stomach cancer (OR, 6.30; 95%CI, 1.41-28.2) among older people (>60 years). However, no such associations were observed in males and in individuals <60 years of age. Smoke dried fish and preserved meat (smoke dried/sun dried) consumers were at increased risk of stomach cancer (OR, 4.85; 95%CI, 1.91-12.3 and OR, 4.22; 95%CI, 1.46-12.2 respectively) as compared to non-consumers. Significant gene-environment interactions exist in terms of p53 codon 72 polymorphism and stomach cancer in Mizoram. Tobacco smokers with Pro/Pro and Arg/Pro genotypes were at higher risk of stomach cancer (OR, 16.2; 95%CI, 1.72-153.4 and OR, 9.45; 95%CI, 1.09-81.7 respectively) than the non-smokers Arg/Arg genotype carriers. The combination of tuibur user and Arg/Pro genotype also demonstrated an elevated risk association (OR, 4.76; 95%CI, 1.40-16.21). In conclusion, this study revealed that p53 codon 72 polymorphism and dietary and tobacco habit interactions influence stomach cancer development in Mizoram, India.

  11. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Narwade, Sujit; Kalra, Mohit; Jagdish, Rajkumar; Varier, Divya; Satpute, Sagar; Khan, Noor; Talukdar, Gautam; Mathur, V. B.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Pundir, Dinesh Singh; Chavan, Vishwas; Sood, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven states of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula. PMID:22207820

  12. A case control study investigating factors associated with high infant death in Saiha district of Mizoram, India bordering Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Deb, Alok K; Dutta, Shanta; Hnichho, Chhaihlo; Vanlalpeki, Mary; Phosa, Hli Thapi; Rakhu, Khaila; Fanai, Samuel Lalfakawma; Chakrabarti, Manoj; Panda, Samiran

    2017-01-17

    Infant mortality has dropped considerably in India over the last 5 years. A sharp contrast to this decline in national average of infant mortality is the rate recorded during 2014-2015 from the southernmost district of Saiha, Mizoram having a common international border with Myanmar. As this district specific rate (113 per 1000 live births) is 3 times higher compared to the national and state average, the present investigation was carried out to identify associated factors. We examined secondary data made available by the national health mission, consulted with local community members and generated primary data through interviews. A case-control study design was followed. Mothers, who delivered a child during 2013-2015 and subsequently lost them due to infant death, formed the case group and controls were selected from same neighborhood as with case-mothers. The mother and child tracking system maintained by the district specific national health mission office was used for recruiting cases and controls. A total of 195 mothers were interviewed; 66 of them belonged to 'cases' and 129 were 'controls'. The mean age of the respondents was 27 years (median 27; SD ± 5; minimum 17 & maximum 44). In uni-variate analyses 'child delivery at home', 'low birth weight', 'non-attendance of school by mothers', 'completed standard of school education by mothers', 'both parents working', 'mothers receiving blood transfusion during last pregnancy', and 'fourth or more birth order during last pregnancy' were associated with infant deaths. Intriguingly, the number of daily kuhva (raw areca nut) intake during last pregnancy was significantly higher among case-mothers compared to controls. In conditional logistic regression, 'low birth weight' (adjusted OR (AOR) 14.7; 95% CI 2.1-101.8; p = 0.006), and 'consumption of 4 or more kuhva per day' (AOR 8; 95% CI 1.9-34.3; p = 0.005) were independently associated with infant-death-experiences. The present investigation merits due

  13. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study.

  14. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study. PMID:22529674

  15. Illumina-based analysis of bacterial community in Khuangcherapuk cave of Mizoram, Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    De Mandal, Surajit; Panda, Amrita Kumari; Lalnunmawii, Esther; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial community of the Khuangcherapuk cave sediment was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 533,120 raw reads with an average base quality (Phred score) 36.75 and G + C content is 57.61%. A total of 18 bacterial phyla were detected with following abundant genus — Mycobacterium (21.72%), Rhodococcus (7.09%), Alteromonas (1.42%), Holomonas (0.7%) and Salinisphaera (0.20%). Majority portion of the sequences (68%) is unclassified at the genus level indicating the possibilities for the presence of novel species in this cave. This study reports the cave bacterial diversity from the biodiversity hotspot region of Eastern Himalayas. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. SRP056890. PMID:26484212

  16. The risk of HIV and HCV infections among injection drug users in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Jagadish; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Chelleng, Pradeep Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) and their associated risk behavior are responsible for driving the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in northeast India. So a group of IDUs from two northeastern states (Mizoram and Nagaland) of India were studied to find the prevalence of HIV, co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and associated risk behaviors. Out of the 400 IDUs enrolled, 398 consented for HIV, HCV, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) test. Of them, 10.8% were HIV-1 antibody positive, 47.8% had HCV antibody, and 3.8% had detectable HBsAg. Among the HIV infected subjects, 79.1% were co-infected with HCV and 6.9% had triple infection. Heroin users showed a higher association with HIV (OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 2.5-21.5, p=0.0003) and HCV infection (OR = 7.6, 95% CI: 3.5-16.6, p<0.0001) than Spasmo-proxyvon (dextropropoxyphene, a synthetic opiod analgesic). In summary, apart from the known risk variables among IDUs, type of injecting drugs also influences the HIV/HCV transmission pattern among the IDUs.

  17. Comprehensive seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; Sil, Arjun

    2014-06-01

    Northeast India is one of the most highly seismically active regions in the world with more than seven earthquakes on an average per year of magnitude 5.0 and above. Reliable seismic hazard assessment could provide the necessary design inputs for earthquake resistant design of structures in this region. In this study, deterministic as well as probabilistic methods have been attempted for seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states at bedrock level condition. An updated earthquake catalogue was collected from various national and international seismological agencies for the period from 1731 to 2011. The homogenization, declustering and data completeness analysis of events have been carried out before hazard evaluation. Seismicity parameters have been estimated using G-R relationship for each source zone. Based on the seismicity, tectonic features and fault rupture mechanism, this region was divided into six major subzones. Region specific correlations were used for magnitude conversion for homogenization of earthquake size. Ground motion equations (Atkinson and Boore 2003; Gupta 2010) were validated with the observed PGA (peak ground acceleration) values before use in the hazard evaluation. In this study, the hazard is estimated using linear sources, identified in and around the study area. Results are presented in the form of PGA using both DSHA (deterministic seismic hazard analysis) and PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) with 2 and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, and spectral acceleration (T = 0. 2 s, 1.0 s) for both the states (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years). The results are important to provide inputs for planning risk reduction strategies, for developing risk acceptance criteria and financial analysis for possible damages in the study area with a comprehensive analysis and higher resolution hazard mapping.

  18. Educational Research in North-East India: A Source Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Nirmal; Mittal, Pratibha

    The Northeast region of India has a distinct geophysical structure and concomitant socio-economic development. New educational development initiatives for Northeastern states include bridging gaps in basic minimum services, enhancing teachers training facilities, and preparing state specific holistic plans. This annotated bibliography represents…

  19. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Sexuality and 'silence' among Khasi youth of Meghalaya, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    War, Ryntihlin Jennifer; Albert, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sex education has been well documented in the literature, but there exists a lack of research involving indigenous youth in India. This paper describes perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards sex education, sexuality, pre-marital sex, rape and homosexuality among indigenous students from the matrilineal Khasi tribe attending a university in Meghalaya in northeast India. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected during and after reproductive health, sexuality and life skills courses. Despite the impression of sexual permissiveness of indigenous peoples that exists in India, students reported a societal silence on issues related to sexuality. Lack of appropriate words in the indigenous language potentially contributes to this silence. Although co-habitation is common and culturally acceptable, students disapproved of pre-marital sex. The influence of Christianisation was also perceived in the frequent reference to sin and guilt associated with masturbation, homosexuality, pre-marital sex and abortion. Students reported that the sex education received in school was 'childish' and inadequate for their adult needs. Many had unrealistic images of what constituted 'normal' sex and also blamed women for rape. The majority of indigenous students expressed the need for non-judgmental fora for discussions on sexual health and for sexuality education.

  4. State of tectonic stress in Shillong Plateau of northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Saikia, Sowrav; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Sharma, Antara; Reddy, C. D.; Kayal, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plateau is dominated by NNE-SSW compression and the western part by NNW-SSE compression. The NNW-SSE compression in the western part may be due to the tectonic loading induced by the Himalayan orogeny in the north, and the NNE-SSW compression in the eastern part may be attributed to the influence of oblique convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Indo-Burma ranges. Further, Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) derived stress also indicates a variation from west to east.

  5. STS-65 Earth observation of Brahmaputra River, Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of the Brahmaputra River in Northeast India. The Brahmaputra River is a highly braided, meandering river with innumerable river islands, alluvial fans, sand bars, ox-bow lakes, and marshes. The valley is built by deposition of alluvium upon a sag formed during the period of the rise of the Himalaya. The Brahmaputra has more than 35 major tributaries. During the rainy season (June-September), the Brahmaputra is rendering an enormous slow moving lake. Floods are an annual menace to agriculture and settlements in the valley. Vast amounts of silt and debris, already a problem, are increased many folds with continuing deforestation of the mountain slopes.

  6. STS-65 Earth observation of Brahmaputra River, Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of the Brahmaputra River in Northeast India. The Brahmaputra River is a highly braided, meandering river with innumerable river islands, alluvial fans, sand bars, ox-bow lakes, and marshes. The valley is built by deposition of alluvium upon a sag formed during the period of the rise of the Himalaya. The Brahmaputra has more than 35 major tributaries. During the rainy season (June-September), the Brahmaputra is rendering an enormous slow moving lake. Floods are an annual menace to agriculture and settlements in the valley. Vast amounts of silt and debris, already a problem, are increased many folds with continuing deforestation of the mountain slopes.

  7. Influence of cultivar and maturity at harvest on the essential oil composition, oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in fresh ginger from northeast India.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Challa Ravi; Chakka, Ashok Kumar; Amma, K P Padmakumari; Menon, A Nirmala; Kumar, M M Sree; Venugopalan, V V

    2013-05-01

    Severe flooding of the Brahmaputra River during the monsoon season and continuous rainfall in the northeast region (NER) of India cause an enormous loss of ginger crop every year. In this context, the present study investigates the variation in the essential oil composition and oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents in 10 different fresh ginger cultivars harvested at 6- and 9-month maturity from five different states of NER. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and citral composition in the essential oil were evaluated to ascertain their dependence upon the maturity of ginger. Except Mizoram Thinglaidum, Mizoram Thingria, Nagaland Nadia, and Tripura I ginger cultivars, all other cultivars showed an increase in the citral content during the maturity that was observed for the first time. At 6-month maturity, a higher undecanone level was found in Nagaland Nadia (7.36 ± 0.61%), Tripura I (6.23 ± 0.61%), and Tripura III (9.17 ± 0.76%) cultivars, and these data can be used as a benchmark to identify those immature varieties. Interestingly, the Nagaland Nadia cultivar showed higher ar-curcumene (9.57 ± 0.58%) content than zingiberene (5.84 ± 0.24%), which was unique among all cultivars. Ginger harvested at 9-month maturity from the Tripura II cultivar had the highest citral content (22.03 ± 0.49%), and the Meghalaya Mahima cultivar had the highest zingiberene content (29.89 ± 2.92%). The oleoresin content was found to decrease with maturity in all cultivars, except Assam Fibreless and Manipur I. Moreover, the highest oleoresin (11.43 ± 0.58 and 9.42 ± 0.63%) and [6]-gingerol (1.67 ± 0.03 and 1.67 ± 0.05 g) contents were observed for Tripura II and Nagaland Nadia, respectively. This study suggests that Tripura and Nagaland are the most ideal locations in NER for ginger cultivation to obtain high yields of oleoresin and [6]-gingerol contents and harvesting at the 6-month maturation will compensate for the loss of ginger crop caused by the Brahmaputra River flooding in NER

  8. Evaluation of tsunami vulnerability along northeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Pravakar; Usha, Tune; Ramanamurthy, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 with a moment magnitude of 9.3 Mw caused colossal damage to the south-southeastern Indian coast and Andaman-Nicobar group of Islands. However, the northeastern coastline bordering the northwestern Bay of Bengal remained unaffected although a tidal station located in the region recorded the highest water level (~2.5 m) for the entire east coast of India on the eventful day. As a part of hazard mitigation and planning for the northeastern coast, four major settlements, viz., Gopalpur, Puri, Paradip and Digha were evaluated for tsunami vulnerability. Inundation and run-up scenarios were generated for Bay of Bengal earthquake sources such as Arakan-1762, Car Nicobar-1881, North Andaman-1941 and Sumatra 2004 using TUNAMI N2 model. The paper describes computed run-up heights and landward inundation for 20-25 km coastal stretch with different geomorphologies and topographical characteristics. Simulation results indicate that the model is able to generate a comparable run-up of 2-4.5 m for 2004 Sumatra event for Paradip region while at other locations of the coastline, it was largely unnoticed as the inundation remained within the beach limit; however water entered inland mainly through the waterways and inundated low-lying areas. It is concluded that northeast coast of India is relatively safe from the tsunami originating in Bay of Bengal region.

  9. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  10. Identifying predictors of childhood anaemia in north-east India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanku; Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR = 2.035; p = 0.003) and moderate (OR = 1.23; p = 0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR = 2.971; p = 0.000), (OR = 1.195; p = 0.010), and (OR = 1.201; p = 0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR = 1.406; p = 0.001) and mild (OR = 1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well.

  11. Habitat relationships of Asian elephants in shifting-cultivation landscapes of Meghalaya, Northeast India

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot; Ashish Kumar; G. Talukdar; A.K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    In Asia and India, Asian elephants (Elaphas maximus) attain their highest densities and numbers in Meghalaya, particularly in Garo Hills, of northeast India. Little quantitative work has been done on elephant-habitat relationships in this region where the species' distribution is known to be highly fragmented. If elephants and their habitat...

  12. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    PubMed Central

    Dinachandra Singh, Konsam; Alagarajan, Manoj; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant. PMID:26121475

  13. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    PubMed

    Dinachandra Singh, Konsam; Alagarajan, Manoj; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant.

  14. Crustal structure beneath northeast India inferred from receiver function modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Kajaljyoti; Bora, Dipok K.; Goyal, Ayush; Kumar, Raju

    2016-09-01

    We estimated crustal shear velocity structure beneath ten broadband seismic stations of northeast India, by using H-Vp/Vs stacking method and a non-linear direct search approach, Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) technique followed by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity and receiver function, calculated from teleseismic earthquakes data. Results show significant variations of thickness, shear velocities (Vs) and Vp/Vs ratio in the crust of the study region. The inverted shear wave velocity models show crustal thickness variations of 32-36 km in Shillong Plateau (North), 36-40 in Assam Valley and ∼44 km in Lesser Himalaya (South). Average Vp/Vs ratio in Shillong Plateau is less (1.73-1.77) compared to Assam Valley and Lesser Himalaya (∼1.80). Average crustal shear velocity beneath the study region varies from 3.4 to 3.5 km/s. Sediment structure beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley shows 1-2 km thick sediment layer with low Vs (2.5-2.9 km/s) and high Vp/Vs ratio (1.8-2.1), while it is observed to be of greater thickness (4 km) with similar Vs and high Vp/Vs (∼2.5) in RUP (Lesser Himalaya). Both Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley show thick upper and middle crust (10-20 km), and thin (4-9 km) lower crust. Average Vp/Vs ratio in Assam Valley and Shillong Plateau suggest that the crust is felsic-to-intermediate and intermediate-to-mafic beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley, respectively. Results show that lower crust rocks beneath the Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley lies between mafic granulite and mafic garnet granulite.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Moumita; Bose, Sujoy; Saikia, Anjan; Medhi, Subhash; Deka, Manab

    2015-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to screen the molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Northeast India (NEI) who are ethnically distinct, tribal dominated and of lower socio-economic status with almost no information available from NEI on these aspects. Briefly, 3 ml blood was collected from 324 random liver disease cases with jaundice, receiving care at Central Hospital, N.F. Railway, Guwahati, Assam with informed consent. The patients detected with HAV-IgM positive status were included and were stratified as acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatitis (FHF) based on clinical profile. Viral RNA was isolated and HAV-RNA was detected by Real-time PCR using primers for the VP3-VP1 region. HAV genotyping was studied by PCR-direct sequencing-phylogenetic analysis approach using the VP1/2A region of HAV isolates. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS13.0 software. A total of 69 cases were HAV infected with two HBV co-infected cases (n = 69 + 2 = 71), 62 cases and two co-infected cases were AVH and others were FHF cases. HAV infection was predominant in especially in the young and adult age group. HAV-RNA was detected in 28 cases, out of which 19 cases could be genotyped (12 AVH, 7 FHF); which showed the prevalence of genotype IIIA or IA only. Although HAV genotype IIIA was the major genotype in both the AVH (10/12, 83.33%) and FHF (5/7, 71.43%) group, but the difference in distribution of genotypes in AVH and FHF cases was statistically non-significant (P = 0.550). HAV genotype IIIA is associated with the majority of HAV infected cases and severity in NEI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

  17. Application of geoinformatics for landscape assessment and conserving forest biodiversity in northeast India

    Treesearch

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Gautam Talukdar; P.S. Roy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we summarize our work, within forest ecosystems of Garo Hills in northeast India, on mapping vegetation and land cover conditions, delineating wildlife habitat corridors among protected areas, evaluating forest conservation values of influence zones bordering protected areas, analyzing dispersion patterns of native forests, and determining potential effects of...

  18. Within High Schools--Influences on Retention among the Indigenous People of Northeast India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudussery, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study of three high schools was conducted to identify and profile school practices employed in educating a traditionally low-achieving subpopulation in northeast India. By the considerably higher than average retention and graduation rates among their students who come from indigenous tribal communities, these schools stand out…

  19. Association of toll-like receptor 2 ∆22 and risk for gastric cancer considering main effects and interactions with smoking: a matched case-control study from Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debdutta; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Deka, Manab; Malakar, Mridul; Kaur, Tanvir; Barua, Debajit; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionary conserved cell surface receptors of the innate immune system. Smoking has significant immunological effects which are mediated via TLRs on various receptor-mediated innate response pathways. Polymorphisms of TLR genes are associated with susceptibility toward various malignancies. The present study was undertaken to examine the association between TLR2 ∆22 and gastric cancer. In this study, we also investigated the interaction between TLR2 ∆22 and smoking. A total of 133 histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases and 266 age-sex-matched controls were selected for this study. TLR2 ∆22 genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Binary conditional logistic regression analysis was used to find the association of TLR2 ∆22 with risk of gastric cancer. Logistic regression using hierarchically well-formulated models was used for interaction analysis between smoking and TLR2 ∆22. Persons having TLR2 ∆22 heterozygous genotype had two times increased risk of gastric cancer in multivariate logistic regression model. The interaction analysis using hierarchical logistic regression models between smoking and TLR2 ∆22 by calculating separate X (2) for interaction model and only main effect model, the difference of X (2) 57.68-47.70 = 9.98 and degrees of freedom (df) 5-3 = 2, revealed significant (α = 0.05, df = 2) omnibus interaction. Our present study revealed TLR2 ∆22 to be significantly and independently associated with gastric cancer risk in Mizoram, and there is also evidence of significant interaction between smoking and TLR2 ∆22 with risk of gastric cancer.

  20. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its

  1. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Devojit K; Prakash, Anil; O'Loughlin, Samantha M; Bhattacharyya, Dibya R; Mohapatra, Pradumnya K; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Das, Kanika; Singh, Sweta; Sarma, Nilanju P; Ahmed, Gias U; Walton, Catherine; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2012-03-20

    Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its epidemiological significance further

  2. Microfilarial periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti in Assam, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Khan, A M; Dutta, P; Das, S; Pathak, A K; Sarmah, P; Hussain, M E; Mahanta, J

    2015-09-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti has shown nocturnal periodicity in India and other endemic countries of the world except pacific regions where non-periodic or diurnal sub-periodic forms have been reported. Presence of sub-periodic form of W. bancrofti in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India and a case report of sub- periodic form of W. bancrofti from Mysore, India provide basis for exploring the periodicity pattern of microfilaria of W. bancrofti prevalent in Assam, Northeastern region of India. State of Assam has unique geographical location as its Northeastern region shares international boundaries with Nepal, China, Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Evolutionary association of W. bancrofti found in Assam is not known and possibility of its link with W. bancrofti form, prevalent in neighbouring countries may not be ruled out. Hence, this study was undertaken to know the microfilarial periodicity of W. bancrofti in Assam. Ten microfilaria positive adult male individuals having moderate to high microfilaraemia were selected. Informed written consent from each participant was obtained. The presence of microfilaria was observed at two hourly intervals over a period of 24 h using 50 μl of finger prick peripheral blood samples. Peripheral blood smears were processed, stained and examined under microscope and microfilaria counts were recorded. Data collected were calculated and analyzed using modified statistical method, and the periodicity curve was prepared. Typical nocturnal periodicity was observed at a peak time of 0003 hrs with a periodicity index of 136.2. Analysis of the data revealed nocturnal periodicity of the W. bancrofti prevalent in the Assam with peak periodicity about one hour ahead of the other states in India. Findings will be helpful in evaluation and monitoring of ongoing MDA programme for elimination of LF in Assam.

  3. A new species of Duttaphrynus (Anura:Bufonidae) from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Chetia, Mitali; Dutta, Sushil Kumar; Sengupta, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    A new species of montane toad Duttaphrynus is described from Nagaland state of Northeast India. The new species is diagnosable based on following combination of characters: absence of preorbital, postorbital and orbitotympanic ridges, elongated and broad parotid gland, first finger longer than second and presence of a mid-dorsal line. The tympanum is hidden under a skin fold (in male) or absent (in female). The species is compared with its congers from India and Indo-China. We propose to consider Duttaphrynus wokhaensis as junior synonym of Duttaphrynus melanostictus.

  4. Neglected Plasmodium vivax malaria in northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinod P.; Dev, Vas; Phookan, Sobhan

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The northeastern States of India are co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The transmission intensity is low-to-moderate resulting in intermediate to stable malaria. Malaria control prioritized P. falciparum being the predominant and life threatening infection (>70%). P. vivax malaria remained somewhat neglected. The present study provides a status report of P. vivax malaria in the northeastern States of India. Methods: Data on spatial distribution of P. vivax from seven northeastern States (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura) were analysed retrospectively from 2008–2013. In addition, cross-sectional malarial surveys were conducted during 1991-2012 in malaria endemic pockets across the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura to ascertain the prevalence of P. vivax in different age groups. Results: Vivax malaria was encountered in all northeastern States but there existed a clear division of two malaria ecotypes supporting ≤30 and >30 per cent of total malaria cases. High proportions of P. vivax cases (60–80%) were seen in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland in the north with alpine environment, 42-67 per cent in Manipur, whereas in Assam it varied from 23-31 per cent with subtropical and tropical climate. Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram had the lowest proportion of P. vivax cases. Malaria cases were recorded in all age groups but a higher proportion of P. vivax consistently occurred among <5 yr age group compared to P. falciparum (P<0.05). P. vivax cases were recorded throughout the year with peak coinciding with rainy season although transmission intensity and duration varied. Interpretation & conclusions: In northeast India, P. vivax is a neglected infection. Estimating the relapsing pattern and transmission dynamics of P. vivax in various ecological settings is an important pre-requisite for planning malaria elimination in the northeastern States. PMID:26139771

  5. India’s Northeast: The Frontier in Ferment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    crossed the Tuensang border in November 1966 and returned in January 1968, laden with arms, ammunition, and other equipment. They were camping at a...determination” and decided to fight for an “independent Manipur.” In 1969, a group of about 200 Meiteis crossed the international border and managed...Army started persecuting the Bengalis, a large number of Muslims also crossed the borders into India. With the liberation of Ban- gladesh in 1971, it

  6. Medical pluralism among indigenous peoples in northeast India - implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Albert, Sandra; Nongrum, Melari; Webb, Emily L; Porter, John D H; Kharkongor, Glenn C

    2015-07-01

    The government of India is promoting and increasing investment in the traditional medicine systems of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the northeast region of India. But there are few empirical data that support this policy decision. This study estimates the awareness and use of the different medical systems in rural Meghalaya, a state in north-east India with a predominantly ethnic tribal population. We conducted a cross-sectional multistage random sample household survey across all districts of Meghalaya. To enable appropriate estimates for the whole of rural Meghalaya, the data were weighted to allow for the probability of selection of households at each stage of the sampling process. Both local tribal medicine and biomedicine were widely accepted and used, but the majority (68.7%, 95% CI: 51.9-81.7) had not heard of AYUSH and even fewer had used it. Tribal medicine was used (79.1%, 95% CI 66.3-88.0), thought to be effective (87.5%, 95% CI: 74.2-94.1) and given in a variety of disorders, including both minor and major diseases. In the 3 months prior to the survey, 46.2% (95% CI: 30.5-62.8) had used tribal medicine. Only 10.5% (95% CI: 6.1-17.6) reported ever using any of the AYUSH systems. Our comparative estimates of the awareness and use of tribal medicine, different systems of AYUSH and of biomedicine among indigenous populations of India question the basis on which AYUSH is promoted in the northeast region of India and in the state of Meghalaya in particular. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  8. Classical Swine Fever in Wild Hog: Report of its Prevalence in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Barman, N N; Bora, D P; Khatoon, E; Mandal, S; Rakshit, A; Rajbongshi, G; Depner, K; Chakraborty, A; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease, hog cholera in pigs. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect the animals from CSFV infection. Wild hogs belong to the species Sus Scrofa Cristatus under the family Suidae are quite susceptible to CSFV infection. The epidemiological role concerning classical swine fever (CSF) in India is largely unknown. We report here the three isolated cases of CSF in wild hogs from three National parks, namely Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park and Jaldapara National Park, from north-east part of India. The post-mortem and histopathological findings were clearly indicative for CSFV infection. The presence of CSFV genome was demonstrated in several organs and tissues collected from hogs died due to viral infection. In addition, CSF-specific antibodies were detected in two wild hogs as well as in eighteen feral pigs from the same locations. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial E2 protein gene and 5' untranslated region of CSFV isolates from the wild hog showed identities with genotype 2.2 of the Indian isolates. Occurrence of CSF in wild hogs may pose a potent threat in the epidemiology of the virus in Northeast part of India. To the best of our knowledge, the report presented in the manuscript is the first comprehensive report on CSF in wild hogs form Northeast India. The findings reported would help us to understand the epidemiology and biology of CSFV in wild animals. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Isolation of novel variants of infectious bursal disease virus from different outbreaks in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. PMID:27433496

  11. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Nongdam, P; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  12. One new species and a new record of the genus Chordodes (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Yadav, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater Nematomorpha have been described from India, five of which belong to the genus Chordodes. This paper describes one new species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha): Chordodes lasuboni and a new record, C. moutoni from North-East India, which raises the total number of described species from India to 17. Chordodes lasuboni is characterized by a novel cuticular pattern in the head region and by the presence of slender, hooked thorn areoles on the body cuticle. Compared to the large size and ecological diversity of India, the nematomorph fauna is regarded as under-sampled and several new species are to be expected.

  13. Overview of childhood cancers at a regional cancer centre in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Munlima; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Bhuyan, Cidananda; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Nandy, Pintu; Hazarika, Monalisha; Roy, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancers are relatively uncommon in comparison to adult cancers. There is no literature available to shed light on clinic-pathological types and patterns of care for childhood cancers in our population in North-East India. In this analysis we therefore tried to determine the common childhood cancers diagnosed in our institute, clinical profile of the patients, types of treatment and compliance, and median survival estimates. Leukemia was most common, followed by retinoblastoma, central nervous system tumours and lymphomas. Ascertaining the clinic-pathological profile of childhood cancers in our population is essential for allocation and management of resources for this small but important group of patients.

  14. An investigation on sources of potential minerals found in traditional vegetables of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Ananta Madhab; Borah, Sushanta

    2009-01-01

    The north-eastern region of India is endowed with a great wealth of plant genetic resources. Out of the vast floral diversity of the region, a large number of indigenous plant species and their wild forms constitute the routine vegetables of the inhabitants, which provide sufficient nutrients and medicinal values for the people. They seem to be quite healthy on average, even though the ethnic tribes are ignorant about the concept of balanced diet and healthcare. This paper describes the mineral (calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and phosphorus) contents and chemical composition in percentages such as carbohydrate, protein, fat, and so forth, found in 15 traditional vegetable species collected from different parts of North-east India. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge on vitamin contents in these vegetables. The amounts of ascorbic acid found in some species were much higher than the amount present in many conventional vegetables.

  15. Chemotherapy and drug resistance status of malaria parasite in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Diganta; Baruah, Indra; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Sharma, Dhirendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    India reports the highest number of malaria cases in Southeast Asia, of which Plasmodium falciparum contribute more than half of the cases every year. North eastern states of India contribute only 3.96% of country's population but account for >10% of total reported malaria cases, 11% of Plasmodium falciparum cases and 20% of malaria related deaths annually. In India, chloroquine resistance was reported for the first time from northeast region and since then chloroquine treatment failure is being reported from many parts of the region. Increased chloroquine treatment failure has led to change of the drug policy to artemisinin combination therapy as first line of malaria treatment in the region. However, replacing chloroquine to artemisinin combination therapy has not shown significant difference in the overall malaria incidence in the region. The present review addresses the current malaria situation of northeastern region of India in the light of antimalarials drug resistance. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Arka; Dutta, Suryendu; Raju, Srinivasan V.

    2014-06-01

    The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resin extracts are composed of cadalene-based C15 sesquiterpenoids and diagenetically altered triterpenoids. The macromolecular composition was investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The major pyrolysis products are C15 bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, alkylated naphthalenes, benzenes and a series of C17-C34 n-alkene- n-alkane pairs. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the dominance of aliphatic components. The presence of cadalene-based sequiterpenoids confirms the resin to be Class II or dammar resin, derived from angiosperms of Dipterocarpaceae family. These sesquiterpenoids are often detected in many SE Asian fluvio-deltaic oils. Dipterocarpaceae are characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India.

  17. Discovery of a new family of amphibians from northeast India with ancient links to Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Rachunliu G; San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Sherratt, Emma; Thomas, Ashish; Babu, Suresh; Bossuyt, Franky; Wilkinson, Mark; Biju, S D

    2012-06-22

    The limbless, primarily soil-dwelling and tropical caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) comprise the least known order of tetrapods. On the basis of unprecedented extensive fieldwork, we report the discovery of a previously overlooked, ancient lineage and radiation of caecilians from threatened habitats in the underexplored states of northeast India. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic and nuclear DNA sequences, and comparative cranial anatomy indicate an unexpected sister-group relationship with the exclusively African family Herpelidae. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicate that these lineages diverged in the Early Cretaceous, about 140 Ma. The discovery adds a major branch to the amphibian tree of life and sheds light on both the evolution and biogeography of caecilians and the biotic history of northeast India-an area generally interpreted as a gateway between biodiversity hotspots rather than a distinct biogeographic unit with its own ancient endemics. Because of its distinctive morphology, inferred age and phylogenetic relationships, we recognize the newly discovered caecilian radiation as a new family of modern amphibians.

  18. Varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Borah, Papori; Sharma, Vikas; Basumatary, Lakshya Jyoti; Das, Marami; Goswami, Munindra; Kayal, Ashok K

    2014-07-01

    Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disorder, characterized by stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs), anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs) and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), accompanied by a collateral network of vessels formed at the base of the brain. Ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage are the common typical manifestations. However moyamoya disease has been associated with atypical presentations like headache, seizures and involuntary movements. Although frequently reported from Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea, only few studies reported on clinical manifestations of moyamoya disease from India. To study the varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India. Relevant investigations were done to rule out other causes of moyamoya syndrome. We report 6 cases of moyamoya disease with varied presentations from a tertiary care referral government hospital. Case 1, 2 and 6 presented with alternating hemiparesis. Case 3 had amaurosis fugax. Case 4 had history suggestive of ischemic stroke and presented with hemichorea. Case 4 had focal seizure as the only manifestation. Cases 4 and 5 notably had stenosis of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in addition to stenosis of bilateral ICAs, ACAs and MCAs. Owing to its low incidence in India, moyamoya disease is easily overlooked as a possible diagnosis. However, because of its progressive nature, it is imperative to diagnose this disease early and offer surgical treatment to the patients.

  19. e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This case study deals with the implementation methodology, innovations and lessons of the ICT initiative in providing agricultural extension services to the rural tribal farming community of North-East India. Methodology: This study documents the ICT project implementation challenges, impact among farmers and briefly indicates lessons of…

  20. e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This case study deals with the implementation methodology, innovations and lessons of the ICT initiative in providing agricultural extension services to the rural tribal farming community of North-East India. Methodology: This study documents the ICT project implementation challenges, impact among farmers and briefly indicates lessons of…

  1. Karyological studies in ten species of Citrus(Linnaeus, 1753) (Rutaceae) of North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ten Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753) species of North-East India have been karyo-morphologically analysed. All studied species had 2n=18 chromosomes without any evidence of numerical variation. All the chromosomes were found to be of metacentric and sub-metacentric in all the species; the morphology of the chromosomes showing size difference only. Symmetrical karyotype which does not have much difference in the ratio of longest to shortest chromosome in all the species was observed. Three species, Citrus grandis (Osbeck, 1757), Citrus reticulata (Blanco, 1837) and Citrus medica (Linnaeus, 1753) are identified as true basic species from asymmetry studies of karyotypes as they reflect on the primitive nature of their genomes. Citrus indica (Tanaka, 1937)occupies a special taxonomic position within the genus Citrus as a progenitor for other cultivated species. PMID:24260635

  2. Dimension and Socio-demographic Correlates of Domestic Violence: A study from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Borah, Prasanta Kr; Kundu, Azad S; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2017-05-01

    Present study was aimed to find out dimension and socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence in Assam, Sikkim and Meghalaya, Northeast India. Two districts from each state were selected at random and women aged 18-35 years from rural and urban localities were interviewed to obtain relevant information. The study included a total of 2249 participants (Rural = 1577 and Urban = 672) from Assam (650), Sikkim (1148) and Meghalaya (451). Domestic violence was recorded in 26.4% of study participants and highest in Meghalaya. Of all types, psychological violence was predominant. A number of socio-demographic factors have been identified as independent predictors for domestic violence in pooled and state specific analysis. Findings of our study may help in formulating strategies to prevent domestic violence.

  3. Karyological studies in ten species of Citrus(Linnaeus, 1753) (Rutaceae) of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2011-01-01

    Ten Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753) species of North-East India have been karyo-morphologically analysed. All studied species had 2n=18 chromosomes without any evidence of numerical variation. All the chromosomes were found to be of metacentric and sub-metacentric in all the species; the morphology of the chromosomes showing size difference only. Symmetrical karyotype which does not have much difference in the ratio of longest to shortest chromosome in all the species was observed. Three species, Citrus grandis (Osbeck, 1757), Citrus reticulata (Blanco, 1837) and Citrus medica (Linnaeus, 1753) are identified as true basic species from asymmetry studies of karyotypes as they reflect on the primitive nature of their genomes. Citrus indica (Tanaka, 1937)occupies a special taxonomic position within the genus Citrus as a progenitor for other cultivated species.

  4. Opportunity for natural selection among some selected population groups of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Farida Ahmed; Mithun, Sikdar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for seven population groups inhabiting different geographical locations of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crow’s as well as Johnston and Kensinger’s index have been used for the present purpose. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among the Deoris followed by the Kaibartas. The lowest selection index was found among the Oraon population. If the relative contribution of fertility and mortality components to the total index is considered to be multiplicative, it is observed that in all these communities the fertility component exceeds that of mortality component, which may indicate initiation of demographic transitional phase in the selected populations with the betterment of healthcare and socioeconomic condition within the last few decades. PMID:21031053

  5. Discovery of a new family of amphibians from northeast India with ancient links to Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Rachunliu G.; Mauro, Diego San; Gower, David J.; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Sherratt, Emma; Thomas, Ashish; Babu, Suresh; Bossuyt, Franky; Wilkinson, Mark; Biju, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    The limbless, primarily soil-dwelling and tropical caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) comprise the least known order of tetrapods. On the basis of unprecedented extensive fieldwork, we report the discovery of a previously overlooked, ancient lineage and radiation of caecilians from threatened habitats in the underexplored states of northeast India. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic and nuclear DNA sequences, and comparative cranial anatomy indicate an unexpected sister-group relationship with the exclusively African family Herpelidae. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicate that these lineages diverged in the Early Cretaceous, about 140 Ma. The discovery adds a major branch to the amphibian tree of life and sheds light on both the evolution and biogeography of caecilians and the biotic history of northeast India—an area generally interpreted as a gateway between biodiversity hotspots rather than a distinct biogeographic unit with its own ancient endemics. Because of its distinctive morphology, inferred age and phylogenetic relationships, we recognize the newly discovered caecilian radiation as a new family of modern amphibians. PMID:22357266

  6. My first time: initiation into injecting drug use in Manipur and Nagaland, north-east India

    PubMed Central

    Kermode, Michelle; Longleng, Verity; Singh, Bangkim Chingsubam; Hocking, Jane; Langkham, Biangtung; Crofts, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Background The north-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland are two of the six high HIV prevalence states in the country, and the main route of HIV transmission is injecting drug use. Understanding the pathways to injecting drug use can facilitate early intervention with HIV prevention programs. While several studies of initiation into injecting drug use have been conducted in developed countries, little is known about the situation in developing country settings. The aim of this study was to increase understanding of the contextual factors associated with initiation into injecting drug use in north-east India, and the influence of these factors on subsequent initiation of others. Method In mid 2006 a cross-sectional survey among 200 injecting drug users (IDUs) was undertaken in partnership with local NGOs that provide HIV prevention and care services and advocacy for IDUs in Imphal, Manipur and Dimapur, Nagaland. The questionnaire elicited detailed information about the circumstances of the first injection and the contexts of participants' lives. Demographic information, self-reported HIV status, and details about initiation of others were also recorded. Results Initiation into injecting drug use occurred at 20 years of age. The drugs most commonly injected were Spasmo-proxyvon (65.5%) and heroin (30.5%). In 53.5% cases, a needle belonging to someone else was used. Two-thirds (66.7%) had used the drug previously, and 91.0% had known other IDUs prior to initiation (mean = 7.5 others). The first injection was usually administered by another person (94.5%), mostly a friend (84.1%). Initiation is a social event; 98% had others present (mean = 2.7 others). Almost 70% of participants had initiated at least one other (mean = 5 others). Initiation of others was independently associated with being male and unemployed; having IDU friends and using alcohol around the time of initiation; and having been taught to inject and not paid for the drug at the time of initiation

  7. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php.

  8. Bamboo shoots as a nutritive boon for Northeast India: an overview.

    PubMed

    Basumatary, Anusriti; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Basumatary, Amit Kumar; Brahma, Birendra Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar

    2017-07-01

    With about 136 species, India is one among the richest countries in bamboo resources that help mankind in more than 1500 diverse ways. Although the utilization of juvenile shoots of bamboo in tribal diet of Northeast India is a very old observable fact, its numerous health benefits and potentiality remains uncharted. Apart from being delicious, the bamboo shoots are also rich in minerals and nutrient components such as carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and are low in fat and sugar which could be helpful in mitigating the problem of malnutrition. Few studies also revealed the health benefits of bamboo shoots for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, weight loss and to improve digestion. Over and above the nutritional values of different species of bamboo shoots, the increasing inclinations towards health awareness among the consumers have emphasized its utilization in modern diet as a health food for boosting the nutritional security. Thus, in the present review, the nutraceutical potentiality of bamboo shoots is explored alongside its various qualities.

  9. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php PMID:27285615

  10. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Fostering disability-inclusive HIV/AIDS programs in northeast India: a participatory study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Martha; Arunkumar, MC; Pearce, Emma; Dawson, Heather E

    2007-01-01

    Background Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India are among the Indian states with the highest prevalence of HIV. Most prevention and care programs focus on identified "high risk" groups, but recent data suggest the epidemic is increasing among the general population, primarily through heterosexual sex. People with disability (PWD) in India are more likely than the general population to be illiterate, unemployed and impoverished, but little is known of their HIV risk. Methods This project aimed to enable HIV programs in Manipur and Nagaland to be more disability-inclusive. The objectives were to: explore HIV risk and risk perception in relation to PWD among HIV and disability programmers, and PWD themselves; identify HIV-related education and service needs and preferences of PWD; and utilise findings and stakeholder consultation to draft practical guidelines for inclusion of disability into HIV programming. Data were collected through a survey and several qualitative tools. Results The findings revealed that participants believe PWD in these states are potentially vulnerable to HIV transmission due to social exclusion and poverty, lack of knowledge, gender norms and obstacles to accessing HIV programs. Neither HIV nor disability organisations currently address the risks, needs and preferences of PWD. Conclusion The Guidelines produced in the project and disseminated to stakeholders emphasise opportunities for taking action with minimal cost and resources, such as using the networks and expertise of both HIV and disability sectors, producing HIV material in a variety of formats, and promoting accessibility to mainstream HIV education and services. The human rights obligations and public health benefits of modifying national and state policies and programs to assist this highly disadvantaged population are also highlighted. PMID:17594502

  12. Fostering disability-inclusive HIV/AIDS programs in northeast India: a participatory study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Arunkumar, M C; Pearce, Emma; Dawson, Heather E

    2007-06-26

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India are among the Indian states with the highest prevalence of HIV. Most prevention and care programs focus on identified "high risk" groups, but recent data suggest the epidemic is increasing among the general population, primarily through heterosexual sex. People with disability (PWD) in India are more likely than the general population to be illiterate, unemployed and impoverished, but little is known of their HIV risk. This project aimed to enable HIV programs in Manipur and Nagaland to be more disability-inclusive. The objectives were to: explore HIV risk and risk perception in relation to PWD among HIV and disability programmers, and PWD themselves; identify HIV-related education and service needs and preferences of PWD; and utilise findings and stakeholder consultation to draft practical guidelines for inclusion of disability into HIV programming. Data were collected through a survey and several qualitative tools. The findings revealed that participants believe PWD in these states are potentially vulnerable to HIV transmission due to social exclusion and poverty, lack of knowledge, gender norms and obstacles to accessing HIV programs. Neither HIV nor disability organisations currently address the risks, needs and preferences of PWD. The Guidelines produced in the project and disseminated to stakeholders emphasise opportunities for taking action with minimal cost and resources, such as using the networks and expertise of both HIV and disability sectors, producing HIV material in a variety of formats, and promoting accessibility to mainstream HIV education and services. The human rights obligations and public health benefits of modifying national and state policies and programs to assist this highly disadvantaged population are also highlighted.

  13. Functional androdioecy in critically endangered Gymnocladus assamicus (Leguminosae) in the Eastern Himalayan Region of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Baharul Islam; Khan, Mohammed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-01-01

    Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered tree species endemic to Northeast India, and shows sexual dimorphism with male and hermaphrodite flowers on separate trees. We studied phenology, reproductive biology and mating system of the species. The flowers are small, tubular, odorless and last for about 96 hours. Pollen grains in both morphs were viable and capable of fertilization leading to fruit and seed set. Scanning electron micrographs revealed morphologically similar pollen in both male and hermaphrodite flowers. The fruit set in open pollinated flowers was 43.61 percent, while controlled autogamous and geitonogamous pollinations yielded 76.81 and 65.58 percent fruit set respectively. Xenogamous pollinations between male and hermaphrodite flowers resulted in 56.85 percent fruit set and pollinations between hermaphrodite flowers yielded 67.90 percent fruit set. This indicates a functionally androdioecious mating system and pollination limited fruit set in G. assamicus. Phylogenetic analyses of Gymnocladus and the sister genus Gleditsia are needed to assess if the androdioecious mating system in G. assamicus evolved from dioecy as a result of selection for hermaphrodites for reproductive assurance during colonization of pollination limited high altitude ecosystems.

  14. Distribution of Earthquake Interevent Times in Northeast India and Adjoining Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasari, Sumanta; Dikshit, Onkar

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzes earthquake interoccurrence times of northeast India and its vicinity from eleven probability distributions, namely exponential, Frechet, gamma, generalized exponential, inverse Gaussian, Levy, lognormal, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, and Weibull distributions. Parameters of these distributions are estimated from the method of maximum likelihood estimation, and their respective asymptotic variances as well as confidence bounds are calculated using Fisher information matrices. Three model selection criteria namely the Chi-square criterion, the maximum likelihood criterion, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov minimum distance criterion are used to compare model suitability for the present earthquake catalog (Y adav et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 167:1331-1342, 2010). It is observed that gamma, generalized exponential, and Weibull distributions provide the best fitting, while exponential, Frechet, inverse Gaussian, and lognormal distributions provide intermediate fitting, and the rest, namely Levy, Maxwell Pareto, and Rayleigh distributions fit poorly to the present data. The conditional probabilities for a future earthquake and related conditional probability curves are presented towards the end of this article.

  15. Functional Androdioecy in Critically Endangered Gymnocladus assamicus (Leguminosae) in the Eastern Himalayan Region of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Baharul Islam; Khan, Mohammed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-01-01

    Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered tree species endemic to Northeast India, and shows sexual dimorphism with male and hermaphrodite flowers on separate trees. We studied phenology, reproductive biology and mating system of the species. The flowers are small, tubular, odorless and last for about 96 hours. Pollen grains in both morphs were viable and capable of fertilization leading to fruit and seed set. Scanning electron micrographs revealed morphologically similar pollen in both male and hermaphrodite flowers. The fruit set in open pollinated flowers was 43.61 percent, while controlled autogamous and geitonogamous pollinations yielded 76.81 and 65.58 percent fruit set respectively. Xenogamous pollinations between male and hermaphrodite flowers resulted in 56.85 percent fruit set and pollinations between hermaphrodite flowers yielded 67.90 percent fruit set. This indicates a functionally androdioecious mating system and pollination limited fruit set in G. assamicus. Phylogenetic analyses of Gymnocladus and the sister genus Gleditsia are needed to assess if the androdioecious mating system in G. assamicus evolved from dioecy as a result of selection for hermaphrodites for reproductive assurance during colonization of pollination limited high altitude ecosystems. PMID:24586267

  16. Recovery of Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. from the 'fired plots' under shifting cultivation in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Chaudhry, Shivaji; Sharma, Avinash; Choudhary, Vipin Singh; Malviya, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Swati; Rinu, K; Trivedi, Pankaj; Palni, Lok Man S

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples, collected after the fire operations at agricultural sites under shifting cultivation in northeast India, were subjected to physico-chemical and microbial analysis. The fire affected various physico-chemical properties of the soil. Significant differences in pH and electrical conductivity were recorded in soil of fired and fallow plots. Significantly higher amounts of total organic carbon and nitrogen were estimated in fallow plots as compared to the fired. Difference in total phosphates was not significant. The fire operations resulted in stimulation of microbial communities. The bacteria were the most affected group followed by actinomycetes and fungi, respectively. The bacterial and actinomycetes counts were significantly higher in fired plots as compared to the fallow plots. The representative bacterial species recovered from the 'fired plots' belonged to the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA analysis revealed their maximum similarity with B. clausii, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, P. aeruginosa and P. stutzeri. Most of these species were found to be positive for phosphate solubilization and antagonism in plate based assays. In view of the importance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas species in plant growth promotion and biocontrol, recovery of these species after fire operations is indicative of the microbiological merit of shifting cultivation.

  17. Association of Serum Calcium Levels with Infarct Size in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Observations from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Meghna; Dhar, Sriparna; Gogoi, Dipankar Mall; Ruram, Alice Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calcium is known to be major mediator in ischemic neuronal cell death. Recent studies have shown that elevated serum calcium levels at admission in patients with stroke have been associated with less severe clinical deficits and with better outcomes. Aim: The aim of this to determine the correlation between serum calcium (total, corrected, and ionized) and infarct size (IS) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 61 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke from May 2015 to April 2016 at a tertiary care institute in Northeast India. Only patients aged ≥40 years and diagnosed as having acute ischemic cerebrovascular stroke with clinical examination and confirmed by a computed tomography scan were included in the study. Serum calcium levels (total, albumin corrected, and ionized) were collapsed into quartiles, and these quartile versions were used for calculating correlation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for comparing calcium levels with IS. Results: Total calcium, albumin-corrected calcium, and ionized calcium had a statistically significant negative correlation with IS with r = −0.578, −0.5396, and −0.5335, respectively. Total and ionized calcium showed a significant negative correlation with IS across all four quartiles. Albumin-corrected calcium levels showed a significant negative correlation with IS only across the lowest and highest quartiles. Conclusion: The findings in our study suggest that serum calcium can be used as a prognostic indicator in ischemic stroke as its levels directly correlates with the IS. PMID:28163502

  18. Quantifying Regional Body Wave Attenuation in a Seismic Prone Zone of Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Nilutpal; Biswas, Rajib

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the body wave attenuation parameter in Kopili region of northeast India. Using the modified algorithm of coda normalization method, we delineated frequency-dependent attenuation for both P and S waves. Taking more than 300 seismograms as input, we comprehensively studied microearthquake spectra in the frequency range of 1.5-12 Hz. The estimated values of {Q}_{P}^{-1} and {Q}_{S}^{-1} show strong frequency dependence. Based on this, we formulated empirical relationships corresponding to {Q}_{P}^{-1} and {Q}_{S}^{-1} for the study region. The relationships emerge to be {Q}_{P}^{-1} = ( {23.8 ± 6} ) × 10^{-3} {f}^{{( {-1.2 ± 0.008} )}} and {Q}_{S}^{-1} = ( {10.2 ± 2} ) × 10^{-3} {f}^{{( {-1.3 ± 0.02} )}} , respectively. The ratio {Q}_{P}^{-1} /{Q}_{S}^{-1} is found to be larger than unity for the entire frequency band which implies profound seismic activity and macroscale heterogeneity prevailing in the region. The study may act as the building block towards determination of source parameter and hazard-related studies in the region.

  19. Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect.

  20. In vitro regeneration of Drosera burmannii Vahl.: a carnivorous plant of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Yanthan, J Sureni; Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2017-06-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol has been developed from shoot tips of Drosera burmannii Vahl., a carnivorous plant of north-east India. Various plant growth regulators were used to study their efficacy in the induction of multiple shoots and roots. Of the various treatments, the maximum number of shoots (28.8 ± 1.5) and roots (9.7 ± 0.6) was observed in one-fourth strength standard medium (MS with 50 mg/l citric acid and 10 mg/l ascorbic acid) supplemented with 4 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 4 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) followed by 26.8 ± 1.4 shoots in one-fourth strength SM fortified with 4 mg/l kinetin (KN) and 4 mg/l NAA. The well-developed plantlets with shoots and roots were potted in small plastic glasses filled with a mixture of sand and farmyard manure (3:1); these plantlets when transferred to a glasshouse for hardening and acclimatization showed 90% survival.

  1. Prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its effect on neonatal outcomes in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bora, Reeta; Sable, Corey; Wolfson, Julian; Boro, Kanta; Rao, Raghavendra

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and characterize its effect on neonatal outcome in Northeast India. Four hundred and seventy mothers and their newborn infants during a one month period were included. The association between maternal hemoglobin (Hb) at delivery and neonatal outcomes were determined. Anemia (Hb < 110 g/L) was present in 421 (89.6%) mothers with 35 (8.3%) having severe anemia(Hb < 70 g/L). After adjusting for maternal and neonatal variables, each 10 g/L decrease in maternal Hb was associated with 0.18 week decrease in gestational length (p = 0.003) and 21 g decrease in birth weight (p = 0.093). Severe maternal anemia was associated with 0.63 week (95% CI, 0.03-1.23week) shorter gestation, 481 g (95% CI, 305-658 g) lower birth weight and 89% increased risk of small-for-gestation (OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.25-2.86)in the offspring, compared with those born to mothers without anemia (p < 0.001). Maternal anemia was highly prevalentin this population. Lower gestational age and birth weight, and increased risk of small-for-gestation were associated with maternal anemia, especially when maternal Hb was <80 g/L. Maternal anemia needs urgent attention to improve neonatal outcome in this population.

  2. Identification of ethnomedicinal plants (Rauvolfioideae: Apocynaceae) through DNA barcoding from northeast India.

    PubMed

    Mahadani, Pradosh; Sharma, Gouri Dutta; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2013-07-01

    DNA barcode-based molecular characterization is in practice for plants, but yet lacks total agreement considering the selection of marker. Plant species of subfamily Rauvolfioideae have long been used as herbal medicine by the majority of tribal people in Northeast (NE) India and at present holds mass effect on the society. Hence, there is an urgent need of correct taxonomic inventorization vis-à-vis species level molecular characterization of important medicinal plants. To test the efficiency of matK in species delineation like DNA barcoding in Rauvolfiadae (Apocynaceae). In this study, the core DNA barcode matK and trnH-psbA sequences are examined for differentiation of selected ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae. DNA from young leaves of selected species was isolated, and matK gene (~800 bp) and trnH-psbA spacer (~450 bp) of Chloroplast DNA was amplified for species level identification. The ~758 bp matK sequence in comparison to the trnH-psbA showed easy amplification, alignment, and high level of discrimination value among the medicinal Rauvolfioidae species. Intergenic spacer trnH-psbA is also exhibited persistent problem in obtaining constant bidirectional sequences. Partial matK sequences exhibited 3 indels in multiple of 3 at 5 end. Evidently, generated matK sequences are clustered cohesively, with their conspecific Genbank sequences. However, repeat structures with AT-rich regions, possessing indels in multiple of 3, could be utilized as qualitative molecular markers in further studies both at the intra-specific and shallow inter-specific levels like the intergenic spacers of CpDNA. matK sequence information could help in correct species identification for medicinal plants of Rauvolfioideae.

  3. Etiological profile of noncompressive myelopathies in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Munindra; Das, Marami; Basumatary, Lakhshya Jyoti; Bhowmick, Suvorit Subhas; Synmon, Baiakmenlang

    2017-01-01

    Background: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21st century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. Objective: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016. Patients of noncompressive myelopathies who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine were segregated into two categories: acute-to-subacute myelopathy (ASM) and chronic myelopathy (CM). In addition to routine blood tests, chest X-ray, urinalysis, and visual evoked potentials, investigations included MRI of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and immunological, infectious, and metabolic profile based on the pattern of involvement. Results: The study had 151 patients (96 ASM and 55 CM) with a median age of 35 years and male: female ratio 1.4:1. The causes of ASM were neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (23), multiple sclerosis (MS) (8), systemic lupus erythematosus (1), Hashimoto's disease (1), postinfectious acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (6), postinfectious myelitis (8), infections (9), spinal cord infarct (5), and electrocution (1). The causes of CM were MS (1), probable or possible sarcoidosis (7), mixed connective tissue disease (1), Hashimoto's disease (2), infections (9), Vitamin B12 deficiency (4), folate deficiency (2), hepatic myelopathy (2), radiation (11), and paraneoplastic (1). No etiology could be found in 48 (31.8%) patients (34 ASM and 14 CM). In 21/96 (21.9%) patients of ASM, acute transverse myelitis was idiopathic based on current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Underlying etiology (demyelinating, autoimmune, infectious, vascular, metabolic disorder, or physical agent) was found in 68% patients of

  4. Climate-Smart Landscapes for Managing Water Resources in the Tea Growing Regions of Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Biggs, E. M.; Saikia, S. D.; Duncan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tea is an important global agricultural commodity, both commercially and culturally. Assam, an agrarian state in northeast India is the largest single tea growing region in the world and the productivity (both in terms of quantity and quality) requires a specific range of enviro-climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are two climate factors which highly influence productivity. Thus water plays a critical role in sustaining future tea production in Assam. Recently the region has been affected by heterogeneous spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and rising temperatures. This has led to temporally varying drought-like conditions during the tea production season, reducing crop resilience and degrading yield quality. Quantifying regional climate-yield characteristics enables more effective decision-making regarding climate change mitigation, water resources management and adaptation to sustain (and enhance) future tea crop production. This research used a panel based regression model to statistically quantify the extent to which precipitation and temperature variables are associated with changes in tea yield. Monthly time-series climate and yield data were regressed for the period 2004 to 2014. Yield data were obtained from 80 tea estates across the four main tea growing regions of Assam, and 120 climate variables were selected for analysis. Results indicate that periods of drought (e.g. more than 10 consecutive days of zero precipitation) are significantly associated with reductions in yield, whereas periods of intense precipitation (e.g. number of days where the 95th percentile was exceeded) are generally associated with increased yield. These results have provided an enhanced understanding of climate-yield characteristics, which will subsequently be used to deliver more climate-smart advisory decision-support services to tea producers in the region. Although water resources management practices, such as water harvesting structures, check dams

  5. Unusual rotavirus genotypes in humans and animals with acute diarrhoea in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, P; Bhattacharjee, M J; Sharma, I; Pandey, P; Barman, N N

    2016-10-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infection causes acute infantile diarrhoea in humans and animals and remains a major concern for vaccine development. The close proximity of humans to animals may foster cross-species infection resulting in the emergence of novel/unusual strains by genetic reassortment. In this study, we characterized 500 diarrhoeal samples for group A rotaviruses (RVA) from children (n = 290), piglets (n = 95) and calves (n = 115) in Northeast India during 2012-2013. The data showed that 142/500 (28·4%) faecal samples were positive for RVA with the highest level of infection detected in piglets (57/142, 40·1%) followed by children (51/142, 35·9%) and calves (34/142, 23·9%). Sequence-based G- and P-typing showed G1P[8] (25%) and G1P[7] (35%) were the prevailing genotypes in both humans and animals. Single cases of unusual genotypes, i.e. G9P[8], G5P[8] in humans and G1P[13], G1P[23] and G3P[7] in animals were also identified. Cluster analyses of the sequences showed regional strains were genetically closer to their homologous strains. However, human G5P[8] and porcine G1P[8] strains showed homology to heterologous hosts of their prototype strains. The subsequent global spread of unusual RV strains may result in their establishment over time, presenting challenges to future vaccine evaluation programmes. More studies on emerging genotypes are required to elucidate how RVA strains evolve post-vaccination. This study supports the need for continuous surveillance of RVA infections after detecting from diverse hosts in a common setting.

  6. Identification of ethnomedicinal plants (Rauvolfioideae: Apocynaceae) through DNA barcoding from northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Mahadani, Pradosh; Sharma, Gouri Dutta; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: DNA barcode-based molecular characterization is in practice for plants, but yet lacks total agreement considering the selection of marker. Plant species of subfamily Rauvolfioideae have long been used as herbal medicine by the majority of tribal people in Northeast (NE) India and at present holds mass effect on the society. Hence, there is an urgent need of correct taxonomic inventorization vis-à-vis species level molecular characterization of important medicinal plants. Objective: To test the efficiency of matK in species delineation like DNA barcoding in Rauvolfiadae (Apocynaceae). Materials and Methods: In this study, the core DNA barcode matK and trnH-psbA sequences are examined for differentiation of selected ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae. DNA from young leaves of selected species was isolated, and matK gene (~800 bp) and trnH-psbA spacer (~450 bp) of Chloroplast DNA was amplified for species level identification. Results: The ~758 bp matK sequence in comparison to the trnH-psbA showed easy amplification, alignment, and high level of discrimination value among the medicinal Rauvolfioidae species. Intergenic spacer trnH-psbA is also exhibited persistent problem in obtaining constant bidirectional sequences. Partial matK sequences exhibited 3 indels in multiple of 3 at 5 end. Evidently, generated matK sequences are clustered cohesively, with their conspecific Genbank sequences. However, repeat structures with AT-rich regions, possessing indels in multiple of 3, could be utilized as qualitative molecular markers in further studies both at the intra-specific and shallow inter-specific levels like the intergenic spacers of CpDNA. Conclusion: matK sequence information could help in correct species identification for medicinal plants of Rauvolfioideae. PMID:23930011

  7. 3-D seismic tomography of the lithosphere and its geodynamic implications beneath the northeast India region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raoof, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Koulakov, I.; Kayal, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    We have evolved 3-D seismic velocity structures in northeast India region and its adjoining areas to understand the geodynamic processes of Indian lithosphere that gently underthrusts under the Himalayas and steeply subducts below the Indo-Burma Ranges. The region is tectonically buttressed between the Himalayan arc to the north and the Indo-Burmese arc to the east. The tomographic image shows heterogeneous structure of lithosphere depicting different tectonic blocks. Though our results are limited to shallower depth (0-90 km), it matches well with the deeper continuation of lithospheric structure obtained in an earlier study. We observe low-velocity structure all along the Eastern Himalayas down to 70 km depth, which may be attributed to deeper roots/thicker crust developed by underthrusting of Indian plate. Parallel to this low-velocity zone lies a high-velocity zone in foredeep region, represents the Indian lithosphere. The underthrusting Indian lithosphere under the Himalayas as well as below the Indo-Burma Ranges is well reflected as a high-velocity dipping structure. The buckled up part of bending Indian plate in study region, the Shillong Plateau-Mikir Hills tectonic block, is marked as a high-velocity structure at shallower depth. The Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, tectonic block where the two arcs meet, is identified as a high-velocity structure. The Bengal Basin, tectonic block to the south of Shillong Plateau, shows low velocity due to its thicker sediments. Based on the tomographic image, a schematic model is presented to elucidate the structure and geodynamics of Indian lithosphere in study region.

  8. Socio-Economic, Demographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Adults of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Rengma, Melody Seb; Sen, Jaydip; Mondal, Nitish

    2015-07-01

    Overweight and obesity are the accumulation of high body adiposity, which can have detrimental health effects and contribute to the development of numerous preventable non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults belonging to the Rengma-Naga population of North-east India. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 826 Rengma-Naga individuals (males: 422; females: 404) aged 20-49 years from the Karbi Anglong District of Assam, using a two-stage stratified random sampling. The socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle variables were recorded using structured schedules. Height and weight were recorded and the Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using standard procedures and equation. The WHO (2000) cut-off points were utilized to assess the prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥23.00-24.99 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥25.00 kg/m(2)). The data were analysed using ANOVA, chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression analysis using SPSS (version 17.0). The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 32.57% (males: 39.34%; females: 25.50%) and 10.77% (males: 9.95%; females: 11.63%), respectively. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that age groups (e.g., 40-49 years), education (≥9(th) standard), part-time occupation and monthly income (≥Rs.10000) were significantly associated with overweight and obesity (p<0.05). Age, education occupation and income appear to have higher associations with overweight and obesity among adults. Suitable healthcare strategies and intervention programmes are needed for combating such prevalence in population.

  9. Fission track studies on some minerals and water of the north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Thoudam Nandababu

    The present work is aimed at the geochronological investigations of the minerals of some granitic rocks and estimation of uranium contents in minerals, rocks and water of some parts of the North-East India with the help of fission track (FT) technique. The study includes FT dating of minerals from granites of four different plutons and from pegmatites of two different regions of Meghalaya, annealing studies of the minerals including the correction of the observed mineral ages and calculation of the cooling and uplift rates of the rocks. Precision on the errors of the mineral ages has also been studied in detail in the present work. The experiment was carried out at the Research laboratories of the Physics and the Geology Departments, Gauhati University, Assam, India during 1981-1984. Experimental results show four different age groups of the minerals which would reflect meaningful geological events in the history of these rocks. Sphenes of the Nartiang and Dawki granites record the highest FT ages ~ 1120 m.y. which may be linked with a major plutonic event. Muscovites of the Nartiang and Jowai pegmatites measure ages ~ 690 m.y. which may correspond to the time of emplacements of these pegmatites. Apatites of the Nartiang granites show FT ages ~ 470 m.y. which falls within the period of Indian Ocean cycle event. But, apatites of the Jowai, Pynursla and Dawki granites record the youngest ages ~ 90 m.y. which lies within the period of extrusion of cretaceous lavas (Sylhet traps). Apatite age of the Nartiang granite and muscovite ages of the Nartiang and Jowai pegmatites were corrected to ~ 510 m.y., ~ 743 m.y. and ~ 741 m.y. respectively by applying the plateau method of age correction. However, insignificant corrections were found in the sphene ages of the Nartiang and Dawki granites and apatite ages of the Jowai and Dawki granites. An interesting finding of the present work is the wide discrepancy between the apatite ages ~ 90 m.y. (Cretaceous) of Jowai, Pynursla

  10. Modeling and forecasting rainfall patterns of southwest monsoons in North-East India as a SARIMA process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha Murthy, K. V.; Saravana, R.; Vijaya Kumar, K.

    2017-02-01

    Weather forecasting is an important issue in the field of meteorology all over the world. The pattern and amount of rainfall are the essential factors that affect agricultural systems. India experiences the precious Southwest monsoon season for four months from June to September. The present paper describes an empirical study for modeling and forecasting the time series of Southwest monsoon rainfall patterns in the North-East India. The Box-Jenkins Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) methodology has been adopted for model identification, diagnostic checking and forecasting for this region. The study has shown that the SARIMA (0, 1, 1) (1, 0, 1)4 model is appropriate for analyzing and forecasting the future rainfall patterns. The Analysis of Means (ANOM) is a useful alternative to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparing the group of treatments to study the variations and critical comparisons of rainfall patterns in different months of the season.

  11. India in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Pipeline, the reopening of the Indian and Burmese consulates in Mandalay and Kolkata, and a recent India-Burma naval exercise—all reflect a significant...Bangkok. India also is building roads to connect Mizoram with Mandalay and has extended a fifty-six-million-dollar line of credit to Burma to modernize...the Mandalay -Rangoon railroad.65 New Delhi is likely also to carry out port and transportation improvements at the mouth of the Kaladan River (the

  12. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. Results: There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. Limitations: It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. Conclusion: The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and

  13. Seamless hydrological predictions for a monsoon driven catchment in North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, Lisei; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological forecasting systems on different time scales is interesting and challenging with regards to humanitarian as well as scientific aspects. In meteorological research, short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts are now being merged to form a system of seamless weather and climate predictions. Coupling of these meteorological forecasts with a hydrological model leads to seamless predictions of streamflow, ranging from one day to a season. While there are big efforts made to analyse the uncertainties of probabilistic streamflow forecasts, knowledge of the single uncertainty contributions from meteorological and hydrological modeling is still limited. The overarching goal of this project is to gain knowledge in this subject by decomposing and quantifying the overall predictive uncertainty into its single factors for the entire seamless forecast horizon. Our study area is the Mahanadi River Basin in North-East India, which is prone to severe floods and droughts. Improved streamflow forecasts on different time scales would contribute to early flood warning as well as better water management operations in the agricultural sector. Because of strong inter-annual monsoon variations in this region, which are, unlike the mid-latitudes, partly predictable from long-term atmospheric-oceanic oscillations, the Mahanadi catchment represents an ideal study site. Regionalized precipitation forecasts are obtained by applying the method of expanded downscaling to the ensemble prediction systems of ECMWF and NCEP. The semi-distributed hydrological model HYPSO-RR, which was developed in the Eco-Hydrological Simulation Environment ECHSE, is set up for several sub-catchments of the Mahanadi River Basin. The model is calibrated automatically using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm, with a modified Nash-Sutcliff efficiency as objective function. Meteorological uncertainty is estimated from the existing ensemble simulations, while the hydrological uncertainty is

  14. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and consequences of tattooing.

  15. Gender Differences in Factors Related to HIV Risk Behaviors among People Who Inject Drugs in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    McFall, Allison M.; Solomon, Sunil S.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K.; Anand, Santhanam; Celentano, David D.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kumar, Suresh; Lucas, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) in India are at high risk for HIV, with women being at elevated risk. Using a socio-ecological framework, this study assessed whether factors associated with HIV transmission risk behaviors differed across men and women PWID. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 6449 PWID in 7 cities in Northeast India. Men (n = 5653) and women (n = 796) PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). We assessed sex differences in two recent HIV transmission risk behaviors: multiple sex partners and needle/syringe sharing. We used multi-level logistic regression models, which incorporated sampling weights and random intercepts for city, to assess factors associated with these HIV risks, separately among men and women. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among women than men (53% vs 18.4%, p<0.01). Nearly 13% of men and 8% of women (p = .30) had multiple partners. Employment in men and relationship status and stigma in women were significantly associated with multiple partners. Approximately 25% of men and 19% of women engaged in needle sharing (p = .16). Younger age in women and depression symptoms in men were significantly associated with increased risk for sharing needles. We found that sexual and drug related risk behaviors were common among PWID in Northeast India, and there were differences between men and women in the socio-ecologic correlates of these behaviors. Contextually-integrated and gender-specific HIV prevention and intervention efforts are needed that consider factors at individual, interpersonal- and community-levels that uniquely impact HIV risks among PWID. PMID:28099458

  16. Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Sonali; Dadhwal, V. K.; Jha, C. S.; Rao, N. Rama; Diwakar, P. G.

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to simulate the forest cover changes in India using Land Change Modeler. Classified multi-temporal long-term forest cover data was used to generate the forest covers of 1880 and 2025. The spatial data were overlaid with variables such as the proximity to roads, settlements, water bodies, elevation and slope to determine the relationship between forest cover change and explanatory variables. The predicted forest cover in 1880 indicates an area of 10,42,008 km2, which represents 31.7% of the geographical area of India. About 40% of the forest cover in India was lost during the time interval of 1880-2013. Ownership of majority of forest lands by non-governmental agencies and large scale shifting cultivation are responsible for higher deforestation rates in the Northeastern states. The six states of the Northeast (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura) and one union territory (Andaman & Nicobar Islands) had shown an annual gross rate of deforestation of >0.3 from 2005 to 2013 and has been considered in the present study for the prediction of future forest cover in 2025. The modelling results predicted widespread deforestation in Northeast India and in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and hence is likely to affect the remaining forests significantly before 2025. The multi-layer perceptron neural network has predicted the forest cover for the period of 1880 and 2025 with a Kappa statistic of >0.70. The model predicted a further decrease of 2305 km2 of forest area in the Northeast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands by 2025. The majority of the protected areas are successful in the protection of the forest cover in the Northeast due to management practices, with the exception of Manas, Sonai-Rupai, Nameri and Marat Longri. The predicted forest cover scenario for the year 2025 would provide useful inputs for effective resource management and help in biodiversity conservation and for mitigating climate change.

  17. Declining efficacy of artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neelima; Kaitholia, Kamlesh; Srivastava, Bina; Shah, Naman K; Narayan, Jai Prakash; Dev, Vas; Phookan, Sobhan; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Rana, Roma; Bharti, Ram Suresh; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Dhariwal, Akshay Chand; Valecha, Neena

    2014-07-22

    Anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in India has historically travelled from northeast India along the Myanmar border. The treatment policy for P. falciparum in the region was, therefore, changed from chloroquine to artesunate (AS) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in selected areas in 2005 and in 2008 it became the first-line treatment. Recognizing that resistance to the partner drug can limit the useful life of this combination therapy, routine in vivo and molecular monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy through sentinel sites was initiated in 2009. Between May and October 2012, 190 subjects with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, and Mizoram. Clinical and parasitological assessments were conducted over 42 days of follow-up. Multivariate analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with treatment failure. Genotyping was done to distinguish re-infection from recrudescence as well as to determine the prevalence of molecular markers of antifolate resistance among isolates. A total of 169 patients completed 42 days of follow-up at three sites. The crude and PCR-corrected Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of AS + SP were 60.8% (95% CI: 48.0-71.4) and 76.6% (95% CI: 64.1-85.2) in Gomati, Tripura; 74.6% (95% CI: 62.0-83.6) and 81.7% (95% CI: 69.4-89.5) in Lunglei, Mizoram; and, 59.5% (95% CI: 42.0-73.2) and 82.3% (95% CI: 64.6-91.6) in Changlang, Arunachal Pradesh. Most patients with P. falciparum cleared parasitaemia within 24 hours of treatment, but eight, including three patients who failed treatment, remained parasitaemic on day 3. Risk factors associated with treatment failure included age < five years, fever at the time of enrolment and AS under dosing. No adverse events were reported. Presence of dhfr plus dhps quintuple mutation was observed predominantly in treatment failure samples. AS + SP treatment failure was widespread in

  18. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus.

  19. Monitoring green leaf tea quality parameters of different TV clones grown in northeast India using satellite data.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Rishiraj

    2013-08-15

    This study tries to quantify the effects of green leaf tea parameters that influence tea quality in Northeast India. The study is to identify the different parameters that have a significant influence on tea quality through the use of remote sensing. It investigates the methods for estimating tea quality based on remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Attention focused on high yielding TV clones (TV1, TV18, TV22, TV23, TV25 and TV26). NDVI was obtained from ASTER images. Statistical analysis shows that NDVI has a strong significant effect on the caffeine content followed by epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) and to some extent in other chemical parameters. Relationships therefore exist between quality parameters and remote sensing in particular for the TV clones. This leads to the conclusion that NDVI has a large potential to be used for monitoring tea quality of individual cultivars in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shifting to settled cultivation: Changing practices among the Adis in Central Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Teegalapalli, Karthik; Datta, Aparajita

    2016-09-01

    In the hilly tropics, although shifting cultivation is a widespread practice, government policies have attempted to replace it with other land uses. However, several factors determine whether farming communities can make the shift. We tried understanding the factors that facilitate or impede the shift to settled cultivation through interviews with the Adi tribe in north-east India. Although settled cultivation was initiated in the 60s, about 90 % of the families still practise shifting cultivation, observing 13 festivals associated with the annual agricultural calendar. Our results indicate that the economic status of a household determined whether a family undertook settled cultivation, while labour availability was important for shifting cultivation. Often, these nuances are ignored in the Government policies. We conclude that future policies should be mindful of cultural and socio-economic factors that affect the community and of the social-ecological resilience of the landscapes and not use a one-size-fits-all strategy.

  1. p16 gene silencing along with p53 single-nucleotide polymorphism and risk of esophageal cancer in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mandakini; Sharma, Santanu Kumar; Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh; Mahanta, Jagadish; Phukan, Rup Kumar; Jalan, Bimal Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The high incidence of esophageal cancer in Northeast India and the unique ethnic background and dietary habits provide a great opportunity to study the molecular genetics behind esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in this part of the region. We hypothesized that in addition to currently known environmental risk factors for esophageal cancer, genetic and epigenetic factors are also involved in esophageal carcinogenesis in Northeast India. Therefore, in this study, we explored the possible association between the two important G1 cell cycle regulatory genes p16 and p53 and environmental risk factors and risk of esophageal carcinogenesis. A total of 100 newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases along with equal number of age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were included in this study. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the p16 promoter methylation status. Single-nucleotide polymorphism at codon 72 of p53 gene was assessed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Aberrant methylation of p16 gene was seen in 81% of esophageal cancer cases. Hypermethylation of p16 gene was not found in healthy controls. p53 Pro/Pro genotype was found to be a risk genotype in Northeast India compared with Arg/Pro and Arg/Arg. p53 variant/polymorphism was significantly associated with esophageal cancer risk in the study population under all three genetic models, namely, dominant model (Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro vs Arg/Arg odds ratio = 2.25, confidence interval = 1.19-4.26; p = 0.012), recessive model (Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro vs Pro/Pro odds ratio = 2.35, confidence interval = 1.24-4.44; p = 0.008), and homozygous model (Pro/Pro vs Arg/Arg odds ratio = 3.33, confidence interval = 1.54-7.20; p = 0.002). However, p53 variant/polymorphism was not statistically associated with esophageal cancer risk under the heterozygous model (Pro/Pro vs Arg/Pro). In the case-only analysis based on p16

  2. Utilizing ribosomal DNA gene marker regions to characterize the metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea) parasitizing piscine intermediate hosts in Manipur, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Athokpam, Voleentina D; Jyrwa, Donald B; Tandon, Veena

    2016-06-01

    Freshwater fishes in Manipur, Northeast India frequently harbour several types of metacercariae, which based on morphological criteria were identified as Clinostomoides brieni, Euclinostomum heterostomum (Clinostomidae) and Polylekithum sp. (Allocreadiidae). Molecular techniques utilizing PCR amplification of rDNA regions of larger subunit (LSU or 28S), smaller subunit (SSU or 18S) and inter transcribed spacers (ITS1, 2) were used for molecular characterization of these types. Sequences generated from the metacercariae were compared with their related sequences available in public databases; an analysis of the identity matrices and phylogenetic trees constructed was also carried out, which confirmed their identification. Similarly, the sequences generated from Polylekithum sp. were found to be highly similar to the species of the same genus. The rDNA ITS2 secondary structure provided additional confirmation of the robustness of the molecular marker as a tool for taxon-specific characterization.

  3. Variations of physicochemical properties in Kalpakkam coastal waters, east coast of India, during southwest to northeast monsoon transition period.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Kamala Kanta; Mohanty, Ajit K; Sahu, Gouri; Sarkar, Santosh K; Natesan, Usha; Venkatesan, R; Prasad, M V R

    2010-12-01

    A significant variation in physicochemical properties of the Kalpakkam coastal waters, eastern part of India, was observed during the event of southwest to northeast monsoon transition. Increase in nitrate, total nitrogen, and silicate concentrations were noticed during post-transition period. Ammonia concentration was at peak during transition period as compared to pre- and post-transition periods. Hypo-saline condition (~23 psu) was observed during post-transition as the surface water salinity decreased by ~10 psu from the pre-transitional values. Turbidity, suspended particulate matter, phosphate and total phosphorous values decreased marginally, coinciding with northward to southward current reversal. A drastic decrease (eightfold) in chlorophyll-a concentration was observed in the coastal water during post-transition period.

  4. Assessment of maximum earthquake potential of the Kopili fault zone in northeast India and strong ground motion simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutar, Anup K.; Verma, Mithila; Pandey, Ajeet P.; Bansal, B. K.; Rajendra Prasad, P.; Rama Rao, P.; Sharma, Babita

    2017-10-01

    Maximum magnitude (MM) earthquake in the Kopili fault zone of North-East India has been assessed using different approaches, which are primarily dependent on various parameters such as fault geometry, slip rate, geodetic moment rate, and convergence rate. The analyses reveal that the source zone has accumulated strain energy, during the last 72 years since 1943, enough to produce a strong earthquake of magnitude ≥ 7. On supplementing with the historical data, we conclude Mw7.3 as the maximum potential earthquake for the Kopili source zone. Such large earthquake, on its occurrence, may cause widespread significant ground shakings and damage to infrastructures in the study region. We, therefore, also simulated strong ground motion, in the form of peak ground acceleration (PGA), for the Mw7.3 potential earthquake using Empirical Green's Function (EGF) approach for ten different sites. In the analysis, an earthquake of magnitude Mw6.5, which has been simulated using a recorded Mw5.3 earthquake, is used as Green's Function. The two-step approach is adopted in the simulation process, as the required criteria, i.e., moment ratio of < 1000 between the target potential event (Mw7.3) and the element event (Mw5.3) could not be met. We found that the cities like Tezpur, Masamari, Tumuki, Dhekiajuli, Nagaon, Bomdila, Udalguri, Seppa, Hajoi, Behali, Guwahati, and Itanagar that are located ∼ 60-130 km from the source zone may experience very strong to moderate ground shaking with PGA ranging between 0.36-0.14 g. However, the cities located in the distance range of ∼ 130 - 300 km from the source, namely Jorhat, Ziro, Mokokchung, Dhubri, and Kokrajhar are expected to have low ground shaking with PGA < 0.14 g. The study therefore provides valuable insights to the likely seismic hazard scenario in north-east India.

  5. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Baharul; Khan, Mohamed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the

  6. Diverse Rice Landraces of North-East India Enables the Identification of Novel Genetic Resources for Magnaporthe Resistance.

    PubMed

    Umakanth, Bangale; Vishalakshi, Balija; Sathish Kumar, P; Rama Devi, S J S; Bhadana, Vijay Pal; Senguttuvel, P; Kumar, Sudhir; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Prasad, M S; Madhav, Maganti S

    2017-01-01

    North-East (NE) India, the probable origin of rice has diverse genetic resources. Many rice landraces of NE India were not yet characterized for blast resistance. A set of 232 landraces of NE India, were screened for field resistance at two different hotspots of rice blast, viz., IIRR-UBN, Hyderabad and ICAR-NEH, Manipur in two consecutive seasons. The phenotypic evaluation as well as gene profiling for 12 major blast resistance genes (Pitp, Pi33, Pi54, Pib, Pi20, Pi38, Pita2, Pi1, Piz, Pi9, Pizt, and Pi40) with linked as well as gene-specific markers, identified 84 resistant landraces possessing different gene(s) either in singly or in combinations and also identified seven resistant landraces which do not have the tested genes, indicating the valuable genetic resources for blast resistance. To understand the molecular diversity existing in the population, distance and model based analysis were performed using 120 SSR markers. Results of both analyses are highly correlated by forming two distinct subgroups and the existence of high diversity (24.9% among the subgroups; 75.1% among individuals of each subgroup) was observed. To practically utilize the diversity in the breeding program, a robust core set having an efficiency index of 0.82 which consists of 33 landraces were identified through data of molecular, blast phenotyping, and important agro-morphological traits. The association of eight novel SSR markers for important agronomic traits which includes leaf and neck blast resistance was determined using genome-wide association analysis. The current study focuses on identifying novel resources having field resistance to blast as well as markers which can be explored in rice improvement programs. It also entails the development of a core set which can aid in representing the entire diversity for efficiently harnessing its properties to broaden the gene pool of rice.

  7. Molecular characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus NA1 and GA5 genotypes detected in Assam in northeast India, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2013-09-01

    A significant number of children die each year from acute respiratory tract infections especially in developing countries. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common virus identified in such cases. Genetic characterization and the circulation pattern of RSV is important for future selection of appropriate vaccine strains. Limited information is available on the circulation of RSV in developing countries including India. The present study aimed to provide baseline information on the genetic variability of RSV in the Dibrugarh district of Assam, northeast India. Clinical specimens collected from children aged ≤6 years for routine influenza surveillance in the Dibrugarh district of Assam during the period 2009-2012, were screened for RSV by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genotyping was based on partial sequencing of the RSV attachment glycoprotein gene. RSV was detected in 7.9% (39/493) of cases. Only RSV group A viruses were detected during the study period with predominance of NA1 genotypes (89%). Two RSV GA5 genotypes were found to be co-circulating during 2012. The specific amino acid substitutions characteristics of the NA1 genotypes were distinct from RSV strains reported from the rest of India. It is concluded that the circulating genotypes of RSV in Assam, northeast India are NA1 and GA5. To our knowledge this is the first report of circulation of the NA1 genotype in India.

  8. Notes on black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from North-East India: new records of five species from Arunachal Pradesh and taxonomic reviews of two species from Assam.

    PubMed

    Borah, Subhalaxmi; Rahman, Imtiaz; Goswami, Sewali; Deka, Manab; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-01

    In recent surveys of black flies in Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India, five species are newly recorded from Arunachal Pradesh: Simulium (Montisimulium) nemorivagum Datta, 1973, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) darjeelingense Datta, 1973, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) decuplum Takaoka & Davies, 1995, Simulium (Simulium) barnesi Takaoka & Suzuki, 1984 and Simulium (Simulium) pradyai Takaoka & Somboon, 2008, of which the latter three species also represent new records from India. Taxonomic reviews of two species of black flies reported from Assam show that Simulium (Gomphostilbia) unum Datta, 1975 is a junior synonym of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) darjeelingense, and the larva of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) sp. nr. varicorne Edwards is identifiable as Simulium (Gomphostilbia) parahiyangum Takaoka & Sigit, 1992.

  9. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  10. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  11. Treatment-seeking for febrile illness in north-east India: an epidemiological study in the malaria endemic zone

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper studies the determinants of utilization of health care services, especially for treatment of febrile illness in the malaria endemic area of north-east India. Methods An area served by two districts of Upper Assam representing people living in malaria endemic area was selected for household survey. A sample of 1,989 households, in which at least one member of household suffered from febrile illness during last three months and received treatment from health service providers, were selected randomly and interviewed by using the structured questionnaire. The individual characteristics of patients including social indicators, area of residence and distance of health service centers has been used to discriminate or group the patients with respect to their initial and final choice of service providers. Results Of 1,989 surveyed households, initial choice of treatment-seeking for febrile illness was self-medication (17.8%), traditional healer (Vaidya)(39.2%), government (29.3%) and private (13.7%) health services. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analysis exhibits the influence of occupation, area of residence and ethnicity on choice of health service providers. The traditional system of medicine was commonly used by the people living in remote areas compared with towns. As all the febrile cases finally received treatment either from government or private health service providers, the odds (Multivariate Rate Ratio) was almost three-times higher in favour of government services for lower households income people compared to private. Conclusion The study indicates the popular use of self-medication and traditional system especially in remote areas, which may be the main cause of delay in diagnosis of malaria. The malaria training given to the paramedical staff to assist the health care delivery needs to be intensified and expanded in north-east India. The people who are economically poor and living in remote areas mainly visit the government

  12. Moment Magnitude ( M W) and Local Magnitude ( M L) Relationship for Earthquakes in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Bora, P. K.; Duarah, R.; Kalita, Aditya; Biswas, Rajib; Gogoi, N.; Kayal, J. R.

    2012-11-01

    An attempt has been made to examine an empirical relationship between moment magnitude ( M W) and local magnitude ( M L) for the earthquakes in the northeast Indian region. Some 364 earthquakes that were recorded during 1950-2009 are used in this study. Focal mechanism solutions of these earthquakes include 189 Harvard-CMT solutions ( M W ≥ 4.0) for the period 1976-2009, 61 published solutions and 114 solutions obtained for the local earthquakes (2.0 ≤ M L ≤ 5.0) recorded by a 27-station permanent broadband network during 2001-2009 in the region. The M W- M L relationships in seven selected zones of the region are determined by linear regression analysis. A significant variation in the M W- M L relationship and its zone specific dependence are reported here. It is found that M W is equivalent to M L with an average uncertainty of about 0.13 magnitude units. A single relationship is, however, not adequate to scale the entire northeast Indian region because of heterogeneous geologic and geotectonic environments where earthquakes occur due to collisions, subduction and complex intra-plate tectonics.

  13. Cardiovascular health among healthy population of Northeast region of India: a cross-sectional study comparing urban-tribal difference.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soma; Gupta, Kinnari; Kumar, Soumitra

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of adult mortality in India but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, especially from North-east region of India. This study aims to assess the prevalence and the urban/tribal gradient of cardiovascular disease risk factors among healthy population of Tripura. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 238 healthy individuals (140 urban and 98 tribal) in one urban and five tribal areas of Tripura. Data was collected on sociodemographic profile, medical history, anthropometry, dietary patterns and addiction. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score was calculated. The association of independent variables with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score were examined by using multiple regression model. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score were higher in urban group. Urban people had higher salt, calories and fat intake. No difference was found in the addiction patterns of tobacco and alcohol but frequency and quantity being higher in tribal area. Dyslipidaemia and alcohol consumption showed significant positive association with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score in both groups. While the non-sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits (low salt, low fat, carbohydrate predominant) of tribal population need to be promoted as a whole across the nation, they need to be protected from the adverse effects of rampant prevalence of tobacco and alcohol addiction among them. Urban population need to be extricated from adverse effects of sedentary lifestyle, modern food habits (high salt, high fat) and tobacco-alcohol addiction.

  14. Identification of trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall over subtropical Assam in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajharia, Deepak; Yadav, Brijesh K.; Maske, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Kar, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall are investigated using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test at twenty-four sites of subtropical Assam located in the northeastern region of India. The trends are statistically confirmed by both the parametric and non-parametric methods and the magnitudes of significant trends are obtained through the linear regression test. In Assam, the average monsoon rainfall (rainy days) during the monsoon months of June to September is about 1606 mm (70), which accounts for about 70% (64%) of the annual rainfall (rainy days). On monthly time scales, sixteen and seventeen sites (twenty-one sites each) witnessed decreasing trends in the total rainfall (rainy days), out of which one and three trends (seven trends each) were found to be statistically significant in June and July, respectively. On the other hand, seventeen sites witnessed increasing trends in rainfall in the month of September, but none were statistically significant. In December (February), eighteen (twenty-two) sites witnessed decreasing (increasing) trends in total rainfall, out of which five (three) trends were statistically significant. For the rainy days during the months of November to January, twenty-two or more sites witnessed decreasing trends in Assam, but for nine (November), twelve (January) and eighteen (December) sites, these trends were statistically significant. These observed changes in rainfall, although most time series are not convincing as they show predominantly no significance, along with the well-reported climatic warming in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons may have implications for human health and water resources management over bio-diversity rich Northeast India.

  15. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  16. Genetic Variation within Native Populations of Endemic Silkmoth Antheraea assamensis (Helfer) from Northeast India Indicates Need for In Situ Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Tunginba; Mazumdar-Leighton, Sudeshna; Saikia, Mahaswetta; Pant, Prashant; Kashung, Sochanngam; Neog, Kartik; Chakravorty, Rajen; Nair, Suresh; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Babu, Cheerukeri Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    A. assamensis is a phytophagous Lepidoptera from Northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its characteristic cocoon silk. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. The need to reduce dependence on wild populations for cocoons necessitates assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated and wild populations. Molecular markers based on PCR of Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used with four populations of wild insects and eleven populations of cultivated insects. Wild populations had high genetic diversity estimates (Hi = 0.25; HS = 0.28; HE = 0.42) and at least one population contained private alleles. Both marker systems indicated that genetic variability within populations examined was significantly high. Among cultivated populations, insects of the Upper Assam region (Hi = 0.19; HS = 0.18; HE = 0) were genetically distinct (FST = 0.38 with both marker systems) from insects of Lower Assam (Hi = 0.24; HS = 0.25; HE = 0.3). Sequencing of polymorphic amplicons suggested transposition as a mechanism for maintaining genomic diversity. Implications for conservation of native populations in the wild and preserving in-farm diversity are discussed. PMID:23185503

  17. Characterization and classification of freshwater marshy wetland using synthetic aperture radar polarimetry: a case study from Loktak wetland, Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalia, Hitendra; Musthafa, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Loktak is the largest natural wetland of Northeast India, the last home of endangered brow-antlered deer, and a site of global significance recognized under Ramsar convention. Ecological and human-meditated spatial patterns of Loktak wetland were characterized and classified using a Radarsat-2 C band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data. Radarsat-2 quad-pol scene of dry season was preprocessed and classified using PolSARpro software. Eigen vector-eigen value decomposition of coherency matrix (T3) was performed to characterize the scattering properties of wetland targets based on entropy (H)/anisotropy (A)/alpha angle (α) segmentation. Results illustrate that RGB color display of H/A/α images is a useful indicator of wetland structure and composition, and provide clear visual discrimination of open water, floating phumdi, permanent phumdi cover, and associated man-made features. Six classes, namely, floating phumdi, permanent phumdi, scrub/shrub, fallow land, built-up, and open water were mapped using Wishart classification of H/A/α images. Scattering mechanisms of natural and man-made targets synthesized from PolSAR data, and their classification using Wishart algorithm have been validated through a visually classified map and field reference points. The land cover generated would be useful for conservation and management of Loktak wetland and brow-antlered deer population.

  18. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

  19. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

  20. Sociodemographic Correlates of Unipolar and Bipolar Depression in North-East India: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti; Sharma, Mohan; Saikia, Shilpi; Patangia, Priyanka; Hazarika, Pranabjyoti; Sarmah, Anil Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis and management of depression is important for better therapeutic outcome. Strategies for distinguishing between unipolar and bipolar depression are yet to be defined, resulting improper management. This study aims at comparing the socio-demographic and other variables between patients with unipolar and bipolar depression, along with assessment of severity of depression. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in North-East India. The study included total of 330 subjects selected through purposive sampling technique from outpatient department after obtaining due informed consent. Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) version 6.0 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was applied for analysis. Results: Bipolar group had onset of illness at significantly younger age with more chronicity (32.85 ± 11.084). Mean BDI score was significantly higher in the unipolar depressive group. Conclusion: Careful approach in eliciting symptom severity and associated socio demographic profiles in depressed patients may be helpful in early diagnosis of bipolar depression. PMID:28250558

  1. Humans, dogs and parasitic zoonoses--unravelling the relationships in a remote endemic community in northeast India using molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Traub, R J; Robertson, I D; Irwin, P; Mencke, N; Monis, P; Thompson, R C A

    2003-07-01

    Canine parasitic zoonoses pose a continuing public health problem, especially in developing countries and communities that are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Our study combined the use of conventional and molecular epidemiological tools to determine the role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites such as hookworms, Giardiaand Ascarisin a parasite endemic tea-growing community in northeast India. A highly sensitive and specific PCR-RFLP was developed to detect and differentiate the zoonotic species of canine hookworm eggs directly from faeces. This allowed epidemiological screening of canine hookworm species in this community to be conducted with ease and accuracy. Seventy two percent of dogs were found to harbour A. caninum, 60% A. braziliense and 37% harboured mixed infections with both hookworms. No A. ceylanicum was detected in the dog population. The zoonotic potential of canine Giardiawas also investigated by characterising Giardia duodenalisrecovered from humans and dogs living in the same locality and households, at three different loci. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis provided compelling evidence to support the zoonotic transmission of canine Giardia. Molecular tools were also used to identify the species of Ascarisegg present in over 30% of dog faecal samples. The results demonstrated the role of dogs as a significant disseminator and environmental contaminator of Ascaris lumbricoidesin communities where promiscuous defecation practices exist. Our study demonstrated the usefulness of combining conventional and molecular parasitological and epidemiological tools to help solve unresolved relationships with regards to parasitic zoonoses.

  2. Socioeconomic covariates and their impact on the opportunity for natural selection in a riparian tribe of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Mithun

    2012-07-01

    The intensity of natural selection correlates with various bio-social variables which influence the genetic structure of a population. In this paper it has been sought to find out the influence of variable environmental setting and economic condition on selection intensity among the Mising tribal population of Assam, Northeast India. Detailed reproductive pattern of 309 post menopausal women is obtained and a comparison has been made between different environmental as well as economic backgrounds. The impact of secular change on selection intensity has been assessed. For this study I have proposed a modified formula of Johnston & Kensinger's (1971) index for selection intensity. Crow's index of selection intensity has also been used for comparative analyses. After considering standard statistical procedure, a clear disparity of selection intensity has been noticed in terms of varying socioeconomic condition as well as habitational background. It can be concluded from the study that environmental factors act more in terms of selection pressure on infants rather than the other post natal stages.

  3. Prevalence of Malnutrition Among the Mising Children of Northeast India: A Comparison Between Four Different Sets of Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Mithun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of malnutrition among the children from developing countries has reached unprecedented level which can be evaluated by body mass index. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among the Mising children of Northeast India using four different sets of Body Mass Index references. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a population representative sample of 511 Mising children. Four different sets of Body Mass Index reference were used to define thinness as well as overweight cases. Results: With the use of different references the prevalence of thinness varies from 17.18% to 27.73% among the boys and from 19.21% to 28.23% among the girls. On the other hand the prevalence of overweight varies from 1.95% to 7.81% among the boys and 1.96% to 9.41% among the girls. Reference based on United States (1971-74) survey detects sex difference in overweight. The calculated kappa values indicated a fair to almost perfect agreement between various references. Conclusion: Considerable prevalence of overweight despite a persistently high burden of thinness suggests existence of nutrition transition among the Mising population. Prevalence of malnutrition differs with the application of different references which warrants application of international references carefully for any potential misclassification of children. PMID:22866267

  4. Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom

    PubMed Central

    Das, Diganta; Urs, Nanjaraj; Hiremath, Vilas; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Doley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity. PMID:24349704

  5. SCC mec typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from pigs of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Rajkhowa, S; Sarma, D K; Pegu, S R

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of both humans and animal. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections both in hospitals and communities due to its multidrug resistance tendency. This study was undertaken to characterize the MRSA isolates from pigs and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates. Forty nine MRSA strains (one strain per positive pig) isolated from pigs of Northeast India were characterized by SCCmec typing and antimicrobial resistance. The overall prevalence of MRSA was 7.02 % with the highest prevalence recorded in pigs aged 1-3 months (P = 0.001) and in nasal samples (P = 0.005). Two SCC mec types (type III and V) were found in Indian pigs with predominance of type V. All isolates were resistant to penicillin. Seventeen resistance groups were observed where 87.75 % isolates showed multidrug resistance (showed resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials). The most predominant resistance pattern observed was Oxytetracycline + Penicillin + Sulfadiazine + Tetracycline accounting 12.24 % of the isolates. The present study contributes to the understanding of characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of porcine MRSA isolates which in turn will help in devising strategy for the control of this pathogen. Findings of the study also throw light on multidrug resistance MRSA and emphasize the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in animal practice.

  6. Morphological Variations of the Thyroid Gland among the People of Upper Assam Region of Northeast India: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkonwar, Anjan Jyoti; Kusre, Giriraj

    2016-12-01

    The morphological variations of the thyroid gland have been reported from different parts of the world. The variations are due to remnant or non-specific development of the parts of the thyroid gland. Surgical operation of the thyroid gland has been the treatment of choice in various thyroid pathologies. Prior knowledge of the morphological variation is important to ensure better results from these surgical operations. To study the prevalence of morphological variations seen in the thyroid glands in the upper Assam region of Northeast India. This was a hospital based cadaveric study. Total number of Thyroid glands dissected were 80. The thyroid gland was examined properly for the presence of pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroideae and complete absence of isthmus. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 21.0. It was found that 17 (21.25%) cadavers did not show an isthmus. The pyramidal lobe was present in 31(38.75%) cases and frequently arising from the left side (74.2%) of the isthmus. Levator glandulae thyroideae was found in 15 (18.75%) of the thyroid specimens. In all cases, it was extended from the apex of the pyramidal lobe to the hyoid bone. Morphological variation of the thyroid gland is very common hence requires detection prior to any surgery on the thyroid gland.

  7. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur). A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory), Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur), involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-). The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal communities. Conclusions

  8. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at Indo-Burma hotspot: a case study from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Sundriyal, M; Roshnibala, S; Kotoky, R; Kanjilal, P B; Singh, H B; Sundriyal, R C

    2011-10-04

    The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur). A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory), Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur), involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-). The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal communities. Considering the importance of wild

  9. Direction of uneven health-care expenditure: Evidence from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Tiken; Guha, Pradyut

    2017-01-01

    Although the need for ensuring universal coverage in health has received the attention of policymakers under the Millennium Development Goals program, the skewed pattern of health-care expenditure has been increased globally. To find out the pattern of public health-care expenditure in northeastern states of India and also to identify the nature of inter-state variation in health-care expenditure among the states. The study was based on the secondary data collected from the State Finance Figures of Budgetary Statistics of Reserve Bank of India. The period of study was 13 years (2002-2003 to 2014-2015). The study used descriptive statistics and composite supply-side index separately for revenue and capital expenditure by randomizing through the population census figures of 2001 and 2011 for examining the pattern of interstate variation in health-care expenditure. It has been observed that the states having higher mean expenditure registered low compound annual growth rate in health expenditure and thereby causing low per capita value and lower value of the composite index. Thus, the largely populated state needs the due attention of policymaker in reducing the skewed pattern of health-care expenditure.

  10. Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; De, Ankan; Debnath, Bikas; Choudhary, Dheeraj; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhusan; Himadri, Divakar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Parida, Satya

    2014-12-05

    Peste-des-petits- ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating disease of goats and sheep. Although India is endemic for PPR, Tripura, a state in North East India has never been reported confirmed PPR outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of PPR occurred in non-descript goats at the Sabroom town of Tripura state in North-East India in June, 2013. The causative agent, PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by sandwich ELISA, virus isolation and N gene based RT-PCR and sequencing. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the involvement of lineage IV PPR virus in the outbreak. The outbreak viruses from Tripura state were clustered mainly with circulating viruses from Bangladesh, India, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Dubai and Kurdistan. However, the nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 99.2 to 99.6% with the PPR strains circulating in Bangladesh during 2011 and 2012 whereas 95.5-98% homology has been observed with the viruses from India and other countries. These findings suggest the transboundary circulation of PPR virus between India and Bangladesh border, which warrant immediate vaccination across the international border to create an immune belt.

  11. Prevalence of multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Soni, Monika; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    Two numbers of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Gossingpara, Runikhata area in Chirang district of Assam had shown multiple mutations in Pfcrt-dhfr-dhps gene (up to seven mutations: One mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene and three mutations in Pfdhps gene). Similarly, two cases in Bat camp, Miao area under Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh had shown a total of eight mutations, of which one mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene, three mutations in Pfdhps gene and one mutation in PfATPase6 gene. One case in 3 Miles, Miao area of Changlang district has shown mutations in Pfcrt(one mutation), Pfdhfr(four mutations) and Pfdhps(three mutations) gene. These results indicated that there is an existence of multiple mutant P. falciparum malaria cases in northeastern region of India.

  12. Parasitic diseases of zoonotic importance in humans of northeast India, with special reference to ocular involvement

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Deka, Angshuman; Yambem, Dinakumar; Tahiliani, Prerana Sushil; Deka, Panna; Bhattacharyya, Pankaj; Deka, Satyen; Das, Kalyan; Bharali, Gayatri; Deka, Apurba; Paul, Rajashree

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent in India, including the northeastern states. Proper epidemiological data are lacking from this part of the country on zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in the current scenario. Systemic manifestation of such diseases as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. The incidence of acquired toxoplasmal infection is showing an increasing trend in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Among the ocular parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, dirofilariasis, gnathostomiasis, hydatidosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, etc, are the real problems that are seen in this subset of the population. Therefore, proper coordination between various medical specialities, including veterinary science and other governing bodies, is needed for better and more effective strategic planning to control zoonoses. PMID:28539786

  13. Further evidence of hepatitis B virus genotype I circulation in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ashrafali Mohamed; Goel, Ashish; Kannangai, Rajesh; Abraham, Priya

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes have known to show a geographical pattern in their distribution and have been used to trace the migration of populations from geographically distant regions. Novel recombinants between HBV genotypes A, G and C referred as genotype I has been recently reported from Eastern India. In our investigation to characterise antiviral resistance mutations, we identified a rare case of HBV genotype I infection in chronic hepatitis B subject. We encountered confounding results of this emerging genotype 'designated as genotype G' in three widely used HBV sequence database for genotype determination. The recombinant fragment of genotype G largely occupies the surface gene sequence of the newly identified genotype I and could hence lead to misclassification of genotype I. Additionally, recombination analysis of the generated sequences in Simplot and jpHMM model showed two different patterns of recombination events. In conclusion, the increasing recognition of genotype I in this population suggests that further studies may reveal uncommon genotypes from other geographically distant regions. Our observation of potential genotype I misclassification despite the use of public HBV sequence database and other recombination analysis tools highlights the need for updating and validating public sequence domains of diagnostic importance.

  14. Possible development mechanisms of pre-monsoon thunderstorms over northeast and east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sunanda; Vishwanathan, Gokul; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems of towering cumulonimbus clouds of high vertical and horizontal extent lasting from a few minutes to several hours. Pre-monsoon thundershowers over the past 10 years have been analyzed to understand the organization, horizontal and vertical development and dissipation of such severe events. Kalbaisakhi's/ Norwester's over north east and East India is given preference in this study, while some of the other extreme events are also analyzed due to their severity. The meteorological parameters like horizontal and vertical wind, precipitable water etc., and derived variables such as Severe Weather Threat (SWEAT) Index, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), and Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE) of the identified cases are analyzed using observations from NCEP and IMD. Satellite observations from IMD and TRMM are also used to analyze the development and moisture flow of such systems. The analysis shows that some of the parameters display a clear signature of developing thunderstorms. It is also seen that cloud parameters such as convective precipitation rate and convective cloud cover from NCEP FNL didn't show much variation during the development of storms, which may be attributed to the limitation of spatial and temporal resolution. The parameters which showed indications of a developing thunderstorm were studied in detail in order to understand the possible mechanisms behind the development and organization of thunderstorm cells.

  15. Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coast of Visakhapatnam, North-East Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, G.; Grinivasa Kumar, T.

    2016-08-01

    The current study area is coastal zone of Visakhapatnam, district of Andhra Pradesh along the coast of India. This area is mostly vulnerable to many disasters such as storms, cyclone, flood, tsunami and erosion. This area is considered as cyclone prone area because of frequently occurrence of the cyclones in this area. Recently the two tropical cyclones that formed in the Bay of Bengal are Hudhud (October 13, 2014) and Phylin (October 11, 2013), has caused devastating impacts on the eastern coast and shows that the country has lack of preparedness to cyclone, storm surge and related natural hazards. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared here are a blended and combined overlay of multiple hazards those affecting the coastal zone. The present study aims to develop a methodology for coastal multi-hazard vulnerability assessment. This study carried out using parameters like probability of coastal slope, tsunami arrival height, future sea level rise, coastal erosion and tidal range. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared by overlaying of multi hazards those affecting the coastal zone. Multi-hazard vulnerability maps further reproduced as risk maps with the land use information. The decision making tools presented here can provide a useful information during the disaster for the evacuation process and to evolve a management strategy.

  16. Emergence of 2.1. subgenotype of classical swine fever virus in pig population of India in 2011.

    PubMed

    Rajkhowa, T K; Hauhnar, Lalthapui; Lalrohlua, Isaac; Mohanarao G, Jagan

    2014-01-01

    Limited studies are available on molecular epidemiology of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in India and are restricted to domestic pigs. These studies show the presence of 1.1. genotype. The aim of the present study was to subgenotype four CSFV isolates, two each from the outbreaks of CSF in wild (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs of Mizoram state, India, in 2011. CSFV isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing in E2 and NS5B genomic regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates in both genomic regions was carried out with 39 Indian isolates (4 isolates from the present study of Mizoram state and 35 isolates from the other states of India) and 57 reference sequences retrieved from the GenBank database. Two of the 39 isolates from India were collected from wild boar and were subgenotyped as 2.1. Out of 37 isolates from domestic pigs, only two were subgenotyped as 2.1. The analysis revealed the emergence of 2.1. subgenotype of CSFV in both wild and domestic pigs in India. The isolates from domestic pigs of Mizoram state (CSF/MZ/KOL/73 and CSF/MZ/AIZ/115) were grouped in genotype 1 and subgenotype 1.1., thus confirming that the source of CSF outbreaks in domesticated pigs in Mizoram was not from wild pigs. The current study forms an essential step for better understanding of the epidemiology of 2.1 subgroup as well as the movement and spread of the disease in India.

  17. An experimental investigation to characterise soil macroporosity under different land use and land covers of northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shougrakpam, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Rupak; Dutta, Subashisa

    2010-10-01

    Saturated macropore flow is the dominant hydrological process in tropical and subtropical hilly watersheds of northeast India. The process of infiltration into saturated macroporous soils is primarily controlled by size, network, density, connectivity, saturation of surrounding soil matrix, and depthwise distribution of macropores. To understand the effects of local land use, land cover and management practices on soil macroporosity, colour dye infiltration experiments were conducted with ten soil columns (25 × 25 × 50 cm) collected from different watersheds of the region under similar soil and agro-climatic zones. The sampling sites included two undisturbed forested hillslopes, two conventionally cultivated paddy fields, two forest lands abandoned after Jhum cultivation, and two paddy fields, one pineapple plot and one banana plot presently under active cultivation stage of the Jhum cycle. Digital image analyses of the obtained dye patterns showed that the infiltration patterns differed significantly for different sites with varying land use, land cover, and cultivation practices. Undisturbed forest soils showed high degree of soil macroporosity throughout the soil profile, paddy fields revealed sealing of macropores at the topsoil due to hard pan formation, and Jhum cultivated plots showed disconnected subsoil macropores. The important parameters related to soil macropores such as maximum and average size of macropores, number of active macropores, and depthwise distribution of macropores were estimated to characterise the soil macroporosity for the sites. These experimentally derived quantitative data of soil macroporosity can have wide range of applications in the region such as water quality monitoring and groundwater pollution assessment due to preferential leaching of solutes and pesticides, study of soil structural properties and infiltration behaviour of soils, investigation of flash floods in rivers, and hydrological modelling of the watersheds.

  18. Adaptation for Planting and Irrigation Decisions to Changing Monsoon Regime in Northeast India: Risk-based Hydro-economic Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Cai, X.

    2013-12-01

    Delay in onset of Indian summer monsoon becomes increasingly frequent. Delayed monsoon and occasional monsoon failures seriously affect agricultural production in the northeast as well as other parts of India. In the Vaishali district of the Bihar State, Monsoon rainfall is very skewed and erratic, often concentrating in shorter durations. Farmers in Vaishali reported that delayed Monsoon affected paddy planting and, consequently delayed cropping cycle, putting crops under the risks of 'terminal heat.' Canal system in the district does not function due to lack of maintenance; irrigation relies almost entirely on groundwater. Many small farmers choose not to irrigate when monsoon onset is delayed due to high diesel price, leading to reduced production or even crop failure. Some farmers adapt to delayed onset of Monsoon by planting short-duration rice, which gives the flexibility for planting the next season crops. Other sporadic autonomous adaptation activities were observed as well, with various levels of success. Adaptation recommendations and effective policy interventions are much needed. To explore robust options to adapt to the changing Monsoon regime, we build a stochastic programming model to optimize revenues of farmer groups categorized by landholding size, subject to stochastic Monsoon onset and rainfall amount. Imperfect probabilistic long-range forecast is used to inform the model onset and rainfall amount probabilities; the 'skill' of the forecasting is measured using probabilities of correctly predicting events in the past derived through hindcasting. Crop production functions are determined using self-calibrating Positive Mathematical Programming approach. The stochastic programming model aims to emulate decision-making behaviors of representative farmer agents through making choices in adaptation, including crop mix, planting dates, irrigation, and use of weather information. A set of technological and policy intervention scenarios are tested

  19. A survey of metacercarial infections in commonly edible fish and crab hosts prevailing in Manipur, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Athokpam, Voleentina Devi; Tandon, Veena

    2015-09-01

    Food-borne trematode infections, which are mainly transmitted through consumption of inadequately cooked or raw fish and crabs, affect a large section of population, particularly in Southeast Asian countries, thus eliciting a remarkable morbidity and causing serious damage to health. In India, centering in several mountainous regions of the Northeast, the natives have the habit of consuming such fish or crabs that still sustain viable infective larval stage (metacercaria) of trematode flukes in their muscle tissue. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the spectrum of metacercarial diversity in commonly edible freshwater fishes and crab species in the northeastern state of Manipur and to adjudge their zoonotic potential, if any. Commonly edible fishes belonging to 15 species from 12 localities and crabs belonging to 2 species from 11 localities across Manipur state were surveyed for the purpose. The study revealed that 3 species of fishes (Channa punctatus, C. straitus and Wallago attu) harboured 4 different types of metacercariae belonging to 4 trematode families-Euclinostomum heterostomum (Clinostomidae); Lophosicyadiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp. (Diplostomidae); and Polylekithum sp. (Allocreadiidae) in addition to adult flukes of Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Isoparorchiidae). Among these, metacercariae of Posthodiplostomum showed the highest prevalence (2.33 %) though a low abundance, while for other species the prevalence ranged between 0.25 and 1.19 %. The crab species (Barythelphusa lugubris masoniana and Potamiscus manipuriensis) were found infected with 4 different types of metacercariae representing the genera Paragonimus (Troglotrematidae) and Microphallus (Microphallidae). The paragonimids showed a higher rate of occurrence (~4-25 %) compared to microphallids (~15 %). The crustaceans surveyed emerged as prospective intermediate hosts for lungflukes. Identifying the potent vectors for zoonotic parasites helps in control measures

  20. Discriminating zooplankton assemblages in neritic and oceanic waters: a case for the northeast coast of India, Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Sudarsan, D

    2006-02-01

    Zooplankton species distribution and abundance data at 17 locations in the inshore (10-30 m), shelf (50-200 m) and oceanic (2,500-2,800 m) regions off northeast India (Bay of Bengal) during January 1999-April 2001 revealed 112 taxa represented by 30 divergent groups. Copepods (58 species) dominated (87%) the population numerically. In general zooplankton diversity (Margalef richness d, Shannon-Wiener H', Pielou's evenness J') increased in the direction of the open sea relative to coastal locations with a concomitant decrease both in abundance (ind m(-3)) and biomass (dry mass m(-3)). Based on multivariate analyses, it was possible to distinguish the zooplankton community into different assemblages according to their location (e.g., inshore, shelf, oceanic) and seasonality. While Acrocalanus sp., Oithona sp., Corycaeus danae, Euterpina acutifrons, Paracalanus sp., and Acartia sp. were found characterizing the coastal locations, Oncaea venusta was the discriminating species for shelf waters. In oceanic areas, there was a clear dominance of Labidocera sp., Candacia sp., Euchaeta rimana, Centropages calaninus, Copilia mirabilis and Corycella gibbula. The investigations revealed that changes in zooplankton community structure across water bodies could be associated with differing salinity. During November 1999 (post-monsoon), when salinity in the coastal waters was relatively low (26-28.9 PSU), the zooplankton community consisted of mainly Acrocalanus sp., Salpa, Corycaeus danae, Oikopleura sp., Acartia sp., Evadne tergestina, and Creseis sp. In January 2000 (salinity 32.4-34.1), additionally Corycella gibbula, Labidocera sp., Centropages sp., Microsetella sp., Euterpina acutifrons, Canthocalanus pauper, and Oncaea venusta represented the population discriminating the assemblage from others. In May 2000 (pre-monsoon) when salinity was highest (34.7-35.3), Oithona sp., Paracalanus sp., and Acrocalanus gibber were found important. Chaetognaths formed a distinct group

  1. A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Verma, Anand; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Singh, L C; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Kataki, Amal Ch; Saxena, Sunita; Kapur, Sujala

    2014-09-01

    The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines.

  2. Aerosol characteristics in north-east India using ARFINET spectral optical depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B.; Subba, T.; Dahutia, P.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Gogoi, M. M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Chutia, L.; Ajay, P.; Biswas, J.; Bharali, C.; Borgohain, A.; Dhar, P.; Guha, A.; De, B. K.; Banik, T.; Chakraborty, M.; Kundu, S. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Singh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Four years (2010-2014) of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 4 Indian Space Research Organisation's ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India) stations (Shillong, Agartala, Imphal and Dibrugarh) in the North-Eastern Region (NER) of India (lying between 22-30°N and 89-98°E) are synthesized to evolve a regional aerosol representation, for the first time. Results show that the columnar AOD (an indicator of the column abundance of aerosols) is highest at Agartala (0.80 ± 0.24) in the west and lowest at Imphal (0.59 ± 0.23) in the east in the pre-monsoon season due to intense anthropogenic bio-mass burning in this region aided by long-range transport from the high aerosol laden regions of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), polluted Bangladesh and Bay of Bengal. In addition to local biogenic aerosols and pollutants emitted from brick kilns, oil/gas fields, household bio-fuel/fossil-fuel, vehicles, industries. Aerosol distribution and climatic impacts show a west to east gradient within the NER. For example, the climatological mean AODs are 0.67 ± 0.26, 0.52 ± 0.14, 0.40 ± 0.17 and 0.41 ± 0.23 respectively in Agartala, Shillong, Imphal and Dibrugarh which are geographically located from west to east within the NER. The average aerosol burden in NER ranks second highest with climatological mean AOD 0.49 ± 0.2 next to the Indo-Gangetic Plains where the climatological mean AOD is 0.64 ± 0.2 followed by the South and South-East Asia region. Elevated aerosol layers are observed over the eastern most stations Dibrugarh and Imphal, while at the western stations the concentrations are high near the surface. The climate implications of aerosols are evaluated in terms of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and consequent heating of the atmosphere in the region which follows AOD and exhibit high values in pre-monsoon season at all the locations except in Agartala. The highest ARF in the atmosphere occurs in the pre-monsoon season ranging from 48.6 Wm-2 in Agartala

  3. Pattern of Gross Congenital Malformations in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Jenita; Kusre, Giriraj; Bora, Reeta

    2015-10-01

    To explore the prevalence of structural congenital malformations among newborns and study some of the fetal and maternal characteristics of the malformed babies in North east India where such systematic study on congenital malformation has not been undertaken before. A cross sectional study was undertaken from May 2010 through Feb 2013 for estimation of gross congenital malformations among live birth and stillbirth children born in Assam Medical College. All live births were clinically examined for detection of gross congenital malformations and autopsy was carried out on still births and neonates dying within 24 h of birth to detect gross congenital malformations in the internal organs. All malformations were classified as per ICD 10 classification. The mothers of the newborns with congenital malformations were interviewed in a predesigned, pretested proforma. The variables included maternal age, antenatal registration, antenatal history of drug intake, consanguinity and previous history of malformations. Statistical analysis was done using chi square test. A total 18,192 births including live births and still births were examined and 206 cases of structural malformations were observed. Prevalence of congenital malformations was 1.2 % of the total live births. Distribution of malformation was predominant among males than in females (60.67 vs. 37.37 %; p < 0.05). Musculoskeletal system was the most common system involved. Prevalence of malformation of the cardiovascular system was found to be very low. Malformations among stillbirths and newborns born to unregistered mothers were significantly more. Percentage of malformations in babies born to mothers of more than 30 y of age was higher than other age groups (2.2 %). Occurrence of malformations in low birth weight babies were significantly more (p < 0.001). Prevalence of malformations was 1.2 % of the total live births. Musculoskeletal system was the most common system involved. Congenital

  4. Mini-DNA barcode in identification of the ornamental fish: A case study from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2017-09-05

    The ornamental fishes were exported under the trade names or generic names, thus creating problems in species identification. In this regard, DNA barcoding could effectively elucidate the actual species status. However, the problem arises if the specimen is having taxonomic disputes, falsified by trade/generic names, etc., On the other hand, barcoding the archival museum specimens would be of greater benefit to address such issues as it would create firm, error-free reference database for rapid identification of any species. This can be achieved only by generating short sequences as DNA from chemically preserved are mostly degraded. Here we aimed to identify a short stretch of informative sites within the full-length barcode segment, capable of delineating diverse group of ornamental fish species, commonly traded from NE India. We analyzed 287 full-length barcode sequences from the major fish orders and compared the interspecific K2P distance with nucleotide substitutions patterns and found a strong correlation of interspecies distance with transversions (0.95, p<0.001). We, therefore, proposed a short stretch of 171bp (transversion rich) segment as mini-barcode. The proposed segment was compared with the full-length barcodes and found to delineate the species effectively. Successful PCR amplification and sequencing of the 171bp segment using designed primers for different orders validated it as mini-barcodes for ornamental fishes. Thus, our findings would be helpful in strengthening the global database with the sequence of archived fish species as well as an effective identification tool of the traded ornamental fish species, as a less time consuming, cost effective field-based application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Micropropagation of Ilex khasiana, a critically endangered and endemic holly of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jiten Chandra; Kumaria, Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Ilex khasiana is a rare and critically endangered holly endemic to the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, and confined to a small number of pocket areas. In addition to conventional methods of propagation, endemic and threatened plants such as this could be more effectively multiplied and conserved using in vitro methods. Such techniques have the additional advantage of having a low impact on wild populations because they require a minimum of starting material. Our objective was to develop methodologies for the successful in vitro mass propagation of I. khasiana. Methodology Seedlings were germinated in vitro under sterile conditions and nodal explants from these were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzyladenine and 4.64 µM kinetin. Principal results This generated ∼10 shoots per explant. In a second approach, callus was obtained from seedling-derived leaf discs cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzyladenine. Approximately 12 adventitious shoots per callus were regenerated from 83.33 % of the calli after transfer to MS medium supplemented with 6.63 µM 6-benzyladenine. The most effective treatment for inducing root formation on the shoots was transfer of shoots to half-strength MS medium with 9.84 µM indole-3-butyric acid. Regenerated plantlets with well-developed shoots and roots were hardened and transferred to open soil with 70 % survival after 4 weeks. Conclusions Both the methods described here are well suited for the mass multiplication of this critically endangered tree species. PMID:22476482

  6. Assessment of wild leafy vegetables traditionally consumed by the ethnic communities of Manipur, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Konsam, Surjata; Thongam, Biseshwori; Handique, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-29

    The NE region of India falls in the global hotspot of biodiversity. Wild edible plants (WEPs) are widely consumed in the daily diet of the local people. WEPs are critical for the sustenance of ethnic communities and also as a source of income. However, WEPs received a little attention in research activities, economic development, biodiversity conservation and sustainable management. Many are largely ignored and remained unexplored. With a view of reducing the gap in traditional knowledge and tapping the hidden potential resources for proper utilization, exploitation, and sustainable management of WEPs are crucial. Surveys were conducted at 20 major markets in all districts of Manipur throughout different seasons from August 2012 to March 2014. A total of 154 avid plant collectors and sellers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire, formal, informal and extensive interactions to gather detailed information about these species. An integrated assessment of 68 wild leafy vegetables was also carried out to prioritize them for proper exploitation, conservation, and sustainable management. A total of 68 wild edible vegetables belonging to 42 families were documented which are being used by indigenous communities for nutritive and therapeutic purposes. Of these species, 54 are perennial (79 %) while others are annual (19 %). Herbaceous plants make up the highest proportion of edible plants. Leaves are dominant edible part followed by shoot and stem, and most are consumed through cooked food. Further, 57 species (84 %) are commonly available, and 11 (16 %) are rare. According to integrated assessment, 2 species have highest integrated value, 26 species have high value, 31 species have general value and 9 species are of low value. The majority of the species have a high or general value. Manipur has rich wild vegetable resources. However, many of them are seldom collected or cultivated given their importance in sustaining and diversifying diet. A

  7. Generation of buckle folds in Naga fold thrust belt, north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B.; Dietl, C.

    2009-04-01

    Naga fold thrust belt (NFTB), India, formed as a result of northward migration of the Indian plate initiated in Eocene and its subsequent collision with the Burmese plate during Oligocene. The NW-SE oriented compression generated a spectrum of structures; among them, we intend to focus on the folds- varying from gentle to tight asymmetric in geometry. Large recumbent folds are often associated with thrusting. Buckle folds forming under shallow crustal conditions are frequently reported from NFTB. Buckle folding occurs mainly within sandstones with intercalated shale layers which are in the study area typical for the Barail, Surma and Tipam Groups. We have tried to explain the controlling factors behind the variation of the buckle fold shapes and their varying wavelengths throughout the fold thrust belt with the aid of analogue (sand box) modelling. It is undoubted that competence contrast along with the layer parallel compressive stress are the major influencing factors in generation of buckle folds. Schmalholz and Podladchikov (1999) and Jeng et al. (2002) have shown that when low strain rate and low temperature are applicable, not only the viscosity contrast, but also the elasticity contrast govern the geometry of the developing buckle folds. Rocks deforming under high temperature and high pressure deform in pure viscous manner, whereas, rocks undergoing less confining stress and less temperature, are subjected to pure elastic deformation. However, they are the end members, and most of the deformations are a combination of these two end members, i.e. of viscoelastic nature. Our models are made up of sieved sand (0.5 mm grain size) and mica layers (1-5 mm) This interlayering imparts a mechanical anisotropy in the model. Mica is not a pure viscous material, rather it displays more elastic behaviour. The mica layers in the model produce bedding parallel slip during shortening through internal reorganization of the individual mica crystals leading to the thickening

  8. The role of precursor gases and meteorology on temporal evolution of O₃ at a tropical location in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Bharali, Chandrakala; Pathak, Binita; Kalita, Gayatry

    2014-05-01

    South Asia, particularly the Indo-Gangetic Plains and foothills of the Himalayas, has been found to be a major source of pollutant gases and particles affecting the regional as well as the global climate. Inventories of greenhouse gases for the South Asian region, particularly the sub-Himalayan region, have been inadequate. Hence, measurements of the gases are important from effective characterization of the gases and their climate effects. The diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation of surface level O3 measured for the first time in northeast India at Dibrugarh (27.4° N, 94.9° E, 111 m amsl), a sub-Himalayan location in the Brahmaputra basin, from November 2009 to May 2013 is presented. The effect of the precursor gases NO x and CO measured simultaneously during January 2012-May 2013 and the prevailing meteorology on the growth and decay of O3 has been studied. The O3 concentration starts to increase gradually after sunrise attaining a peak level around 1500 hours LT and then decreases from evening till sunrise next day. The highest and lowest monthly maximum concentration of O3 is observed in March (42.9 ± 10.3 ppb) and July (17.3 ± 7.0 ppb), respectively. The peak in O3 concentration is preceded by the peaks in NO x and CO concentrations which maximize during the period November to March with peak values of 25.2 ± 21.0 ppb and 1.0 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively, in January. Significant nonlinear correlation is observed between O3 and NO, NO2, and CO. National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back-trajectory and concentration weighted trajectory analysis carried out to delineate the possible airmass trajectory and to identify the potential source region of NO x and O3 concentrations show that in post-monsoon and winter, majority of the trajectories are confined locally while in pre-monsoon and monsoon, these are originated at the Indo-Gangetic plains, Bangladesh, and Bay of Bengal.

  9. A simple and efficient protocol for the mass propagation of Cymbidium mastersii: an ornamental orchid of Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Padmaja; Paul, Sumi; Das, Meera C.; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cymbidium mastersii is an epiphytic orchid distributed mainly in Northeast India. Owing to its high commercial value in the floricultural industry, natural populations are under threat from over-exploitation. Mass propagation provides an alternative means of satisfying the demand. Unfortunately, conventional propagation is slow and difficult, suggesting in vitro methods for mass multiplication may be more appropriate. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol. Methodology and principal results Four nutrient media were evaluated for seed germination and early protocorm development: Murashige and Skoog (MS), half-strength MS, Knudson ‘C’ (KC), and Vacin and Went (VW). In addition, the effects of plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KN), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were studied alone and in combination. The maximum percentage seed germination (93.58 ± 0.56) was obtained in MS basal medium after 8–9 weeks of culture. Secondary protocorms (protocorm-like bodies) were developed from primary protocorms on MS medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinins (BAP and KN) and auxins (NAA and IBA). The highest numbers of secondary protocorms (20.55 ± 0.62)/primary protocorms were obtained in MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM BAP and 2.5 µM NAA. The most effective auxin source promoting root production (7.46 ± 0.09 per shoot) was 10.0 µM IBA. The plants were acclimatized effectively (survival percentage 88 %) in a greenhouse using a rooting medium of crushed sterile brick and charcoal (1 : 1 v/v) and vermicompost (leaf litter + cow dung, 1 : 1 v/v). Conclusions An efficient protocol was established for in vitro propagation of C. mastersii using seed as the starting material. The percentage seed germination varied with the composition of the nutrient media and was highest in full-strength MS basal medium. The number of secondary

  10. A simple and efficient protocol for the mass propagation of Cymbidium mastersii: an ornamental orchid of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Padmaja; Paul, Sumi; Das, Meera C; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Cymbidium mastersii is an epiphytic orchid distributed mainly in Northeast India. Owing to its high commercial value in the floricultural industry, natural populations are under threat from over-exploitation. Mass propagation provides an alternative means of satisfying the demand. Unfortunately, conventional propagation is slow and difficult, suggesting in vitro methods for mass multiplication may be more appropriate. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol. FOUR NUTRIENT MEDIA WERE EVALUATED FOR SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY PROTOCORM DEVELOPMENT: Murashige and Skoog (MS), half-strength MS, Knudson 'C' (KC), and Vacin and Went (VW). In addition, the effects of plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KN), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were studied alone and in combination. The maximum percentage seed germination (93.58 ± 0.56) was obtained in MS basal medium after 8-9 weeks of culture. Secondary protocorms (protocorm-like bodies) were developed from primary protocorms on MS medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinins (BAP and KN) and auxins (NAA and IBA). The highest numbers of secondary protocorms (20.55 ± 0.62)/primary protocorms were obtained in MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM BAP and 2.5 µM NAA. The most effective auxin source promoting root production (7.46 ± 0.09 per shoot) was 10.0 µM IBA. The plants were acclimatized effectively (survival percentage 88 %) in a greenhouse using a rooting medium of crushed sterile brick and charcoal (1: 1v/v) and vermicompost (leaf litter + cow dung, 1: 1v/v). An efficient protocol was established for in vitro propagation of C. mastersii using seed as the starting material. The percentage seed germination varied with the composition of the nutrient media and was highest in full-strength MS basal medium. The number of secondary protocorms that developed from primary protocorms was increased by the addition of

  11. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and

  12. Growth and nutritional status of Khasi boys in Northeast India relating to exogamous marriages and socioeconomic classes.

    PubMed

    Khongsdier, R; Mukherjee, Nandita

    2003-10-01

    The Khasis are one of the matrilineal tribes of Meghalaya in Northeast India. They belong to the Indo-Mongoloid racial stock, and speak the Monkhmer language of the Austro-Asiatic group. They have their own traditional religion (Niam Khasi), but about 65% of them have converted to Christianity. A few Khasi members have also embraced Islam through matrimonial relationship with immigrant Muslim males. The present study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1,351 urban Khasi boys aged 3-18 years belonging to these three religious groups, with a view to understanding the effects of socioeconomic factors on growth and nutritional status, using anthropometric variables such as weight and height. The findings showed that about 60%, 29%, and 6% of these boys were below -2 Z-scores of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references in respect of weight for age, height for age, and body mass index for age, respectively. The logistic regression coefficient (beta +/- standard error) indicated that the prevalence of low weight for age (below -2 Z-scores of the NCHS references) was positively associated with age (0.088 +/- 0.014, P<0.0001), while it was inversely associated with household income (-1.216 +/- 0.030, P<0.0001). Likewise, low height for age Z-score was negatively associated with household income (-1.056 +/- 0.130, P<0.0001), although such a relationship was not significant in the case of low body mass index for age (-0.169 +/- 0.229, P>0.05). There were also significant differences between religious groups in respect of anthropometric variables. Allowing for household income, the ANCOVA test indicated that Muslim Khasi boys, who were the offspring of intermarriages between Khasi females and immigrant Muslim males, were significantly heavier and taller than Christian and Niam Khasi boys almost across ages. From about 3-10 years of age, Muslim Khasi boys were, on average, comparable to the 5th and 25th percentiles of the NCHS references of height and

  13. Three new species of horned frogs, Megophrys (Amphibia: Megophryidae), from northeast India, with a resolution to the identity of Megophrys boettgeri populations reported from the region.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Stephen; Teeling, Emma C; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    Northeast India is a well-established region of biological importance but remains poorly understood with regards to the species level identifications of many of its extant amphibians. In this study we examined small sized frogs from the genus Megophrys recently collected from remote and suburban forests in the northeast Indian states of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, from which we have identified three new species. Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov., Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. are compared with all known congeners from India and surrounding regions from which they differ based primarily on a combination of morphological characters. Megophrys boettgeri is removed, and Megophrys minor added to the Indian amphibian checklist, through critical review of all literature pertaining to the former species, and the discovery of an overlooked historical report of the latter species. Two of the new species, Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov. are known from low and mid elevations within two large protected forests in Arunachal Pradesh, both with poorly studied amphibian fauna. Contrastingly, Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. is currently known only from small forested areas on the upper reaches of the Shillong Plateau. The importance of the Shillong Plateau as an area of known high amphibian endemicity is highlighted in the light of the miniscule proportion of its land area afforded government protection, raising concerns about the future conservation of its still poorly known species.

  14. Fast recovery of transgenic submergence tolerant rice cultivars of North-East India by early co-cultivation of Agrobacterium with pre-cultured callus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Cuu; Nguyen, Van Khiem; Singh, Chongtham Henary; Devi, Guruaribam Shantibala; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Leelavathi, Sadhu

    2017-01-01

    Agro-climatic conditions of North-East India are very complex and rice cultivars present in the region have been adapted to grow under harsh environmental conditions. Germplasm present in the region is considered to possess several important and unique traits that are of importance in rice improvement programs. Genetic engineering is a powerful tool to introduce new traits into crop plants. However, not much information is available on the methods to introduce foreign genes into North-East rice cultivars. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to develop transformation procedures for fast recovery of transgenic plants from North-East rice cultivars. To achieve this objective, a systematic study was carried out to identify media components and culture conditions for efficient embryogenic callus induction from the mature seeds and differentiation of callus into plantlets from two North-East deep water rice cultivars, Taothabi and Khongan. Also, role of preculture of callus on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was studied. Co-cultivation of Agrobacterium with 1-5 days precultured callus was found to result in high frequency of transformation. Detailed characterization of transgenic lines confirmed stable integration of transgenes and expression of reporter gfp gene. The whole process starting from callus induction to regenerating of transgenic rice plants that can be established in the soil was achieved in about 35-45 days. The procedures developed were found to be applicable to a popular variety IR 64. Therefore, methods developed in this study should be useful not only to introduce new traits quickly but also to validate the function(s) of several candidate gene(s) identified under the functional genomics of rice.

  15. U.S.-India Military Relationship: Matching Expectations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    Banerjee , Joint U.S. India Army Exercise in Mizoram,” The Times of India, 23 March 2004, http://times of india.indiatimes.com/articleshow/577610.cms. 127...rediff.com, September 9, 2005 <http://www.rediff.com//news/2005/sep/09anti.htm>. 154 Saikat Datta and Rajesh Ramachandran, “No Bang for the Buck...India,” The Economist, June 3, 2006, 14. 165 Ibid. 166 Saikat Dutta, “So Many Slugs in the Underbelly: Can We Never Be Rid of Arms Dealers? Are they

  16. Imbalance in leptin-adiponectin levels and leptin receptor expression as chief contributors to triple negative breast cancer progression in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Rizwana; Kataki, Amal Ch; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Basumatary, Tarun K; Bose, Sujoy

    2017-07-20

    Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounts for a large percentage of breast cancer cases in India including Northeast India. TNBC has an unclear molecular aetiology and hence limited targeted therapies. Human breast is comprised of glandular, ductal, connective, and adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes. The adipocytes apart from being energy storage depots, are also active sources of adipocytokines and/or adipokines. The role of adipokines in breast cancer including TNBC has been sporadically documented. Two adipokines in particular, leptin and adiponectin, have come to be recognized for their influence on breast cancer risk and tumour biology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the association of differential expression of critical adipokines and associated cellular mechanism in the susceptibility and severity of TNBC in northeast Indian population. We collected 68 TNBC and 63 controls cases and examined for serum leptin and adiponectin levels using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Leptin Receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Differential Ob-R mRNA expression and correlation with cancer stem cell (CSC) markers was evaluated, and correlated with severity. The serum leptin levels were significantly associated with TNBC severity, while the adiponectin levels were comparative. The serum leptin levels correlated inversely with the adiponetin levels. Serum leptin levels were unaffected with difference in parity. The difference in leptin levels in pre and post menopausal cases were found to be statistically non-significant. Higher leptin levels were also found to be associated obesity, mortality and recurrence. Obesity was found to be a factor for TNBC pathogenesis and severity. Increased Ob-R mRNA expression was associated with TNBC, significantly with TNBC severity, and was significantly higher in obese patients with higher grade TNBC cases. The Ob-R gene

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of aerosol optical and radiative properties obtained from multiple satellite retrievals over the Sub-Himalayan region of North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip; Biswas, Jhuma; Dahutia, Papori

    North East India, nestled between the southeastern Tibetan Plateau on the north, the Indo Myanmar range of hills to the east, plains of Bangladesh to the south and the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) to the west has a unique topography and population inhabitation pattern. In recent decades, along with other parts of south Asia NE India has undergone rapid industrial and economic development. Lifestyle changes have increasingly added to the anthropogenic burden on the atmosphere in the plains while biomass burning due to shifting cultivation in the hills is a major source of particulate and gaseous pollution. Studies have suggested that during the Asian summer monsoon, boundary layer pollution from India, Southeast Asia and south China are lifted to the upper tropospheric region by convection followed by westward transport over the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The spatio-temporal variation of aerosol optical (viz. AOD, AAI, AAOD, AE, FMF, columnar mass concentration (CMC)) and radiative properties are studied using data from multiple satellite sensors: MODIS, OMI, TOMS, CERES at various locations within the NE India (22-30°N, 86-98°E) for the period 2000-2012. Significant spatio-temporal variation of aerosol optical and radiative properties is observed within the region. For example, Guwahati, the metropolitan city, shows maximum value of AOD, followed by Dhubri the location situated at the western corridor of north-east India. Minimum AOD is observed at the high altitude locations Thimphu and Tawang. Temporally AOD is overriding in March, April, May (MAM) at almost all the observation locations. The minimum AOD over the region in October-November (ON) is associated with the topography and local meteorology. AAI >0.5 at all the locations indicates presence of significant amount of absorbing aerosols. The peak AAI and AAOD in MAM at all the location is associated with the peak biomass burning activity and long range transportation from other locations of India and

  18. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  19. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-02-26

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India.

  20. Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Suresh; Natale, Richard D; Langkham, B; Sharma, Charan; Kabi, Rachel; Mortimore, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India report an antenatal HIV prevalence of > 1% and the current HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 24% and 4.5% respectively. Through support from DFID's Challenge Fund, Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) established thirteen drop-in-centres across the two states to deliver opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine for 1200 injecting drug users. Within a short span of time the treatment has been found to be attractive to the clients and currently 1248 injecting opioid users are receiving opioid substitution treatment. The project is acceptable to the drug users, the families, the communities, religious as well as the militant groups. The treatment centres operate all days of the week, have trained staff members, utilize standardized protocols and ensure a strict supervised delivery system to prevent illicit diversion of buprenorphine. The drug users receiving the substitution treatment are referred to HIV voluntary counselling and testing. As this treatment has the potential to change HIV related risk behaviours, what has been established in the two states needs to be continued and expanded with the support from the Government of India. PMID:19243636

  1. Biodiverse rotifer assemblage (Rotifera: Eurotatoria) of floodplain lakes of the Brahmaputra basin of lower Assam, northeast India: composition and ecosystem diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Bhushan Kumar; Khan, Shaikhul Islam; Sharma, Sumita

    2017-04-01

    The study aims to ascertain the hypothesis on the rich rotifer biodiversity of the floodplain lakes (beels) of the Brahmaputra river basin and to use these metazoans to assess trophic status or to characterize habitat variations of wetlands. The plankton samples collected from four beels of lower Assam revealed 160 Rotifera species belonging to 35 genera and 19 families. The richness is of biodiversity value as 38.0% and 57.0% of the rotifer species known till date from India and northeast India (NEI), respectively. One species each is new to the Oriental region and NEI, and three species are new to Assam; 23 species merit global biogeography interest and several exhibit distribution values in the Indian sub-region. The diverse Lecanidae > Brachionidae > Lepadellidae > Trichocercidae and speciose littoral-periphytic Lecane > Lepadella > Trichocerca, and richness of Brachionus spp. following removal of aquatic macrophytes are noteworthy. Overall rotifer composition showed homogeneity amongst beels while lower monthly richness and community similarities affirmed heterogeneity within individual beels. We propose L/B quotient based on Lecane: Brachionus species ratios to characterize habitat variations of the sampled wetlands. Sládeček's B/T quotient based on Brachionus: Trichocerca species ratios affirmed general' meso-trophic' status of diff erent beels. Our results provided little insight on the influence of individual abiotic factors but the canonical correspondence analyses asserted higher cumulative influence of ten abiotic parameters on Rotifera richness in each beel.

  2. Cryptococcus gatti serotype B isolated in Sikkim (North-East India)—A new geographical niche

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Shrijana; Sherpa, Nagyal T.; Yoden Bhutia, Pema; Pradhan, Jagat; Peralam Yegneshwaran, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti both cause infection in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of meningitis with C. gatti in an AIDS patient. This case to our knowledge is the first case of C. gatti being reported from Sikkim (North East India). PMID:24371730

  3. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  4. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  5. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  6. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  7. Systematics of the caecilian family Chikilidae (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) with the description of three new species of Chikila from northeast India.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Rachunliu G; Gower, David J; Wilkinson, Mark; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic review of the monogeneric northeast Indian caecilian family Chikilidae is presented based on 64 specimens. Chikila fuilleri (Alcock, 1904), known previously only from a single specimen collected more than 100 years ago, is rediagnosed and characterised based on recent collections. We describe three additional species new to science, Chikila alcocki sp. nov., Chikila darlong sp. nov., and Chikila gaiduwani sp. nov. This species-level taxonomy is consistent with mitochondrial DNA sequence data. A key to the species of Chikila is presented.

  8. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  9. Molecular Evidence of Increased Resistance to Anti-Folate Drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: A Signal for Potential Failure of Artemisinin Plus Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md. Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51I/59R/108N/164L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in

  10. Molecular evidence of increased resistance to anti-folate drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: a signal for potential failure of artemisinin plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76 T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86 Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51 I/59 R/108 N/164 L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine

  11. Molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from different outbreaks in Northeast India during 2014-15.

    PubMed

    Nath, Barnali; Barman, Nagendra N; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-02-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from different outbreaks in chicken flocks in Assam during 2014-15 were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin protein genes showed a close similarity with genotype XIII strains of NDV. Amino acid sequence of F protein showed a virulent cleavage site (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117). Furthermore, pathogenicity test in one-day-old chicks and embryonated chicken eggs showed a virulent pathotype of the isolated NDV strains. The study will help us to understand the biology of circulating strains of NDV in Northeastern part of India.

  12. ISSR Marker Based Population Genetic Study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz: A Commercially Important Bamboo of Manipur, North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Nilkanta, Heikrujam; Amom, Thoungamba; Rahaman, Hamidur

    2017-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0.1639), Shannon's diversity index (I 0.2563), percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB 59.18), total genetic variation (Ht 0.1961), and genetic diversity within population (Hs 0.1639). The study also divulged a high genetic variation at species level with Shannon's diversity index (I), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and percentage of polymorphic band (PPB%) recorded at 0.3218, 0.1939, and 88.37, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst) was merely 19.42% leaving 80.58% of genetic variation exhibited within the populations. The low genetic diversity between populations was consistent with AMOVA. The low genetic differentiation among populations coupled with existence of significantly high genetic diversity at species level indicated the urgent necessity of preserving and protecting all the existing natural bamboo populations in the region. PMID:28168084

  13. ISSR Marker Based Population Genetic Study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz: A Commercially Important Bamboo of Manipur, North-East India.

    PubMed

    Nilkanta, Heikrujam; Amom, Thoungamba; Tikendra, Leimapokpam; Rahaman, Hamidur; Nongdam, Potshangbam

    2017-01-01

    Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz is an economically important bamboo of North-East India experiencing population depletion in its natural habitats. Genetic variation studies were conducted in 7 populations sampled from 5 districts of Manipur using ISSR molecular markers. The investigation was carried out as a primary step towards developing effective conservation strategies for the protection of bamboo germplasm. ISSR marker analysis showed significant level of genetic variation within the populations as revealed by moderately high average values of Nei's genetic diversity (H 0.1639), Shannon's diversity index (I 0.2563), percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB 59.18), total genetic variation (Ht 0.1961), and genetic diversity within population (Hs 0.1639). The study also divulged a high genetic variation at species level with Shannon's diversity index (I), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and percentage of polymorphic band (PPB%) recorded at 0.3218, 0.1939, and 88.37, respectively. Genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst) was merely 19.42% leaving 80.58% of genetic variation exhibited within the populations. The low genetic diversity between populations was consistent with AMOVA. The low genetic differentiation among populations coupled with existence of significantly high genetic diversity at species level indicated the urgent necessity of preserving and protecting all the existing natural bamboo populations in the region.

  14. Large and great earthquakes in the Shillong plateau-Assam valley area of Northeast India Region: Pop-up and transverse tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, J. R.; Arefiev, S. S.; Baruah, Saurabh; Hazarika, D.; Gogoi, N.; Gautam, J. L.; Baruah, Santanu; Dorbath, C.; Tatevossian, R.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic model of the Shillong plateau and Assam valley in the northeast India region, the source area for the 1897 great earthquake (Ms ~ 8.7) and for the four (1869, 1923, 1930 and 1943) large earthquakes (M. ≥ 7.0), is examined using the high precision data of a 20-station broadband seismic network. About 300 selected earthquakes M ≥ 3.0 recorded during 2001-2009 are analysed to study the seismicity and fault plane solutions. The dominating thrust/reverse faulting earthquakes in the western plateau may be explained by the proposed pop-up tectonics between two active boundary faults, the Oldham-Brahmaputra fault to the north and the Dapsi-Dauki thrust to the south, though the northern boundary fault is debated. The more intense normal and strike-slip faulting earthquakes in the eastern plateau (Mikir massif) and in the Assam valley, on the other hand, are well explained by transverse tectonics at the long and deep rooted Kopili fault that cuts across the Himalaya and caused the 2009 Bhutan earthquake (Mw 6.3). It is conjectured that the complex tectonics of the Shillong plateau and transverse tectonics at the Kopili fault make the region vulnerable for impending large earthquake(s).

  15. Micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities among betel quid chewers with or without sadagura, a unique smokeless tobacco preparation, in a population from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Kausar, Afifa; Giri, Sarbani; Mazumdar, Mehnaz; Giri, Anirudha; Roy, Prasenjit; Dhar, Prabhati

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity is one of the important endpoints for risk assessment of various lifestyle factors. The study is the first report on the genotoxic effect associated with sadagura, a unique smokeless tobacco prepared in southern Assam province of North-East India. Sadagura is consumed with or without betel quid and/or smoking. In the present cytogenetic monitoring study, analysis of micronuceus (MN), nuclear bud, binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic and pyknotic cells tests were performed in the exfoliated buccal cells of 75 habituates and compared to controls matched for gender, age, and habit. Significant increase in the frequency of MN was found in sadagura chewers (0.48%, P < 0.001), smokers (0.46%, P < 0.01), betel quid with sadagura chewers (0.91%, P < 0.001) and smokers chewing betel quid with sadagura (0.53%, P < 0.001) as compared to the unexposed control group (0.07%). Betel quid chewers showed significant increase (1.65%, P < 0.05) in the frequency of binucleated cells as compared to the control group (0.16%). Results of this study demonstrated that sadagura consumed as a single agent or in combination with betel quid, leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelial cells of habituates. We suggest that analysis of other degenerative nuclear changes in addition to MN can provide valuable information while evaluating potential genotoxic agents.

  16. Variation in the orographic extreme rain events over the Meghalaya Hills in northeast India in the two halves of the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Paweł; Walanus, Adam

    2015-07-01

    The daily rainfall data for the twentieth century, from three stations across the region, constitute the basis for statistical analysis. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio makes it difficult to find any significant departure from the simplest null hypothesis of the stability of the rain record at individual stations in northeast India. Only the coarsest possible view, i.e. comparing the two halves of the century, provided strongly significant results in the numbers of days with extreme rain. Using a more general approach, the number of Fourier transform extreme amplitudes also differed significantly. Increasingly heavy events during the summer monsoon season, and partly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, are offset by a weakening in the winter monsoon season, so that the annual mean rainfall does not show a significant trend over the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from a greater number of years with noticeable extreme rainfall events in the second half of the twentieth century, we can also observe a more pronounced quasi-periodicity of 10-20 and 30-60 days during the same period. The detection of the latter periodicity indicates that the Madden-Julian oscillation plays an important role in the formation of extreme rainfall events over the Meghalaya Hills during extreme monsoon years.

  17. Development of an artificial neural network based multi-model ensemble to estimate the northeast monsoon rainfall over south peninsular India: an application of extreme learning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Nachiketa; Shrivastava, Nitin Anand; Panigrahi, B. K.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2014-09-01

    The south peninsular part of India gets maximum amount of rainfall during the northeast monsoon (NEM) season [October to November (OND)] which is the primary source of water for the agricultural activities in this region. A nonlinear method viz., Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been employed on general circulation model (GCM) products to make the multi-model ensemble (MME) based estimation of NEM rainfall (NEMR). The ELM is basically is an improved learning algorithm for the single feed-forward neural network (SLFN) architecture. The 27 year (1982-2008) lead-1 (using initial conditions of September for forecasting the mean rainfall of OND) hindcast runs (1982-2008) from seven GCM has been used to make MME. The improvement of the proposed method with respect to other regular MME (simple arithmetic mean of GCMs (EM) and singular value decomposition based multiple linear regressions based MME) has been assessed through several skill metrics like Spread distribution, multiplicative bias, prediction errors, the yield of prediction, Pearson's and Kendal's correlation coefficient and Wilmort's index of agreement. The efficiency of ELM estimated rainfall is established by all the stated skill scores. The performance of ELM in extreme NEMR years, out of which 4 years are characterized by deficit rainfall and 5 years are identified as excess, is also examined. It is found that the ELM could expeditiously capture these extremes reasonably well as compared to the other MME approaches.

  18. Lizard Wears Shades. A Spectacled Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae), from the Sacred Forests of Mawphlang, Meghalaya, North-east India.

    PubMed

    Datta-Roy, Aniruddha; Das, Indraneil; Bauer, Aaron M; Tron, Ronald K Lyngdoh; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    A new species of lygosomatine scincid lizard is described from the sacred forests of Mawphlang, in Meghalaya, northeastern India. Sphenomorphus apalpebratus sp. nov. possesses a spectacle or brille, an unusual feature within the Scincidae, and a first for the paraphyletic genus Sphenomorphus. The new species is compared with other members of the genus to which it is here assigned, as well as to members of the lygosomatine genera Lipinia and Scincella from mainland India, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and southeast Asia, to which it also bears resemblance. The new taxon is diagnosable in exhibiting the following combination of characters: small body size (SVL to 42.0 mm); moveable eyelids absent; auricular opening scaleless, situated in a shallow depression; dorsal scales show a line of demarcation along posterior edge of ventral pes; midbody scale rows 27-28; longitudinal scale rows between parietals and base of tail 62-64; lamellae under toe IV 8-9; supraoculars five; supralabials 5-6; infralabials 4-5; subcaudals 92; and dorsum golden brown, except at dorsal margin of lateral line, which is lighter, with four faintly spotted lines, two along each side of vertebral row of scales, that extend to tail base. The new species differs from its congeners in the lack of moveable eyelids, a character shared with several distantly related scincid genera.

  19. Understanding of Genetic Information in Higher Secondary Students in Northeast India and the Implications for Genetics Education

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Since the work of Watson and Crick in the mid-1950s, the science of genetics has become increasingly molecular. The development of recombinant DNA technologies by the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). By the end of the twentieth century, reports of animal cloning and recent completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP), as well techniques developed for DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy and others, raised important ethical and social issues about the applications of such technologies. For citizens to understand these issues, appropriate genetics education is needed in schools. A good foundation in genetics also requires knowledge and understanding of topics such as structure and function of cells, cell division, and reproduction. Studies at the international level report poor understanding by students of genetics and genetic technologies, with widespread misconceptions at various levels. Similar studies were nearly absent in India. In this study, I examine Indian higher secondary students' understanding of genetic information related to cells and transmission of genetic information during reproduction. Although preliminary in nature, the results provide cause for concern over the status of genetics education in India. The nature of students' conceptual understandings and possible reasons for the observed lack of understanding are discussed. PMID:15746980

  20. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Adhikari, Prabha; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Saboo, Banshi; Kumar, Ajay; Bhansali, Anil; John, Mary; Luaia, Rosang; Reang, Taranga; Ningombam, Somorjit; Jampa, Lobsang; Budnah, Richard O; Elangovan, Nirmal; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Venkatesan, Ulagamathesan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Ali, Mohammed K; Pandey, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Tanvir; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0-7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7-5·0) to 10·0% (8·7-11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10·6-11·8) than in rural areas (5·2%, 4·9-5·4; p<0·0001) and higher in mainland states (8·3%, 7·9-8·7) than in the northeast (5·9%, 5·5-6·2; p<0·0001). Overall, 1862 (47·3%) of 3938 individuals

  1. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents in three indigenous medicinal vegetables of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Handique, Jyotirekha G; Boruah, Manas Pratim; Kalita, Dipika

    2012-08-01

    Antioxidant activities of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of three indigenous leafy vegetables of north east India viz., Polygonum microcephallum, Oxalis corniculata and Portulaca oleraceae were measured by spectroscopic methods using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical assay and xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of each extract were also measured to assess their effect on the antioxidant activity. It was observed that the methanol extracts of all the species showed the highest antioxidant activities and high values for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A strong correlation between the antioxidant activities and the total phenolic content was observed for the three vegetables. It indicates that phenolics are one of the main components responsible for the antioxidant behavior of vegetables. HPLC analysis showed the presence of a number of identified phenolic compounds.

  2. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-05-22

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch.

  3. Socioeconomic changes as covariates of overweight and obesity among Tangkhul Naga tribal women of Manipur, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Mungreiphy, N K; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight/obesity is increasing worldwide. Although countries like India are typically thought of as having a high prevalence of undernutrition, significant proportions of overweight/obese now co-exist with the undernourished. This study aims to find the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and its association with socioeconomic change, among Tangkhul women in India. The cross-sectional study was carried out among 346 Tangkhul women aged 20-70 years, who were divided into five 10-year age groups. Mean BMI was found to be lowest among the youngest age group, and it increased with age until the age of 59 and then declined. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 27.1%, as assessed from the Asian cut-off point. Although the prevalence of obesity (2.0%) was low when compared with Indian non-tribal female populations, the prevalence of overweight (25.1%) was not far behind. Overweight and obesity were found to be associated with age, marital status, physical activity level, lifestyle and improvement in socioeconomic status, especially occupation and income. When compared with urban non-tribal Indian females, who have a higher socioeconomic status, the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Tangkhul females is lower, indicating its association with socioeconomic status. Tangkhul Naga is a population where the majority are believed to be thin traditionally owing to the difficult hilly terrain and their physically active lifestyle. With urbanization and economic development, nutritional transition, improved socioeconomic status and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle have been observed, which have contributed to the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among Tangkhul Naga women.

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  5. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  6. Origin and serpentinization of ultramafic rocks of Manipur Ophiolite Complex in the Indo-Myanmar subduction zone, Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningthoujam, P. S.; Dubey, C. S.; Guillot, S.; Fagion, A.-S.; Shukla, D. P.

    2012-05-01

    The Manipur Ophiolite Complex (MOC) is part of the Manipur-Nagaland ophiolite belt (MNOB). The belt is exposed in the eastern margin of the Indo-Myanmar Ranges (IMRs), which formed by the collision between the India and Myanmar continental plates. Several contrasting views were put forward concerning the origin of the MNOB. The complex represents a dismembered ophiolite sequence with serpentinite as the largest litho-unit formed. Petrography and Raman spectroscopy of the serpentinite suggest that they are serpentinized ultramafic cumulate and peridotite. The serpentinization may have occurred at a condition of low pressure and low temperature metamorphism. Geochemical signatures of the rocks and spinel grains revealed that the protolith be an abyssal peridotite, derived from a less depleted fertile mantle melt at a MORB setting after low degree (10-15%) partial melting. The study concluded that the serpentinite may have been created at a slow-spreading ridge, rather than a supra-subduction-zone setting. These rocks were later obducted and incorporated into the IMR of Indo-Myanmar suture zone.

  7. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  8. The burden of hypertension and kidney disease in Northeast India: the Institute for Indian Mother and Child noncommunicable diseases project.

    PubMed

    Gallieni, Maurizio; Aiello, Angela; Tucci, Benedetta; Sala, Valeria; Brahmochary Mandal, Sujit K; Doneda, Anna; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are the major cause of death not only in high income, but also in medium and low income countries. Hypertension and diabetes, the most common causes of chronic kidney disease, are particularly common in southeast Asian Countries. Because early intervention can markedly slow the progression of these two killer diseases, assessment of their presence through screening and intervention program is a priority. We summarize here results of the screening activities and the perspectives of a noncommunicable diseases project started in West Bengal, India, in collaboration with the Institute for Indian Mother and Child (IIMC), a nongovernmental voluntary organization committed to promoting child and maternal health. We started investigating hypertension and chronic kidney disease with screen in school-age children and in adults >30 years old. We found a remarkable prevalence of hypertension, even in underweight subjects, in both children and adult populations. A glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min was found in 4.1% of adult subjects significantly higher than that of 0.8% to 1.4% reported 10 years ago. Increased awareness and intervention projects to identify NCDs and block their progression are necessary in all countries.

  9. Atmospheric aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental location Tripura in North-East India: Model results and ground observations.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Pranab; De, Barin Kumar; Banik, Trisanu; Gogoi, Mukunda M; Babu, S Suresh; Guha, Anirban

    2017-02-15

    Northeast India (NEI) is located within the boundary of the great Himalayas in the north and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the southwest, experiences the mixed influence of the westerly dust advection from the Indian desert, anthropogenic aerosols from the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and marine aerosols from BoB. The present study deals with the estimation and characterization of aerosol radiative forcing over a semi-continental site Tripura, which is a strategic location in the western part of NEI having close proximity to the outflow of the IGP. Continuous long term measurements of aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) are used for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing in each monthly time scale. The study revealed that the surface forcing due to aerosols was higher during both winter and pre-monsoon seasons, having comparable values of 32W/m(2) and 33.45W/m(2) respectively. The atmospheric forcing was also higher during these months due to increased columnar aerosol loadings (higher AOD ~0.71) shared by abundant BC concentrations (SSA ~0.7); while atmospheric forcing decreased in monsoon due to reduced magnitude of BC (SSA ~0.94 in July) as well as columnar AOD. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing is positive in pre-monsoon and monsoon months with the highest positive value of 3.78W/m(2) in June 2012. The results are discussed in light of seasonal source impact and transport pathways from adjacent regions.

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of Abyssal Peridotites from the Manipur Ophiolite Complex, Indo-Myanmar Orogenic Belt, Northeast India: Implication for melt generation in mid-oceanic ridge environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakanta Singh, A.

    2013-04-01

    The Manipur Ophiolite Complex (MOC) located in the Indo-Myanmar Orogenic Belt (IMOB) of Northeast India forms a section of the Tethyan Ophiolite Belt of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Whole rock compositions and mineral chemistry of mantle peridotites from the MOC show an affinity to the abyssal peridotites, characterized by high contents of Al2O3 (1.28-3.30 anhydrous wt.%); low Cr# of Cr-spinel (0.11-0.27); low Mg# of olivine (˜Fo90) and high Al2O3 in pyroxenes (3.71-6.35 wt.%). They have very low REE concentrations (∑REE = 0.48-2.14 ppb). Lherzolites display LREE-depleted patterns (LaN/SmN = 0.14-0.45) with a flat to slightly fractionated HREE segments (SmN/YbN = 0.30-0.65) whereas Cpx-harburgites have flat to upward-inflected LREE patterns (LaN/SmN = 0.13-1.23) with more fractionated HREE patterns (SmN/YbN = 0.13-0.65) than the lherzolite samples. Their platinum group elements (PGE) contents (<50 ppb) and distinct mantle-normalised PGE patterns with the Pd/Ir values (1.8-11.9) and Pt/Pt* values (0.2-1.1) show an affinity to the characteristic of the residual mantle material. Evaluation of mineralogical and petrological characteristics of these peridotites suggests that they represent the residues remaining after low degree of partial melting (˜2-12%) in the spinel stability field of a mid-oceanic ridge environment. The well-preserved mid-oceanic ridge characteristics of these peridotites further suggest that the mantle section was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the subduction zone without undergoing significant modification in their chemistry by later subduction-related tectonic and petrological processes before its emplacement to the present crustal level.

  11. An effective nutrient medium for asymbiotic seed germination and large-scale in vitro regeneration of Dendrobium hookerianum, a threatened orchid of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sumi; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dendrobium hookerianum is a rare and threatened epiphytic orchid of northeast India. Prospects for conservation would be strengthened by developing an in vitro method for mass propagation. Seeds are minute and difficult to use directly in the field for this purpose, being non-endospermous with a low nutrient content and dependent on a specific fungus for germination and early seedling development. Although produced in large numbers (2–3 million per capsule), <5 % germinate naturally in the wild. Our objective was to develop a rapid and successful method for in vitro propagation based on an initial in vitro asymbiotic seed germination step that achieved high percentages. Methodology Effects of four different media, i.e. (i) Murashige and Skoog (MS), (ii) Mitra et al., (iii) Knudson (KC) and (iv) Gamborg et al. (B5), were evaluated for large-scale multiplication by asymbiotic seed germination. Seedling leaf number, shoot number, shoot length, root number and root length were scored. After 7–8 months, large numbers of well-rooted plantlets were transferred to a glasshouse in thermocol pots containing compost. Six different composts based on broken brick and charcoal were compared for their ability to support further development over 90 days of hardening. Principal results The fastest and highest percentage seed germination was achieved using MS medium. Seeds on MS medium germinated in 3–4 weeks compared with 7–8 weeks on B5 medium. Seedling development was also superior on MS medium. The inclusion of plant growth regulators was unnecessary. Compost comprising broken brick and charcoal with an upper layer of moss was found to be the most suitable for the survival of transferred plantlets. Ninety per cent survival of plantlets was achieved 90 days after transfer to a glasshouse. Conclusions The use of MS culture medium is well suited for the mass multiplication of D. hookerianum plants intended for re-introducing this threatened orchid into

  12. Prevalence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bora, Arijit; Hazarika, Naba Kumar; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi N; Sarma, Jayanta Biswa; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. A total of 270 E. coli and 219 K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered during the period between August 2009 and July 2010. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern. Screening and phenotypic confirmatory test for ESBL production were performed using standard disc diffusion methods. Each of the initial ESBL screening test isolate was investigated for the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gene-specific primers. Phenotypic confirmatory test able to detect ESBL production in 73.58% of E. coli and 67.24% of K. pneumoniae. However, PCR amplification showed the presence of one or more ESBL genes in each of the initial ESBL screening positive isolate. Among three ESBL genotypes, the most prevalent genotype was found to be blaCTX-M in E. coli (88.67%) and blaTEM in K. pneumoniae (77.58%) ESBL producing isolates. Majority of ESBL producing isolates possess more than one ESBL genes. This study constituted a primer report on high prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae and denotes the need of more extensive studies on these antibiotic genes to determine the magnitude of the problem of antibiotic resistance exiting in this locality.

  13. Aerosol characterization over Sundarban mangrove forest at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Das, Sanat Kumar; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Singh, Soumendra; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on chemical characterization of size segregated and cumulative aerosols during winter, 2015 and summer 2016 over a remote mangrove forest at Sundarban at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal. Aerosols originated from the surf zone at the land-ocean boundary of Sundarban mangrove forest and aerosols advected from Kolkata and other metropolitan and urban cities at Indo-Gangetic Plain were characterized in terms of major water soluble inorganic species. Attempt was made to investigate the combined effect of locally generated sea-salt and advected anthropogenic aerosols could change the pristine marine character at this region during the above mentioned periods. Significant chloride depletion from sea-salt aerosols was observed in coarse and ultrafine mode compared to fine mode in winter whereas reverse trend was observed during summer. On an average the chloride to sodium ratio in PM10 aerosol was found to be around 0.6 which was much lower than that in sea-water. It was observed that non-sea-sulphate and nitrate aerosols were the major species depleting chloride from sea-salt aerosols. This supported the interaction between fresh marine and polluted anthropogenic aerosols. The average concentration of PM10 aerosols was 64 μg m-3 in winter and 89 μg m-3 in summer. Major water soluble ionic species were used for the source apportionment of aerosol during the two seasons. On an average it was observed that 60-70 % of total PM10 aerosols were constituted by the major water soluble ionic species. Emission flux and deposition flux of aerosols were also studied over this remote forest region. It was also observed that anthropogenic ionic species were mostly accumulated in the ultrafine and fine mode region both during winter and summer. On the other hand sea-salt species were mostly accumulated in the coarse mode region. Sulphate aerosol showed bimodal distribution with prominent peaks both at ultrafine/fine and coarse mode region

  14. Continental export efficiencies and delineation of sources for trace gases and black carbon in North-East India: Seasonal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Chutia, Lakhima; Bharali, Chandrakala; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) has been identified from back-trajectory analyses, as one of the most potential region affecting the species transport to the Northeastern region of India (NER). The continental export efficiency (εε) of BC, NOx and SO2 within the boundary layer is estimated in order to examine how efficiently these chemical species are transported towards the NER. For this the measurements carried out at Dibrugarh, a wet tropical location in NER during 2012-2013 have been used as the references in the estimation of the species enhancements above their background. CO is used as a passive tracer of transport due to its longer lifetime in the atmosphere. The emission estimates of BC, NOx, SO2 and CO in the IGP region are adopted from the emission inventories REAS and INTEX-B. The estimated export efficiency is highest in winter (DJF) for BC and NOx, whereas SO2 shows maximum efficiency in monsoon (JJAS). BC due to efficient transportation/removal from the IGP region exhibits highest εε values compared to the other species. NOx and SO2 on the other hand get transformed to other chemical species shortly after emission into the atmosphere and hence are less efficiently transported towards the study region. The export of BC, CO, NOx and SO2 are expected to supplement the chemical atmosphere in NER, which is further studied through the annual variability in their distribution in Dibrugarh. Pearson correlation analyses of BC, NOx and SO2 with CO is carried out to examine the similarity or dissimilarity among the sources.

  15. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat

    2011-03-31

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.

  16. Falling through the cracks: a qualitative study of HIV risks among women who use drugs and alcohol in Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV risks for women who inject drugs and those who engage in sex work are well documented. Women who are dependent on non-injecting drugs and alcohol are also likely to have increased vulnerability to HIV infection, but until they actually inject drugs or engage in sex work, are unlikely to come to the attention of HIV prevention programs. Methods We undertook a qualitative study involving nine focus group discussions (FGDs) and 27 key informant interviews to investigate the context of female drug and alcohol use in two high HIV prevalence states of India (Manipur and Nagaland) and to describe their HIV risks. The FGD and interview transcripts were thematically analyzed Results The women were relatively young (mean age 31 years in Manipur and 28 years in Nagaland), but 64% in Manipur and 35% in Nagaland were widowed or divorced. Both heroin and alcohol were commonly used by the women from Manipur, while alcohol was primarily used by the women from Nagaland, especially in the context of ‘booze joints’ (illicit bars). Reasons for drug and alcohol use included: to avoid symptoms of withdrawal, to suppress emotional pain, to overcome the shame of sex work, pleasure, and widowhood. HIV vulnerability was clearly described, not only in relation to injecting drug use and sex work, but also alcohol consumption. Conclusions The contribution of alcohol use to the HIV vulnerability of women is not currently considered when HIV prevention programs are being designed and implemented leaving a group of high-risk women uncovered by much needed services such as treatment for a range of health problems including alcohol dependence. PMID:23360360

  17. Prescribing pattern of analgesics in orthopedic in-patient department at tertiary care hospital in Guwahati, Assam, Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Dwijen Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prescribing pattern of analgesics and analyze the rational use of analgesic in orthopedic in-patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital, Guwahati, Assam. Subjects and Methods: An observational and cross-sectional study was carried out for 1 month from April to May 2014. Collected data included age, sex, diagnosis and line of management during the study. The generic name and the average cost of treatment per patient were evaluated using Indian Drug Review, 2014. The prescribed drugs were assessed with respective National Model List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), 2011 and the rationality of prescriptions was determined using the World Health Organization indicators of drug utilization. The patients’ details were recorded in a predeigned data collection form and results were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 200 patients, 123 were male and 77 were female. The average number of analgesic per prescription was 1.46. In this study, 55.5% of patients had received single analgesic. Diclofenac was the most commonly prescribed analgesic (43.49%). During hospitalization, majority of the patients have received parenteral preparation. Gastroprotective agents and antimicrobials were frequently prescribed along with analgesics. Out of 292 analgesics prescribed, 183 (62.67%) were from the NLEM, India. Furthermore, 176 (57.19%) analgesics were prescribed by generic name. The average cost of treatment per patient was 2151.72 INR. Utilization of analgesic in terms of defined daily dose/100 bed-days was 104.01. Conclusion: The percentages of analgesics prescribing from NLEM and the use of analgesic by generic name were found satisfactory. Regular educational interventions to improve prescribing practices among physicians at different levels may further promote rational prescribing. PMID:27756947

  18. Scrub typhus meningoencephalitis, a diagnostic challenge for clinicians: A hospital based study from North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, M. D.; Hussain, Masaraf; Lyngdoh, Monaliza; Sharma, Shriram; Barman, Bhupen; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a known complication of scrub typhus which range from mild meningitis to frank meninigoencephalitis. Aims and objectives: To study the clinical feature, laboratory parameters and response to treatment of scrub typhus meningitis/meningoencephalitis. Methods and Materials: This is a hospital based prospective observational study from North Eastern India. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive serological test (Weil's Felix test and IgM antibody card test). Results: 13 patients of scrub typhus with features of meningitis/meningoencephalitis were included. The mean duration of fever before presentation was 5.61±3.08 days and 4 (30.76 %) patients had eschar. Altered sensorium, headache, seizure and meningeal sign were present in 13 (100%), 13 (100%), 6 (46.15%) and 10 (76.92%) patients respectively. Mean CSF protein, glucose and Adenosine deaminase was 152.16±16.88mg/dl, 55.23±21.7mg/dl, and 16.98±7.37U/L respectively. Mean total count of CSF leukocyte and lymphocyte percentage was 46.07±131 cell/cumm and 98.66±3.09% respectively. Tablet doxycycline with or without injection azithromycin was used and that shows good response 15.38% of patients died and all of them had multi organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Meningoencephalitis is a common manifestation of scrub typhus and diagnosis requires high degree of clinical suspicion which if diagnosed early and specific treatment started, patients usually recover completely with few complications. PMID:26752890

  19. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  20. Prevalence of Drug Resistance Associated Mutations Among the Anti Retroviral Therapy Exposed HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Manipur, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Lakhikumar Sharma, Adhikarimayum; Ramsing Singh, Thiyam; Ranjana Devi, Khuraijam; Shanjukumar Singh, Lisam

    2016-01-01

    Manipur is one of the highest HIV prevalence states of India because of its geographical location at the international border near the golden triangle of South-East Asia, but no study on drug resistance associated mutations (DRAMs) has been reported yet. A population-based study on DRAMs of HIV-1 among the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) exposed HIV-1 infected individuals of Manipur was conducted. 110 HIV-1 positive individuals who had initially exposed to first line anti-HIV drugs were recruited for the surveillance of DRAMs. Reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1 were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Significant prevalence of DRAMs of HIV-1 was found among the ART exposed HIV-1 infected individuals of Manipur. The results revealed that 37%, 29% and 7% individuals harbor HIV-1 strains mutated at the target sites of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors respectively. Predominant DRAMs at RT genes were M184V, T215Y, M41L and V108I and H221Y while at PR genes were M46I and I47V. Among the high risk groups, intravenous drug users have the highest number of DRAMs followed by heterosexual individuals. Analysis of viral subtype based on pol gene revealed 83% subtype C, 11.8% recombinant forms and 5.2% subtype B. DRAMs at the target sites of reverse transcriptase inhibitors are high and these were found to have developed resistance to the primary ART drugs that are used in Manipur. The findings of this study will help the clinicians to guide patients during the course of ART treatment regimes.

  1. Prescribing pattern of analgesics in orthopedic in-patient department at tertiary care hospital in Guwahati, Assam, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Dwijen Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prescribing pattern of analgesics and analyze the rational use of analgesic in orthopedic in-patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital, Guwahati, Assam. An observational and cross-sectional study was carried out for 1 month from April to May 2014. Collected data included age, sex, diagnosis and line of management during the study. The generic name and the average cost of treatment per patient were evaluated using Indian Drug Review, 2014. The prescribed drugs were assessed with respective National Model List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), 2011 and the rationality of prescriptions was determined using the World Health Organization indicators of drug utilization. The patients' details were recorded in a predeigned data collection form and results were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Out of 200 patients, 123 were male and 77 were female. The average number of analgesic per prescription was 1.46. In this study, 55.5% of patients had received single analgesic. Diclofenac was the most commonly prescribed analgesic (43.49%). During hospitalization, majority of the patients have received parenteral preparation. Gastroprotective agents and antimicrobials were frequently prescribed along with analgesics. Out of 292 analgesics prescribed, 183 (62.67%) were from the NLEM, India. Furthermore, 176 (57.19%) analgesics were prescribed by generic name. The average cost of treatment per patient was 2151.72 INR. Utilization of analgesic in terms of defined daily dose/100 bed-days was 104.01. The percentages of analgesics prescribing from NLEM and the use of analgesic by generic name were found satisfactory. Regular educational interventions to improve prescribing practices among physicians at different levels may further promote rational prescribing.

  2. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496

  3. Biological potency and characterization of antibacterial substances produced by Lactobacillus pentosus isolated from Hentak, a fermented fish product of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Aarti, Chirom; Khusro, Ameer; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Agastian, Paul; Al-Dhabi, Naïf Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from various foods are important due to their potential to inhibit microorganisms, including drug-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this investigation were to isolate and identify antibacterial substances producing LAB from Hentak, a traditional fermented fish product of Manipur (North-East India), and to optimize the production of antagonistic substances present in cell free neutralized supernatant (CFNS) against enteric bacterial pathogens using the 'one factor at a time' (OFAT) method. Out of 10 LAB, the most potent bacterium producing antibacterial substances was isolated and identified as Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1 based upon morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. MRS (de Man, Ragosa and Sharpe) medium was determined to provide better bactericidal activity (AU/ml) than other tested media against the indicator enteric bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis MTTC 3615, Micrococcus luteus MTCC 106, Shigella flexneri MTCC 1457, Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 840 and Proteus vulgaris MTCC 1771. The culture conditions (pH: 5, temperature: 30 °C and inoculum volume: 1 %) and medium components (carbon source: lactose and nitrogen source: ammonium chloride) were observed to be the most influential parameters of significant antagonistic activity of CFNS against the enteric pathogens. MRS medium supplemented with Tween20 effectively stimulated the yield of antibacterial substances. The CFNS of strain LAP1 exhibited sensitivity to proteolytic enzyme (pepsin) treatment and heat treatment (60 °C for 60 min, 100 °C for 30 min and 121 °C for 15 min) and lost its inhibitory properties. The CFNS was active at an acidic (pH 3.0) to neutral pH (pH 7.0) but lost its antagonistic properties at an alkaline pH. The CFNS obtained from strain LAP1 scavenges the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) significantly in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of 8.8 ± 0.12-57.35 ± 0.1 %. The

  4. Bioaccumulation of nutrients and metals in sediment, water, and phoomdi from Loktak Lake (Ramsar site), northeast India: phytoremediation options and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Meitei, Maibam Dhanaraj; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the potential of phoomdi to accumulate nutrients and metals, 11 dominant species belonging to 10 different families, sediment, and water were analyzed for a period of 2 years from the largest freshwater wetland of north-east India, Loktak (Ramsar site). Results revealed nutrient (TN and TP) and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) compartmentalization in the order phoomdi > sediment > water. Iron concentrations in water (0.37 ± 0.697 to 0.57 ± 1.010 mg L(-1)) and sediments (81.8 ± 0.45 to 253.1 ± 0.51 mg kg(-1)) show high metal discharge into the wetland. Metal accumulation in phoomdi ranged up to 212.3 ± 0.46-9461.4 ± 1.09 mg kg(-1) for Fe; 85.9 ± 0.31-3565.1 ± 0.87 mg kg(-1) for Mn; 9.6 ± 0.41-85.39 ± 0.58 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.31 ± 0.04-9.2 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) for Cu, respectively. High bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for metals (S. cucullata, 5.8 × 10(4) Fe, 3.9 × 10(4) Mn, and 1.7 × 10(4) Cu, and O. javanica, 4.9 × 10(3) Zn) and nutrients (S. polyrhiza, 9.7 × 10(2) TN, and Z. latifolia, 7.9 × 10(4) TP) revealed good accumulation in phoomdi compared to the wetland water column and indicate their potential to maintain a safe environment of Loktak. Further, the paper analyzed the health hazard of metals via phoomdi wild edible consumption, with the results confirming potential risk. Thus, the paper showed the need of in-depth monitoring and ample management strategies to ensure nutritional safety conditions of locals from the metals.

  5. Plant-microbial association in petroleum and gas exploration sites in the state of Assam, north-east India-significance for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Hemen; Islam, N F; Prasad, M N V

    2017-03-01

    The state of Assam in north-east India gained popularity in Asia because of discovery of oil. Pollution due to petroleum and gas exploration is a serious problem in Assam. Oil and gas exploration by various agencies in Assam resulted in soil pollution due to hydrocarbons (HCs) and heavy metals (HMs). Bioremediation gained considerable significance in addressing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in various parts of the world. In this investigation, we have observed 15 species of plants belonging to grass growing on the contaminated soils. Among 15 species of grasses, 10 species with high important value index (IVI) were found to be better adapted. The highest IVI is exhibited by Axonopus compressus (21.41), and this grass can be identified as key ecological tool in the rehabilitation of the degraded site. But no definite correlation between the IVI and the biomass of the various grass existed in the study sites. Chemical study of rhizosphere (RS) and non-rhizosphere (NRS) soil of these grasses revealed both aromatic and aliphatic compounds (M.W. 178-456). Four-ring pyrene was detected in NRS soil but not in RS soil. Microbiological study of RS and NRS soil showed high colony-forming unit (CFU) of HC-degrading microbes in RS compared to NRS. The increased microbial catabolism in RS soil established the fact that pyrene is transformed to aliphatic compounds. Metals in RS soil ranged from (in mg kg(-1)) 222.6 to 267.3 (Cr), 854 to 956 (Pb) and 180 to 247 (Ni), but despite the very high total metal concentration in RS and NRS soil, the CaCl2-extracted metals were relatively low in RS soil (1.04 for Cr, 0.56 for Pb, 0.35 for Ni). Plants with the highest uptake of metals were Leersia hexandra (36.43 mg Cr kg(-1)) and Kyllinga brevifolia (67.73 mg Pb kg(-1) and 40.24 mg Ni kg(-1)). These plant species could be potentially exploited for biomonitoring and bioremediation. Out of 15 plant species, 8 of them have high percentages of cellulose, crude fibres, lignin

  6. Modelling the impact of prescribed global warming on water resources of headwater catchments of the Irrawaddy River and their implications for Loktak Lake, northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. R.; Thompson, J. R.; French, J. R.; Kingston, D. G.; Mackay, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is likely to have major implications for wetland ecosystems, which will include altered water level regimes due to modifications in local and catchment hydrology. However, substantial uncertainty exists in the precise impacts of climate change on wetlands due in part due to uncertainty in GCM projections. This paper explores the impacts of climate change upon river discharge within three sub-catchments of Loktak Lake, an internationally important wetland in northeast India. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM output through distributed hydrological models (developed using MIKE SHE) of each sub-catchment. The impacts of climate change upon water levels within Loktak Lake are subsequently investigated using a water balance model. Two groups of climate change scenarios are investigated. Group 1 uses results from seven different GCMs for an increase in global mean temperature of 2 °C, the purported threshold of "dangerous" climate change, whilst Group 2 is based on results from the HadCM3 GCM for increases in global mean temperature between 1 °C and 6 °C. Results from the Group 1 scenarios show varying responses between the three sub-catchments. The majority of scenario-sub-catchment combinations (13 out of 21) indicate increases in discharge which vary from <1% to 42% although, in some cases, discharge decreases by as much as 20%. Six of the GCMs suggest overall increases in river flow to Loktak Lake (2-27%) whilst the other results in a modest (6%) decline. In contrast, the Group 2 scenarios lead to an almost linear increase in total river flow to Loktak Lake with increasing temperature (up to 27% for 6 °C), although two sub-catchments experience reductions in mean discharge for the smallest temperature increases. In all but one Group 1 scenario, and all the Group 2 scenarios, Loktak Lake water levels are higher, regularly reaching the top of a downstream hydropower barrage that impounds the lake and necessitating the release of water

  7. Metagenome Sequencing Reveals Rhodococcus Dominance in Farpuk Cave, Mizoram, India, an Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hot Spot Region

    PubMed Central

    De Mandal, Surajit; Sanga, Zothan

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to survey the prokaryotic microbiota on Farpuk Cave, revealing a diverse bacterial community with 4,021 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), mainly dominated by the genus Rhodococcus. Moreover, 18.17% of the OTUs were unclassified at the phylum level, suggesting the existence of novel bacterial species. PMID:26067958

  8. Diversity and abundance of mosquito species in relation to their larval habitats in Mizoram, North Eastern Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Vanlalruia, Khawling; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2014-09-01

    The abundance, richness and diversity of anopheline and culicid mosquitoes associated with their habitats, season, and physico-chemical quality of water were surveyed along six districts of Mizoram, North Eastern Himalayan region. The productivity of permanent and temporary habitat types was quantified by carrying out weekly larval sampling using a standard dipping method for a period of three years. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), Evenness index (Heve), similarity measures cluster analysis and MANOVA. In total, 5 genera and 20 species of mosquitoes were identified: Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles barbirostris and Anopheles vagus were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 39.71%, 29.39% and 14.52% of total mosquito individuals sampled, respectively. Anopheles sp. diversity was lowest in Lunglei district (H'=0.48) and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.03), whereas Culex sp. diversity was lowest in Lawngtlai (H'=0.38), and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.99) and Kolasib (H'=2.13). This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes of Mizoram. Mosquito larvae were present in both temporary and permanent habitats suitable for breeding with monthly variations dependent on rainfall intensity, temperature, humidity and location. Early instars were more abundant significantly (P<0.0001) than late instars among the habitat types in all study sites. The productivity of mosquito larvae was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in ponds especially in permanent than semi-permanent and temporary. Weekly rainfall intensity led to an increase or decrease in anopheline and culicid larval abundance depending on the location. Mosquito diversity was highest in monsoon season (July-September) and lowest in January-March. A. barbirostris, A. vagus and C. quinquefasciatus appear the most likely habitat generalist as it demonstrates both widespread distribution. Abundance and diversity of culicine and anopheline larvae

  9. Copy number polymorphism of glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 & GSTT1) in susceptibility to lung cancer in a high-risk population from north-east India

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Rakhshan; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, L.C.; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Zomawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) have been studied intensively for their potential role in lung cancer susceptibility. However, most of the studies on association between the polymorphisms and lung cancer do not distinguish between genotypes with one or two copies of the genes. The present study investigates the gene dosage effects of GSTT1 and GSTM1 copy number and their environmental interactions to examine the association of lung cancer risk with trimodular genotypes of the GSTs in a high-risk population from north-east India. Methods: A total of 154 lung cancer cases and 154 age and sex matched controls from the high risk region of north-east India were analyzed by multiplex real-time PCR to determine the trimodal genotypes (+/+, +/- and -/-) in both the genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1). Results: No significant association and gene dosage effect of GSTM1 gene copy number with lung cancer risk (Ptrend=0.13) were found. However, absence of GSTT1 conferred 68 per cent (OR=0.32;95%CI=0.15-0.71; P=0.005) reduced risk compared to the two copy number of the gene. There was evidence of gene dosage effect of GSTT1 gene (Ptrend=0.006). Tobacco smoking was a major environmental risk factor to lung cancer (OR=3.03;95%CI=1.73-5.31; P<0.001). However, its interaction with null genotype of GSTT1 conferred significant reduced risk to lung cancer (OR=0.30;95%CI=0.10-0.91; P=0.03). Further in only tobacco smokers, null genotype was associated with increased reduced risk [0.03(0.001-0.78)0.03; Ptrend=0.006]. No effect modification of GSTM1 was observed with lung cancer risk by environmental risk factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that absence of GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer and the effect remains unchanged after interaction with smoking. PMID:25027082

  10. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Banerjee, Amrita; Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A K; Pattanayak, A; Harish, G D; Singh, S K; Ngachan, S V; Bansal, K C

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and

  11. New records of Indian Nematomorpha, with the description of a new species from the genus Chordodes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-08-29

    Chordodes tjorvenae, a new species of horsehair worms is described from Mizoram, Northeast India. The species is distinct from all other known species by a unique combination of cuticular charatcers. In addition, the occurrence of the genus Acutogordius, particularly A. finni, is reported for the first time from India.

  12. Surface fine topography and PCR-based determination of metacercaria of Paragonimus sp. from edible crabs in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, V; Prasad, P K; Chatterjee, A; Bhutia, P T

    2007-12-01

    In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus infection reportedly involving species that are known to prevail in China have been identified. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the surface fine topography and sequence analysis of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA; second internal transcribed spacer, ITS2) of the metacercarial stages of the lung fluke collected from a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh). The encysted metacercariae were oval in shape and had a smooth surface. The newly excysted metacercaria had a ventral sucker larger than the oral; the body surface was covered with numerous single-pointed and thorn-like tegumentary spines, of which those on the anterior part of the body were bigger in size and showed a gradual reduction in length and number towards the posterior end; dome-shaped papillae in variable numbers were seen around the rim of the oral sucker and were sparsely distributed all over the body surface. The polymerase chain reaction-amplified rDNA ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae were aligned with known sequences for the various species of Paragonimus, and the expectation value was found to be most significant with P. westermani, revealing an absolute match. The surface topography including the number and distribution of papillae and spination patterns and the ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae strongly suggest that the Paragonimus species, prevalent in the region of India, is in fact P. westermani.

  13. "Sick and unable to march:" life and death in the army of the Dutch West India Company in the Northeast of Brazil, 1630-1654.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Bruno Romero Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Of the many evils that were inflicted upon the army of the West India Company in its years of activity in Brazil, few could be compared to diseases. However, there is little quantitative data in the field of historiography regarding the impact of disease on these troops. Apart from the limited amount of information about the diseases that affected many soldiers, little is known about the medical treatments that were available, the main diseases that affected the troops, and what were the causes. This article provides information to understand aspects that have been little studied in quantitative and systematic terms in the field of historiography, and demonstrates how the diseases afflicted the Company and affected its actions in the territory.

  14. Rural recruitment and retention of health workers across cadres and types of contract in north-east India: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rajbangshi, Preety R; Nambiar, Devaki; Choudhury, Nandini; Rao, Krishna D

    2017-09-01

    Background Like many other low- and middle-income countries, India faces challenges of recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas. Efforts have been made to address this through contractual appointment of health workers in rural areas. While this has helped to temporarily bridge the gaps in human resources, the overall impact on the experience of rural services across cadres has yet to be understood. This study sought to identify motivations for, and the challenges of, rural recruitment and retention of nurses, doctors and specialists across types of contract in rural and remote areas in India's largely rural north-eastern states of Meghalaya and Nagaland. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken, in which 71 semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors (n = 32), nurses (n = 28) and specialists (n = 11). In addition, unstructured key informant interviews (n = 11) were undertaken, along with observations at health facilities and review of state policies. Data were analysed using Ritchie and Spencer's framework method and the World Health Organization's 2010 framework of factors affecting decisions to relocate to, stay in or leave rural areas. Results It was found that rural background and community attachment were strongly associated with health workers' decision to join rural service, regardless of cadre or contract. However, this aspiration was challenged by health-systems factors of poor working and living conditions; low salary and incentives; and lack of professional growth and recognition. Contractual health workers faced unique challenges (lack of pay parity, job insecurity), as did those with permanent positions (irrational postings and political interference). Conclusion This study establishes that the crisis in recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas will persist until and unless health systems address the core basic requirements of health workers in rural areas, which are related to health-sector policies

  15. Formation of Se (0) Nanoparticles by Duganella sp. andAgrobacterium sp. isolated from Se-laden soil of North-East Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, but is toxic at high concentrations. Depending upon the geological background, the land use or on anthropogenic pollution, different amounts of Se may be present in soil. Its toxicity is related to the oxyanions selenate and selenite as they are water soluble and bioavailable. Microorganisms play an important role in Se transformations in soil and its cycling in the environment by transforming water-soluble oxyanions into water insoluble, non-toxic elemental Se (0). For this study, soil samples were collected from selenium-contaminated agricultural soils of Punjab/India to enrich and isolate microbes that interacted with the Se cycle. Results A mixed microbial culture enriched from the arable soil of Punjab could reduce 230 mg/l of water soluble selenite to spherical Se (0) nanoparticles during aerobic growth as confirmed by SEM-EDX. Four pure cultures (C 1, C 4, C 6, C 7) of Gram negative, oxidase and catalase positive, aerobic bacteria were isolated from this mixed microbial consortium and identified by 16 S rDNA gene sequence alignment as two strains of Duganella sp. (C 1, C 4) and two strains of Agrobacterium sp.(C 6, C 7). SEM/TEM-EDX analyses of the culture broth of the four strains revealed excretion of uniformly round sharply contoured Se (0) nanoparticles by all cultures. Their size ranged from 140–200 nm in cultures of strains C 1 and C 4, and from 185–190 nm in cultures of strains C 6 and C 7. Both Duganella sp. revealed better selenite reduction efficiencies than the two Agrobacterium sp. Conclusions This is the first study reporting the capability of newly isolated, aerobically growing Duganella sp. and Agrobacterium sp. from soils of Punjab/India to form spherical, regularly formed Se (0) nanoparticles from water soluble selenite. Among others, the four strains may significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of Se in soil. Bioconversion of toxic selenite to non-toxic Se (0

  16. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01) as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization. PMID:27047176

  17. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram.

    PubMed

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A K

    2015-07-01

    This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01) as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  18. Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 μM and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

  19. Discovery of a new chert-permineralized microbiota in the Proterozoic Buxa Formation of the Ranjit window, Sikkim, northeast India, and its astrobiological implications.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J William; Tewari, Vinod C; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B

    2008-08-01

    For the foreseeable future, the search for evidence of past life in rocks acquired from other planets will be constrained by the amount of sample available and by the fidelity of preservation of any fossils present. What amount of rock is needed to establish the existence of past life? To address this question, we studied a minute amount of rock collected from cherty dolomites of the Proterozoic Buxa Formation in the metamorphically altered tectonically active northeastern Himalaya. In particular, we investigated 2 small petrographic thin sections-one from each of 2 bedded chert horizons exposed in the Ranjit River stratigraphic section northwest of Rishi, Sikkim, India-that together comprise an area of approximately 5 cm(2) (about the size of a US postage stamp) and have a total rock weight of approximately 0.1 g. Optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and imagery demonstrate that each of the thin sections contains a rich assemblage of 3-dimensionally permineralized organic-walled microfossils. This study, the first report of Proterozoic microfossils in units of the Ranjit tectonic window, demonstrates that firm evidence of early life can be adduced from even a minuscule amount of fossil-bearing ancient rock.

  20. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs), and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs) are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed health and other service needs

  1. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India - a challenge for HIV prevention services.

    PubMed

    Kermode, Michelle; Songput, Chinzaning Hangzo; Sono, Collins Z; Jamir, Temjen Nungsang; Devine, Alex

    2012-09-26

    The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs), and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs) are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women's drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children's welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. The expressed health and other service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in

  2. Geospatial scenario based modelling of urban and agricultural intrusions in Ramsar wetland Deepor Beel in Northeast India using a multi-layer perceptron neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozumder, Chitrini; Tripathi, Nitin K.

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, the world has experienced unprecedented urban growth which endangers the green environment in and around urban areas. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) based model is developed to predict future impacts of urban and agricultural expansion on the uplands of Deepor Beel, a Ramsar wetland in the city area of Guwahati, Assam, India, by 2025 and 2035 respectively. Simulations were carried out for three different transition rates as determined from the changes during 2001-2011, namely simple extrapolation, Markov Chain (MC), and system dynamic (SD) modelling, using projected population growth, which were further investigated based on three different zoning policies. The first zoning policy employed no restriction while the second conversion restriction zoning policy restricted urban-agricultural expansion in the Guwahati Municipal Development Authority (GMDA) proposed green belt, extending to a third zoning policy providing wetland restoration in the proposed green belt. The prediction maps were found to be greatly influenced by the transition rates and the allowed transitions from one class to another within each sub-model. The model outputs were compared with GMDA land demand as proposed for 2025 whereby the land demand as produced by MC was found to best match the projected demand. Regarding the conservation of Deepor Beel, the Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) Index revealed that wetland restoration zoning policies may reduce the impact of urban growth on a local scale, but none of the zoning policies was found to minimize the impact on a broader base. The results from this study may assist the planning and reviewing of land use allocation within Guwahati city to secure ecological sustainability of the wetlands.

  3. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  4. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  5. Elemental characterization and source identification of PM 2.5 using multivariate analysis at the suburban site of North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Puja; Baruah, B. P.

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol samples for PM 2.5 were collected at a suburban site of India during Jan 2007 to Jan 2008. The sampling site is exposed to different antropic source emissions like vehicular emission, wood burning, coal based industries and other industrial activities. The mass concentrations of PM 2.5, major elements (Al, Si, P, S, Na, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Te, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb) and major ions (Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, and NH 4+) were determined for winter and rainy seasons. Their levels were found higher than those of in various European and American cities, however, comparable to those of some Asian cities. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant seasonal variation for concentrations of PM 2.5, NO 3-, SO 42- and most of the elements. This seasonal variation is due to enhanced heating activities and stagnant climatic conditions in winter and removal of pollutants by wet deposition in the rainy period. Source apportionment was undertaken using enrichment factor (EF), Spearman's correlation and absolute principal component analysis. A five-factor model for explaining the observed PM 2.5 levels was found to provide realistic results. Evaluation of element abundance at site indicates different pollution levels. The source identification of this study shows that PM 2.5 levels were influenced by not only local and industrial activities but also long range transport. Traffic induced crustal sources (38%); coal combustion (26%), industrial and vehicular emissions (19%), wood burning (9%) and secondary aerosol formation (8%) are the major contributors to PM 2.5 levels in the city.

  6. Anomalous behavior of ionospheric total electron content over Dibrugarh preceding five major earthquakes (M greater than 5) in North-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Hazarika, Rumajyoti

    The North Eastern part of India nestled between the Eastern Himalayas and the South East Asia mountains and valleys falls in the high risk seismic zone 5. Five major earthquakes (M>5) occurred from 2009 to 2013 within this zone. The epicentres of the earthquakes lied within about 2.5° in latitude and longitude from Dibrugarh (27.5° N, 94.9° E) where ionospheric TEC is being recorded using a NOVATEL GSV4004B receiver since 2009. The TEC data has been analyzed to examine the signature of these earthquakes on the ionosphere prior to their occurrence by removing the ionospheric anomalies that might be caused by variations in solar and magnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of TEC data is utilized to construct their upper and lower bounds to detect the excursions outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. The results indicate large enhancements and depletion in TEC on geomagnetically quite days at Dibrugarh, which is within the earthquake preparation zones. Both enhancement and depletion in TEC have been observed prior to 1 to 15 days of the earthquakes, mainly during daytime hours. The enhancement in TEC was seen before four major earthquakes respectively M 6.4, M 6.1, M 5.8 and M 5.4, while in contrast depletion in TEC was observed before the M 5.6 earthquake. Probable causes of these enhancement and depletion prior to the earthquakes are discussed. One probable cause could be the large increase in surface latent heat flux observed between 4-8 days prior to the earthquakes near the epicenter.

  7. Aerosol Radiative Forcing over­­­­­­ North-East India: Synergy of Model simulation and ground based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B.

    2015-12-01

    The diurnal evolution of shortwave solar radiance at the surface has been investigated from Kipp and Zonen CNR4 net radiometer measurements in a humid sub-tropical location Dibrugarh in the North Eastern region of India. Data for a total of 345 clear days within a span of two years during March 2013- January 2015 are analyzed which are further utilized to validate the Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (SBDART) simulated flux. The diurnal evolution of solar radiation maximizes in its amplitude in monsoon months (JJAS) and is minimum during the winter months (DJF) prescribed by the Northern Hemisphere routine. The net shortwave radiation increases from the minimum value of ~100 Wm-2 at the beginning of the year and attains maximum ~300 Wm-2 during monsoon. Both the measured and model simulated diurnal and seasonal solar flux exhibit similar behaviour at the surface with good correlation with R2~ 0.98-0.99. The present study also focuses on the validation of the surface albedo and the albedo retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements by the CNR4 net Radiometer measurements, which again shows a good agreement. This validation is essential for the reliability of satellite retrieved surface reflectance that are being utilised in the radiative transfer models. In order to study the influence of the aerosols upon the incoming solar irradiances the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE) is estimated. The ARFEsurface during the Winter is the highest (-75.02 ± 8.03 W m-2 τ-1) and minimum during Retreating Monsoon (ON) (-58.40 ±25.03 W m-2 τ-1). For both the modeled and the field based estimation, the aerosol radiative forcing obtained during the study period ranged from -39 ±6 Wm-2 to -10 ±4 Wm-2 at the surface and 10±3 Wm-2 to 28±7 Wm-2 at the atmosphere and -7±4 Wm-2 to -10 ±3 Wm-2 at the TOA. The measured and the model ARF values differ by 5 - 8 % in winter and

  8. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Robin; Das, Banani; Das, Arpana; Ahmed, Mansur; Bawri, Sonika; Rai, Suditi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae completing 28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy and delivered at our institution were included in the study group. Primigravidae aged between 20 and 25 years were taken as a control group. Mothers having pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, renal disorder, thyroid disorders, and cardiac diseases were excluded from the study. Demographic data, maternal complications like severe anemia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications were compared. Among fetal complications, low-birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, still birth, and early neonatal death were compared. All the patients were interviewed regarding contraceptive knowledge and its use preceding the pregnancy. Results Quality antenatal care was received by 80.6% of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.017 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045–3.894, P=0.03), preterm deliveries (OR: 1.655, 95% CI: 1.039–2.636, P=0.03). Among fetal outcomes, the low- birth weight babies (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.016–2.478), low mean birth weight (2,544.4±622.09 g versus 2,701.6±582.51 g), and higher admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR: 1.957, 95% CI: 1.120–3.417) were significantly associated with adolescent mothers. There was no significant difference found regarding the mode of delivery, still birth, and early neonatal death. Moreover, contraceptive knowledge and its use were found to be poor among adolescent mothers. Conclusion With quality antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care, the obstetric risk of childbirth in adolescent mothers

  9. Modelling the impact of prescribed global warming on runoff from headwater catchments of the Irrawaddy River and their implications for the water level regime of Loktak Lake, northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. R.; Thompson, J. R.; French, J. R.; Kingston, D. G.; Mackay, A. W.

    2010-09-01

    Climate change is likely to have major implications for wetland ecosystems, which will include altered water level regimes due to modifications in local and catchment hydrology. However, substantial uncertainty exists in the precise impacts of climate change on wetlands due in part to uncertainty in GCM projections. This paper explores the impacts of climate change upon river discharge within three sub-catchments of Loktak Lake, an internationally important wetland in northeast India. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM output through distributed hydrological models (developed using MIKE SHE) of each sub-catchment. The impacts of climate change upon water levels within Loktak Lake are subsequently investigated using a water balance model. Two groups of climate change scenarios are investigated. Group 1 uses results from seven different GCMs for an increase in global mean temperature of 2 °C, the purported threshold of ''dangerous'' climate change, whilst Group 2 is based on results from the HadCM3 GCM for increases in global mean temperature between 1 °C and 6 °C. Results from the Group 1 scenarios show varying responses between the three sub-catchments. The majority of scenario-sub-catchment combinations (13 out of 21) indicate increases in discharge which vary from <1% to 42% although, in some cases, discharge decreases by as much as 20%. Six of the GCMs suggest overall increases in river flow to Loktak Lake (2-27%) whilst the other results in a modest (6%) decline. In contrast, the Group 2 scenarios lead to an almost linear increase in total river flow to Loktak Lake with increasing temperature (up to 27% for 6 °C), although two sub-catchments experience reductions in mean discharge for the smallest temperature increases. In all but one Group 1 scenario, and all the Group 2 scenarios, Loktak Lake water levels are higher, regularly reaching the top of a downstream hydropower barrage that impounds the lake and necessitating the release of water for

  10. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  11. A Case Study of Geologic Hazards Affecting School Buildings: Evaluating Seismic Structural Vulnerability and Landslide Hazards at Schools in Aizawl, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, M. M.; Guo, J.

    2016-12-01

    India's National School Safety Program (NSSP) aims to assess all government schools in earthquake prone regions of the country. To supplement the Mizoram State Government's recent survey of 141 government schools, we screened an additional 16 private and 4 government schools for structural vulnerabilities due to earthquakes, as well as landslide hazards, in Mizoram's capital of Aizawl. We developed a geomorphologically derived landslide susceptibility matrix, which was cross-checked with Aizawl Municipal Corporation's landslide hazard map (provided by Lettis Consultants International), to determine the geologic hazards at each school. Our research indicates that only 7% of the 22 assessed school buildings are located within low landslide hazard zones; 64% of the school buildings, with approximately 9,500 students, are located within very high or high landslide hazard zones. Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) was used to determine the structural earthquake vulnerability of each school building. RVS is an initial vulnerability assessment procedure used to inventory and rank buildings that may be hazardous during an earthquake. Our study indicates that all of the 22 assessed school buildings have a damageability rating of Grade 3 or higher on the 5-grade EMS scale, suggesting a significant vulnerability and potential for damage in buildings, ranging from widespread cracking of columns and beam column joints to collapse. Additionally, 86% of the schools we visited had reinforced concrete buildings constructed before Aizawl's building regulations were passed in 2007, which can be assumed to lack appropriate seismic reinforcement. Using our findings, we will give recommendations to the Government of Mizoram to prevent unnecessary loss of life by minimizing each school's landslide risk and ensuring schools are earthquake-resistant.

  12. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. Materials and Methods: A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6th week. Results: Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3rd week where it reduced significantly (p<0.05) at and above 6% TDLM in the ration. The average body weight gain decreased significantly (p<0.05) above 6% TDLM inclusion. The average body weights at 7th, 14th, and 21st day of age reduced significantly (p<0.05) from 4% to 10% TDLM inclusion level but was statistically non-significant up to 4% TDLM at 28th, 35th, and 42nd day of age. Body weight at 42nd day of age was 1624.72±30.52, 1616.66±17.84, 1592.60±19.24, 1404.61±17.76, 1188.29±17.67, and 1054.33±18.81 gin TDLM-0, TDLM-2, TDLM-4, TDLM-6, TDLM-8, and TDLM-10, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients decreased with increased inclusion level of TDLM. The digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract were significantly higher in TDLM-0, but crude fiber digestibility was comparable without any significant difference among the groups. Feed conversion ratio

  13. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India. Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram). Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the differences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test. Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60%) followed by pet (29.16%) and stray dogs (17.75%). Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. PMID:27047976

  14. 5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST ROOM AND MEZZANINE, NORTHEAST VIEW OF (HOISTS IN CENTER). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  15. VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHEAST TOWARD MAINTENANCE SHED AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST BACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST BACK OF BUILDING 13, FACING SOUTH. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  17. Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

  18. Delhi, India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-17

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million and is located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 22, 2003.

  19. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  20. New records of chalcidid (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) pupal parasitoids from India

    PubMed Central

    Kanagarajan, Rasappan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Chalcidids are one of the most important parasitoids of pupae of agriculturally important pests belonging to orders like Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Such an important group has not been studied consistently by any team of workers from any country apart from the notable contributions by Boucek, Steffan, Delvare and Narendran. (Boucek 1988, Steffan 1973, Delvare 1992 and Narendran 1989). On a personal note, Dr. John S Noyes of Natural History Museum London agrees with this view as expressed with the second author and hence we felt that we can initiate further work on this group within India. We currently hold hundreds of unidentified specimens of this family in our department collection confirming that we will have much work to do over a long period of time. New information New distribution records of Chalcididae from Andhra Pradesh (Brachymeria megaspila, B. minuta, Dirhinus anthracia and D. auratus), Bihar (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, B. hearseyi, D. anthracia, D. auratus, D. pilifer, Epitranus erythrogaster and Psilochalcis carinigena), Karnataka (B. apicicornis), Manipur (B. euploeae, D. auratus and E. erythrogaster), Mizoram (B. euploeae and D. anthracia), Nagaland (B. euploeae), Himachal Pradesh (B. alternipes), and Tamil Nadu (B. apicicornis, D. anthracia, D. deplanatus, D. pilifer, D. bakeri, E. observator, E. elongatulus, P. keralensis and P. soudanensis) and union territories Andaman & Nicobar Islands (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, E. erythrogaster and P. carinigena) and Pudhucherry (B. albicrus, D. anthracia, D. auratus, E. erythrogaster and P. kerelensis) are documented from the unidentified material mentioned above. PMID:26929709

  1. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sarat Kumar; Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Mohapatra, Namita; Nayak, Suryakanti; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm(3). Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.

  2. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sarat Kumar; Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Mohapatra, Namita; Nayak, Suryakanti; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients. PMID:27994425

  3. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  4. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  5. Blastomycosis in northeast Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, J E; Mehta, J B; Agrawal, R; Sarubbi, F A

    1998-08-01

    To study the epidemiologic and clinical features of blastomycosis in northeast Tennessee. Retrospective review of blastomycosis cases in the region from 1980 through 1995. Hospitals located in the Tri-Cities region of northeast Tennessee. Seventy-two patients with confirmed blastomycosis infection. None. During the 1980 to 1995 study period, we documented 72 cases of blastomycosis. The mean age was 52 years (range, 13 to 86 years), most were male (69.4%), and nine were immunocompromised. A possible environmental exposure was noted for 28 patients. Pulmonary involvement represented the most common site of infection (61 cases), but multiorgan involvement was common (17 cases). Most patients with pulmonary blastomycosis (66%) presented with a chronic illness, and radiologic findings usually revealed local consolidation or a mass-like lesion. Nine patients developed ARDS with an associated mortality rate of 89%, compared with a 10% mortality for non-ARDS pulmonary cases. Antifungal treatment regimens varied widely, with amphotericin B often used for sicker patients. An epidemiologic evaluation revealed that the mean yearly incidence rate for blastomycosis quadrupled between 1980 and 1987 (0.31 cases/ 100,000 population) and 1988 to 1995 (1.23 cases/100,000 population) (p=0.00001). Most new blastomycosis cases in the 1988 to 1995 period occurred in three counties in the region where significant new construction projects have been underway. Blastomycosis is endemic in northeast Tennessee and the number of cases is increasing, coinciding with major new construction in the region. Clinicians in the area must be alert to this condition.

  6. Northeast Atlantic bathymetric map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubrieu, B.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Monti, S.; Mazé, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    The new bathymetric map of the Bay of Biscay and Northeast Atlantic Ocean is based on all available conventional and multibeam data. It extends from the European coast to the mid-Atlantic ridge in longitude and from the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone to 50^oN in latitude. Grid spacing is one km. The map is in Mercator projection at a 1/2,400,000 scale. With respect to previously published maps, the detailed morphology of Eurasian and Iberian continental margins, a complete picture of the two fossil trajectories of the Bay of Biscay triple junction, which limit the western extension of the Bay of Biscay, and the precise location of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Iberia, which was active during the Tertiary, are now available. The Bay of Biscay and Northeast Atlantic opened simultaneously between chrons M0 (118 Ma) and 33o (80 Ma). A triple junction existed during that period. Fossil triple junctions trajectories on each of the three Eurasia (EU), Iberia (IB) and North America (NA) plates separate oceanic domains which were formed between the three plate pairs: IB/EU for the Bay of Biscay, EU/NA and IB/NA for the northern and southern portions of the Northeast Atlantic respectively. On each side of the fossil trajectories, rift directions formed between different plate pairs present different azimuths. The two eastern branches have been identified on the basis of available bathymetric, magnetic and seismic data. They are generally associated with a basement ridge whose bathymetric expression is clearly shown in their youngest parts. The intersections of these two fossil trajectories with the base of the continental margins are conjugate points before the opening of the Bay of Biscay, giving an independent constraint for plate reconstructions at M0 time. In a companion poster, we have used the constraints deduced from the new bathymetric map to derive the IB/EU kinematic motions and discuss their consequences on the formation of Pyrenees.

  7. 2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTH SIDE (NORTHEAST CORNER).. THE NORTHEAST SIDE OF THE MINE OFFICE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  8. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus (L) from north-east India as revealed by meiosis, and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2014-01-01

    The north-eastern region of India is reported to be the center of origin and rich in diversity of Citrus (L.) species, where some wild and endangered species namely Citrus indica, Citrus macroptera, Citrus latipes, Citrus ichagensis and Citrus assamensis exist in their natural and undisturbed habitat. In order to have comprehensive information about the extent of genetic variability and the occurrence of cryptic genomic hybridity between and within various Citrus species, a combined approach involving morphological, cytogenetical and molecular approaches were adopted in the present study. Cytogenetic approaches are known to resolve taxonomic riddles in a more efficient manner, by clearly delineating taxa at species and sub species levels. Male meiotic studies revealed a gametic chromosome number of n = 9, without any evidence of numerical variations. Bivalents outnumbered all other types of associations in pollen mother cells (PMCs) analyzed at diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I. Univalents were frequently encountered in nine species presently studied, though their presence appropriately did not influence the distributional pattern of the chromosomes at anaphases I and II. The molecular approaches for phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data related to ITS 1, ITS 2 and ITS 1 + 5.8 s + ITS 2 of rDNA using maximum parsimony method and Bayesian inference have thrown light on species inter-relationship and evolution of Citrus species confirming our cytogenetical interpretations. The three true basic species i.e. Citrus medica, Citrus maxima and Citrus reticulata with their unique status have been resolved into distinct clades with molecular approaches as well. C. indica which occupies a unique position in the phylogenetic ladder of the genus Citrus has been resolved as a distinct clade and almost behaving as an out-group. The presences of quadrivalents in C. indica also echo and support its unique position. From our study it is amply clear that C

  9. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus (L) from north-east India as revealed by meiosis, and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA.

    PubMed

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2014-12-01

    The north-eastern region of India is reported to be the center of origin and rich in diversity of Citrus (L.) species, where some wild and endangered species namely Citrus indica, Citrus macroptera, Citrus latipes, Citrus ichagensis and Citrus assamensis exist in their natural and undisturbed habitat. In order to have comprehensive information about the extent of genetic variability and the occurrence of cryptic genomic hybridity between and within various Citrus species, a combined approach involving morphological, cytogenetical and molecular approaches were adopted in the present study. Cytogenetic approaches are known to resolve taxonomic riddles in a more efficient manner, by clearly delineating taxa at species and sub species levels. Male meiotic studies revealed a gametic chromosome number of n = 9, without any evidence of numerical variations. Bivalents outnumbered all other types of associations in pollen mother cells (PMCs) analyzed at diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I. Univalents were frequently encountered in nine species presently studied, though their presence appropriately did not influence the distributional pattern of the chromosomes at anaphases I and II. The molecular approaches for phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data related to ITS 1, ITS 2 and ITS 1 + 5.8 s + ITS 2 of rDNA using maximum parsimony method and Bayesian inference have thrown light on species inter-relationship and evolution of Citrus species confirming our cytogenetical interpretations. The three true basic species i.e. Citrus medica, Citrus maxima and Citrus reticulata with their unique status have been resolved into distinct clades with molecular approaches as well. C. indica which occupies a unique position in the phylogenetic ladder of the genus Citrus has been resolved as a distinct clade and almost behaving as an out-group. The presences of quadrivalents in C. indica also echo and support its unique position. From our study it is amply clear that C

  10. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  11. MEASUREMENT OF RADON CONCENTRATION IN DWELLINGS IN THE REGION OF HIGHEST LUNG CANCER INCIDENCE IN INDIA.

    PubMed

    Zoliana, B; Rohmingliana, P C; Sahoo, B K; Mishra, R; Mayya, Y S

    2016-10-01

    Indoor radon/thoron concentration has been measured in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India, which has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in India. Simultaneously, radon flux emanated from the surrounding soil of the dwellings was observed in selected places. The annual average value of concentration of radon(thoron) of Aizawl district is 48.8(22.65) Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 1.25(1.58). Measured radon flux from the soil has an average value of 22.6 mBq m(-2) s(-1) These results were found to be much below the harmful effect or action level as indicated by the World Health Organisation. On the other hand, food habit and high-level consumption of tobacco and its products in the district have been found to increase the risk of lung cancer incidence in the district. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    PubMed Central

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  13. Northeast Pacific flatfish management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Exploitation of northeast Pacific flatfish effectively began in the late 1800s with the fishery for Pacific halibut. Harvest of other flatfish occurred on a limited, local basis until foreign fishing fleets came to the area in the late 1950s. When US and Canadian fishermen replaced the foreign fleets in the 1970s and 1980s, a conservation-based management system designed to control foreign fishing was applied to the domestic fleet. Flatfish stock assessment is based on scientific surveys, both trawl and longline, and on catch-age models. In Alaskan waters since 1989 and since 1996 in Canadian waters, mandatory observers collect data on species composition, discards of flatfish and other groundfish, and catch and discards of prohibited species. Fishermen pay observer costs. Most biomass and harvest occurs in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands area. Many northeast Pacific flatfish are near record-high abundance, an order of magnitude higher than 20 years ago. Exploitation rates based on F35% or F0.1 generate acceptable biological catch of more than 1 million mt, but annual harvest reaches only 300,000 mt. Total groundfish harvest is limited by an optimum yield limit of 2 million mt in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands, where the acceptable biological catch is 3 million mt, and by limits on amounts of Pacific halibut and other prohibited species bycatch. Most flatfish are relatively low-value species, and fishermen chose to fish for more valuable species. A large, powerful fleet which developed under open access in the US saw fishing time decline and economic problems increase as catching capacity grew, while Canada stabilized its fleet with limited entry and catch restrictions for individual vessels.

  14. Forest statistics for northeast Washington.

    Treesearch

    John W. Hazard

    1963-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the third inventory of six northeast Washington counties: Ferry, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman. The collection of field data was made during the years 1957 to 1961 in three separate inventory projects.

  15. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  16. Tsunami: India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Breaking Tsunami Waves along India's Eastern Coast     ... called "tsunamis" from the Japanese for "harbor waves." The tsunami moved rapidly across the deep ocean, with speeds estimated around 640 ...

  17. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...

  18. Seismic source characterization for the Shillong Plateau in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baro, Olympa; Kumar, Abhishek

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims at understanding the seismotectonic province of the Shillong Plateau (SP) by identifying the potential seismic source zones within a radius of 500 km from the centre of the SP. From existing literature and earthquake (EQ) data, the seismotectonic region is found to vary in terms of seismicity, tectonic features, geology, thickness of overburden, rupture characteristics and rate of movement. Thus, entire 500-km-radius seismotectonic region is divided into four seismic source zones: namely (1) the Shillong Plateau-Assam Valley Zone (SP-AVZ), (2) the Indo-Burma Ranges Zone (IBRZ), (3) the Bengal Basin Zone (BBZ) and (4) the Eastern Himalaya Zone (EHZ). EQ catalogues for each source zone is analysed for completeness of magnitude and time. Seismic parameter b estimated using a maximum likelihood method is found to be 0.91 ± 0.03, 0.94 ± 0.02, 0.80 ± 0.03 and 0.89 ± 0.03 for the SP-AVZ, IBRZ, BBZ and EHZ, respectively. In addition, the maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the mean annual activity rate, maximum possible magnitude ( m max), return period and probability of exceedance for the four zones. The b values estimated suggest that the BBZ is seismically more active; however, the rate of occurrence of EQs is highest in the IBRZ. Findings from this study are an indication of the relative contribution from each of the four seismic source zones towards a seismic hazard of the SP.

  19. Mapping of Malaria Vectors at District Level in India: Changing Scenario and Identified Gaps.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Lingala, Mercy Aparna L; Sarkar, Soma; Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2017-02-01

    Malaria is one of the six major vector-borne diseases in India, the endemicity of which changes with changes in ecological, climatic, and sociodevelopmental conditions. The anopheline vectors are greatly affected by ecological conditions such as deforestation, urbanization, climate and lifestyle. Despite the advent of tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS), the updated information on the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria is not available. In India, the plan for vector control is organized at subcentral level but information about vectors is unavailable even at the district level. Therefore, a systematic presentation of vector distribution has been made to provide maps in respect of major vector species. A search of the literature for major vector species, that is, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles minimus, and Anopheles dirus sensu lato, since 1927 till 2015 was carried out. Data have been presented as present, absent, and no information about vector species during pre-eradication (1927-1958), posteradication (1959-1999), and current scenario (2000-2015). Vectors' distribution and malaria endemicity were mapped using Arc GIS. Of 630 districts of India, major vectors An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. stephensi were present in 420, 241, and 243 districts, respectively. In 183 districts, there is no information on any major malaria vector species although 27 of them from the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, and Mizoram are highly endemic for malaria, having incidences of 2-40 cases/1000/year. The identified gaps in vector distribution, particularly in malaria endemic areas, necessitate further surveys so as to generate the missing information.

  20. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

  1. Prevalence and molecular epidemiological data on Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Northeastern States of India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates.

  2. Seismic Hazard Analysis of Aizawl, India with a Focus on Water System Fragilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belair, G. M.; Tran, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Rodgers, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    GeoHazards International (GHI) has partnered with the University of California, Berkeley in a joint Civil Engineering and Earth Science summer internship program to investigate geologic hazards. This year the focus was on Aizawl, the capital of India's Mizoram state, situated on a ridge in the Burma Ranges. Nearby sources have the potential for large (M > 7) earthquakes that would be devastating to the approximately 300,000 people living in the city. Earthquake induced landslides also threaten the population as well as the city's lifelines. Fieldwork conducted in June 2015 identified hazards to vital water system components. The focus of this abstract is a review of the seismic hazards that affect Aizawl, with special attention paid to water system locations. To motivate action to reduce risk, GHI created an earthquake scenario describing effects of a M7 right-lateral strike-slip intraplate earthquake occurring 30 km below the city. We extended this analysis by exploring additional mapped faults as well as hypothetical blind reverse faults in terms of PGA, PGV, and PSA. Ground motions with hanging wall and directivity effects were also examined. Several attenuation relationships were used in order to assess the uncertainty in the ground motion parameters. Results were used to determine the likely seismic performance of water system components, and will be applied in future PSHA studies.

  3. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  4. Current status of AIDS and HIV infection in India.

    PubMed

    Lal, S

    1994-01-01

    A total 494 cases of AIDS had been reported to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in India by October 31, 1993. Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have the highest number of cases at 152 and 117 respectively, Kerala has 76, Punjab/Chandigarh 47, and Delhi 42, while the other states reported 1-17. More than 90% of cases were in the 15-45 year-old age group. Multipartner sex probably accounts for 80% of infections, blood and blood product transfusions for 12%, and sharing unsterilized drug injecting equipment for 5%. This number of reported cases, however, represents only a small fraction of actual AIDS morbidity in India due to general underreporting; the actual number of AIDS cases is probably in the range of 10,000-20,000 thousand. As for HIV infection, 13,448 of the 1,933,834 individuals tested for HIV through the nationwide surveillance network over the period October 1985-October 1993, were found to be infected. The seropositivity rate increased from 2.5/1000 in 1986 to 11.2/1000 by 1992. The author notes, however, that up to 90% of the population groups screened thus far came from high-risk groups. HIV-infected individuals were found in almost all states and Union Territories, although the major concentration of HIV remains in Bombay which may contain 5-10% of the country's infected individuals. Surveillance reports from the commercial sex workers show a marked rise in HIV prevalence from 10% in 1986 to 32% in 1991. Other hot spots are Pune, Madras, Madurai, and Vellore. The latest studies have shown HIV infection among IV drug users to be 74% in Manipur, 50% in Nagaland, and 6-10% in Mizoram. More than 1.5 million people were estimated to have been infected by the end of 1993. Lack of information from rural and semi-urban areas, however, does not allow estimates and projections beyond the major municipal centers. The author warns that current conditions of HIV infection and AIDS in India strongly resemble those in certain regions of Africa in the 1980s after

  5. Lead distribution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sucharita; Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Nath, B Nagender

    2015-08-15

    This study describes the geochemical distribution of lead (Pb) and identifies the critical factors that significantly control Pb distribution and speciation in coastal and estuarine sediments around India by using published data from the literature. Crustal sources influence the abundance of Pb in coastal sediment from the south-east and central-west coast of India. Parts of north-east, north-west, and south-west coast of India were polluted by Pb. Distribution of Pb in sediments, from the north-east and north-west coasts of India, were controlled by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide mineral phases of the sediments. However, organic carbon (OC) seemed to be a dominant factor in controlling the distribution of Pb in sediments from the central-east and south-west coasts of India. The outcome of this study may help in decision-making to predict the levels of Pb from natural and anthropogenic sources and to control Pb pollution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  7. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  8. The Northeast Climate Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaswamy, M. J.; Palmer, R. N.; Morelli, T.; Staudinger, M.; Holland, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information, tools, and techniques that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. Recognizing the critical threats, unique climate challenges, and expansive and diverse nature of the northeast region, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, College of Menominee Nation, Columbia University, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri Columbia, and University of Wisconsin-Madison have formed a consortium to host the NE CSC. This partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey climate science center network provides wide-reaching expertise, resources, and established professional collaborations in both climate science and natural and cultural resources management. This interdisciplinary approach is needed for successfully meeting the regional needs for climate impact assessment, adaptive management, education, and stakeholder outreach throughout the northeast region. Thus, the NE CSC conducts research, both through its general funds and its annual competitive award process, that responds to the needs of natural resource management partners that exist, in part or whole, within the NE CSC bounds. This domain includes the North Atlantic, Upper Midwest and Great Lakes, Eastern Tallgrass and Big Rivers, and Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), among other management stakeholders. For example, researchers are developing techniques to monitor tree range dynamics as affected by natural disturbances which can enable adaptation of projected climate impacts; conducting a Designing Sustainable Landscapes project to assess the capability of current and potential future landscapes in the Northeast to provide integral ecosystems and suitable habitat for a suite of

  9. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Preliminary northeast Asia geodynamics map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2003-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in Northeast Asia in the last few decades and is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists from Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. The map was compiled by a large group of international geologists using the below concepts and definitions during collaborative workshops over a six-year period. The map is a major new compilation and re-interpretation of pre-existing geologic maps of the region. The map is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analysis, petroleum resource analysis, neotectonic analysis, and analysis of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. The map consists of two sheets. Sheet 1 displays the map at a scale of 1:5,000,000, explanation. Sheet 2 displays the introduction, list of map units, and source references. Detailed descriptions of map units and stratigraphic columns are being published separately. This map is one of a series of publications on the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and geodynamics,of Northeast Asia. Companion studies and other articles and maps , and various detailed reports are: (1) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000; Obolenskiy and others, in press a); (2) a series of

  12. Paragonimiasis in a Child from Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Borah, Amrit Kr; Das, Jayanta Kr

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis or lung fluke infection is one of the neglected tropical parasitic disease which is found worldwide. Several endemic foci have been discovered in the Northeast India. Pulmonary paragonimiasis presenting with haemoptysis is generally mistaken for pulmonary tuberculosis. Herein, we present a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis, which initially presented with haemoptysis and remained undiagnosed for two years. The patient was treated with Praziquantel 25mg/kg thrice daily for two days along with the supportive care. Subsequently, on follow up after three months the patient had improved with no fever and cough. PMID:27190807

  13. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  14. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  15. First report of Chilli veinal mottle virus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Dutta, Ram; Roy, Somnath; Ngachan, S V

    2014-01-01

    The present study confirms the occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) under the genus Potyvirus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya based on mechanical transmission assay, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR and sequence analysis. This is the first record of Chivmv in Naga chilli in North-East India.

  16. The "Downside" of Women Empowerment in India: An Experimental Inquiry into the Role of Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kempen, Luuk

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports on a field experiment conducted among poor women organized in self-help groups in the north-east of India. The experiment tests in a simple game whether overly optimistic expectations with respect to the benefits of exercising agency reduces one's appreciation of remaining with agency in the future. If so, unrealistic…

  17. First case of Paragonimus westermani infection in a female patient in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T S; Hiromu, S; Devi, K R; Singh, W A

    2015-02-01

    Paragonimiasis is a foodborne parasitic zoonosis caused by lung fluke species of the genus Paragonimus. The Paragonimus westermani is the most common human pathogen in Asian countries. In northeast India, Paragonimus heterotremus has been documented as the only human pathogen in the earlier literature. In India, P. westermani infection in humans remained undetermined. Herein, we report a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in an adult female in Manipur. The diagnosis was made by morphological and molecular characterisation of the eggs in the sputum. This is the first confirmed case of paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in India.

  18. A new species of genus Nishada Moore, 1878 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rahul; Kirti, Jagbir S; Singh, Navneet

    2016-10-28

    Genus Nishada Moore (1878) was proposed as a monotypic genus, under subfamily Lithosiinae, family Lithosiidae (now Lithosiini), including only Nishada flabrifera Moore (1878) from Calcutta (now as Kolkata), India. The genus is distributed from China to India, Thailand, Malaysia and up to Australia. The Indian fauna of Nishada is reported from North-East Himalayas, West Bengal (Kolkata) and South India. Members of this genus are unmarked, yellow to brown with short and broad wings. Genus Nishada has been taxonomically dealt by many authors but awaits thorough revision.

  19. Lake states management differs from northeast

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    There are "northern hardwoods" in the Lake States and "northern hardwoods" in the Northeast. The term is the same but the forest cover types, stand, and site conditions can be very different. The silvicultural treatments that work in the Northeast may not work at all in the Lake States. And what works in the Lake States will work - but not the best...

  20. Northeast Texas Workplace Partnership Implementation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Texas Community Coll., Mount Pleasant.

    The Northeast Texas Workplace Partnership Program developed curriculum and training materials based on the literacy requirements of the workplace for two different industries in northeast Texas--Lone Star Steel Company and Pilgrim's Pride Industries. Three advisory committees were established to involve the community, education, and business and…

  1. 10. Interior, room in southwest corner of depot looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior, room in southwest corner of depot looking northeast - Missouri Pacific Railway Depot, Natches Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, northeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  2. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  3. 3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of Express Building looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  4. Northeast View from Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-04

    This panorama of the region to the northeast of the lander was constructed to support the Sojourner Rover Team's plans to conduct an "autonomous traverse" to explore the terrain away from the lander after science objectives in the lander vicinity had been met. The large, relatively bright surface in the foreground, about 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft, in this scene is "Baker's Bench." The large, elongated rock left of center in the middle distance is "Zaphod." This view was produced by combining 8 individual "Superpan" scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01000

  5. Northeast Regional Planetary Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Saunders, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In 1980, the Northeast Planetary Data Center (NEPDC) was established with Tim Mutch as its Director. The Center was originally located in the Sciences Library due to space limitations but moved to the Lincoln Field Building in 1983 where it could serve the Planetary Group and outside visitors more effectively. In 1984 Dr. Peter Schultz moved to Brown University and became its Director after serving in a similar capacity at the Lunar and Planetary Institute since 1976. Debbie Glavin has served as the Data Center Coordinator since 1982. Initially the NEPDC was build around Tim Mutch's research collection of Lunar Orbiter and Mariner 9 images with only partial sets of Apollo and Viking materials. Its collection was broadened and deepened as the Director (PHS) searched for materials to fill in gaps. Two important acquisitions included the transfer of a Viking collection from a previous PI in Tucson and the donation of surplused lunar materials (Apollo) from the USGS/Menlo Park prior to its building being torn down. Later additions included the pipeline of distributed materials such as the Viking photomosaic series and certain Magellan products. Not all materials sent to Brown, however, found their way to the Data Center, e.g., Voyager prints and negatives. In addition to the NEPDC, the planetary research collection is separately maintained in conjunction with past and ongoing mission activities. These materials (e.g., Viking, Magellan, Galileo, MGS mission products) are housed elsewhere and maintained independently from the NEPDC. They are unavailable to other researchers, educators, and general public. Consequently, the NEPDC represents the only generally accessible reference collection for use by researchers, students, faculty, educators, and general public in the Northeast corridor.

  6. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K.; Leo, Vincent V.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P.; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K.; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  7. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  8. Widespread inequalities in smoking & smokeless tobacco consumption across wealth quintiles in States of India: Need for targeted interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, J.S.; Prinja, Shankar; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Singh, Poonam Khetarpal

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: India is a large country with each State having distinct social, cultural and economic characteristics. Tobacco epidemic is not uniform across the country. There are wide variations in tobacco consumption across age, sex, regions and socio-economic classes. This study was conducted to understand the wide inequalities in patterns of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption across various States of India. Methods: Analysis was conducted on Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India (2009-2010) data. Prevalence of both forms of tobacco use and its association with socio-economic determinants was assessed across States and Union Territories of India. Wealth indices were calculated using socio-economic data of the survey. Concentration index of inequality and one way ANOVA assessed economic inequality in tobacco consumption and variation of tobacco consumption across quintiles. Multiple logistic regression was done for tobacco consumption and wealth index adjusting for age, sex, area, education and occupation. Results: Overall prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption was 13.9 per cent (14.6, 13.3) and 25.8 per cent (26.6, 25.0), respectively. Prevalence of current smoking varied from 1.6 per cent (richest quintile in Odisha) to 42.2 per cent (poorest quintile in Meghalaya). Prevalence of current smokeless tobacco consumption varied from 1.7 per cent (richest quintile in Jammu and Kashmir) to 59.4 per cent (poorest quintile in Mizoram). Decreasing odds of tobacco consumption with increasing wealth was observed in most of the States. Reverse trend of tobacco consumption was observed in Nagaland. Significant difference in odds of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption with wealth quintiles was observed. Concentration index of inequality was significant for smoking tobacco -0.7 (-0.62 to-0.78) and not significant for smokeless tobacco consumption -0.15 (0.01to-0.33) Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our analysis indicate that

  9. Widespread inequalities in smoking & smokeless tobacco consumption across wealth quintiles in States of India: Need for targeted interventions.

    PubMed

    Thakur, J S; Prinja, Shankar; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Singh, Poonam Khetarpal

    2015-06-01

    India is a large country with each State having distinct social, cultural and economic characteristics. Tobacco epidemic is not uniform across the country. There are wide variations in tobacco consumption across age, sex, regions and socio-economic classes. This study was conducted to understand the wide inequalities in patterns of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption across various States of India. Analysis was conducted on Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India (2009-2010) data. Prevalence of both forms of tobacco use and its association with socio-economic determinants was assessed across States and Union Territories of India. Wealth indices were calculated using socio-economic data of the survey. Concentration index of inequality and one way ANOVA assessed economic inequality in tobacco consumption and variation of tobacco consumption across quintiles. Multiple logistic regression was done for tobacco consumption and wealth index adjusting for age, sex, area, education and occupation. Overall prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption was 13.9 per cent (14.6, 13.3) and 25.8 per cent (26.6, 25.0), respectively. Prevalence of current smoking varied from 1.6 per cent (richest quintile in Odisha) to 42.2 per cent (poorest quintile in Meghalaya). Prevalence of current smokeless tobacco consumption varied from 1.7 per cent (richest quintile in Jammu and Kashmir) to 59.4 per cent (poorest quintile in Mizoram). Decreasing odds of tobacco consumption with increasing wealth was observed in most of the States. Reverse trend of tobacco consumption was observed in Nagaland. Significant difference in odds of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption with wealth quintiles was observed. Concentration index of inequality was significant for smoking tobacco -0.7 (-0.62 to-0.78) and not significant for smokeless tobacco consumption -0.15 (0.01 to-0.33) INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our analysis indicate that tobacco control policy and public health

  10. [Migration and urban poverty in the Northeast].

    PubMed

    Duarte, R

    1983-01-01

    Migration and poverty in Northeast Brazil are studied using data from a survey conducted in 1974-1975 in the barrios of three cities. Information on employment and living conditions of migrants is compared with data for the native population.

  11. Enhancing Scientific Literacy in the Northeast Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, John; Moss, B.; Wanzer, S.

    2014-01-01

    An observatory in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont opens to assist surrounding elementary and high schools with science literacy using astronomy as a capstone science, introducing students to advanced instrumentation, scientific method and data manipulation skills.

  12. Nonurban Development in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on how India's economic planning and development efforts since 1950 have affected rural areas and small towns, which comprise nearly 80% of India's population. Presents several case studies of rural development and concludes that the major keys to the stability of India as a democracy are population control, a unifying language, and…

  13. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  14. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  15. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  16. Pliocene northeast African vegetation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddy, H.; Sieracki, A.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Plant leaf wax molecular fossils have yielded key insights into forest-grassland transitions in northeast Africa. The stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of sedimentary leaf waxes (including n-alkanoic acids) records variations in the proportions of plants using the C3 (Calvin-Benson) pathway including trees, most shrubs and cool-season grasses versus the C4 (Hatch-Slack) pathway including warm-season grasses and sedges. Here we apply this technique to marine sediments from the Gulf of Aden to characterize northeast African environmental variability during the Pliocene. We sample DSDP Site 231 integrating 3kyr intervals to generate a high-resolution reconstruction spanning 3.7-5.3Ma. The δ13C compositions of downcore C30 n-alkanoic acid analyses average -27.5‰ (σ=1.2, n=177), ranging between -30.2 to -24.3‰ with repeated oscillations in the proportions of C4 biomass, presumably corresponding to the eccentricity and precessional modulation of insolation acting on monsoonal precipitation. Although δ13C values cannot be uniquely translated to C4 biomass given the spread in the C3 'endmember', we find complimentary evidence for proportions of C4 biomass from the isotopic spread of the n-alkanoic homologues (n-C28 to n-C32). Comparison to pollen data indicates that at times of low δ13C values, complete forest cover remains unlikely given the presence of grass pollen - taken together these records indicate the presence of C3 grasses. By evaluating our longer record from this site, as well as the terrestrial soil carbonate record, we find the Pliocene has low C4 proportions in comparison to higher proportions in Pleistocene and even late Miocene times. Intriguingly this drop in C4 plant biomass may correspond to a period of elevated atmospheric pCO2. Our ongoing reconstructions are of interest both for constraining environments of hominin evolution and tropical climate variability prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, in particular during

  17. Rainwater composition in northeast Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunckel, M.; Saizar, C.; Zarauz, J.

    The chemical composition of rainfall in northeast Uruguay in 1999 and 2000 and the sources that contribute to the rainwater chemistry are assessed in this study, contributing to a limited knowledge base of rainwater quality in South America. Principal factor analysis and cluster analysis indicate that four main source groups influence the rainfall chemistry over a range of spatial scales. Terrigenous sources (e.g. rock, soil and dust) and agricultural sources (e.g. livestock and crop fertilization) contribute to rainwater chemistry on a local and sub-regional scale. Influx of marine air from the Atlantic Ocean has a regional-scale influence while biomass burning contributes at both a local and sub-regional scale (e.g. fuel wood, and agroindustries) and through long-range transport (forest fires and land clearing). As may be expected in this area dominated by agriculture, the concentrations of ions that are indicative of industrial emissions, NO 3- and SO 42-, are typical of background measurements. The current data are limited, but provide an indication of rain quality and the sources that influence its chemistry in Uruguay. It may be inferred that large-scale biomass burning in the central parts of the continent influence rainwater chemistry on a scale far larger than indicated by the Uruguayan network. Similarly, but to lesser extent, the influx of marine air off the Atlantic Ocean has a greater regional-scale influence than suggested by these data.

  18. Northeast View From Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This panorama of the region to the northeast of the lander was constructed to support the Sojourner Rover Team's plans to conduct an 'autonomous traverse' to explore the terrain away from the lander after science objectives in the lander vicinity had been met. The large, relatively bright surface in the foreground, about 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft, in this scene is 'Baker's Bench.' The large, elongated rock left of center in the middle distance is 'Zaphod.'

    This view was produced by combining 8 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  19. [Environmental mesotheliomas in northeast Corsica].

    PubMed

    Rey, F; Viallat, J R; Boutin, C; Farisse, P; Billon-Galland, M A; Hereng, P; Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, we have collected fourteen cases of mesothelioma induced by environmental exposure to asbestos, going back to childhood in patients from north-east Corsica, in a region which was remote from the asbestos mine of Canari. There were eight men and six women with a mean age of 69.5 +/- 4 years. Six patients presented with bilateral calcified pleural plaques as evidence of environmental exposure. The mineral analysis carried out on five patients (four had thoracoscopies and one an alveolar lavage), showed a moderate deposit of chrysotile (0.3 to 3.4 x 10(6) fibres per gram of dry tissue), and elevated level of tremolite (1.4 to 62 x 10(6) fibres/g). The ambient dosage of asbestos has confirmed the existence of environmental pollution by chrysotile fibres and above all by tremolite. In addition, the same type of fibres have been identified in the parietal pleural of animals subjected to the same risk. In this region, the risk is estimated, on the basis of our results, as 10 cases of mesothelioma per 100,000 inhabitants per year.

  20. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  1. Northeast View From Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This panorama of the region to the northeast of the lander was constructed to support the Sojourner Rover Team's plans to conduct an 'autonomous traverse' to explore the terrain away from the lander after science objectives in the lander vicinity had been met. The large, relatively bright surface in the foreground, about 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft, in this scene is 'Baker's Bench.' The large, elongated rock left of center in the middle distance is 'Zaphod.'

    This view was produced by combining 8 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  2. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  3. Southern Bay of Bengal currents and salinity intrusions during the northeast monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesekera, H. W.; Jensen, T. G.; Jarosz, E.; Teague, W. J.; Metzger, E. J.; Wang, D. W.; Jinadasa, S. U. P.; Arulananthan, K.; Centurioni, L. R.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Shipboard velocity and hydrographic profiles collected in December 2013 along with drifter observations, satellite altimetry, global ocean nowcast/forecast products, and coupled model simulations were used to examine the circulation in the southern Bay of Bengal as part of ongoing international research efforts in the region. The observations captured the southward flowing East India Coastal Current (EICC) off southeast India and east of Sri Lanka. The EICC was approximately 100 km wide, with speeds exceeding 1 m s-1 in the upper 75 m. East of the EICC, a subsurface-intensified 300 km-wide, northward current was observed, with maximum speeds as high as 1 m s-1 between 50 m and 75 m. The EICC moved low-salinity water out of the bay and the subsurface northward flow carried high-salinity water into the bay during typical northeast monsoon conditions during a time period when the central equatorial Indian Ocean was experiencing a westerly wind burst related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event. While the northward subsurface high-salinity flow has previously been observed during the southwest monsoon, it was observed during the northeast monsoon. The observations are consistent with northward high-salinity subsurface flow in numerical model solutions. The analysis suggests that direct forcing along the equator may play a significant role for high-salinity intrusions east of Sri Lanka.

  4. El Niño Southern Oscillation as an early warning tool for malaria outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Ramesh C; Sarkar, Soma

    2017-03-20

    Risks of malaria epidemics in relation to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been mapped and studied at global level. In India, where malaria is a major public health problem, no such effort has been undertaken that inter-relates El Niño, Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) and malaria. The present study has been undertaken to find out the relationship between ENSO events, ISMR and intra-annual variability in malaria cases in India, which in turn could help mitigate the malaria outbreaks. Correlation coefficients among 'rainfall index' (ISMR), '+ winter ONI' (NDJF) and 'malaria case index' were calculated using annual state-level data for the last 22 years. The 'malaria case index' representing 'relative change from mean' was correlated to the 4 month (November-February) average positive Oceanic Niño Index (ONI). The resultant correlations between '+ winter ONI' and 'malaria case index' were further analysed on geographical information system platform to generate spatial correlation map. The correlation between '+ winter ONI' and 'rainfall index' shows that there is great disparity in effect of ENSO over ISMR distribution across the country. Correlation between 'rainfall index' and 'malaria case index' shows that malaria transmission in all geographical regions of India are not equally affected by the ISMR deficit or excess. Correlation between '+ winter ONI' and 'malaria case index' was found ranging from -0.5 to + 0.7 (p < 0.05). A positive correlation indicates that increase in El Niño intensity (+ winter ONI) will lead to rise in total malaria cases in the concurrent year in the states of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Goa, eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh, part of Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Meghalaya. Whereas, negative correlations were found in the states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, part of Tamil Nadu, Manipur, Mizoram and Sikkim indicating the likelihood of outbreaks in La Nina condition. The generated map

  5. Towards seasonal forecasting of malaria in India.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M; Caminade, Cyril; Heath, Andrew E; Jones, Anne E; MacLeod, David A; Gouda, Krushna C; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Goswami, Prashant; Mutheneni, Srinivasa R; Morse, Andrew P

    2014-08-10

    Malaria presents public health challenge despite extensive intervention campaigns. A 30-year hindcast of the climatic suitability for malaria transmission in India is presented, using meteorological variables from a state of the art seasonal forecast model to drive a process-based, dynamic disease model. The spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation from the forecast model are compared to three observationally-based meteorological datasets. These time series are then used to drive the disease model, producing a simulated forecast of malaria and three synthetic malaria time series that are qualitatively compared to contemporary and pre-intervention malaria estimates. The area under the Relative Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve is calculated as a quantitative metric of forecast skill, comparing the forecast to the meteorologically-driven synthetic malaria time series. The forecast shows probabilistic skill in predicting the spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum incidence when compared to the simulated meteorologically-driven malaria time series, particularly where modelled incidence shows high seasonal and interannual variability such as in Orissa, West Bengal, and Jharkhand (North-east India), and Gujarat, Rajastan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra (North-west India). Focusing on these two regions, the malaria forecast is able to distinguish between years of "high", "above average" and "low" malaria incidence in the peak malaria transmission seasons, with more than 70% sensitivity and a statistically significant area under the ROC curve. These results are encouraging given that the three month forecast lead time used is well in excess of the target for early warning systems adopted by the World Health Organization. This approach could form the basis of an operational system to identify the probability of regional malaria epidemics, allowing advanced and targeted allocation of resources for combatting malaria in India.

  6. Diversity of Catechin in Northeast Indian Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g−1, 202 ± 5 mg g−1, and 157 ± 4 mg g−1 of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis. PMID:22448135

  7. Geological factors contributing to landslides: case studies of a few landslides in different regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Nirmala; Ramanathan, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Landslides - mass movements of rock, debris or earth down a slope - are worldwide phenomena which cause significant damage and an estimated 5000 fatalities each year. They are caused by the interplay of various natural and anthropogenic factors and occur under diverse geoenvironmental conditions. In India, landslides occur primarily in the Himalayas of North India and in the Western Ghats of South India. This paper reports the results of field investigations for six landslide sites in North, Northeast and South India. We provide explanations as to why several landslides occurred at each of the sites. Our goal is to gain a deeper insight into the causes and precursors of landslides, which will facilitate more accurate identification of landslide-prone locations and enable early detection of landslide events.

  8. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  9. Detail of door and gable treatment, looking northeast at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of door and gable treatment, looking northeast at intersection of East Wing (Wing 1) and central core - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 3. Light tower and fog signal house, view northeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower and fog signal house, view northeast, west and south sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  11. 11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. FOURTH FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST WALL OF DINING AND SOCIAL HALL ON NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST - Masonic Temple, 1111-1119 Eleventh Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  13. 55. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 1: View towards the northeast of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 1, installed in 1957. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 1. THREESTALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-STALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  15. 6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. 2. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Foreman's House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  17. 2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Tool House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  18. 1. TWOSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TWO-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (SOUTHWEST) SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  19. 2. THREESTALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-STALL GARAGE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. 4. HOUSE No. 16. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HOUSE No. 16. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, House No. 16, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. 4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. 3. TWOSTALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO-STALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. 3. CLUBHOUSE. FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE AND NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CLUBHOUSE. FRONT (SOUTHEAST) FACADE AND NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. 1. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Tool House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  5. 4. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FOREMAN'S HOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Foreman's House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. 19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  8. 15. RETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF SURVIVING HEADGATES LIFTING MECHANISMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF SURVIVING HEADGATES LIFTING MECHANISMS - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  9. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF FARM, VIEW OF OUTBUILDINGS TO NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF FARM, VIEW OF OUTBUILDINGS TO NORTHEAST - (from left) CHICKEN COOP, WORKSHOP, PUMP HOUSE - John & Mary Felderman Farm, Northeast Corner of County Roads 56 & T, Clarkville, Yuma County, CO

  10. Interior view of northeast unit master bedroom, looking into sleeping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of northeast unit master bedroom, looking into sleeping porch, facing northeast - MacDill Air Force Base, Double Non-Commissioned Officers' Quarters, 7418 Hanger Loop Drive, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  11. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  12. 2. General context view of Express Building, looking northeast, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General context view of Express Building, looking northeast, with Division Street in foreground, showing relationship to the Bend Depot - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  13. 1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 431, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  15. 7. Oil house, view northeast, west and south sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Oil house, view northeast, west and south sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  16. 20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF OFFICE FURNITURE IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECRETARIES' OFFICE ALONG NORTH SIDE OF FIRST FLOOR. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  17. 10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of boathouse, west and south sides of dock - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  18. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  19. 1. View from the northeast, looking upstream (southwest) toward bridge's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from the northeast, looking upstream (southwest) toward bridge's northeast elevation - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  20. Interior view of upstairs loft, north portion; camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of upstairs loft, north portion; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Detail, northeast end block and starpattern railing slabs at connection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, northeast end block and star-pattern railing slabs at connection of deck and northeast arch rib, from west, showing simple ornamentation, including molded treatment of concrete - Horner Street Bridge, Horner Street over Stonycreek River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  2. Credit BG. Southeast and northeast facades of the cafeteria, as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Southeast and northeast facades of the cafeteria, as seen looking west (285°). This structure is part of the Building 4505 complex - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Cafeteria, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 8. Detail of northeast inclined endpost, hip vertical, upper chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of northeast inclined endpost, hip vertical, upper chord, and portal bracing; looking north/northeast - Brosseau Road Bridge, County Road 694 spanning Cloquet at River, Burnett, St. Louis County, MN

  4. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  5. MiSeq HV4 16S rRNA gene analysis of bacterial community composition among the cave sediments of Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    De Mandal, Surajit; Zothansanga; Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Senthil Kumar, Nachimuthu

    2016-06-01

    Caves in Mizoram, Northeast India, are potential hotspot diversity regions due to the historical significance of the formation of the Indo-Burman plateau and also because of their unexplored and unknown diversity. High-throughput paired end Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of 16S rRNA was performed to study the bacterial community of three caves situated in Champhai district of Mizoram, Northeast India. A total of 10,643 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (based on 97 % cutoff) comprising of 21 major and 21 candidate phyla with a sequencing depth of 1,140,013 were found in this study. The overall taxonomic profile obtained by the RDP classifier and Greengenes OTU database revealed high diversity within the bacterial communities. Communities were dominated by Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, while members of Archaea were less varied and mostly comprising of Eukaryoarchea. Analysis revealed that Farpuk (CFP) cave sediment has low microbial diversity and is mainly dominated by Actinobacteria (80 % reads), whereas different bacterial communities were found in the caves of Murapuk (CMP) and Lamsialpuk (CLP). Analysis also revealed that a major portion of the identified OTUs was classified under rare biosphere. Importantly, all these caves recorded a high number of unclassified OTUs, which might represent new species. Further analysis with whole genome sequencing is needed to validate the unknown species as well as to determine their functional role.

  6. NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA SHOWING CORE ROOM ROOF DIRECTLY NORTHEAST, GREY IRON FOUNDRY TO THE RIGHT, MALLEABLE IRON CUPOLAS AND FOUNDRY NORTHEAST OF GREY IRON FOUNDRY WITH THE BRASS FOUNDRY IN THE REAR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Forest statistics for Northeast Florida, 1995

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield

    1995-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the seventh forest survey of Northeast Florida. Field work began in April 1994 and was completed in May 1995. Six previous surveys, completed in 1934, 1949. 1959, 1970, 1980, and 1987 provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 61 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes and...

  8. Northeast Regional Education Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Exchange Steering Committee, Boston, MA.

    Created to facilitate the dissemination of information between researchers and the educational community, the Northeast Regional Exchange steering committee has defined needs, determined agency qualifications, identified priorities, undertaken a series of minigrant projects, and developed plans for the extension of these projects and a study of…

  9. Forest statistics for Northeast Florida, 1980

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield

    1981-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey of Northeast Florida. Fieldwork began in June 1979 and was completed in December 1979. Four previous surveys, completed in 1934, 1949, 1959, and 1970, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 46 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes and trends since...

  10. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1985

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 annual assessment of pulpwood production and receipts for the 14 states in the Northeast Region shows that production dipped 2 percent since 1984. Roundwood production decreased 3 percent or 168,900 cords, and manufacturing residues decreased 1 percent or 30,300 cord equivalents, thereby bringing total production down to 8,807,000 cords. The consumption of...

  11. Flood control surveys in the northeast

    Treesearch

    Arthur Bevan

    1947-01-01

    Floods are a grave danger to our Nation's resources. It is estimated that floods cost the United States at least $100 million every year. The recent Mississippi floods, which dramatically brought the seriousness of the situation to public attention, cost half a billion dollars in direct-damages. The Northeast carries a heavy burden of flood losses. In 1936, floods...

  12. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1975

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1976-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Cross-boundary shipments are traced by exchanging information with neighboring experiment stations that conduct similar canvasses. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation...

  13. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1971

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1973-01-01

    An annual report based upon canvasses of pulpwood production in the Northeast, containing data about pulpwood production from roundwood in the 14 Northeastern States by counties and species groups, and pulpwood chip production from plant residues. Comparisons are made with the previous year's production data. Trends in pulpwood production for the past 9 years are...

  14. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1972

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1973-01-01

    An annual report based upon canvasses of pulpwood production in the Northeast, containing data about pulpwood production from roundwood in the 14 Northeastern States by counties and species groups, and pulpwood chip production from plant residues. Comparisons are made with the previous year's production data. Trends in pulpwood production for the past 10 years are...

  15. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1974

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1976-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Cross-boundary shipments were traced by exchanging information with neighboring experiment stations that conduct similar canvasses. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing...

  16. The veneer industry in the Northeast -1972

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1974-01-01

    From a survey of veneer producers in the Northeast in 1972, veneer-log production and receipts by states and species, and log shipments between states and regions are presented. Comparisons are made with a similar survey made in 1968. A current list of northeastern veneer manufacturers is included.

  17. Pulpwood production in the northeast: 1982

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1983-01-01

    This annual assessment of regional pulpwood production and receipts is based on a canvass of the pulpmills in the Northeast that use roundwood or wood residue as a basic raw material for paper, insulation board, and hardboard products. The report includes a discussion and tabular data on roundwood and manufacturing residues produced and received in 14 Northeastern...

  18. Forest statistics for Northeast Florida, 1987

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Brown

    1987-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey of Northeast Florida. Field work began in January 1987 and was completed in July 1987. Five previous surveys, completed in 1934, 1949, 1959, 1970, and 1980, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 53 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes and trends...

  19. Forest statistics for Northeast Florida 1970

    Treesearch

    Joe P. McClure

    1970-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth Forest Survey of the timber resource in Northeast Florida. The survey was started in February 1969 and completed in November 1969. Findings of the three previous surveys, completed in 1934, 1949, and 1959, provide the basis for measuring changes that have occurred and trends that have developed over the...

  20. Teacher Morale in Rural Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Brenda Dishman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the factors that influence the morale levels of teachers in the public school systems of 3 contiguous counties in rural northeast Tennessee. The level of teacher morale was measured using the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Data associated with the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System…

  1. COASTAL 2000 MONITORING IN THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal 2000 is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and coastal states to develop a national coastal monitoring program. The Northeast portion of Coastal 2000 includes states from Delaware to Maine. This joint effort will provide a nationwide assessment...

  2. Forest insect conditions in the Northeast - 1954

    Treesearch

    W. E. Waters

    1955-01-01

    Forest insects continued to be a major cause of timber loss in the Northeast in 1954. A diversity of destructive pests caused these losses in different ways: by outright killing trees; by reducing growth; by reducing merchantable volume; and by reducing the quality of forest products. Some of the insects caused serious damage to woodlands that have high recreational...

  3. Northeast Regional Exchange, Annual Report, January 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1982

    The activities of Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc. (NEREX) during its first year of operation are delineated in this report. The newest member of the national network of Research and Development Exchanges (RDx), this service agency was established to promote educational improvement in the seven northeastern states: Connecticut, Maine,…

  4. Earth - Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula was taken from an altitude of about 500,000 kilometers 300,000 miles by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on December 9, 1992, as it left Earth en route to Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00127

  5. Northeast Regional Education Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Exchange Steering Committee, Boston, MA.

    Created to facilitate the dissemination of information between researchers and the educational community, the Northeast Regional Exchange steering committee has defined needs, determined agency qualifications, identified priorities, undertaken a series of minigrant projects, and developed plans for the extension of these projects and a study of…

  6. Photonics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bishnu

    2011-08-01

    India has long been active in the field of photonics, dating back to famous scientists such as Raman and Bose. Today, India is home to numerous research groups and telecommunications companies that own a sizeable amount of the fibre-optic links installed around the globe.

  7. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  8. Children's Books in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Mohini

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, discusses the creation and publication of children's books in India, most of which came into being only after India achieved independence. Now both private publishers and government agencies supplement one another in publishing various types of books--fiction, science, biography, adventure,…

  9. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  10. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  11. Physicians of ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Indian medical historiography will reveal no dearth of work on the systems of medicine and medical literature of ancient India. However, the people who were responsible for the healing have not received much attention. This article traces the evolution of the physician as a professional in ancient India. This article reviews the secondary literature on healing and medical practice in India, specifically pertaining to the individual medical practitioner, drawing from varied sources. The healers of ancient India hailed from different castes and classes. They were well-respected and enjoyed state patronage. They were held to the highest ethical standards of the day and were bound by a strict code of conduct. They underwent rigorous training in both medicine and surgery. Most physicians were multi-skilled generalists, and expected to be skilled in elocution and debate. They were reasonably well-off financially. The paper also briefly traces the evolution of medicinal ideas in ancient India. PMID:27843823

  12. Haemoglobinopathies in tribal populations of India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B; Mukherjee, Malay B

    2015-05-01

    Haemoglobinopathies particularly haemoglobin S and E (HbS, HbE) and β-thalassaemia are important challenges for tribal populations in India. The HbS, HbE and β-thalassaemia genes are variably distributed across various tribal populations of India. HbE is mainly restricted in tribals of North-East, West Bengal, Odisha and those in Andaman and Nicobar islands. HbS has more extensive distribution in the country (10-40% trait frequency) and the homozygotes and double heterozygotes present with a wide array of morbidities. The morbidity varies greatly in different areas of the country due to differential co-inheritance of α-thalassaemia gene and interaction of various epistatic and environmental factors. Though substantial data on prevalence of these disorders exist, there is an urgent need to develop integrated hierarchical core facilities to manage the disease. Such centres will generate more data and will also explore areas of management which need more local attention. Newborn screening, genetic counselling, carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis along with management of cases should form the basic infrastructure of haemoglobinopathy management. Research in this areas should continue focusing on various challenges in care delivery, prevention and basic sciences on interaction of haemoglobinopathies with various other infections.

  13. Prevalence and causes of low birth weight in India.

    PubMed

    Bharati, P; Pal, M; Bandyopadhyay, M; Bhakta, A; Chakraborty, S; Bharati, P

    2011-12-01

    The aims of the study are (i) to understand inter-zone and interstate variation of low birth weight (LBW) and (ii) to determine the key variables to reduce LBW in India. Using the latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data of 2005-06 which showed the percentage distribution of LBW infants, ANOVA and post-hoc test were performed to determine the spatial variation of birth weight. The covariates which influence LBW fell into three categories: (i) social variables which included location, mother's education, religion, access of mothers to newspapers, television and family structure; (ii) economic variable namely, the wealth index, and (iii) biological variables which consisted of sex of the children, birth order, and mother's body mass index (BMI). Three models of Logistic regression were carried out to examine the influence of the combinations of these direct and indirect factors. In India, nearly 20% of new borns have LBW. Males have less frequency of LBW than females. The North-east zone has the lowest prevalence of LBW while the north zone has the highest. Mother's education, access to TV and nuclear family, and intake of iron tablets are the most important socio-economic influences on the determination of birth weight in India. It is essential to provide proper diet and nutritional care of mothers during pregnancy. Increased education of mothers through programmes in TV and newspapers articles have significant roles to play in reducing LBW in India.

  14. Possible impacts of the pre-monsoon dry line and sea breeze front on nocturnal rainfall over northeast Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Toniazzo, Thomas; Kolstad, Erik; Spengler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The northeast region of Bangladesh receives a large amount of rainfall before the large-scale monsoon circulation begins. For example, in April (a "pre-monsoon" month) 2010, 804 mm of rain fell in the regional capital Sylhet. It was the second wettest month of the entire year. From our conversations with the local people, we know that this pre-monsoon rainfall is extremely important to their livelihoods. We therefore need to understand it's triggering mechanisms. Several theories have been published, all of which are likely to be at play. However, in this work we look more closely at how the sea breeze front and prominent pre-monsoonal dry line in this region may play a role. If these mechanisms play a role in the convection, then it is likely that they trigger convection further afield, and then the resulting systems then propagate towards northeast Bangladesh. We believe this because rainfall associated with dry line/sea-breeze front convection often occurs during the late afternoon, but the rainfall over northeast Bangladesh shows a clear late-night/early-morning maxima. At present, the temporal and spatial resolution of the regional observations is inappropriate for examining these possible mechanisms. We therefore use a numerical model (WRF) to investigate the possible links between the convection and the sea breeze front and dry line. We use April 2010 as a case study since it was such a wet pre-monsoon month. The simulation shows that a sea breeze circulation often develops during the day in the coastal zone of Bangladesh and northeast India. After sunset the sea breeze front propagates inland pushing back the hot, dry air over India. On several days during the simulation, convection is triggered along the sea breeze front, which then propagates towards northeast Bangladesh and intensifies across the topography surrounding the Sylhet region. From our simulations, it appears that nocturnal convection over northeast Bangladesh is triggered by several

  15. Time series of the northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, M. Angelica; Bograd, Steven J.

    2007-10-01

    In July 2006, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) and Fisheries & Oceans Canada sponsored the symposium “Time Series of the Northeast Pacific: A symposium to mark the 50th anniversary of Line P”. The symposium, which celebrated 50 years of oceanography along Line P and at Ocean Station Papa (OSP), explored the scientific value of the Line P and other long oceanographic time series of the northeast Pacific (NEP). Overviews of the principal NEP time-series were presented, which facilitated regional comparisons and promoted interaction and exchange of information among investigators working in the NEP. More than 80 scientists from 8 countries attended the symposium. This introductory essay is a brief overview of the symposium and the 10 papers that were selected for this special issue of Progress in Oceanography.

  16. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1984

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1986-01-01

    Pulpwood production and receipts for the 14 states in the Northeast Region reached a new high in 1984 - a 5 percent (401,600 cords) increase over 1983 production brought total production up to 9,006,600 cords. Increases in both the roundwood harvest and use of manufacturing residues accounted for the record high. Roundwood production rose 318,800 cords or 5 percent to...

  17. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1968

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Neal P. Kingsley

    1969-01-01

    This report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either round wood or chips-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Mills that use woodpulp as a raw material for insulation board and hardboard were also included in the canvass. However, the canvass did not include mills that use waste paper, rags, or pulping material other...

  18. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1983

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1985-01-01

    This annual assessment of the pulpwood production and receipts for the 14 states in the Northeast Region shows that in 1983 total production reached 8,673,800 cords. This was up 3 percent (221,600 cords) from 1982. The roundwood portion increased by less than 1 percent to 6,330,000 cords, whereas the residue portion rose by 10 percent to 2,343,800 cord equivalents. The...

  19. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1970

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1971-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation board and hardboard were also included in the canvass. The statistics for production from roundwood reported in this bulletin are...

  20. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1969

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1970-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either from roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation board and hardboard were also included in the canvass. The production-from-roundwood statistics reported in this bulletin are...

  1. Northeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, A. J.; Trautz, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage is a viable option for the electric power industry in the "Northeast" region to meet regional and forthcoming federal CO2 cap-and-trade programs. Capturing CO2 emissions and storing the gas in underground geological formations could significantly reduce the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. However, before this can be implemented, site-specific geological research needs to be conducted to determine which formations are potentially capable of storing the quantity of CO2 emitted by power plants in the Northeast region. While the target geosequestration formations in the Northeast may have less storage capacity than those in the Midwest, Southeast or Southwest, the available capacities may be large enough to sequester a significant fraction of the CO2 produced by some regional power plants (which are also smaller, individually and in total, than those in the other regions). The study will also conduct baseline assessments of electric power producer plants and CO2 emission estimates and create first level screening on potential geologic structures for CO2 sequestration. The work will establish a general database of "Other Uses" (current industrial and technological innovations/options), characterize transport issues, both on land and offshore, and, provide general guidance on the physical and land-use constraint factors of "add-on" capture technologies at existing power plants.

  2. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease.

  3. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  4. India Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    India was the third-largest energy consumer in the world after China and the United States in 2013, and its need for energy supply continues to climb as a result of the country's dynamic economic growth and modernization over the past several years.1 India's economy has grown at an average annual rate of approximately 11% between 2004 and 2014, and it proved relatively resilient following the 2008 global financial crisis.

  5. Looking ahead in India.

    PubMed

    Gupte, P

    1986-03-01

    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  6. Diabetes Care in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shashank R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%-at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various developments in the management of diabetes, are required to combat the current diabetes epidemic in India. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Unleashing science in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  8. Status of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in northeast Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Singh, Laishram C; Singh, Avninder P; Sharma, Jagannath; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Debnath, Arundhati; Rai, Avdhesh K; Phukan, Rup K; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kataki, Amal C; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer incidence is reported in high frequency in northeast India. The etiology is different from other population at India due to wide variations in dietary habits or nutritional factors, tobacco/betel quid chewing and alcohol habits. Since DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA-mediated epigenetic processes alter the gene expression, the involvement of these processes might be useful to find out epigenetic markers of esophageal cancer risk in northeast Indian population. The present investigation was aimed to carryout differential expression profiling of chromatin modification enzymes in tumor and normal tissue collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Differential mRNA expression profiling and their validation was done by quantitative real time PCR and tissue microarray respectively. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the epidemiological data. mRNA expression data was analyzed by Student t-test. Fisher exact test was used for tissue microarray data analysis. Higher expression of enzymes regulating methylation (DOT1L and PRMT1) and acetylation (KAT7, KAT8, KAT2A and KAT6A) of histone was found associated with ESCC risk. Tissue microarray done in independent cohort of 75 patients revealed higher nuclear protein expression of KAT8 and PRMT1 in tumor similar to mRNA expression. Expression status of PRMT1 and KAT8 was found declined as we move from low grade to high grade tumor. Betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking and dried fish intake were significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer among the study subject. Study suggests the association of PRMT1 and KAT8 with esophageal cancer risk and its involvement in the transition process of low to high grade tumor formation. The study exposes the differential status of chromatin modification enzymes between tumor and normal tissue and points out that relaxed state of chromatin facilitates more transcriptionally active

  9. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  10. Molecular characterization of classical swine fever virus isolates from India during 2012-14.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Elina; Barman, Nagendra N; Deka, Manab; Rajbongshi, Gitika; Baruah, Kongkon; Deka, Nipu; Bora, Durlav P; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-06-01

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of pigs. Outbreaks of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) were recorded in different places in the Kamrup district of Assam in India between the years 2012 and 2014. The nucleotide sequences of the 10 CSFV isolates were analyzed based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the E2, 5'NTR and NS5B genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the dominance of subgroup 2.2 along with 2.1 strains in the northeast part of India. Variation in the nucleotide sequences of E2, 5'NTR and 3'NS5B genes of CSFV allows tracking changes in the virus population over time. The study will provide epidemiological information useful for assessing CSFV circulating genogroups in India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE CORNERSTONE IN ABUTMENT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE CORNERSTONE IN ABUTMENT. - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

  13. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  14. 6. Northeast elevation of single bin. Delaware, Lackawanna & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast elevation of single bin. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view of platform, looking northeast. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  16. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT DOORS, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Controller's office (room 102), looking northeast into the display area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Controller's office (room 102), looking northeast into the display area - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  20. View of exterior circumferential path at northeast side of building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of exterior circumferential path at northeast side of building beneath trellis, looking southeast - National Zoological Park, Bird House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 23. OVERALL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS LOOKING NORTH, NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. OVERALL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS LOOKING NORTH, NORTHEAST. NOTICE REDWOOD TANK PLATFORM LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  2. OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP FAIRWAY #1 - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  3. Elevation of grove looking northeast toward Washington Monument 1910 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of grove looking northeast toward Washington Monument - 1910 Japanese Flowering Cherry Trees , East Potomac Golf Course, East Potomac Park, Hains Point vicinity, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 4. Hospital Point, Saunders Monument, view to northeast Portsmouth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Hospital Point, Saunders Monument, view to northeast - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  5. 42. Auditorium, Stratcom History Museum, building 500, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Auditorium, Stratcom History Museum, building 500, looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 41. Stratcom History Museum, building 500, looking northeast Offutt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Stratcom History Museum, building 500, looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. Looking Northeast Along Hallway between Pellet Plant and Oxide Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northeast Along Hallway between Pellet Plant and Oxide Building, including Virgin Hopper Bins - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Pellet Plant, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  8. 7. Details of northeast elevation, demonstrating the relationship of basement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Details of northeast elevation, demonstrating the relationship of basement windows to column bases. - Roanoke Veterans Administration Hospital, Building No. 6, 1970 Roanoke Boulevard, Salem, Salem, VA

  9. Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box at right - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Stanley Schwartz, Photographer 1971 NORTHEAST VIEW OF EXAMINING ROOM, DOCTOR'S OFFICE - Governor John Hubbard House, 52 Winthrop Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  11. Northeast and northwest elevations. View to south Flint Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast and northwest elevations. View to south - Flint Creek Hydroelectric Project, Powerhouse, Approximately 3 miles southeast of Porters Corner on Powerhouse Road, Philipsburg, Granite County, MT

  12. 17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SORTING AND SHIPPING SHED WITH SAWMILL BEHIND - Ichabod T. Williams & Sons Sawmill & Veneer Plant, Roosevelt Avenue at Carteret Avenue, Carteret, Middlesex County, NJ

  13. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT New York, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Niantic Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  14. 11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING WELDED REINFORCEMENT - Perkins Corner Bridge, Spanning Willimantic River at Flanders & Cider Mill Roads, Coventry, Tolland County, CT

  15. 1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN HOSPITAL, NORTHEAST CORNER. Presidio of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN HOSPITAL, NORTHEAST CORNER. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 5. Hospital Point, northeast bulkhead (typical), view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Hospital Point, northeast bulkhead (typical), view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  17. 2. View northeast. South elevation Westminster span, link span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northeast. South elevation - Westminster span, link span, Walpole span. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  18. Perspective view of east entrance from northeast National Home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of east entrance from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  20. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and…

  1. Simulation of present-day precipitation over India using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Rajesh Kumar Singh; Singh, G. P.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present paper is to examine the capability of the regional climate model version 3 (RegCM3) to simulate the annual as well as seasonal precipitation variability over the Indian subcontinent. RegCM3 has been run at 40 km horizontal resolution for the period of 1982-2006 continuously and model results were compared to the observed precipitation datasets of India Meteorological Department (IMD) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). Model evaluation has been done using different statistical methods like mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error, mean percentage error (MPE) and studied the spatial pattern of annual and seasonal variability and trend. Daily precipitation data at 1° × 1° grids of IMD have been used to study observed climatological means (both annual and seasonal), regression trends, interannual and intraseasonal variability over India from 1951 to 2007. The spatial distribution of annual precipitation shows a decreasing trend over west coast of India, central India, hilly region of India and an increasing trend is found over the northwest India, peninsular India and northeast India. The temporal distribution of daily precipitation shows highest rainfall of 18 mm/day in mid July (in composite flood cases only) and 12 mm/day during August (in composite drought cases only). The RegCM3 simulated annual and seasonal precipitation variability is close to the observed IMD and CMAP over all India (AI). During winter and pre-monsoon season, the model has overestimated the mean precipitation while underestimated in summer and post-monsoon season. Overall, annual precipitation showed the deficiency of -22.44 % compared to IMD and -1.41 % compared to CMAP over India. To understand the possible cause of annual and seasonal precipitation biases over India and its six homogeneous regions, the vertical difference (model mines National Centre for Environmental Prediction; NCEP) fields of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and air

  2. Molecular characterization of bromeliads from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S D; Rabbani, A R C; Santos, F; Silva-Mann, R; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Prata, A P N; Resende, L V; Pasqual, M; Blank, A F

    2014-11-27

    Bromeliaceae is an important botany family that includes many species with economic value; demand for members of this family is increasing. However, illegal collection frequently occurs, drastically reducing the species populations; thus, it is necessary to collect and store Bromeliaceae genetic material. In this study, we identified and quantified genetic variability of the Bromeliad family using dominant markers to create the first Germplasm Bank in the northeast region of Brazil. Molecular tools were used to characterize the collected accessions. The combination of 11 inter-simple sequence repeats and 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to detect the genetic variability of wild bromeliad accessions.

  3. Suicide in India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shilpa

    2015-06-01

    The current report reviews the data from the series Accidental Death and Suicide in India published by India's National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) reporting official suicide rates based on police reports over the period of 10 years from 2004 to 2013. A reference to wider literature is made to present a comprehensive picture. Suicide in India is more prevalent in young, is likely to involve hanging and ingestion of pesticides and is related to social and economic causes. Reducing alcohol consumption, unemployment, poverty, social inequities, domestic violence and improving social justice are essential to reduce suicide in India. NCRB data might underreport suicide. Discrepancy in farmers' suicide rate between reports suggests that this might be overrepresented in NCRB data. An integrated suicide prevention programme with a multidimensional approach is needed. Mental health care bill and the recent launch of first national mental health policy are welcome measures. Decriminalization of suicide is likely to positively influence mental health practice and policy in India. Nationally representative studies investigating fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviours, evaluation of models of service delivery for the vulnerable population, investigating suicide following different treatment services and effects of decriminalization of suicide on suicide rates should be the focus of future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  5. NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, James P.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a summary of the primary activities and metrics for the NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center, operated by the Center for Technology Commercialization, Inc. (CTC). This report covers the contract period January 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001. This report includes a summary of the overall CTC Metrics, a summary of the Major Outreach Events, an overview of the NASA Business Outreach Program, a summary of the Activities and Results of the Technology into the Zone program, and a Summary of the Major Activities and Initiatives performed by CTC in supporting this contract. Between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2001, CTC has facilitated 10 license agreements, established 35 partnerships, provided assistance 517 times to companies, and performed 593 outreach activities including participation in 57 outreach events. CTC also assisted Goddard in executing a successful 'Technology into the Zone' program.' CTC is pleased to have performed this contract, and looks forward to continue providing their specialized services in support of the new 5 year RTTC Contract for the Northeast region.

  6. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  7. 1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ OF THE X-15 ENGINE TEST COMPLEX. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. NORTHEAST SIDE OF NITROGEN EXCHANGERS IN FOREGROUND; FUEL APRON IN BACKGROUND. NORTHEAST CORNER OF WEST CAMERA TOWER ALSO IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  11. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  12. 2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast end and northeast rear, building no. 528. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 529. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast rear and northwest end, building no. 528. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. Cell block three and northeast guard tower (center), looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block three and northeast guard tower (center), looking from the central guard tower, facing northeast (note view also includes the baseball field (left), and cell blocks fourteen and eleven (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, NORTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, NORTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF TOWER AND ORIGINAL LIGHTHOUSE - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  18. View of parade ground inside fort looking to the northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parade ground inside fort looking to the northeast generally so that part of the north wall is visible as well as the first 8 bays of the northeast wall (note: cannon in foreground and shadow of flagpole above gorge wall) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  19. How applicable is even-aged silviculture in the northeast?

    Treesearch

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of even-aged silviculture in the management of forest stands in the Northeast is examined through consideration of the forest stand, stand development, intermediate cuttings, and regeneration methods. It is concluded that even-aged silviculture is quite applicable in the management of forest stands in the Northeast.

  20. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 27. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SECOND FLOOR. THE STRUCTURE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LOBBY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SECOND FLOOR. THE STRUCTURE IN UPPER LEFT HAND SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH, A MUSICIANS' PLATFORM CALLED 'THE CROW'S NEST' WAS BUILT IN THE GABLE. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  2. 16. View of northeast corner of East Ward Street and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of northeast corner of East Ward Street and North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  3. Credit BG. Northeast and northwest facades of Building 4496 (Security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Northeast and northwest facades of Building 4496 (Security Facility) as seen when looking south (178°) from entrance to secured area. The Control Tower (Building 4500) appears in background. The Security Facility is part of the secured Building 4505 complex - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Security Facility, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 5. VIEW OF FRONT (WEST AND SOUTH SIDES) TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF FRONT (WEST AND SOUTH SIDES) TO NORTHEAST. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. NOTE THAT LARGE TREES PREVENT MORE COMPLETE VIEW FROM BETTER ANGLE. FOR MORE COMPLETE VIEW, SEE PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF 1916 PHOTO, NO. ID-17-C-35. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  5. NORTHEAST LOON STUDY WORKING GROUP PARTNERSHIP TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Loon Study Working Group (NELSWG) was formed in 1994 to proactively identify threats to one of the Northeast's most popular waterbirds, the common loon, Gavia immer. Seventeen institutions have come together to identify strategy, coordinate the work load, and share ...

  6. Horticultural management of solar greenhouses in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.

    1980-01-01

    A manual on horticultural management of solar greenhouses in the Northeast is presented. The information it contains represents a combination of a number of people's experiences who have been operating solar greenhouses in the Northeast for a year or more. The focus of this manual is on how to produce food in a solar greenhouse using biological and ecological management methods.

  7. Growth of the camping market in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    George H. Moeller; George H. Moeller

    1971-01-01

    Almost like an atomic explosion, the number of commercial campgrounds in the Northeast mushroomed 800 percent between 1961 and 1967. During this same period, the number of public campgrounds increased by only 40 percent. The pattern of commercial and public campground growth in the Northeast was studied over a 6-year period to find how such growth may relate to...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...

  11. 2. VIEW OF NORTHEAST (GABLE END) AND SOUTHEAST SIDES FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTHEAST (GABLE END) AND SOUTHEAST SIDES FROM THE NORTHEAST. (BUILDING 111 VISIBLE ON LEFT; BUILDING 114 AT RIGHT.) INTERIOR OF BUILDING 113 TO THE SOUTHEAST.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, G. U. Treatment Unit Lavatory, Thorne & Hood Avenues, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  12. 27. NORTHEAST TO TWO CIRCA 1900 DRILL PRESSES (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. NORTHEAST TO TWO CIRCA 1900 DRILL PRESSES (LEFT TO RIGHT MADE BY W. F. AND J. BARNES CO., ROCKFORD, ILL., AND CHAMPION BLOWER AND FORGE CO., LANCASTER, PENN.) AND BLACKSMITH SHOP AREA ALONG EAST INTERIOR WALL AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF FACTORY BUILDING. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  13. 7. Credit BG. View looking northeast at observation booth on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Credit BG. View looking northeast at observation booth on northeast corner of Control and Recording Center. Test Stand 'D' complex appears at left of image. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. NOTE THE THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. NOTE THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA WITH VENTILATION LOUVERS ON THE NORTHWEST SIDE AND COVERED PROMENADE ON THE NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior detail, pilaster on transverse wall at the northeast end of the Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). Note the offset top of the pilaster, a feature common to all interior transverse wall pilasters. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  16. The northeast water supply crisis of the 1960's

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barksdale, Henry C.

    1968-01-01

    The water supply drought in the Northeast began in the autumn of 1961 and marked the beginning of a severe water shortage that continued with little relief through the summer of 1966. During this time, throughout much of the Northeast, water supplies remained below normal.

  17. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the Northeast…

  18. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the Northeast…

  19. Woman's lot in India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  20. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  1. CMIP5 ensemble-based spatial rainfall projection over homogeneous zones of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Javed; Das, Lalu; Deb, Argha

    2017-09-01

    Performances of the state-of-the-art CMIP5 models in reproducing the spatial rainfall patterns over seven homogeneous rainfall zones of India viz. North Mountainous India (NMI), Northwest India (NWI), North Central India (NCI), Northeast India (NEI), West Peninsular India (WPI), East Peninsular India (EPI) and South Peninsular India (SPI) have been assessed using different conventional performance metrics namely spatial correlation (R), index of agreement (d-index), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Ratio of RMSE to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR) and mean bias (MB). The results based on these indices revealed that majority of the models are unable to reproduce finer-scaled spatial patterns over most of the zones. Thereafter, four bias correction methods i.e. Scaling, Standardized Reconstruction, Empirical Quantile Mapping and Gamma Quantile Mapping have been applied on GCM simulations to enhance the skills of the GCM projections. It has been found that scaling method compared to other three methods shown its better skill in capturing mean spatial patterns. Multi-model ensemble (MME) comprising 25 numbers of better performing bias corrected (Scaled) GCMs, have been considered for developing future rainfall patterns over seven zones. Models' spread from ensemble mean (uncertainty) has been found to be larger in RCP 8.5 than RCP4.5 ensemble. In general, future rainfall projections from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 revealed an increasing rainfall over seven zones during 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. The maximum increase has been found over southwestern part of NWI (12-30%), northwestern part of WPI (3-30%), southeastern part of NEI (5-18%) and northern and eastern part of SPI (6-24%). However, the contiguous region comprising by the southeastern part of NCI and northeastern part of EPI, may experience slight decreasing rainfall (about 3%) during 2020s whereas the western part of NMI may also receive around 3% reduction in rainfall during both 2050s and 2080s.

  2. CMIP5 ensemble-based spatial rainfall projection over homogeneous zones of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Javed; Das, Lalu; Deb, Argha

    2016-11-01

    Performances of the state-of-the-art CMIP5 models in reproducing the spatial rainfall patterns over seven homogeneous rainfall zones of India viz. North Mountainous India (NMI), Northwest India (NWI), North Central India (NCI), Northeast India (NEI), West Peninsular India (WPI), East Peninsular India (EPI) and South Peninsular India (SPI) have been assessed using different conventional performance metrics namely spatial correlation (R), index of agreement (d-index), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Ratio of RMSE to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR) and mean bias (MB). The results based on these indices revealed that majority of the models are unable to reproduce finer-scaled spatial patterns over most of the zones. Thereafter, four bias correction methods i.e. Scaling, Standardized Reconstruction, Empirical Quantile Mapping and Gamma Quantile Mapping have been applied on GCM simulations to enhance the skills of the GCM projections. It has been found that scaling method compared to other three methods shown its better skill in capturing mean spatial patterns. Multi-model ensemble (MME) comprising 25 numbers of better performing bias corrected (Scaled) GCMs, have been considered for developing future rainfall patterns over seven zones. Models' spread from ensemble mean (uncertainty) has been found to be larger in RCP 8.5 than RCP4.5 ensemble. In general, future rainfall projections from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 revealed an increasing rainfall over seven zones during 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. The maximum increase has been found over southwestern part of NWI (12-30%), northwestern part of WPI (3-30%), southeastern part of NEI (5-18%) and northern and eastern part of SPI (6-24%). However, the contiguous region comprising by the southeastern part of NCI and northeastern part of EPI, may experience slight decreasing rainfall (about 3%) during 2020s whereas the western part of NMI may also receive around 3% reduction in rainfall during both 2050s and 2080s.

  3. Bioethics activities in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nandini K

    2006-01-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in India, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees.

  4. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  5. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  6. Health Care in India.

    PubMed

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Although a stated right for all Indians, equal access to health care in India is impeded by socioeconomic barriers. With its 3-tier system of public health care centers in villages, district hospitals, and tertiary care hospitals, government expenditure in India is inordinately low, with a disproportionate emphasis on private health spending. Accordingly, the poorest receive a minority of the available subsidies, whereas the richest obtain more than a third, fostering a divide in health care infrastructure across the rich and poor in urban and rural settings. This paradigm has implications for domestic Indian public health and global public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  8. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  9. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  10. "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India.

    PubMed

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in India, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.

  11. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  12. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  13. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  14. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  15. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  16. India's population impact "global".

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes statistics from the 1998 ESCAP Population Data Sheet. India's present population is slightly under 975 million persons. India is the second most populous country in the world, after China. India began a new era in policy and program content for enhancing fertility decline after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The 1997-2002 Five Year Plan calls for reduction in the population growth rate. The population growth rate, in 1996, was 1.8% annually. By 1991, the population aged 0-14 years was 37%, while the urban population was 26%; female literacy was 39.3% and male literacy was 64.1%. In 1994, the median age at first marriage among women had increased to 19.4 years. Life expectancy for women rose from 36.1 years to 62.9 years during 1951-86. In India, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a role in implementing family planning programs. Recent changes reflect a greater role of larger NGOs in interacting with and overseeing smaller NGOs. Larger NGOs approve projects, release funds, train, and monitor and evaluate activities. Government policy has shifted to a system of community needs assessment. Disparate contraceptive and maternal and child health programs have been integrated into a reproductive and child health program. Program emphasis is on meeting clients' needs and improving quality of care.

  17. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  18. The Impact of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  19. Aerosols over India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-24

    Large abundances of aerosols, or airborne particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau in this image from NASA Terra satellite acquired on

  20. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  1. Fellowships in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In an effort to encourage stronger research ties between India and the United States, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term research fellowships in India in 1985 and 1986. The only requirement is that the applicants be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent postdoctoral level. The awards have no restrictions as to field of study, and because the program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the two countries, those who have had little or no experience in India are especially encouraged to apply.The long-term fellowships are for 6 to 10 months, with a monthly allowance of $1500. Long-term fellows will also receive travel money and allowances for dependents. The short-term awards, for periods of 2 to 3 months, also offer a monthly payment of $1500. Funding for these fellowships is provided by the U.S. Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India.

  2. Blizzard Blankets the Northeast With Snow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    As the storm moves offshore and the skies clear over the Northeast United States, the extent of snowfall from the blizzard is shown in this image from the Suomi NPP satellite imagery, taken on January 28, 2015 at 1:50 EST. Portions of Suffolk County, New York and parts of eastern and southern New England, including areas in and around Portland, Maine, Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, received more than 20 inches of snowfall. Up to 36 inches of snow were reported in Auburn, Hudson and Lunenburg, Massachusetts. Credit: NASA/NOAA/NPP/VIIRS Via: NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Northeast Egypt as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This oblique view, looking northeast from central Egypt, shows great expanses of the sand covered and rocky Western Desert in the foreground (bottom). The dark patches bottom right are the Dakhla Oases on the south side of an escarpment. The northern half of Egypt's Nile appears here, from about the latitude of Luxor to the delta. Green colors indicate the small area of crops which feed Egypt's population of 55 million. The Nile Delta is partly obscured by a band of clouds, but can be discerned at the coast as a flattened triangle of green. The smaller triangle close by is the Falyum Basin, a depression irrigated by water from the Nile. The coast of the Mediterranean Sea appears left.

  4. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F.; Nowak, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  5. Northeast View from Viking Landing Site

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-12-12

    This Mars view looks northeast from Nasa's Viking 1 and completes the 360 panorama of the landing site begun earlier with the spacecraft's other camera. A layer of haze can be seen in the Martian sky. Large dark boulders dominate the scene. The largest boulder (center) is about 3 meters (10 feet) wide and one meter (3 feet) high. Rocks in the foreground are lighter and appear mottled. The rocks may have been derived from lava flows or stream deposits which are visible on orbiter images. These deposits may have been redistributed by impact craters. The fine material visible between the rocks has dune morphology and appears to have been deposited by wind. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00387

  6. Molecular Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Three Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Tripura, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparajita Roy; Borthakur, Madhusmita; Saha, Ajay Krishna; Joshi, Santa Ram; Das, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L. squarrosulus has the highest reducing power. The highest total phenol content and the most ascorbic acid were found in the M. gigantean extracts. Among the 3 mushroom extracts, M. gigantean displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. Molecular characterization using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region as a universal DNA marker was an effective tool in the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the studied mushrooms. The study also indicated that these wild macrofungi are rich sources of natural antioxidants.

  7. Kinematics and strain rates of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis from new GPS campaigns in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Tanay Dutta; Riguzzi, Federica; Dasgupta, Sujit; Mukhopadhyay, Basab; Roy, Sujit; Sharma, Somnath

    2015-08-01

    Newly acquired GPS data along transects across Himalaya in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) reveal a clockwise rotation of rigid micro-plate comprising part of Brahmaputra valley, NE Himalaya and Northern Myanmar that rotates about a pole located at 14.5°N, 100.8°E at an angular rate of 1.75 ± 0.12°/Myr. The EHS is being torn-off from the main Indian Plate as a rigid block around which the kinematic clockwise rotation of Tibetan GPS sites toward the Sichuan-Yunnan region occurs in the Eurasia fixed frame. The residual velocity field of the newly acquired data estimated after removing the rotation that minimizes the GPS rates around EHS show a clear NE motion of the EHS sites, indentation of the rigid Indian plate into a less rigid area of the Eurasian plate. The most extensive EHS zones of compression and shortening are in the direction of indenter convergence, with average values ranging between ~ 50-100 nanostrain/year. Along the frontal segment of EHS, from NW to SE, the shortening rate is reduced from the local maximum value of 160 to ~ 80 nanostrain/year, thus indicating a possibly locked fault patch of Mishmi or Lohit thrusts, the southernmost part of segment activated during the large 1950 Assam earthquake, Mw 8.6. An elastic block-model was invoked to infer the average slip rates of sections around EHS and to estimate an average locking depth of ~ 15 km. The slip rate perpendicular to the locked sector of EHS reaches 32.4 mm/year and permits to roughly infer a recurrence time of ~ 200 year for an earthquake as energetic as the 1950 Assam event.

  8. Some Statistical Characteristics of Special Education for Children with Disabilities in North-East India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalita, Jumi; Sarmah, Pranita

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that of approximately 150-250 million children with disabilities across the world, a large number have difficulties related to problems in the central nervous system (CNS). This paper considers school dropout rates of children with special educational needs associated with CNS problems from a study of educational institutions in…

  9. Some Statistical Characteristics of Special Education for Children with Disabilities in North-East India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalita, Jumi; Sarmah, Pranita

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that of approximately 150-250 million children with disabilities across the world, a large number have difficulties related to problems in the central nervous system (CNS). This paper considers school dropout rates of children with special educational needs associated with CNS problems from a study of educational institutions in…

  10. Indirect optic nerve injury in two-wheeler riders in northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Jain, Lokesh; Sarma, Gitumoni; Sarma, Angshuman Sen; Medhi, Jnanankar; Das, Dipankar; Buragohain, Sanjoy Kr

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy and superior temporal orbital rim injury in two-wheeler riders and documentation of the clinical profile of such cases. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients reporting with cranio-orbital injury and vision loss following road traffic accidents between October 1994 and April 2006 were reviewed and from them cases with vision loss solely from indirect optic nerve injury were taken up for study. The prognostic significance of different presenting features, role of intravenous methyl prednisolone (IVMP) and relative risk of superior orbital rim injury to posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (at 95% confidence interval) was calculated. Results: Out of 129 consecutive cases of cranio-orbital injury, 35 had posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy with minor ipsilateral superior temporal orbital rim trauma and none used any protective headwear. Presenting clinical features like relative afferent pupillary defect (P= 0.365), optic disc status (P= 0.518) and visual evoked potential (VEP) (P= 0.366) were disproportionate to visual loss. Only VEP had prognostic significance. The IVMP did not provide any added therapeutic benefit. The remaining 94 cases sustained direct blinding ocular trauma and 28 of them had associated intracranial pathology. The relative risk of superior temporal orbital rim injury to posterior indirect optic nerve trauma was 2.25. Conclusion: Superior temporal orbital rim injury, even when minor, carries a potential risk for development of blindness from indirect posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy in two-wheeler drivers. Presenting signs do not correlate with visual status. Only VEP has prognostic significance and the condition is untreatable. PMID:18974518

  11. Molecular phylogenetic characterization of common murine rodents from Manipur, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Chingangbam, Dhananjoy S; Laishram, Joykumar M; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia are hotspots of murine biodiversity, but no species from the Arakan Mountain system that demarcates the border between the two areas has been subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses. We examined the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in six murine species (the Rattus rattus species complex, R. norvegicus, R. nitidus, Berylmys manipulus, Niviventer sp. and Mus musculus) from Manipur, which is located at the western foot of the mountain range. The sequences of B. manipulus and Niviventer sp. examined here were distinct from available congeneric sequences in the databases, with sequence divergences of 10-15%. Substantial degrees of intrapopulation divergence were detected in R. nitidus and the R. rattus species complex from Manipur, implying ancient habitation of the species in this region, while the recent introduction by modern and prehistoric human activities was suggested for R. norvegicus and M. musculus, respectively. In the nuclear gene Mc1r, also analyzed here, the R. rattus species complex from Manipur was shown to possess allelic sequences related to those from the Indian subcontinent in addition to those from East Asia. These results not only fill gaps in the phylogenetic knowledge of each taxon examined but also provide valuable insight to better understand the biogeographic importance of the Arakan Mountain system in generating the species and genetic diversity of murine rodents.

  12. Epigenetic, Genetic and Environmental Interactions in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Mondal, Rosy

    2013-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) develops as a result of complex epigenetic, genetic and environmental interactions. Epigenetic changes like, promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumour suppressor genes are frequent events in cancer, and certain habit-related carcinogens are thought to be capable of inducing aberrant methylation. However, the effects of environmental carcinogens depend upon the level of metabolism by carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. As such key interactions between habits related factors and carcinogen metabolizing gene polymorphisms towards modulating promoter methylation of genes are likely. However, this remains largely unexplored in ESCC. Here, we studied the interaction of various habits related factors and polymorphism of GSTM1/GSTT1 genes towards inducing promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumour suppressor genes. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 112 ESCC cases and 130 age and gender matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to explore high order interactions. Tobacco chewing and smoking were the major individual risk factors of ESCC after adjusting for all potential confounding factors. With regards to methylation status, significantly higher methylation frequencies were observed in tobacco chewers than non chewers for all the four genes under study (p<0.01). In logistic regression analysis, betel quid chewing, alcohol consumption and null GSTT1 genotypes imparted maximum risk for ESCC without promoter hypermethylation. Whereas, tobacco chewing, smoking and GSTT1 null variants were the most important risk factors for ESCC with promoter hypermethylation. MDR analysis revealed two predictor models for ESCC with promoter hypermethylation (Tobacco chewing/Smoking/Betel quid chewing/GSTT1 null) and ESCC without promoter hypermethylation (Betel quid chewing/Alcohol/GSTT1) with TBA of 0.69 and 0.75 respectively and CVC of 10/10 in both models. Conclusion Our study identified a possible interaction between tobacco consumption and carcinogen metabolizing gene polymorphisms towards modulating promoter methylation of tumour suppressor genes in ESCC. PMID:23596512

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Risk of Oral Cancer: A Report from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rosy; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Javed Hussain; Seram, Anil; Sinha, Kavita; Hussain, Marine; Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Rabha, Bijuli; Dey, Pradip; Ganguli, Sabitri; NathChoudhury, Monisha; Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman; Chaudhuri, Biswadeep; Dhar, Bishal

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer globally. Tobacco consumption and HPV infection, both are the major risk factor for the development of oral cancer and causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes modify the effect of environmental exposures, thereby playing a significant role in gene–environment interactions and hence contributing to the individual susceptibility to cancer. Here, we have investigated the association of tobacco - betel quid chewing, HPV infection, GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes, and tumour stages with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content variation in oral cancer patients. Methodology/Principal Findings The study comprised of 124 cases of OSCC and 140 control subjects to PCR based detection was done for high-risk HPV using a consensus primer and multiplex PCR was done for detection of GSTM1-GSTT1 polymorphism. A comparative ΔCt method was used for determination of mtDNA content. The risk of OSCC increased with the ceased mtDNA copy number (Ptrend = 0.003). The association between mtDNA copy number and OSCC risk was evident among tobacco – betel quid chewers rather than tobacco – betel quid non chewers; the interaction between mtDNA copy number and tobacco – betel quid was significant (P = 0.0005). Significant difference was observed between GSTM1 - GSTT1 null genotypes (P = 0.04, P = 0.001 respectively) and HPV infection (P<0.001) with mtDNA content variation in cases and controls. Positive correlation was found with decrease in mtDNA content with the increase in tumour stages (P<0.001). We are reporting for the first time the association of HPV infection and GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes with mtDNA content in OSCC. Conclusion Our results indicate that the mtDNA content in tumour tissues changes with tumour stage and tobacco-betel quid chewing habits while low levels of mtDNA content suggests invasive thereby serving as a biomarker in detection of OSCC. PMID:23469236

  14. Incremental effect of festive biomass burning on wintertime PM10 in Brahmaputra Valley of Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Pratibha; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul

    2014-06-01

    PM10 concentration was monitored at a receptor site in the Brahmaputra Valley during a unique, local, episodic festive biomass burning called meji burning. Mean mass concentration of PM10 during monitoring was found to be 149 ± 45 μg m- 3 with maximum and minimum concentrations of 293 μg m- 3 and 93 μg m- 3 respectively. Elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX) revealed high carbonaceous and Br content in PM10 samples. Particulate carbon showed high significant correlation with PM10 and dominance in samples taken during night time. Back trajectory analysis supported long range transport of carbonaceous aerosol from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the region under study. Prevailing meteorology - thermal inversion and low mixing heights - was found to have a strong influence on PM10 levels in the post festive burning period. Enrichment factors of several elements ranged above thousand which indicated a strong influence of anthropogenic activities and input of aged particulates driven from long distance. Incremental effect of meji burning, which we coined as Meji Burning Induced Enrichments (MBIEs), was calculated. MBIE values supported incremental effects explicitly.

  15. Evidence of independent evolution of genotype XIII Newcastle disease viruses in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Moushumee; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in India through the decades, there has been little genetic characterisation of the virulent strains circulating in Northeast India. In 2014, a poultry farm in the Kamrup district of Assam reported an ND outbreak. In this study, genetic analysis and clinicopathological tests showed the virulent nature of the isolate Kamrup. Based on prudent classification criteria, the virulent strain Kamrup was found to be most closely related to members of genotype XIII of class II NDV. A phylogenetic analysis of NDV strains suggested three sub-genotypes: XIIIa, XIIIb and XIIIc. NDV strain Kamrup belonged to sub-genotype XIIIc. Sub-genotype XIIIc isolates were similar to the 1982 isolate from cockatoo and appeared to have evolved parallel to the preceding genotype XIII viruses circulating in India. The high genetic diversity and frequency of mutations observed in the envelope glycoproteins of strain Kamrup demonstrate the evolution of the pandemic genotype XIII NDV in India, which further undermines and complicates of NDV management in India.

  16. Northeast weather variability and atmospheric teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Frederick Douglas

    This research examined the effects of simultaneous occurrences of different phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection patterns on daily variations in Northeast climate variables. 30-day normalized Temperature, MSLP, and IPW anomalies gathered from Northeast data locations were compared to daily indices of the NAO and PNA. The computed anomalies from each location were sorted into 25 potential NAO/PNA phase combinations which were based off of the standard deviations of the NAO/PNA daily indices in an 11-year data set from 2004-2014. These anomalies and their relationships to daily NAO/PNA index values were analyzed using regression, correlation, and chi-square analysis. Additionally, each of the 25 combinations and their associated average anomalies were analyzed using composite analysis. This process was done for a full time series and a cool season time series using the months from October-March in the same 11-year data set. Regression analysis revealed that no variation in the analyzed variables can be explained by either the NAO or the PNA daily indices individually or together (using multi-regression). Chi-square analysis revealed that the distribution of the average anomalies associated with the 25 possible combinations was most likely random. Cross correlation tests suggested little to no relationship between daily anomalies in the analyzed variables and the NAO/PNA daily indices. The greatest observed average anomalies in the 25 xv combinations were consistent at 4/5 data locations and in some cases could be explained by composite analysis. The majority of these significant anomalies occurred when either the NAO or PNA was in an extreme phase (Very Positive/Very Negative). The ability to explain some of these average anomalies with composite analyses of the geopotential height field suggests that NAO/PNA daily indices could prove useful for long term forecasting.

  17. Earthquake precursory studies in India: Scenario and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

    2012-08-01

    Earthquakes are the worst natural calamities that strike without any notice and cause immediate loss of life and property. Internationally, serious and scientifically acceptable earthquake prediction studies started in 1970s and short term prediction of the Heicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 in China is a land mark. In India, a successful medium term prediction of August 6, 1988 earthquake, (M 7.5) in northeast Indian region encouraged to intensify such studies in the country. These predictions were based mainly on seismological precursors. Initially, the precursory studies were taken in isolated manner, but after validation of specific geophysical parameters, efforts were made to adopt an integrated approach involving collection, analysis and interpretation of various precursory observations in a comprehensive and coordinated manner. Accordingly, a few Multi-parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGOs) have been established at the selected locations in seismically active areas in the country. This approach led to successful short term prediction of some moderate earthquakes (M ⩾ 4) in Koyna region (famous for Reservoir Triggered Seismicity) in western India. Simultaneously, efforts have been made to generate long term multi-parametric observations from these observatories, as a basic scientific input required for future earthquake prediction related studies. The real-time analysis of these data sets would help to understand the earthquake generation process and attaining the predictive capabilities by developing models for short term earthquake forecasting. To facilitate direct observations and test the hypothesis of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) as well as to understand the earthquake generation processes, it is planned to undertake deep borehole (6-8 km) investigations in Koyna region of western India. The paper highlights the efforts made so far in India in the area of earthquake precursory studies as well as the future road map.

  18. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  19. Improving Security Ties with India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  20. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...