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Sample records for ml bronchoscopic lung

  1. Bronchoscopic drainage of a malignant lung abscess.

    PubMed

    Katsenos, Stamatis; Psathakis, Konstantinos; Chatzivasiloglou, Fotini; Antonogiannaki, Elvira-Markela; Psara, Anthoula; Tsintiris, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Bronchoscopic drainage of a pyogenic lung abscess is an established therapeutic approach in selected patients in whom conventional antibiotic therapy fails. This intervention has also been undertaken in patients with abscess owing to underlying lung cancer and prior combined radiochemotherapy. However, this procedure has rarely been performed in cavitary lesions of advanced tumor origin before initiating any chemotherapy/radiotherapy scheme. Herein, we describe a case of a 68-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma stage IIIB, who underwent bronchoscopic drainage of necrotizing tumor lesion, thus improving her initial poor clinical condition and rendering other treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, more effective and beneficial. Bronchoscopic drainage of a symptomatic cancerous lung abscess should be considered as an alternative and palliative treatment approach in patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:25887013

  2. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting.

  3. Lung volume reduction for advanced emphysema: surgical and bronchoscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Sherry L; Westfall, Elizabeth; Dransfield, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death in the United States, affecting more than 24 million people. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy; they improve symptoms and quality of life and reduce exacerbations. These and smoking cessation and long-term oxygen therapy for hypoxemic patients are the only medical treatments definitively demonstrated to reduce mortality. Surgical approaches include lung transplantation and lung volume reduction and the latter has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, quality of life, and survival in highly selected patients with advanced emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery results in clinical benefits. The procedure is associated with a short-term risk of mortality and a more significant risk of cardiac and pulmonary perioperative complications. Interest has been growing in the use of noninvasive, bronchoscopic methods to address the pathological hyperinflation that drives the dyspnea and exercise intolerance that is characteristic of emphysema. In this review, the mechanism by which lung volume reduction improves pulmonary function is outlined, along with the risks and benefits of the traditional surgical approach. In addition, the emerging bronchoscopic techniques for lung volume reduction are introduced and recent clinical trials examining their efficacy are summarized. PMID:22189668

  4. Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaric, Bojan; Stojsic, Vladimir; Sarcev, Tatjana; Stojanovic, Goran; Carapic, Vladimir; Perin, Branislav; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Kesisis, Georgios; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Foroulis, Christophoros N; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available in almost all high volume centers performing bronchoscopy. Radial EBUS with mini-probes and guiding sheaths provides accurate diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. Combining EBUS guided procedures with rapid on site cytology (ROSE) increases diagnostic yield even more. Electromagnetic navigation technology (EMN) is also widely used for diagnosis of peripheral lesions. Future development will certainly lead to new improvements in technology and creation of new sophisticated tools for research in respiratory endoscopy. Broncho-microscopy, alveoloscopy, optical coherence tomography are some of the new research techniques emerging for rapid technological development.

  5. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, K. Rennis; Vadakkan, D. Thomas; Krishnakumar, E. V.; Anas, A. Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia. PMID:25814803

  6. Bronchoscopic removal of aspergilloma from a cavitary lesion of the lung.

    PubMed

    Kumar P V, Kalyan; G S, Gaude; R, Kannan; Begum R, Atharunissa; Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar

    2014-11-01

    We report a 62-year-old diabetic male who had recurrent episodes of haemoptysis, diagnosed to have Aspergilloma in the right upper lobe cavitary lesion of the lung. Bronchoscopic biopsy revealed a fungal ball (Aspergillus niger) in the right upper lobe. Since the patient did not respond to medical treatment, unfit for any surgical interventions, mechanical removal of the fungal ball was done with both rigid and flexible bronchoscopes. Patient improved symptomatically after the removal of the fungal ball; haemoptysis subsided. The patient is still under follow up without any further episodes of hemoptysis. This case report highlights a new alternative treatment option in patients with open cavitary Aspergilloma. PMID:25584256

  7. Bronchoscopic NdYAG laser treatment in lung cancer, 30 years on: an institutional review.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, K; Dixon, Kate

    2006-12-01

    We review our 21-year experience in bronchoscopic NdYAG laser for lung cancer and the relevant literature. Patients totaling 1,159 received 2,235 bronchoscopic treatments. The pre-requisite for laser therapy was the presence of >50% obstruction of the bronchial lumen. We use the rigid bronchoscope, with the patient under general anaesthetic and application of laser in its non-contact mode. Two patients (0.17%) died following the procedure, and 4.8% had non-fatal complications. Four to 6 weeks after treatment there was a 48% increase in bronchial calibre and an increase of 27% (mean) in forced vital capacity and 15% (mean) in forced expiratory volume in one second, respectively. These paralleled symptomatic relief and chest X-ray improvement. Literature review indicated results similar to ours in those centres with high volume activity. Thirty years on, bronchoscopic YAG laser therapy of lung cancer still has an important role in palliation of patients with inoperable lung cancer, particularly those requiring immediate relief of bronchial obstruction. PMID:17003957

  8. Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayse, Martin L.; Parikh, Parag J. Lechleiter, Kristen M.; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  9. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in a single-lung transplant recipient with natal lung hyperinflation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pato, O; Rama, P; Allegue, M; Fernández, R; González, D; Borro, J M

    2010-06-01

    After single lung transplantation for emphysema native lung hyperinflation is a common complication that may cause respiratory failure. Herein we have reported satisfactory bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in a left single-lung transplant recipient with native lung hyperinflation, who suffered from Medical Research Council (MRC) class 3 dyspnea and chest pain. Three endobronchial valves (Zephyr; Emphasys Medical, Redwood, Calif, United States) were placed into the segmental bronchi of the right upper lobe, using videobronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Postoperative chest computed tomography revealed subsegmental atelectasis in that lobe. The clinical benefit was an improved MRC dyspnea class from 3 to 2, which was still present at 4 months after the procedure, although there were no remarkable changes in spirometric parameters.

  10. Anastomotic Airway Complications After Lung Transplant: Clinical, Bronchoscopic and CT Correlation.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Kyle; Trujillo, Camilo; Ford, Jonathan; Decker, Summer; Pelaez, Andres; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the normal appearance and common complications of the airway anastomosis in lung transplant patients with emphasis on computed tomography images with bronchoscopic correlation. The spectrum of complications will be presented as early (<1 mo after transplant) or late (>1 mo). Variations in surgical technique as well as presentation and management options for airway complications will also be discussed. PMID:27428022

  11. [Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction for COPD: not a real solution after all].

    PubMed

    Wesseling, G J

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinflation is an important element in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing significantly to dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Bronchodilators have some, albeit slight, effect on hyperinflation. Lung volume reduction surgery has been advocated in a highly select group of patients with heterogeneous, predominantly upper lobe, emphysema but morbidity and mortality associated with this intervention have hampered its widespread use in respiratory medicine. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction has recently been introduced. Several studies have shown promising results, again in a highly select group of patients, with clinically relevant effects on symptoms, lung function and quality of life. However, for most COPD patients, prevention and slowing down of disease progression are much more important. Smoking cessation is the single most important intervention to achieve these goals. Furthermore, effective new anti-inflammatory drugs are needed since inhaled steroids, although widely used in COPD, are largely ineffective. PMID:27650026

  12. Surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Singh, Mrityunjaya; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Kumar, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient's family and country's economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient's family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. PMID:25614834

  13. The Molecular Bronchoscope: A Tool for Measurement of Spatially Dependent CO2 Concentrations in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Ciaffoni, Luca; Couper, John H; Richmond, Graham; Hancock, Gus; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory physicians use bronchoscopy for visual assessment of the lungs' topography and collecting tissue samples for external analysis. We propose a novel bronchoscope tool that would enable spatially dependent measurements of the functioning of the lungs by determining local concentrations of carbon dioxide, which will be produced by healthy parts of the lung at rates that are higher than from portions where gas exchange is impaired. The gas analyzer is based on a compact laser absorption spectrometer making use of fiber optics for delivery and return of low intensity diode laser radiation to and from the measurement chamber at the distal end of a flexible conduit. The appropriate optical wavelength was chosen such that light is selectively absorbed only by gaseous CO2. The optical absorption takes place over a short path (8.8 mm) within a rigid, 12 mm long, perforated probe tip. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy was adopted as the analytical technique to reduce the noise on the optical signal and yield measurements of relative CO2 concentration every 180 ms with a precision as low as 600 part-per-million by volume. The primary objective of such a device is to see if additional spatial information about the lungs functionality can be gathered, which will complement visual observation. PMID:27487178

  14. Automated segmentation of lung airway wall area measurements from bronchoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydarian, Mohammadreza; Choy, Stephen; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David; Coxson, Harvey O.; Lam, Stephen; Parraga, Grace

    2011-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects almost 600 million people and is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. COPD is an umbrella term for respiratory symptoms that accompany destruction of the lung parenchyma and/or remodeling of the airway wall, the sum of which result in decreased expiratory flow, dyspnea and gas trapping. Currently, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the main clinical method used for COPD imaging, providing excellent spatial resolution for quantitative tissue measurements although dose limitations and the fundamental spatial resolution of CT limit the measurement of airway dimensions beyond the 5th generation. To address this limitation, we are piloting the use of bronchoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), by exploiting its superior spatial resolution of 5-15 micrometers for in vivo airway imaging. Currently, only manual segmentation of OCT airway lumen and wall have been reported but manual methods are time consuming and prone to observer variability. To expand the utility of bronchoscopic OCT, automatic and robust measurement methods are required. Therefore, our objective was to develop a fully automated method for segmenting OCT airway wall dimensions and here we explore several different methods of image-regeneration, voxel clustering and post-processing. Our resultant automated method used K-means or Fuzzy c-means to cluster pixel intensity and then a series of algorithms (i.e. cluster selection, artifact removal, de-noising) was applied to process the clustering results and segment airway wall dimensions. This approach provides a way to automatically and rapidly segment and reproducibly measure airway lumen and wall area.

  15. [Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) in advanced pulmonary emphysema: dreams of the future or much ado about nothing?].

    PubMed

    Stanzel, F

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) is a rapidly developing area and at present it is being intensively evaluated and discussed. There is a great interest in developing new treatment modalities that can reduce lung volume and air trapping without the risk of a surgical intervention. The different techniques of BLVR are characterised by lower morbidity and mortality, but by a more limited effect too. The placement of valves leads to blockade of the airway and sometimes to absorption atelectasis. The valves have been most intensively evaluated and are frequently applied. Beside the blocking devices there are partially blocking or deforming devices available as coils that are introduced in heterogeneous emphysema. Irreversible procedures such as polymeric lung volume reduction or thermal vapour ablation are used too. The creation of airway bypasses to allow trapped air to escape is mainly employed in homogenous emphysema. Following such by-pass creation there is an increase of lung function tests and a reduction of dyspnea, but only for a limited time. The bypass procedure has disappeared from bronchoscopy units completely. We give a review of the recent developments regarding BLVR and the state of the art.

  16. Efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei; Pan, Qingqing; Wang, Mengzhao; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods All patients with bronchoscopic biopsy-proven lung adenocarcinoma at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to November 2011 were enrolled. Scorpion amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was used to detect EGFR gene mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect ALK rearrangement. The correlation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) results with standard methods for EGFR mutation status and ALK rearrangement were checked. Results Bronchoscopic specimens were successfully used to detect EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement with success rates of 85.2% and 71.3%, respectively, in non-small cell lung cancer patients. EGFR analysis by ARMS yielded a positive result in 35.8% (33/92) and positive ALK rearrangement was detected by FISH in 7.8% (6/77) of cases. It was more likely to be unsuccessful in patients with tumor cells less than 100/high power field and the ratio tumor numbers in 0–10%. In EGFR-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity of E746-A750 deletions were 73.3% (11/15) and 93.3% (70/75), respectively, and those of L858R were 93.3% (14/15) and 93.2% (69/74), respectively. In ALK-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% (3/6) and 100% (71/71), respectively. Conclusions Small bronchoscopic specimens could achieve higher successful detection rates via EGFR mutation and ALK gene rearrangement. PMID:26557908

  17. Tissue requirements in lung cancer diagnosis for tumor heterogeneity, mutational analysis and targeted therapies: initial experience with intra-operative Frozen Section Evaluation (FROSE) in bronchoscopic biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Iding, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent advances in lung cancer treatment have changed the requirement for the amount and quality of biopsy specimens needed to characterize the tumor and select the best treatment. One adjunct to guide the bronchoscopist on the quality and quantity of specimens during bronchoscopic biopsies for the diagnosis of lung cancer is rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of cytological specimens. This technique has been shown to add to the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy when obtaining adequate specimens for molecular profiling in lung cancer. ROSE is not available at all medical centers. We describe our initial experience using intra-procedural Frozen Section Evaluation (FROSE) of bronchoscopic biopsy specimens as an alternative to ROSE. Methods A retrospective analysis of all interventional pulmonology cases using FROSE between February and July 2015 was performed. Results analyzed to evaluate the success in obtaining adequate specimens for molecular profiling. Results A total of 88 interventional pulmonology cases employing a frozen section in at least one site were identified. In 94.3% of cases, a definitive diagnosis of benign or malignant was made. The concordance of frozen section diagnoses of benign or malignant was 100% with final diagnoses. Thirteen of the eighty-eight cases were ultimately sent for molecular analysis. Of these, twelve of thirteen (92.3%) cases were adequate to perform all ordered molecular testing. In all cases there was sufficient tissue to perform EGFR and ALK testing. Conclusions In medical centers where ROSE may not be available, the use of FROSE by the local pathologist can be an effective technique to obtain adequate tissue and cytological samples for the diagnosis and molecular profiling of lung cancers. Further prospective study in bronchoscopic tissue sampling techniques to obtain the optimum quantity and quality of samples for molecular profiling of lung cancers for targeted treatments is needed. PMID:27606077

  18. [Bronchoscopic treatment of emphysema].

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2012-04-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques for the management of emphysema have evolved from the success of surgical treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) involves the removal of 20% to 30% of each lung and targets the most emphysematous segments. Patients with heterogeneous upper lobe emphysema and a low baseline exercise capacity have been identified as a subgroup within COPD in whom mortality benefits can even be achieved, along with improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life. Increased short-term mortality of approximately 5% and postoperative morbidity are the main limitations of LVRS. The extremely restrictive selection criteria for LVRS coupled with the relatively high mortality/morbidity have been the impetus for developing less invasive endoscopic modalities. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) researchers have pursued various approaches using a range of modalities, such as blockers, stents, valves, sealants, and implants. BLVR appears to be safer than LVRS in terms of mortality and morbidity. This safety profile presents an attractive alternative for patients with COPD who are fragile physiologically because of the severity of their lung disease and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. The current report aims to describe the various minimally invasive modalities available for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:22616152

  19. Bronchoscopic Investigation of Atypical Drug-induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome Showing Viral Lung Involvement.

    PubMed

    Hase, Isano; Arakawa, Hiroaki; Sakuma, Hideo; Kaneko, Fumio; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Fujiu, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Ishii, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of atypical drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) involving serological reactivation of cytomegalovirus induced by carbamazepine with pulmonary and skin manifestations. These lesions were not present on admission, but developed on virus reactivation as indicated by the presence of inclusion bodies and multinucleated giant cells in alveolar cells with CD8(+) T lymphocyte infiltration on a transbronchial lung biopsy. Although the precise mechanism of DIHS remains unknown, this case suggests the crucial role of viral reactivation in pulmonary lesions in DIHS. PMID:27629969

  20. In situ detection of lung cancer volatile fingerprints using bronchoscopic air-sampling.

    PubMed

    Santonico, M; Lucantoni, G; Pennazza, G; Capuano, R; Galluccio, G; Roscioni, C; La Delfa, G; Consoli, D; Martinelli, E; Paolesse, R; Di Natale, C; D'Amico, A

    2012-07-01

    Lung cancer diagnosis via breath analysis has to overcome some issues that can be summarized by two crucial points: (1) further developments for more performant breath sampling technologies; (2) discovering more differentiated volatile fingerprints to be ascribed to specific altered biological mechanisms. The present work merges these two aspects in a pilot study, where a breath volume, sampled via endoscopic probe, is analyzed by an array of non-selective gas sensors. Even if the original non-invasive methods of breath analysis has been laid in favour of the endoscopic means, the innovative technique here proposed allows the analysis of the volatile mixtures directly sampled near the tumor mass. This strategy could open the way for a better understanding of the already obtained discrimination among positive and negative cancer cases. The results obtained so far confirm the established discrimination capacity. This allows to discriminate the different subtypes of lung cancer with 75% of correct classification between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. This result suggests that a 'zoom-in' on the cancer settled inside the human body can increase the resolution power of key-volatiles detection, allowing the discrimination among different cancer fingerprints. We report this novel technique as a robust support for a better comprehension of the promising results obtained so far and present in literature; it is not to be intended as a replacement for non-invasive breath sampling procedure with the endoscope.

  1. Predictors of efficacy for endobronchial valves in bronchoscopic lung volume reduction: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Imran H; McGuire, Franklin R; Musani, Ali I

    2014-11-01

    Over the last several years, numerous trials have been carried out to check the efficacy of one-way valves in the management of advanced emphysema. While the design of the valves has not altered much, by selectively studying these valves in a select group of participants, such as those with and without intact fissures (FI+ and FI-), and by using different procedural techniques, our understanding of the valves has evolved. In this meta-analysis, we sought to study the effect of these factors on the efficacy of one-way valves. From PubMed and Embase, we included only those studies that provided separate data on fissure integrity or collateral ventilation. Our study outcomes included the mean change in forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). In the FI+ subgroup of participants, the pooled standardized mean difference in FEV1, 6MWD, and SGRQ were 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34 to 0.67), p ≤ 0.001, 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.45), p ≤ 0.001 and -6.02 (95% CI: -12.12 to 0.06), p = 0.05, respectively. In comparison, these results were superior to the FI- subgroup of participants. A separate analysis of the FI+ subgroup based on lobar occlusion versus nonlobar occlusion favored the former for superior efficacy. The preliminary findings of our meta-analysis confirm that one-way valves perform better in a select group of patients who show intact fissures on lung imaging pretreatment and in those who achieve lobar occlusion.

  2. A randomized trial to assess the utility of preintubation adult fiberoptic bronchoscope assessment in patients for thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nayana; Tarwade, Pritee; Shetmahajan, Madhavi; Pramesh, C. S.; Jiwnani, Sabita; Mahajan, Abhishek; Purandare, Nilendu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Confirmation of placement of Double lumen endobronchial tubes (DLETT) and bronchial blockers (BBs) with the pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is the most preferred practice worldwide. Most centers possess standard adult FOBs, some, particularly in developing countries might not have access to the pediatric-sized devices. We have evaluated the role of preintubation airway assessment using the former, measuring the distance from the incisors to the carina and from carina to the left and right upper lobe bronchus in deciding the depth of insertion of the lung isolation device. Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial consisting of 84 patients (all >18 years) undergoing thoracic surgery over a 12-month period. In the study group (n = 38), measurements obtained during FOB with the adult bronchoscope decided the depth of insertion of the lung isolation device. In the control group (n = 46), DLETTs and BBs were placed blindly followed by clinical confirmation by auscultation. Selection of the type and size of the lung isolation device was at the discretion of the anesthesiologist conducting the case. In all cases, pediatric FOB was used to confirm accurate placement of devices. Results: Of 84 patients (DLETT used in 76 patients; BB used in 8 patients), preintubation airway measurements significantly improved the success rate of optimal placement of lung isolation device from 25% (11/44) to 50% (18/36) (P = 0.04). Our incidence of failed device placement at initial insertion was 4.7% (4/84). Incidence of malposition was 10% (8/80) with 4 cases in each group. The incidence of suboptimal placement was lower in the study group at 38.9% (14/36) versus 65.9% (29/44). Conclusions: Preintubation airway measurements with the adult FOB reduces airway manipulations and improves the success rate of optimal placement of DLETT and BB. PMID:27052065

  3. Assessing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with bronchoscopic OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Colby, Thomas V.; Tager, Andrew M.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of fibrotic lung disease, with a 3 year survival rate of 50%. Diagnostic certainty of IPF is essential to determine the most effective therapy for patients, but often requires surgery to resect lung tissue and look for microscopic honeycombing not seen on chest computed tomography (CT). Unfortunately, surgical lung resection has high risks of associated morbidity and mortality in this patient population. We aim to determine whether bronchoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) can serve as a novel, low-risk paradigm for in vivo IPF diagnosis without surgery or tissue removal. OCT provides rapid 3D visualization of large tissue volumes with microscopic resolutions well beyond the capabilities of CT. We have designed bronchoscopic OCT catheters to effectively and safely access the peripheral lung, and conducted in vivo peripheral lung imaging in patients, including those with pulmonary fibrosis. We utilized these OCT catheters to perform bronchoscopic imaging in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary fibrosis to determine if bronchoscopic OCT could successfully visualize features of IPF through the peripheral airways. OCT was able to visualize characteristic features of IPF through the airway, including microscopic honeycombing (< 1 mm diameter) not visible by CT, dense peripheral fibrosis, and spatial disease heterogeneity. These findings support the potential of bronchoscopic OCT as a minimally-invasive method for in vivo IPF diagnosis. However, future clinical studies are needed to validate these findings.

  4. Planning and visualization methods for effective bronchoscopic target localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Taeprasarsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of lymph nodes is an important step in staging lung cancer. Lymph nodes, however, lie behind the airway walls and are near large vascular structures - all of these structures are hidden from the bronchoscope's field of view. Previously, we had presented a computer-based virtual bronchoscopic navigation system that provides reliable guidance for bronchoscopic sampling. While this system offers a major improvement over standard practice, bronchoscopists told us that target localization- lining up the bronchoscope before deploying a needle into the target - can still be challenging. We therefore address target localization in two distinct ways: (1) automatic computation of an optimal diagnostic sampling pose for safe, effective biopsies, and (2) a novel visualization of the target and surrounding major vasculature. The planning determines the final pose for the bronchoscope such that the needle, when extended from the tip, maximizes the tissue extracted. This automatically calculated local pose orientation is conveyed in endoluminal renderings by a 3D arrow. Additional visual cues convey obstacle locations and target depths-of-sample from arbitrary instantaneous viewing orientations. With the system, a physician can freely navigate in the virtual bronchoscopic world perceiving the depth-of-sample and possible obstacle locations at any endoluminal pose, not just one pre-determined optimal pose. We validated the system using mediastinal lymph nodes in eleven patients. The system successfully planned for 20 separate targets in human MDCT scans. In particular, given the patient and bronchoscope constraints, our method found that safe, effective biopsies were feasible in 16 of the 20 targets; the four remaining targets required more aggressive safety margins than a "typical" target. In all cases, planning computation took only a few seconds, while the visualizations updated in real time during bronchoscopic navigation.

  5. Can Bronchoscopic Airway Anatomy Be an Indicator of Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara A.; Klar, Amar J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Bronchoscopic evaluations revealed that some children have double branching of bronchi (designated "doublets") in the lower lungs airways, rather than normal, single branching. Retrospective analyses revealed only one commonality in them: all subjects with doublets also had autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). That is, 49 subjects exhibited…

  6. A bronchoscopic navigation system using bronchoscope center calibration for accurate registration of electromagnetic tracker and CT volume without markers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xiongbiao

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Various bronchoscopic navigation systems are developed for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung and bronchus cancers. To construct electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy systems, registration of preoperative images and an electromagnetic tracker must be performed. This paper proposes a new marker-free registration method, which uses the centerlines of the bronchial tree and the center of a bronchoscope tip where an electromagnetic sensor is attached, to align preoperative images and electromagnetic tracker systems. Methods: The chest computed tomography (CT) volume (preoperative images) was segmented to extract the bronchial centerlines. An electromagnetic sensor was fixed at the bronchoscope tip surface. A model was designed and printed using a 3D printer to calibrate the relationship between the fixed sensor and the bronchoscope tip center. For each sensor measurement that includes sensor position and orientation information, its corresponding bronchoscope tip center position was calculated. By minimizing the distance between each bronchoscope tip center position and the bronchial centerlines, the spatial alignment of the electromagnetic tracker system and the CT volume was determined. After obtaining the spatial alignment, an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was established to real-timely track or locate a bronchoscope inside the bronchial tree during bronchoscopic examinations. Results: The electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was validated on a dynamic bronchial phantom that can simulate respiratory motion with a breath rate range of 0–10 min{sup −1}. The fiducial and target registration errors of this navigation system were evaluated. The average fiducial registration error was reduced from 8.7 to 6.6 mm. The average target registration error, which indicates all tracked or navigated bronchoscope position accuracy, was much reduced from 6.8 to 4.5 mm compared to previous registration methods. Conclusions: An

  7. Evaluation of the jet injector in paediatric fibreoptic bronchoscopes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, I A; McLeod, M E

    1985-01-01

    The use of the Sanders venturi system during bronchoscopy in adults has been studied extensively. Its use in paediatric bronchoscopy has been limited because small changes in the characteristics of the system may produce large changes in the patient. With jet ventilation, peak inflation pressures and flow rates are influenced by the driving pressure, diameter and shape of the bronchoscope, the diameter of the injector and its length and angle from the axial line of the bronchoscope. Storz 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm rigid fibreoptic bronchoscopes were evaluated in a test lung with an injector of 1.5 mm internal diameter fixed in the side-arm at 20 degrees to the axial line. Pilling 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm rigid fibreoptic bronchoscopes were also examined using the standard injector with a 0.89 mm orifice in the axial line. The Storz bronchoscopes produced consistently higher peak inflation pressures and flow rates at all driving pressures in spite of the relatively large angle of the injector from the axial line. Caution is advised in the use of the Storz injector system as excessively high inflation pressures may be reached.

  8. Bronchoscopic treatments for emphysema.

    PubMed

    Delage, A; Marquette, C-H

    2011-10-01

    In late stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema can worsen respiratory symptoms, not only via the loss of surface for gas exchange, but also via alterations in mechanical properties of the respiratory system (dynamic and static hyperinflation). Emphysematous lung volume reduction aims at improving respiratory mechanics and symptomatology in patients with advanced emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been shown to be effective in selected patient populations, but its morbidity and costs are quite elevated. Alternatives to LVRS do not remove emphysematous lung tissue per se, but rather consist of devices aiming to: 1) reduce the volume that affected lung parenchyma occupies (unidirectional endobronchial valves or plugs, parenchymal injection of bioactive scarring agents); 2) redistribute ventilatory flow (airway bypass systems). Preliminary studies of these devices have shown that they are relatively safe. These also show modest benefits in exercise capacity, although individual subjects can experience spectacular improvement. Current objective is to identify predictors of response to therapy with such devices. PMID:22099415

  9. Assessing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with bronchoscopic OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Colby, Thomas V.; Tager, Andrew M.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal form of fibrotic lung disease, with a significantly worse prognosis than other forms of pulmonary fibrosis (3-year survival rate of 50%). Distinguishing IPF from other fibrotic diseases is essential to patient care because it stratifies prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. However, making the diagnosis often requires invasive, high-risk surgical procedures to look for microscopic features not seen on chest CT, such as characteristic cystic honeycombing in the peripheral lung. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides rapid 3D visualization of large tissue volumes with microscopic resolutions well beyond the capabilities of CT. We aim to determine whether bronchoscopic OCT can provide a low-risk, non-surgical method for IPF diagnosis. We have developed bronchoscopic OCT catheters that access the peripheral lung and conducted in vivo peripheral lung imaging in patients, including those with pulmonary fibrosis. We also conducted bronchoscopic OCT in ex vivo lung from pulmonary fibrosis patients, including IPF, to determine if OCT could successfully visualize features of IPF through the peripheral airways. Our results demonstrate that OCT is able to visualize characteristic features of IPF through the airway, including microscopic honeycombing (< 1 mm diameter) not visible by CT, dense peripheral fibrosis, and spatial disease heterogeneity. We also found that OCT has potential to distinguish mimickers of IPF honeycombing, such as traction bronchiectasis and emphysema, from true honeycombing. These findings support the potential of bronchoscopic OCT as a minimally-invasive method for in vivo IPF diagnosis. However, future clinical studies are needed to validate these findings.

  10. Integrated bronchoscopic video tracking and 3D CT registration for virtual bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Helferty, James P.; Padfield, Dirk R.

    2003-05-01

    Lung cancer assessment involves an initial evaluation of 3D CT image data followed by interventional bronchoscopy. The physician, with only a mental image inferred from the 3D CT data, must guide the bronchoscope through the bronchial tree to sites of interest. Unfortunately, this procedure depends heavily on the physician's ability to mentally reconstruct the 3D position of the bronchoscope within the airways. In order to assist physicians in performing biopsies of interest, we have developed a method that integrates live bronchoscopic video tracking and 3D CT registration. The proposed method is integrated into a system we have been devising for virtual-bronchoscopic analysis and guidance for lung-cancer assessment. Previously, the system relied on a method that only used registration of the live bronchoscopic video to corresponding virtual endoluminal views derived from the 3D CT data. This procedure only performs the registration at manually selected sites; it does not draw upon the motion information inherent in the bronchoscopic video. Further, the registration procedure is slow. The proposed method has the following advantages: (1) it tracks the 3D motion of the bronchoscope using the bronchoscopic video; (2) it uses the tracked 3D trajectory of the bronchoscope to assist in locating sites in the 3D CT "virtual world" to perform the registration. In addition, the method incorporates techniques to: (1) detect and exclude corrupted video frames (to help make the video tracking more robust); (2) accelerate the computation of the many 3D virtual endoluminal renderings (thus, speeding up the registration process). We have tested the integrated tracking-registration method on a human airway-tree phantom and on real human data.

  11. Bronchoscopic administration of bovine natural surfactant in ARDS and septic shock: impact on gas exchange and haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Walmrath, D; Grimminger, F; Pappert, D; Knothe, C; Obertacke, U; Benzing, A; Günther, A; Schmehl, T; Leuchte, H; Seeger, W

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of bronchoscopic surfactant administration in a noncontrolled multicentre study in five university centres. A total number of 27 patients, suffering from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (mean+/-SEM lung injury score: 3.15+/-0.06) and septic shock (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score at study entry 33.2+/-1.3, lactate 4.3+/-0.6 mmol x L(-1)) were studied. The patients were ventilated with a mean tidal volume of 11.0+/-0.5 mL x kg(-1) body weight (bw), either volume or pressure controlled, with 16.3+/-2.8 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure, for an average of 3.5+/-0.3 days at study entry. A natural bovine surfactant extract (300 mg x kg(-1) bw Alveofact; mean total volume 378 mL) was delivered in divided doses to each segment of the lungs via flexible bronchoscope within approximately 45 min. No untoward effects on gas exchange, lung mechanics and haemodynamics were noted during the procedure of surfactant administration. Within 12 h the oxygen tension in arterial blood/inspiratory oxygen fraction increased from a mean of 109+/-8 mmHg to 210+/-20 mmHg (p<0.001). In seven patients, in whom gas exchange again deteriorated with further progression of the disease, a second surfactant dose of 200 mg x kg(-1) was administered 18-24 h after the first application, again improving arterial oxygenation. A total of 15 patients survived the 28-day study period (mortality rate 44.4%, compared to a calculated risk of death for the given APACHE II scores of 74.0+/-3.5%), with all causes of death being nonrespiratory. The bronchoscopic application of a high dose of natural surfactant in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock is both feasible and safe, resulting in a pronounced improvement in gas exchange.

  12. Bronchoscopic Nd-YAG laser surgery for tracheobronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Li, C H; Huang, S F; Li, H Y

    2004-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the tracheobronchial tree represents 0.2% of all lung tumours. It arises from the excretory ducts of the bronchial mucosa and is classified into low- and high-grade tumours using criteria derived from similar tumours of the major salivary glands. Low-grade MEC behaves in a benign fashion with less parenchymal and hilar lymph nodal invasion. The traditional method of treatment is by thoracotomy. The bronchoscopic approach to this lesion using lasers has rarely been reported. This article reports two cases of low-grade tracheobronchial MEC, which were both managed through bronchoscopic neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser surgery. The patients were free from disease, 26 and 36 months after surgery. Bronchoscopic laser surgery promises to be an effective alternative treatment modality for tracheobronchial MEC. It is minimally invasive, results in less hospital stay and does not impair pulmonary functions.

  13. Endoscopic bronchial occlusion with silicone spigots under virtual bronchoscopic navigation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 68‐year‐old woman with interstitial lung disease related to dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnoea. Although the fever was reduced after antibiotic therapy, a left pneumothorax suddenly occurred on day 27 after admission. A continuous air leak persisted despite chest drainage with three tubes and repeated pleurodesis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images showed a cavitary lesion with a pinhole in the left upper division, which was suspected to be the affected lesion with the air leak. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation images were constructed from CT data. Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs) was performed on day 52. Two medium‐sized EWSs were inserted into the left B1 + 2a and B1 + 2b, and the air leak stopped immediately. No procedure‐related adverse events occurred. All three chest tubes were successfully removed by day 60. This case demonstrates that virtual bronchoscopic navigation can improve bronchial occlusion procedures using EWSs. PMID:27512560

  14. Endoscopic bronchial occlusion with silicone spigots under virtual bronchoscopic navigation.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Manabu; Sato, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Norio

    2016-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman with interstitial lung disease related to dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnoea. Although the fever was reduced after antibiotic therapy, a left pneumothorax suddenly occurred on day 27 after admission. A continuous air leak persisted despite chest drainage with three tubes and repeated pleurodesis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images showed a cavitary lesion with a pinhole in the left upper division, which was suspected to be the affected lesion with the air leak. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation images were constructed from CT data. Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs) was performed on day 52. Two medium-sized EWSs were inserted into the left B1 + 2a and B1 + 2b, and the air leak stopped immediately. No procedure-related adverse events occurred. All three chest tubes were successfully removed by day 60. This case demonstrates that virtual bronchoscopic navigation can improve bronchial occlusion procedures using EWSs. PMID:27512560

  15. Bronchoscopy guidance system based on bronchoscope-motion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Duane C.; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopy-guidance systems assist physicians during bronchoscope navigation. However, these systems require an attending technician and fail to continuously track the bronchoscope. We propose a real-time technicianfree bronchoscopy-guidance system that employs continuous tracking. For guidance, our system presents directions on virtual views that are generated from the bronchoscope's tracked location. The system achieves bronchoscope tracking using a strategy that is based on a recently proposed method for sensor-based bronchoscope-motion tracking.1 Furthermore, a graphical indicator notifies the physician when he/she has maneuvered the bronchoscope to an incorrect branch. Our proposed system uses the sensor data to generate virtual views through multiple candidate routes and employs image matching in a Bayesian framework to determine the most probable bronchoscope pose. Tests based on laboratory phantoms validate the potential of the system.

  16. Bronchoscopic phototherapy at comparable dose rates: Early results

    SciTech Connect

    Pass, H.I.; Delaney, T.; Smith, P.D.; Bonner, R.; Russo, A.

    1989-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a recently introduced treatment for surface malignancies. Since January 1987, 10 patients with endobronchial neoplasms have had bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy at similar dose rates (400 mW/cm) for total atelectasis (2), carinal narrowing with respiratory insufficiency (2), or partial obstruction without collapse (4). Two patients underwent photodynamic therapy as a preliminary to immunotherapy. Histologies included endobronchial metastases (colon, ovary, melanoma, and sarcoma, 1 each; and renal cell, 3) and primary lung cancer (3). The 2 patients with total atelectasis had complete reexpansion after photodynamic therapy, which permitted eventual sleeve lobectomy in 1. Carinal narrowing was ameliorated in the 2 patients seen with inspiratory stridor, thereby permitting hospital discharge. Endoscopically resected fragments after photodynamic therapy exhibited avascular necrosis. These data support further controlled studies of photodynamic therapy by thoracic surgical oncologists to define its limitations as well as to improve and expand its efficacy as a palliative or surgical adjuvant.

  17. Sand aspiration with near-drowning. Radiographic and bronchoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Dunagan, D P; Cox, J E; Chang, M C; Haponik, E F

    1997-07-01

    Sand and foreign-body aspiration may accompany drowning and near-drowning, but few details regarding such patients are available in the literature. We report a 26-yr-old woman who suffered near-drowning after a motor-vehicle accident. Initial attempts at ventilation were compromised by increased peak airway pressures, which decreased following the removal of large amounts of sand from the patient's endotracheal tube. Chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans of the patient obtained upon her arrival in the emergency department demonstrated sand bronchograms within the lower lobes of both lungs, and sand within the maxillary sinuses and stomach. We present the radiographic, bronchoscopic, and microbiologic findings within hours after this patient's accident, with a review of the literature and provisional recommendations for the management of such patients.

  18. Therapeutic bronchoscopic interventions for malignant airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dalar, Levent; Özdemir, Cengiz; Abul, Yasin; Karasulu, Levent; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Akbaş, Ayşegül; Altın, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is no definitive consensus about the factors affecting the choice of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of malignant airway obstruction. The present study defines the choice of the interventional bronchoscopic modality and analyzes the factors influencing survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction. Totally, over 7 years, 802 interventional rigid bronchoscopic procedures were applied in 547 patients having malignant airway obstruction. There was a significant association between the type of stent and the site of the lesion in the present study. Patients with tracheal involvement and/or involvement of the main bronchi had the worst prognosis. The sites of the lesion and endobronchial treatment modality were independent predictors of survival in the present study. The selection of different types of airway stents can be considered on the base of site of the lesion. Survival can be estimated based on the site of the lesion and endobronchial brochoscopic modality used. PMID:27281104

  19. Bronchoscopic treatment of complex persistent air leaks with endobronchial one-way valves.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Costanzo, Saveria; Carelli, Emanuele; Di Costanzo, Emilio; Santini, Mario

    2016-04-01

    We reported a case series including 5 patients with persistent air-leaks refractory to standard treatment. All patients were unfit for surgery for the presence of co-morbidities and/or severe respiratory failure due to underlying lung diseases. They were successfully treated with bronchoscopic placement of endobronchial one-way valves. Air-leaks stopped in the first 24 h after the procedure in three patients and 3 and 5 days later, respectively, in the remaining two. No complications were observed and follow-up was uneventful in all patients but one died 25 days after the procedure for systemic sepsis due to peritonis. Patients with important, refractory air leaks having clinical repercussions and unfit for surgery should be early reviewed for bronchoscopic valves treatment.

  20. Virtual bronchoscopic approach for combining 3D CT and endoscopic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Austin, Allen L.; Helferty, James P.; Wan, Shu-Yen; Turlington, Janice Z.; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Hoffman, Eric A.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Higgins, William E.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the care of lung-cancer patients, we are devising a diagnostic paradigm that ties together three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution computed-tomographic (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy. The system expands upon the new concept of virtual endoscopy that has seen recent application to the chest, colon, and other anatomical regions. Our approach applies computer-graphics and image-processing tools to the analysis of 3D CT chest images and complementary bronchoscopic video. It assumes a two-stage assessment of a lung-cancer patient. During Stage 1 (CT assessment), the physician interacts with a number of visual and quantitative tools to evaluate the patient's 'virtual anatomy' (3D CT scan). Automatic analysis gives navigation paths through major airways and to pre-selected suspect sites. These paths provide useful guidance during Stage-1 CT assessment. While interacting with these paths and other software tools, the user builds a multimedia Case Study, capturing telling snapshot views, movies, and quantitative data. The Case Study contains a report on the CT scan and also provides planning information for subsequent bronchoscopic evaluation. During Stage 2 (bronchoscopy), the physician uses (1) the original CT data, (2) software graphical tools, (3) the Case Study, and (4) a standard bronchoscopy suite to have an augmented vision for bronchoscopic assessment and treatment. To use the two data sources (CT and bronchoscopic video) simultaneously, they must be registered. We perform this registration using both manual interaction and an automated matching approach based on mutual information. We demonstrate our overall progress to date using human CT cases and CT-video from a bronchoscopy- training device.

  1. Sequential multimodality bronchoscopic investigation of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Steinfort, Daniel P; Bonney, Asha; See, Katharine; Irving, Louis B

    2016-02-01

    Multiple guidance modalities may be combined during bronchoscopic investigation of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). The relative contribution of each modality to diagnostic performance remains uncertain.Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) with virtual bronchoscopy (VB) was routinely performed, with electromagnetic navigation (EMN) utilised only where EBUS was unable to locate PPLs or where the probe was adjacent to the lesion and on-site cytologic examination was nondiagnostic.236 consecutive patients with 245 PPLs had lesion size 22.8±12.4 mm (mean±sd). PPLs were localised using EBUS+VB alone in 188 (77%) and was diagnostic in 134 of these (71.3%). EBUS localisation was predicted by PPL size (23.7±10.5 versus 19.7±9.8 mm, p=0.003), but not by bronchus sign, PPL-hilum distance or PPL-pleura distance. EMN in 57 patients achieved EBUS localisation in a further 17 patients (30.9%), improving overall visualisation yield to 85%. Nine of these 57 procedures achieved a definitive diagnosis (16%), improving overall diagnostic yield to 58.4%. Probe position and lesion type influenced overall diagnostic yield. Sensitivity for diagnosis of lung cancer was 70% (131/188; 95% CI 63-76%).Localisation rate and diagnostic sensitivity of radial probe EBUS+VB alone for diagnosis of PPLs is high. EBUS localisation rates and procedural yield are improved only modestly (by 8% and 4%, respectively) with addition of EMN. Sampling following EMN should include all available methods to maximise diagnostic yield. PMID:26541529

  2. Initial experience with real-time elastography using an ultrasound bronchoscope for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Andreo García, Felipe; Centeno Clemente, Carmen Ángela; Sanz Santos, José; Barturen Barroso, Ángel; Hernández Gallego, Alba; Ruiz Manzano, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Real-time elastography performed during endoscopic ultrasonography is a relatively new method for characterizing tissue stiffness, and has been used successfully as a predictor of malignancy in mediastinal lymph nodes. This case report describes our practical experience with this technique using an ultrasound bronchoscope to examine mediastinal lymph nodes. We present a case of sectorial endobronchial ultrasound and the first published case of endoscopic ultrasound elastography using ultrasound bronchoscope in two patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. Qualitative tissue color pattern was obtained in both cases and correlated with pathological evaluation. The initial feasibility results are promising and suggest that ultrasound bronchoscopy techniques, such as guided nodal staging, merit additional studies. It may be important to categorize the risk of malignancy to facilitate sampling decisions. PMID:25443586

  3. Initial experience with real-time elastography using an ultrasound bronchoscope for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Andreo García, Felipe; Centeno Clemente, Carmen Ángela; Sanz Santos, José; Barturen Barroso, Ángel; Hernández Gallego, Alba; Ruiz Manzano, Juan

    2015-02-01

    Real-time elastography performed during endoscopic ultrasonography is a relatively new method for characterizing tissue stiffness, and has been used successfully as a predictor of malignancy in mediastinal lymph nodes. This case report describes our practical experience with this technique using an ultrasound bronchoscope to examine mediastinal lymph nodes. We present a case of sectorial endobronchial ultrasound and the first published case of endoscopic ultrasound elastography using ultrasound bronchoscope in two patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. Qualitative tissue color pattern was obtained in both cases and correlated with pathological evaluation. The initial feasibility results are promising and suggest that ultrasound bronchoscopy techniques, such as guided nodal staging, merit additional studies. It may be important to categorize the risk of malignancy to facilitate sampling decisions.

  4. Clinical analysis of bronchoscopic electrocoagulation in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ni, Caiyun; Yu, Huafeng; Han, Xiaorong; Meng, Chen; Zhang, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    This study is to explore the efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment for pediatric disease of poor ventilation. Seventy pediatric patients of airway stenosis and obstruction as well as pharyngeal and laryngeal cysts received bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment, including 15 cases of epiglottic cyst, 13 cases of cicatricial hyperplasia of fibrous tissue after trachea intubation, 5 cases of foreign body in bronchus and 37 cases of endobronchial tuberculosis. Before and after the last electrocoagulation treatment, treatment efficacy was evaluated by examining the patients' clinical presentations and lesions in airway under bronchoscope, examining chest CT and pulmonary function, and estimating pulmonary atelectasis and ventilation function. Seventy cases of pediatric patients were treated by bronchoscopic electrocoagulation, with the total treatment number of 106 times. Among them, 66 cases were treated with marked efficacy and 4 cases were with effective treatment. There was no invalid treatment. The treatment efficacy was 100% without complications. Bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment is a fast, effective and safe therapeutic method in treating airway stenosis and obstruction, such as foreign body in bronchus, granulation tissue hyperplasia, and epiglottic cysts. It is worthy of being widely applied in clinic.

  5. Hybrid bronchoscope tracking using a magnetic tracking sensor and image registration.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kensaku; Deguchi, Daisuke; Akiyama, Kenta; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Maurer, Calvin R; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid method for tracking a bronchoscope that uses a combination of magnetic sensor tracking and image registration. The position of a magnetic sensor placed in the working channel of the bronchoscope is provided by a magnetic tracking system. Because of respiratory motion, the magnetic sensor provides only the approximate position and orientation of the bronchoscope in the coordinate system of a CT image acquired before the examination. The sensor position and orientation is used as the starting point for an intensity-based registration between real bronchoscopic video images and virtual bronchoscopic images generated from the CT image. The output transformation of the image registration process is the position and orientation of the bronchoscope in the CT image. We tested the proposed method using a bronchial phantom model. Virtual breathing motion was generated to simulate respiratory motion. The proposed hybrid method successfully tracked the bronchoscope at a rate of approximately 1 Hz.

  6. [ENDOSCOPIC LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION IN PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA].

    PubMed

    Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented.

  7. Bronchoscopic blood patch for treatment of persistent alveolar-pleural fistula.

    PubMed

    Wiaterek, Gregory; Lee, Hans; Malhotra, Rajiv; Shepherd, Wes

    2013-04-01

    Airway pleural fistulas remain a significant treatment challenge despite improved antimicrobial therapy and surgical techniques. We present a case of a 56-year-old female who was admitted with severe bilateral cavitary pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. The patient suffered bilateral pneumothoraces related to necrotic pneumonia resulting in bilateral chest tube placement. Despite conservative measures, the air leak persisted preventing chest tube removal. Bronchoscopy with Fogarty balloon (Edwards) occlusion was performed in attempts to isolate an airway responsible for the air leak. No one single airway could be bronchoscopically occluded to isolate the right-sided fistula. Efforts were focused on the left airway where the fistula could be isolated to the anteromedial basal segment. Several alternating layers of an absorbable hemostat (knitted fabric prepared by controlled oxidation of cellulose-Surgicel; Ethicon) were placed within the left anteromedial basal segment using bronchoscopy forceps. Through a cut Fogarty balloon, 3 mL of the patient's blood was delivered onto the absorbable hemostat to create an occluding blood patch. No air leak was present at the completion of the procedure. While on mechanical ventilation, the left chest tube was removed 2 days later without radiographic recurrence of her pneumothorax. PMID:23609256

  8. Hybrid DynaCT-guided electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic biopsy†.

    PubMed

    Ng, Calvin S H; Yu, Simon C H; Lau, Rainbow W H; Yim, Anthony P C

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy-guided biopsy of small pulmonary nodules can be challenging. Navigational error of the system and movement of the biopsy tool during its deployment adversely affect biopsy success. Furthermore, conventional methods to confirm navigational success such as fluoroscopy and radial endobronchial ultrasound become less useful for the biopsy of small lesions. A hybrid operating theatre can provide unparalleled real-time imaging through DynaCT scan to guide and confirm successful navigation and biopsy of difficult-to-reach or small lesions. We describe our technique for DynaCT image-guided electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic biopsy of a small pulmonary nodule in the hybrid operating theatre. The advantages, disadvantages and special considerations in adopting this approach are discussed.

  9. DAVE-ML Utility Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    DAVEtools is a set of Java archives that embodies tools for manipulating flight-dynamics models that have been encoded in dynamic aerospace vehicle exchange markup language (DAVE-ML). [DAVE-ML is an application program, written in Extensible Markup Language (XML), for encoding complete computational models of the dynamics of aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. PCR based bronchoscopic detection of common respiratory pathogens in chronic cough: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory tract infection is the most frequent cause of acute cough and is reported at onset in about one third of patients with chronic cough. Persistent infection is therefore one possible explanation for the cough reflex hypersensitivity and pulmonary inflammation reported in chronic cough patients. Methods Bronchoscopic endobronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts were obtained from ten healthy volunteers and twenty treatment resistant chronic cough patients (10 selected for lavage lymphocytosis). A screen for known respiratory pathogens was performed on biopsy tissue. Chronic cough patients also underwent cough reflex sensitivity testing using citric acid. Results There was no significant difference in incidence of infection between healthy volunteers and chronic cough patients (p = 0.115) or non-lymphocytic and lymphocytic groups (p = 0.404). BAL cell percentages were not significantly different between healthy volunteers and chronic cough patients without lymphocytosis. Lymphocytic patients however had a significantly raised percentage of lymphocytes (p < 0.01), neutrophils (p < 0.05), eosinophils (p < 0.05) and decreased macrophages (p < 0.001) verses healthy volunteers. There was no significant difference in the cough reflex sensitivity between non-lymphocytic and lymphocytic patients (p = 0.536). Conclusions This study indicates latent infection in the lung is unlikely to play an important role in chronic cough, but a role for undetected or undetectable pathogens in either the lung or a distal site could not be ruled out. Trials registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62337037 & ISRCTN40147207 PMID:22978556

  11. Bronchoscopy: Diagnostic and Therapeutic for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas L; Berkheim, David B

    2016-07-01

    The bronchoscope has gone through much advancement from its origin as a thin metal tube. It has become a highly sophisticated tool for clinicians. Both rigid and the flexible bronchoscopes are invaluable in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Treatment of this disease process hinges on accurate diagnosis and lymph node staging. Technologies, such as endobronchial ultrasound, navigational bronchoscopy, and autofluorescence, have improved efficacy of endobronchial diagnosis and sample collection. If a patient is not a candidate for surgery and has a complication from a centrally located mass, the bronchoscope has been used to deliver palliative therapies. PMID:27261910

  12. [Intubation Using a Double-lumen Tube with a Combination of Fiberoptic Bronchoscope and the Glidescope in a Patient with Difficult Airway].

    PubMed

    Tateura, Nao; Sato, Hiromi; Arai, Takero; Asai, Takashi; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2015-08-01

    A 54-year-old man with lung cancer was scheduled for thoracoscopic upper lobe resection under general anesthesia. About half a year previously, he had undergone surgery for oropharyngeal cancer and tongue cancer. As a result of the surgery, elasticity of the neck skin bending of the neck were restricted (Mallampati classification IV). A narrow-bored tracheostomy tube (speech cannula) was inserted. In the operating room, the tip of a 5.0 mm ID standard tube was inserted from the tracheostomy tube, and connected to a breathing circuit. Anesthesia was induced with inhalation of sevoflurane, followed by intravenous propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium. Four anesthesiologists were required to intubate the trachea. One person held the tracheal tube placed in the tracheotomy tube. The second person performed jaw thrusting. The third person inserted the Glidescope to shift the transplanted tongue to the side. It was then possible for the forth anesthesiologist to manage to see the glottis using a fiberoptic bronchoscope, and a double-lumen tube (DLT) could be inserted to the trachea orally. Inserting a DLT over the fiberoptic bronchoscope is a blind method, but we felt that combined with a variety of tools such as video laryngoscope, the success rate in intubation will increase. PMID:26442413

  13. Lung volume reduction therapies for advanced emphysema: an update.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert L; Decamp, Malcolm M; Criner, Gerard J; Celli, Bartolome R

    2010-08-01

    Observational and randomized studies provide convincing evidence that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves symptoms, lung function, exercise tolerance, and life span in well-defined subsets of patients with emphysema. Yet, in the face of an estimated 3 million patients with emphysema in the United States, < 15 LVRS operations are performed monthly under the aegis of Medicare, in part because of misleading reporting in lay and medical publications suggesting that the operation is associated with prohibitive risks and offers minimal benefits. Thus, a treatment with proven potential for palliating and prolonging life may be underutilized. In an attempt to lower risks and cost, several bronchoscopic strategies (bronchoscopic emphysema treatment [BET]) to reduce lung volume have been introduced. The following three methods have been tested in some depth: (1) unidirectional valves that allow exit but bar entry of gas to collapse targeted hyperinflated portions of the lung and reduce overall volume; (2) biologic lung volume reduction (BioLVR) that involves intrabronchial administration of a biocompatible complex to collapse, inflame, scar, and shrink the targeted emphysematous lung; and (3) airway bypass tract (ABT) or creation of stented nonanatomic pathways between hyperinflated pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree to decompress and reduce the volume of oversized lung. The results of pilot and randomized pivotal clinical trials suggest that the bronchoscopic strategies are associated with lower mortality and morbidity but are also less efficient than LVRS. Most bronchoscopic approaches improve quality-of-life measures without supportive physiologic or exercise tolerance benefits. Although there is promise of limited therapeutic influence, the available information is not sufficient to recommend use of bronchoscopic strategies for treating emphysema. PMID:20682529

  14. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories. 874.4680 Section 874.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680 Bronchoscope... is a tubular endoscopic device with any of a group of accessory devices which attach to the... with a fiberoptic light source and carrier to provide illumination. The device is made of...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4680 - Bronchoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4680 Bronchoscope... is a tubular endoscopic device with any of a group of accessory devices which attach to the... with a fiberoptic light source and carrier to provide illumination. The device is made of...

  19. Observation-driven adaptive differential evolution and its application to accurate and smooth bronchoscope three-dimensional motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Wan, Ying; He, Xiangjian; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes an observation-driven adaptive differential evolution algorithm that fuses bronchoscopic video sequences, electromagnetic sensor measurements, and computed tomography images for accurate and smooth bronchoscope three-dimensional motion tracking. Currently an electromagnetic tracker with a position sensor fixed at the bronchoscope tip is commonly used to estimate bronchoscope movements. The large tracking error from directly using sensor measurements, which may be deteriorated heavily by patient respiratory motion and the magnetic field distortion of the tracker, limits clinical applications. How to effectively use sensor measurements for precise and stable bronchoscope electromagnetic tracking remains challenging. We here exploit an observation-driven adaptive differential evolution framework to address such a challenge and boost the tracking accuracy and smoothness. In our framework, two advantageous points are distinguished from other adaptive differential evolution methods: (1) the current observation including sensor measurements and bronchoscopic video images is used in the mutation equation and the fitness computation, respectively and (2) the mutation factor and the crossover rate are determined adaptively on the basis of the current image observation. The experimental results demonstrate that our framework provides much more accurate and smooth bronchoscope tracking than the state-of-the-art methods. Our approach reduces the tracking error from 3.96 to 2.89 mm, improves the tracking smoothness from 4.08 to 1.62 mm, and increases the visual quality from 0.707 to 0.741. PMID:25660001

  20. ML 3.1 developer's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML development was started in 1997 by Ray Tuminaro and Charles Tong. Currently, there are several full- and part-time developers. The kernel of ML is written in ANSI C, and there is a rich C++ interface for Trilinos users and developers. ML can be customized to run geometric and algebraic multigrid; it can solve a scalar or a vector equation (with constant number of equations per grid node), and it can solve a form of Maxwell's equations. For a general introduction to ML and its applications, we refer to the Users Guide [SHT04], and to the ML web site, http://software.sandia.gov/ml.

  1. Evaluation of primary lung cancer with indium 111 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (type ZCE-025) monoclonal antibody scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Morris, J.F.; Antonovic, R.; Ahmed, A.; Galey, W.T.; Duncan, C.; Krishnamurthy, G.T. )

    1990-02-01

    A study was undertaken to test whether indium 111 (111In)-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (type ZCE 025) monoclonal intact antibody (MoAb) would concentrate in primary lung cancer enabling its detection and localization by scintigraphy. The scintigraphic results were correlated with chest radiograph, computed tomograph (CT), bronchoscopy, surgical resection, and tumor CEA analysis. Twenty adult male patients with clinical suspicion of primary lung cancer were studied. Each subject was infused with 4 to 5 mCi of 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb, and planar and tomographic scintiphotos were obtained on days 3 and 6 or 7 postinfusion. The scintigraphy was true-positive in 12 of 16 patients with primary lung cancer, eight of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and four of seven with adenocarcinoma; it was true-negative in three of four patients with benign lung disease with an overall accuracy of 75%. In seven patients with confirmed primary lung cancer, but with negative bronchoscopic findings, the scintigraphy was true-positive in four. In 11 patients with definitely positive or suspicious malignancy by bronchoscopy the monoclonal scintigraphy was positive in eight. In true-positive cases, the location and size of the lesion by 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb imaging correlated well with CT findings and also tumor mass at surgery. Only one of 12 tumors stained positive for CEA had serum CEA levels greater than 10 ng/ml, indicating nonleakage of the tumor antigen into general circulation in early lung cancer. It is concluded that 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb planar and tomographic imaging shows potential to serve as a noninvasive diagnostic test in the evaluation of primary lung cancer. The lung lesion is likely to be malignant if it concentrates 111In anti-CEA ZCE 025 MoAb and benign if it does not.

  2. Use of Electromagnetic Navigational Transthoracic Needle Aspiration (E-TTNA) for Sampling of Lung Nodules.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sixto; Lee, Hans; Semaan, Roy; Frimpong, Bernice; Ortiz, Ricardo; Feller-Kopman, David; Oakjones-Burgess, Karen; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-05-23

    Lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge especially in patients with intermediate risk for malignancy. Multiple technologies are presently available to sample nodules for pathological diagnosis. Those technologies can be divided into bronchoscopic and non-bronchoscopic interventions. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy is being extensively used for the endobronchial approach to peripheral lung nodules but has been hindered by anatomic challenges resulting in a 70% diagnostic yield. Electromagnetic navigational guided transthoracic needle lung biopsy is novel non-bronchoscopic method that uses a percutaneous electromagnetic tip tracked needle to obtain core biopsy specimens. Electromagnetic navigational transthoracic needle aspiration complements bronchoscopic techniques potentially allowing the provider to maximize the diagnostic yield during one single procedure. This article describes a novel integrated diagnostic approach to pulmonary lung nodules. We propose the use of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for mediastinal staging; radial EBUS, navigational bronchoscopy and E-TTNA during one single procedure to maximize diagnostic yield and minimize the number of invasive procedures needed to obtain a diagnosis. This manuscript describes in detail how the navigation transthoracic procedure is performed. Additional clinical studies are needed to determine the clinical utility of this novel technology.

  3. Impacted Sharp Oesophageal Foreign Bodies--A Novel Technique of Removal with the Paediatric Bronchoscope.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Aparajita; Bajpai, Minu

    2016-04-01

    Sharp foreign bodies in the oesophagus may present as an entirely asymptomatic child with only radiological evidence but require emergent surgical management. Safety pins, razor blades and needles are a few of the commonly ingested sharp objects in developing countries. The open safety pin is a particularly interesting clinical problem, as the management depends on its location and orientation. Many methods and instruments have been used over the years to remove them from the upper digestive tract. We present a novel method using the rigid paediatric bronchoscope and alligator forceps for the extraction of this unusual foreign body from the oesophagus of a 6 year old girl. PMID:26851436

  4. morePhyML: improving the phylogenetic tree space exploration with PhyML 3.

    PubMed

    Criscuolo, Alexis

    2011-12-01

    PhyML is a widely used Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree inference software based on a standard hill-climbing method. Starting from an initial tree, the version 3 of PhyML explores the tree space by using "Nearest Neighbor Interchange" (NNI) or "Subtree Pruning and Regrafting" (SPR) tree swapping techniques in order to find the ML phylogenetic tree. NNI-based local searches are fast but can often get trapped in local optima, whereas it is expected that the larger (but slower to cover) SPR-based neighborhoods will lead to trees with higher likelihood. Here, I verify that PhyML infers more likely trees with SPRs than with NNIs in almost all cases. However, I also show that the SPR-based local search of PhyML often does not succeed at locating the ML tree. To improve the tree space exploration, I deliver a script, named morePhyML, which allows escaping from local optima by performing character reweighting. This ML tree search strategy, named ratchet, often leads to higher likelihood estimates. Based on the analysis of a large number of amino acid and nucleotide data, I show that morePhyML allows inferring more accurate phylogenetic trees than several other recently developed ML tree inference softwares in many cases.

  5. Aspiration-related organizing pneumonia complicating laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: A lung cancer mimicker

    PubMed Central

    Aljohaney, Ahmed A.; Ajlan, Amr M.; Alghamdi, Fahad A.

    2016-01-01

    There are several described pulmonary complications due to laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. We report a rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented with pulmonary symptoms and a solitary lung mass 12 years after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A bronchoscopic lung biopsy showed organizing pneumonia that was induced by aspiration pneumonia. The atypical radiological appearance of the aspiration pneumonia may pose a diagnostic challenge, and clinicians' awareness regarding such an entity is needed to avoid unnecessary intervention. PMID:27803757

  6. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer: a treatment option for patients ineligible for surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Thorpe, James Andrew Charles; Stringer, Mark; Oxtoby, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review the Yorkshire Laser Centre experience with bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer in subjects not eligible for surgery and to discuss diagnostic problems and the indications for PDT in such cases. Methods Of 200 patients undergoing bronchoscopic PDT, 21 had early central lung cancer and were entered into a prospective study. Patients underwent standard investigations including white light bronchoscopy in all and autofluorescence bronchoscopy in 12 of the most recent cases. Indications for bronchoscopic PDT were recurrence/metachronous endobronchial lesions following previous treatment with curative intent in 10 patients (11 lesions), ineligibility for surgery because of poor cardiorespiratory function in 8 patients (9 lesions) and declined consent to operation in 3 patients. PDT consisted of intravenous administration of Photofrin 2 mg/kg followed by bronchoscopic illumination 24–48 h later. Results 29 treatments were performed in 21 patients (23 lesions). There was no procedure‐related or 30 day mortality. One patient developed mild skin photosensitivity. All patients expressed satisfaction with the treatment and had a complete response of variable duration. Six patients died at 3–103 months (mean 39.3), three of which were not as a result of cancer. Fifteen patients were alive at 12–82 months. Conclusion Bronchoscopic PDT in early central lung cancer can achieve long disease‐free survival and should be considered as a treatment option in those ineligible for resection. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is a valuable complementary investigation for identification of synchronous lesions and accurate illumination in bronchoscopic PDT. PMID:17090572

  7. Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation in the combined management of postintubation stenosis of the trachea in adults.

    PubMed

    Noppen, M; Schlesser, M; Meysman, M; D'Haese, J; Peche, R; Vincken, W

    1997-10-01

    Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation (BBD) using angioplasty balloon catheters has been employed successfully in the treatment of tracheobronchial stenoses in children and has worked with variable success in adults with bronchial stenosis. In adults with tracheal stenosis, BBD only has been reported anecdotally. In this study, experience with BBD using a valvuloplasty balloon catheter in the combined treatment (with Nd-YAG laser photoresection and stenting) of severe benign postintubation tracheal stenoses in three adults is delineated. BBD was particularly successful in establishing tracheal patency when laser photoresection was contraindicated or was too dangerous; BBD allowed easy insertion of tracheal stents and the "opening" of folded silicone stents. BBD is a simple, inexpensive, safe, and efficient adjunct in the combined treatment of severe postintubation rigid tracheal stenosis in selected adults. PMID:9377935

  8. Management of Benign Tracheal Stenosis by Small-diameter Tube-assisted Bronchoscopic Balloon Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi-Lin; Liu, Guang-Nan; Zheng, Hou-Wen; Li, Yu; Chen, Le-Cheng; Fu, Yu-Yan; Li, Wen-Tao; Huang, Si-Ming; Yang, Mei-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: A limitation of bronchoscopic balloon dilatation (BBD) is that airflow must be completely blocked for as long as possible during the operation. However, the patient often cannot hold his or her breath for a long period affecting the efficacy of the procedure. In this study, we used an extra-small-diameter tube to provide assisted ventilation to patients undergoing BBD and assessed the efficacy and safety of this technique. Methods: Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation was performed in 26 patients with benign tracheal stenosis using an extra-small-diameter tube. The tracheal diameter, dyspnea index, blood gas analysis results, and complications were evaluated before and after BBD. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 16.0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Sixty-three BBD procedures were performed in 26 patients. Dyspnea immediately improved in all patients after BBD. The tracheal diameter significantly increased from 5.5 ± 1.5 mm to 13.0 ± 1.3 mm (P < 0.001), and the dyspnea index significantly decreased from 3.4 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.6 (P < 0.001). There was no significant change in the partial pressure of oxygen during the operation (before, 102.5 ± 27.5 mmHg; during, 96.9 ± 30.4 mmHg; and after, 97.2 ± 21.5 mmHg; P = 0.364), but there was slight temporary retention of carbon dioxide during the operation (before, 43.5 ± 4.2 mmHg; during, 49.4 ± 6.8 mmHg; and after, 40.1 ± 3.9 mmHg; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Small-diameter tube-assisted BBD is an effective and safe method for the management of benign tracheal stenosis. PMID:25963352

  9. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghissi, K.; Dixon, Kate

    2005-11-01

    The Yorkshire Laser Centre has been engaged in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) since 1990. In this article we present our experience highlighting the lesson learnt. 280 bronchoscopic PDT treatments have been carried out in 160 patients divided in 2 groups. Group A: (Nr 144) with advanced inoperable disease and Group E (Nr 16) with early stage cancer. PDT method was intravenous administration of 2mg/kg bw of Photofrin followed by bronchoscopic illumination of 630nm laser light. There was no procedure-related mortality. A total of 9 cases of photosensitivity (skin burn) occurred in the series (5.6% of patients). Every patient in both groups expressed their total satisfaction to treatment. Group A: Symptom relief was achieved in all. This was matched by improvement in significant bronchial opening (58.1%). Survival was 9.6 months (mean).This was greater in patients with better performance status and lower stage of disease. Group E: Every patient had a complete response to treatment. Survival in this group was 75.4 months (mean). We conclude that bronchoscopic PDT is indicated in both advanced and early stage lung cancer. In the former it provides symptomatic relief in all and survival benefit in some; in the latter it achieves long survival and potential cure.

  10. FieldML: concepts and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, G. Richard; Nielsen, Poul M.F.; Blackett, Shane A.; Bradley, Chris P.; Hunter, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The field modelling language FieldML is being developed as a standard for modelling and interchanging field descriptions in software, suitable for a wide range of computation techniques. It comprises a rich set of operators for defining generalized fields as functions of other fields, starting with basic domain fields including sets of discrete objects and coordinate systems. It is extensible by adding new operators and by their arbitrary combination in expressions, making it well suited for describing the inherent complexity of biological materials and organ systems. This paper describes the concepts behind FieldML, including a simple example of a spatially varying finite-element field. It outlines current implementations in established, open source computation and visualization software, both drawing on decades of bioengineering modelling software development experience. PMID:19380316

  11. Modelling biological modularity with CellML.

    PubMed

    Cooling, M T; Hunter, P; Crampin, E J

    2008-03-01

    In recent years advances in the construction of mathematical models of biological systems have yielded an array of valuable constructs. The authors seek to provide a 'leading practice' method for implementing modularised kinetic mass-action models in order to obtain a number of advantages in model construction, validation and derived insights. The authors advocate the consideration of 'accounting cycles' or 'chains' to define 'functional' components and the separate consideration of 'messenger' components for mobile or diffusive molecular species. From a conceptual modularisation the authors illustrate, with an example drawn from signal transduction, a component-based formulation in the model exchange format cellular modelling markup language (CellML) 1.1 - demonstrating loose coupling between functionally-focused reusable components. Finally, the authors discuss the dilemmas associated with modelling protein-to-protein interactions, and the vision for using future CellML enhancements to resolve potential duplications when combining independently developed models. PMID:18397118

  12. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  13. Glued lungs: Sticky and tricky.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Deepak; Nair, Vidya; Khanna, Arjun; Dogra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient who underwent bronchoscopic instillation of glue to control moderate hemoptysis which later led to the development of postobstructive pneumonia and extensive foreign body reaction in the bronchial wall and the lung distal to the glue application. He continued to have intermittent hemoptysis and underwent bronchial artery embolization. However, recurrent moderate hemoptysis eventually led to pneumonectomy, which showed severe foreign body reaction in bronchi- and post-obstructive changes in the lung parenchyma and the draining lymph nodes. This case highlights a serious complication of intrabronchial cyanoacrylate gluing to control bleeding in hemoptysis, which might warrant its very cautious use in moderate hemoptysis although surgical modality is considered the definitive treatment in life-threatening hemoptysis. PMID:27625448

  14. Glued lungs: Sticky and tricky

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Deepak; Nair, Vidya; Khanna, Arjun; Dogra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient who underwent bronchoscopic instillation of glue to control moderate hemoptysis which later led to the development of postobstructive pneumonia and extensive foreign body reaction in the bronchial wall and the lung distal to the glue application. He continued to have intermittent hemoptysis and underwent bronchial artery embolization. However, recurrent moderate hemoptysis eventually led to pneumonectomy, which showed severe foreign body reaction in bronchi- and post-obstructive changes in the lung parenchyma and the draining lymph nodes. This case highlights a serious complication of intrabronchial cyanoacrylate gluing to control bleeding in hemoptysis, which might warrant its very cautious use in moderate hemoptysis although surgical modality is considered the definitive treatment in life-threatening hemoptysis.

  15. Glued lungs: Sticky and tricky

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Deepak; Nair, Vidya; Khanna, Arjun; Dogra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient who underwent bronchoscopic instillation of glue to control moderate hemoptysis which later led to the development of postobstructive pneumonia and extensive foreign body reaction in the bronchial wall and the lung distal to the glue application. He continued to have intermittent hemoptysis and underwent bronchial artery embolization. However, recurrent moderate hemoptysis eventually led to pneumonectomy, which showed severe foreign body reaction in bronchi- and post-obstructive changes in the lung parenchyma and the draining lymph nodes. This case highlights a serious complication of intrabronchial cyanoacrylate gluing to control bleeding in hemoptysis, which might warrant its very cautious use in moderate hemoptysis although surgical modality is considered the definitive treatment in life-threatening hemoptysis. PMID:27625448

  16. CytometryML binary data standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2005-03-01

    CytometryML is a proposed new Analytical Cytology (Cytomics) data standard, which is based on a common set of XML schemas for encoding flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types (metadata). CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. The separation of the large binary data objects (list mode and image data) from the XML description of the metadata permits the metadata to be directly displayed, analyzed, and reported with standard commercial software packages; the direct use of XML languages; and direct interfacing with clinical information systems. The separation of the binary data into its own files simplifies parsing because all extraneous header data has been eliminated. The storage of images as two-dimensional arrays without any extraneous data, such as in the Adobe Photoshop RAW format, facilitates the development by scientists of their own analysis and visualization software. Adobe Photoshop provided the display infrastructure and the translation facility to interconvert between the image data from commercial formats and RAW format. Similarly, the storage and parsing of list mode binary data type with a group of parameters that are specified at compilation time is straight forward. However when the user is permitted at run-time to select a subset of the parameters and/or specify results of mathematical manipulations, the development of special software was required. The use of CytometryML will permit investigators to be able to create their own interoperable data analysis software and to employ commercially available software to disseminate their data.

  17. Real-time bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation using multiple sensor-driven alignment of CT images and electromagnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-09-01

    Bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation plays a key role in developing bronchoscopic navigation systems. Currently external tracking devices, particularly electromagnetic trackers with electromagnetic sensors, are increasingly introduced to navigate surgical tools in pre-clinical images. An unavoidable problem, which is to align the electromagnetic tracker to pre-clinical images, must be solved before navigation. This paper proposes a multiple sensor-driven registration method to establish this alignment without using any anatomical fiducials. Although current fiducially free registration methods work well, they limit to the initialization of optimization and manipulating the bronchoscope along the bronchial centerlines, which could be failed easily during clinical interventions. To address these limitations, we utilize measurements of multiple electromagnetic sensors to calculate bronchoscope geometric center positions that are usually closer to the bronchial centerlines than the sensor itself measured positions. We validated our method on a bronchial phantom. The experimental results demonstrate that our idea of using multiple sensors to determine bronchoscope geometric center positions for fiducial-free registration was very effective. Compared to currently available methods in bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation, our method reduced fiducial alignment error from at least 6.79 to 4.68-5.26 mm and significantly improved motion estimation or tracking accuracy from at least 5.42 to 3.78-4.53 mm.

  18. [Torsion of the right upper lobe due to primary lung cancer with pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Matsukura, T; Hanawa, T; Kuwabara, M; Motoishi, M; Fujimoto, T; Okazaki, T; Yamashita, N; Matsubara, Y

    2006-12-01

    A 61-year-old woman was admitted due to severe coughing. Chest X-ray revealed a mass in the right lower lung field at standing position and in the right upper lung field at supine position. A position of the mass changed with change in her posture because of lobar torsion. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the polypoid tumor obstructing the right upper bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma. She had hypertrophic osteoarthropathy simultaneously. Right pneumonectomy was performed. Postoperative course has been uneventful for 3 years.

  19. Effects of leukotriene B4 in the human lung. Recruitment of neutrophils into the alveolar spaces without a change in protein permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T R; Pistorese, B P; Chi, E Y; Goodman, R B; Matthay, M A

    1989-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a major product of human alveolar macrophages and has potent chemotactic activity for neutrophils (PMN) in vitro. To evaluate the effects of LTB4 in the normal human lung, we instilled LTB4 (5 X 10(-7)M, 10 ml) into a subsegment of the right middle lobe and 0.9% NaCl (10 ml) into a subsegment of the lingula using a fiberoptic bronchoscope in 12 healthy human volunteers. 4 h later, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage of the same subsegments. Compared with the NaCl instillation, LTB4 caused a large increase in lavage total cells (NaCl = 6.8 +/- 1.0 X 10(6) vs. LTB4 = 26.4 +/- 5.0 X 10(6), P less than 0.01), most of which were PMN (NaCl = 12.2 +/- 4.6% vs. LTB4 = 55.7 +/- 6.0%, P less than 0.001). In contrast, there was only a small increase in lavage total protein, and the lavage total protein correlated weakly with lavage total cells and PMN. The production of superoxide anion by the lavage PMN in response to phorbol myristate acetate was similar to that of peripheral blood PMN. The migration of lavage PMN was normal toward the chemotactic peptide FMLP, but reduced toward LTB4 and zymosan-activated human serum. Morphometric analysis using transmission electron microscopy indicated a selective loss of small granules in the lung neutrophils as compared with peripheral blood neutrophils. The data indicate that in the normal human lung, LTB4 can recruit active PMN into the airspaces without causing a significant change in the protein permeability of the epithelial barrier. Images PMID:2553777

  20. Exploration under the dome: Esophageal ultrasound with the ultrasound bronchoscope is indispensible

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Nikhil; Hulett, Cidney; Patolia, Setu; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective use of the convex curvilinear ultrasound bronchoscope in the esophagus (EUS-B) for fine needle aspiration biopsy of mediastinal structures is now well described. In contrast, there is little to no reporting, depending on the site of EUS-B for access to sub-diaphragmatic structures. Our practice has been accessing sub-diaphragmatic sites for years. This review documents our experience with EUS-B to biopsy liver, left adrenal glands, and coeliac lymph nodes. Methods: After Institutional Review Board's approval, all endosonographic procedures performed by interventional pulmonary between July 2013 and June 2015 were reviewed. Those including biopsy of sub-diaphragmatic sites were then selected for analysis. Results: Over the study interval, 45 sub-diaphragmatic biopsy procedures (25 left adrenal glands, 7 liver, and 13 celiac node) were performed with EUS-B. In all cases, cellular adequacy was present, and samples were large enough for immunohistochemistry and any relevant ancillary studies. Metastatic malignancy was documented in 58% of cases, 16% of cases contained benign diagnostic findings, and in 27% of cases, normal organ tissue was documented. There were no complications. Conclusions: Operators comfortable with the endobronchial ultrasound scope in both the airway and the esophagus can actively seek and successfully perform biopsy of sub-diaphragmatic abnormalities when present and can thereby add to the diagnostic value of the procedure. PMID:27503158

  1. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much

  2. Emphysema: coiling up the lungs, trick or treat?

    PubMed

    Bezzi, M; Mondoni, M; Sorino, C; Solidoro, P

    2015-08-01

    Lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is a minimally-invasive technique planned to achieve an improvement of exercise capacity and pulmonary function in subjects with advanced emphysema and hyperinflation. It has been proposed together with other bronchoscopic lung volume reduction approaches to reduce lung hyperinflation in emphysema as less invasive alternatives to LVRS and are currently under clinical investigation. Following the successful early experiences in previous pilot trials, recent studies allow further investigation into the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a multi-center setting in a larger group of patients. According to this studies we can state that LVR coil treatment results in significant clinical improvements in patients with severe emphysema, in multicenter analysis, with a good safety profile and sustained results for up to 1 year. The literature on endobronchial coils continues to look promising with an acceptable safety profile, and positive long-term follow-up data are certainly more and more available. However, further well-designed, blinded, placebo (or sham) controlled trials, and even randomized trials against LVRS (lung volume reduction surgery), are needed before routine clinical use can be recommended. This is true not only for endobronchial coils, but also for the whole field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. PMID:27427120

  3. Emphysema: coiling up the lungs, trick or treat?

    PubMed

    Bezzi, M; Mondoni, M; Sorino, C; Solidoro, P

    2015-08-01

    Lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is a minimally-invasive technique planned to achieve an improvement of exercise capacity and pulmonary function in subjects with advanced emphysema and hyperinflation. It has been proposed together with other bronchoscopic lung volume reduction approaches to reduce lung hyperinflation in emphysema as less invasive alternatives to LVRS and are currently under clinical investigation. Following the successful early experiences in previous pilot trials, recent studies allow further investigation into the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a multi-center setting in a larger group of patients. According to this studies we can state that LVR coil treatment results in significant clinical improvements in patients with severe emphysema, in multicenter analysis, with a good safety profile and sustained results for up to 1 year. The literature on endobronchial coils continues to look promising with an acceptable safety profile, and positive long-term follow-up data are certainly more and more available. However, further well-designed, blinded, placebo (or sham) controlled trials, and even randomized trials against LVRS (lung volume reduction surgery), are needed before routine clinical use can be recommended. This is true not only for endobronchial coils, but also for the whole field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction.

  4. Evaluation of Endotracheal Intubation with a Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope in Lateral Patient Positioning: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Wu; Lu, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Lei, Li-Pei; Fang, Xiang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an unmet need for a reliable method of airway management for patients in the lateral position. This prospective randomized controlled two-center study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of intubation using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in the lateral position during surgery. Methods: Seventy-two patients scheduled for elective nonobstetric surgery in the lateral decubitus position requiring tracheal intubation under general anesthesia at Lishui Central Hospital of Zhejiang Province and Jiaxing First Hospital of Zhejiang Province from April 1, 2015, to September 30, 2015, were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the supine position group (Group S, n = 38) and the lateral position group (Group L, n = 34). Experienced anesthetists performed tracheal intubation with a fiberoptic bronchoscope after general anesthesia. The time required for intubation, intubation success rates, and hemodynamic changes was recorded. Between-group differences were assessed using the Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, or Chi-square test. Results: The median total time to tracheal intubation was significantly longer in Group S (140.0 [135.8, 150.0] s) compared to Group L (33.0 [24.0, 38.8] s) (P < 0.01). The first-attempt intubation success rate was significantly higher in Group L (97%) compared to Group S (16%). Hemodynamic changes immediately after intubation were more exaggerated in Group S compared to Group L (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Endotracheal intubation with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope may be an effective and timesaving technique for patients in the lateral position. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-IIR-16007814; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=13183. PMID:27569229

  5. Sealing of tracheoesophageal fistula using a Y stent through fiberoptic bronchoscope during general anesthesia under laryngeal mask airway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling; Yang, Pingliang; Zuo, Yunxia

    2014-01-01

    A 64-yr-old man was admitted because of repeated pneumonia. Both fiberoptic bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy revealed a large tracheoesophageal fistula (15 mm) in the right posterior trachea 1 cm beyond the carina. Coated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy Y shaped stent was planned to seal this fistula under general anesthesia. We took advantage of laryngeal mask airway to insert the fiberoptic bronchoscope to guide the stent placement. Our method of sealing a large tracheoesophageal fistula with LMA under total intravenous anesthesia was successful. PMID:25664132

  6. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  7. [Treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax by electrocoagulation via a fiberoptic bronchoscope with a hysteroscope irrigation outer sheath as a thoracoscope].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, T; Nakamura, H

    1990-03-01

    Since 1981 in Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, the authors performed electro-coagulation therapy for air leakage from bullae (blebs) via a rigid thoracoscope in 31 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. Among these patients, this treatment was unsuccessful in 14 patients (45.2%) because of 5 multiple or giant bullae and 9 cases in which it was impossible to visualize the bullae in the mediastinum or because of pleural adhesion. In order to widen the visual field and increase the mobility of the thoracoscope, we employed a fiberoptic bronchoscope with a hysteroscope outer sheath used for irrigation as a flexible thoracoscope. This method makes it possible to examine both mediastinal pleura and adhesive pleural space, and to electrocoagulate bullae which cannot be visualized by a rigid thoracoscope. It was possible to visualize the blebs in all 13 cases with spontaneous pneumothorax in which this examination was attempted. This therapeutic procedure causes the patients less pain and the hospitals more economical because no new thoracoscope is necessary. This method of thoracoscopic therapy of spontaneous pneumothorax using a fiberoptic bronchoscope is more successful, effective, economical and painless than by rigid thoracoscope and should be attempted before thoracotomy. PMID:2214384

  8. Diffuse Cystic Lung Diseases: Diagnostic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai-Feng; Feng, Ruie; Cui, Han; Tian, Xinlun; Wang, Hanping; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Weihong; Lo, Bee Hong

    2016-06-01

    Diffuse cystic lung disease (DCLD) is a group of heterogeneous diseases that present as diffuse cystic changes in the lung on computed tomography of the chest. Most DCLD diseases are rare, although they might resemble common diseases such as emphysema and bronchiectasis. Main causes of DCLD include lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, amyloidosis, light-chain deposition disease, Sjögren syndrome, and primary or metastatic neoplasm. We discuss clinical factors that are helpful in the differential diagnosis of DCLDsuch as sex and age, symptoms and signs, extrapulmonary presentations, cigarette smoking, and family history. Investigations for DCLD include high-resolution computed tomography, biochemical and histopathological studies, genetic tests, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoscopic and video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsies. A proposed diagnostic algorithm would enhance ease of diagnosing most cases of DCLD. PMID:27231867

  9. The CellML 1.1 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Autumn; Hedley, Warren; Nelson, Melanie; Lloyd, Catherine; Halstead, Matt; Bullivant, David; Nickerson, David; Hunter, Peter; Nielsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This document specifies CellML 1.1, an XML-based language for describing and exchanging models of cellular and subcellular processes. MathML embedded in CellML documents is used to define the underlying mathematics of models. Models consist of a network of reusable components, each with variables and equations manipulating those variables. Models may import other models to create systems of increasing complexity. Metadata may be embedded in CellML documents using RDF. PMID:26528557

  10. [XML/MathML version of above paper by Sevian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevian, A. R.

    2003-06-01

    An XML/MathML version of A. R. Sevian's recent article [J. Opt. Netw. 6, 144 (2003)] is provided as an alternative (and experimental) format for online viewing. View the XML/MathML file. The "View Full Text" link below references a PDF file with additional information on XML/MathML technology and its relevance to scientific publishing.

  11. Fully Automated Pulmonary Lobar Segmentation: Influence of Different Prototype Software Programs onto Quantitative Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun-ju; Weinheimer, Oliver; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Dinkel, Julien; Hielscher, Thomas; Gompelmann, Daniela; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Surgical or bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques can be beneficial for heterogeneous emphysema. Post-processing software tools for lobar emphysema quantification are useful for patient and target lobe selection, treatment planning and post-interventional follow-up. We aimed to evaluate the inter-software variability of emphysema quantification using fully automated lobar segmentation prototypes. Material and Methods 66 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent CT for planning of BLVR were included. Emphysema quantification was performed using 2 modified versions of in-house software (without and with prototype advanced lung vessel segmentation; programs 1 [YACTA v.2.3.0.2] and 2 [YACTA v.2.4.3.1]), as well as 1 commercial program 3 [Pulmo3D VA30A_HF2] and 1 pre-commercial prototype 4 [CT COPD ISP ver7.0]). The following parameters were computed for each segmented anatomical lung lobe and the whole lung: lobar volume (LV), mean lobar density (MLD), 15th percentile of lobar density (15th), emphysema volume (EV) and emphysema index (EI). Bland-Altman analysis (limits of agreement, LoA) and linear random effects models were used for comparison between the software. Results Segmentation using programs 1, 3 and 4 was unsuccessful in 1 (1%), 7 (10%) and 5 (7%) patients, respectively. Program 2 could analyze all datasets. The 53 patients with successful segmentation by all 4 programs were included for further analysis. For LV, program 1 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 72 ml and the widest LoA of [-356, 499 ml] (p<0.05). Program 3 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 4% and the widest LoA of [-7, 14%] for EI (p<0.001). Conclusions Only a single software program was able to successfully analyze all scheduled data-sets. Although mean bias of LV and EV were relatively low in lobar quantification, ranges of disagreement were substantial in both of them. For longitudinal emphysema monitoring, not only scanning protocol but

  12. Comparison of intubation times using a manikin with an immobilized cervical spine: Macintosh laryngoscope vs. GlideScope vs. fiberoptic bronchoscope

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jung-In; Ha, Sang Ook; Koo, Min Seok; Kwon, Miyoung; Kim, Jieun; Jeon, Jin; Park, So Hee; Shim, Sangwoo; Chang, Youjin; Park, Taejin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Airway management in patients with suspected cervical spine injury is classified as a “difficult airway.” The best device for managing difficult airways is not known. Therefore, we conducted an intubation study simulating patients with cervical spine injury using three devices: a conventional Macintosh laryngoscope, a video laryngoscope (GlideScope), and a fiberoptic bronchoscope (MAF-TM). Success rates, intubation time, and complication rates were compared. Methods Nine physician experts in airway management participated in this study. Cervical immobilization was used to simulate a difficult airway. Each participant performed intubation using airway devices in a randomly chosen order. We measured the time to vocal cord visualization, time to endotracheal tube insertion, and total tracheal intubation time. Success rates and dental injury rates were compared between devices. Results Total tracheal intubation time using the Macintosh laryngoscope, GlideScope, and fiberoptic bronchoscope was 13.3 (range, 11.1 to 20.1), 14.9 (range, 12.7 to 22.3), and 19.4 seconds (range, 14.1 to 32.5), respectively. Total tracheal intubation time differed significantly among the devices (P=0.009). Success rates for the Macintosh laryngoscope, GlideScope, and fiberoptic bronchoscope were 98%, 96%, and 100%, respectively, and dental injury rates were 5%, 19%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion The fiberoptic bronchoscope required longer intubation times than the other devices. However, this device had the best success rate with the least incidence of dental injury. PMID:27752604

  13. Bronchoscopic utilization of the Nd:YAG laser for obstructing lesions of the trachea and bronchi.

    PubMed

    Unger, M

    1984-10-01

    The combination of recent technological developments in earlier detection of lung cancer, together with the simultaneous introduction of new palliative therapeutic tools, including the Nd:YAG laser, offers new hope in the treatment of lung carcinomas. Endobronchial usage of the Nd:YAG laser has provided a new technique to treat otherwise untreatable, obstructive malignant tumors, as well as the means to avoid the need for more extensive surgical procedures for benign lesions. It is important to quantify and translate this information to advanced science for optimal development and use.

  14. jmzML, an open-source Java API for mzML, the PSI standard for MS data.

    PubMed

    Côté, Richard G; Reisinger, Florian; Martens, Lennart

    2010-04-01

    We here present jmzML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative mzML data standard. Based on the Java Architecture for XML Binding and XPath-based XML indexer random-access XML parser, jmzML can handle arbitrarily large files in minimal memory, allowing easy and efficient processing of mzML files using the Java programming language. jmzML also automatically resolves internal XML references on-the-fly. The library (which includes a viewer) can be downloaded from http://jmzml.googlecode.com.

  15. Localized immune memory in the lung.

    PubMed

    Bice, D E; Muggenburg, B A

    1988-09-01

    Antibody-forming cells (AFC) produced in the lung-associated lymph nodes after lung immunization enter the blood and accumulate mainly in the immunized lung. In lung interstitial tissues and alveoli, AFC mature into plasma cells and produce specific antibody. In addition to AFC, published data suggest that memory cells are also recruited to and/or are produced in immunized lung lobes, and that these memory cells can respond in the alveoli to secondary antigen challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine if memory cells induced in the lung by multiple antigen exposures could respond in vivo to challenges with low doses of antigen. The degree of inflammation produced by antigen doses that would allow the accumulation of AFC from the blood was evaluated. Beagle dogs were anesthetized, and a fiberoptic bronchoscope used to instill 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), 10(9), or 10(10) sheep red blood cells (SRBC) into individual lung lobes. Of these doses, only 10(9) and 10(10) SRBC significantly increased inflammation (increased number of neutrophils) or vascular permeability (increased total protein). The number of specific IgM AFC and concentration of anti-SRBC IgG antibody were significantly elevated only in lavage fluid from the lung lobes immunized with 10(9) and 10(10) SRBC. Four lung lobes were then given two additional challenges with 10(10) SRBC. In third and fourth challenges, these lung lobes received doses of SRBC of 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) SRBC. The results showed that significantly increased numbers of specific IgM AFC and concentrations of IgG antibody were found even at the lowest dose of antigen (10(4) SRBC) in the absence of increased inflammation or vascular permeability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3202411

  16. jTraML: an open source Java API for TraML, the PSI standard for sharing SRM transitions.

    PubMed

    Helsens, Kenny; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Deutsch, Eric; Moritz, Robert L; Martens, Lennart

    2011-11-01

    We here present jTraML, a Java API for the Proteomics Standards Initiative TraML data standard. The library provides fully functional classes for all elements specified in the TraML XSD document, as well as convenient methods to construct controlled vocabulary-based instances required to define SRM transitions. The use of jTraML is demonstrated via a two-way conversion tool between TraML documents and vendor specific files, facilitating the adoption process of this new community standard. The library is released as open source under the permissive Apache2 license and can be downloaded from http://jtraml.googlecode.com . TraML files can also be converted online at http://iomics.ugent.be/jtraml .

  17. Lung Volume Reduction in Emphysema Improves Chest Wall Asynchrony

    PubMed Central

    LoMauro, Antonella; Aliverti, Andrea; Nelson, Christopher; Ward, Simon; Jordan, Simon; Polkey, Michael I.; Shah, Pallav L.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung volume reduction (LVR) techniques improve lung function in selected patients with emphysema, but the impact of LVR procedures on the asynchronous movement of different chest wall compartments, which is a feature of emphysema, is not known. METHODS: We used optoelectronic plethysmography to assess the effect of surgical and bronchoscopic LVR on chest wall asynchrony. Twenty-six patients were assessed before and 3 months after LVR (surgical [n = 9] or bronchoscopic [n = 7]) or a sham/unsuccessful bronchoscopic treatment (control subjects, n = 10). Chest wall volumes were divided into six compartments (left and right of each of pulmonary ribcage [Vrc,p], abdominal ribcage [Vrc,a], and abdomen [Vab]) and phase shift angles (θ) calculated for the asynchrony between Vrc,p and Vrc,a (θRC), and between Vrc,a and Vab (θDIA). RESULTS: Participants had an FEV1 of 34.6 ± 18% predicted and a residual volume of 217.8 ± 46.0% predicted with significant chest wall asynchrony during quiet breathing at baseline (θRC, 31.3° ± 38.4°; and θDIA, −38.7° ± 36.3°). Between-group difference in the change in θRC and θDIA during quiet breathing following treatment was 44.3° (95% CI, −78 to −10.6; P = .003) and 34.5° (95% CI, 1.4 to 67.5; P = .007) toward 0° (representing perfect synchrony), respectively, favoring the LVR group. Changes in θRC and θDIA were statistically significant on the treated but not the untreated sides. CONCLUSIONS: Successful LVR significantly reduces chest wall asynchrony in patients with emphysema. PMID:25654309

  18. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  19. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC: EXISTING ML NO. 3 LAUNCHER. Sheet A1 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. CellML metadata standards, associated tools and repositories.

    PubMed

    Beard, Daniel A; Britten, Randall; Cooling, Mike T; Garny, Alan; Halstead, Matt D B; Hunter, Peter J; Lawson, James; Lloyd, Catherine M; Marsh, Justin; Miller, Andrew; Nickerson, David P; Nielsen, Poul M F; Nomura, Taishin; Subramanium, Shankar; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Yu, Tommy

    2009-05-28

    The development of standards for encoding mathematical models is an important component of model building and model sharing among scientists interested in understanding multi-scale physiological processes. CellML provides such a standard, particularly for models based on biophysical mechanisms, and a substantial number of models are now available in the CellML Model Repository. However, there is an urgent need to extend the current CellML metadata standard to provide biological and biophysical annotation of the models in order to facilitate model sharing, automated model reduction and connection to biological databases. This paper gives a broad overview of a number of new developments on CellML metadata and provides links to further methodological details available from the CellML website.

  1. CellML metadata standards, associated tools and repositories

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Daniel A.; Britten, Randall; Cooling, Mike T.; Garny, Alan; Halstead, Matt D.B.; Hunter, Peter J.; Lawson, James; Lloyd, Catherine M.; Marsh, Justin; Miller, Andrew; Nickerson, David P.; Nielsen, Poul M.F.; Nomura, Taishin; Subramanium, Shankar; Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Yu, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    The development of standards for encoding mathematical models is an important component of model building and model sharing among scientists interested in understanding multi-scale physiological processes. CellML provides such a standard, particularly for models based on biophysical mechanisms, and a substantial number of models are now available in the CellML Model Repository. However, there is an urgent need to extend the current CellML metadata standard to provide biological and biophysical annotation of the models in order to facilitate model sharing, automated model reduction and connection to biological databases. This paper gives a broad overview of a number of new developments on CellML metadata and provides links to further methodological details available from the CellML website. PMID:19380315

  2. Structure–Activity Relationship Study Reveals ML240 and ML241 as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of p97 ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Schoenen, Frank J; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    To discover more potent p97 inhibitors, we carried out a structure–activity relationship study of the quinazoline scaffold previously identified from our HTS campaigns. Two improved inhibitors, ML240 and ML241, inhibit p97 ATPase with IC50 values of 100 nm. Both compounds inhibited degradation of a p97-dependent but not a p97-independent proteasome substrate in a dual-reporter cell line. They also impaired the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Unexpectedly, ML240 potently stimulated accumulation of LC3-II within minutes, inhibited cancer cell growth, and rapidly mobilized the executioner caspases 3 and 7, whereas ML241 did not. The behavior of ML240 suggests that disruption of the protein homeostasis function of p97 leads to more rapid activation of apoptosis than is observed with a proteasome inhibitor. Further characterization revealed that ML240 has broad antiproliferative activity toward the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines, but slightly lower activity toward normal cells. ML240 also synergizes with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 to kill multiple colon cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, both probes have low off-target activity toward a panel of protein kinases and central nervous system targets. Our results nominate ML240 as a promising starting point for the development of a novel agent for the chemotherapy of cancer, and provide a rationale for developing pathway-specific p97 inhibitors. PMID:23316025

  3. Multiple sites of impingement of a tracheal tube as it is advanced over a fibreoptic bronchoscope or tracheal tube introducer in anaesthetized, paralysed patients.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A H; Orr, B; Yeo, C; Parker, C; Craven, R; Greenberg, S L

    2006-08-01

    Impingement of the tracheal tube on upper airway structures occurs commonly during advancement over a fibreoptic bronchoscope or introducer. In this descriptive study a fibrescope was used to assess the site and mechanism of tracheal tube impingement during advancement over a variety of fibreoptic bronchoscopes and introducers during orotracheal intubation in anaesthetized adults. The effect of the 90 degree counterclockwise rotation manoeuvre in overcoming impingement was also assessed. We recorded impingement at the right arytenoid, left arytenoid, epiglottis, interarytenoid tissue and the left pyriform fossa. Our study found a wider range of sites at which impingement may occur than in previous studies. We also found that when 90 degree counterclockwise rotation of the tip of the tracheal tube was achieved, the impingement was reliably overcome.

  4. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  5. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  6. The jmzQuantML programming interface and validator for the mzQuantML data standard.

    PubMed

    Qi, Da; Krishna, Ritesh; Jones, Andrew R

    2014-03-01

    The mzQuantML standard from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has recently been released, capturing quantitative data about peptides and proteins, following analysis of MS data. We present a Java application programming interface (API) for mzQuantML called jmzQuantML. The API provides robust bridges between Java classes and elements in mzQuantML files and allows random access to any part of the file. The API provides read and write capabilities, and is designed to be embedded in other software packages, enabling mzQuantML support to be added to proteomics software tools (http://code.google.com/p/jmzquantml/). The mzQuantML standard is designed around a multilevel validation system to ensure that files are structurally and semantically correct for different proteomics quantitative techniques. In this article, we also describe a Java software tool (http://code.google.com/p/mzquantml-validator/) for validating mzQuantML files, which is a formal part of the data standard. PMID:24453188

  7. The jmzQuantML programming interface and validator for the mzQuantML data standard.

    PubMed

    Qi, Da; Krishna, Ritesh; Jones, Andrew R

    2014-03-01

    The mzQuantML standard from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative has recently been released, capturing quantitative data about peptides and proteins, following analysis of MS data. We present a Java application programming interface (API) for mzQuantML called jmzQuantML. The API provides robust bridges between Java classes and elements in mzQuantML files and allows random access to any part of the file. The API provides read and write capabilities, and is designed to be embedded in other software packages, enabling mzQuantML support to be added to proteomics software tools (http://code.google.com/p/jmzquantml/). The mzQuantML standard is designed around a multilevel validation system to ensure that files are structurally and semantically correct for different proteomics quantitative techniques. In this article, we also describe a Java software tool (http://code.google.com/p/mzquantml-validator/) for validating mzQuantML files, which is a formal part of the data standard.

  8. The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 Specification.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Michael T; Hunter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The CellML Metadata Framework 2.0 is a modular framework that describes how semantic annotations should be made about mathematical models encoded in the CellML (www.cellml.org) format, and their elements. In addition to the Core specification, there are several satellite specifications, each designed to cater for model annotation in a different context. Basic Model Information, Citation, License and Biological Annotation specifications are presented. PMID:26528558

  9. AstroML: Machine learning and data mining in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderPlas, Jacob; Fouesneau, Morgan; Taylor, Julia

    2014-07-01

    Written in Python, AstroML is a library of statistical and machine learning routines for analyzing astronomical data in python, loaders for several open astronomical datasets, and a large suite of examples of analyzing and visualizing astronomical datasets. An optional companion library, astroML_addons, is available; it requires a C compiler and contains faster and more efficient implementations of certain algorithms in compiled code.

  10. [Humalog® 200 U/ml KwikPen™].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2015-10-01

    Insulin lispro (Humalog®) was the first short-acting insulin analogue to be indicated for the treatment of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. After subcutaneous injection, insulin lispro has a more favourable pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics profile than human insulin, characterized by a faster resorption and a more rapid and less prolonged glucose-lowering activity. These properties allow a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia and a reduction of the risk of delayed hypoglycaemia, especially at night. The patient's quality of life is also improved because insulin lispro can be injected within the 15 minutes before meal and even possibly after meal when the amount of food intake is unpredictable. Already commercialized as Humalog® 100 U/ml, insulin lispro is now also available as Humalog® 200 U/ml. A pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics study confirmed the bioequivalence of the two formulations, based upon the analysis of both plasma free insulin concentrations and glucose infusion rates to maintain normoglycaemia. Humalog® 200 U/ml is available in a novel disposable 3 ml pen (KwikPen™), with lower glide force and injection volume; thus this new pen is more convenient for the patient compared with the current pen used to inject Humalog® 100 U/ml. The new formulation Humalog® 200 U/ml is indicated in Europe for adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who require more than 20 units of prandial insulin per day to cover their meals.

  11. Thogoto virus ML protein suppresses IRF3 function

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Stephanie . E-mail: stephanie.jennings@uniklinik-freiburg.de; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis . E-mail: Luis.Martinez@mssm.edu; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo . E-mail: adolfo.garcia-sastre@mssm.edu; Weber, Friedemann . E-mail: friedemann.weber@uniklinik-freiburg.de; Kochs, Georg . E-mail: georg.kochs@uniklinik-freiburg.de

    2005-01-05

    The Thogoto virus (THOV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae. It prevents induction of alpha/beta interferons (IFN) in cell culture and in vivo via the action of the viral ML protein. Phenotypically, the effect of THOV ML resembles that of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus (FLUAV) in that it blocks the expression of IFN genes. IFN expression depends on IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Upon activation, IRF3 forms homodimers and accumulates in the nucleus where it binds the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). Here, we show that expression of ML blocked the transcriptional activity of IRF3 after stimulation by virus infection. Further biochemical analysis revealed that ML acts by blocking IRF3 dimerization and association with CBP. Surprisingly, however, ML did not interfere with the nuclear transport of IRF3. Thus, the action of ML differs strikingly from that of FLUAV NS1 that prevents IFN induction by retaining IRF3 in the cytoplasm.

  12. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  13. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  14. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs) and spread through the ...

  15. From WaterML to TimeseriesML: Evolution and implications for cross-domain data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctur, D. K.; Taylor, P.; Lowe, D.; Tomkins, J.; Teng, W. L.; Ames, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    WaterML 2.0 part 1 was adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) in 2012 as an international standard profile of the Observations and Measurements conceptual model, for exchange of water observations time series data. It is implemented by national data producers such as the US Geological Survey for surface water time series, the NOAA/National Weather Service for forecast time series, the French Geological Survey for groundwater level monitoring, and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for surface water observations. But WaterML 2.0 is not "just for water". The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has recognized its potential role as a common time series description that could work for multiple application domains such as meteorology, climate, oceanography, and others. Accordingly, the WMO requested the OGC to migrate the non-hydrology parts of WaterML 2.0 to a new standard to be called TimeseriesML. This would then be considered by WMO for adoption as an operational standard globally. What does this mean for the geosciences? How far can this time series description be applied? What about time series of satellite retrievals? What will happen to WaterML 2.0 (and applications that work with it) when TimeseriesML is finished? These are among the questions we address in this presentation.

  16. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  17. QuakeML 2.0: Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, Fabian; Kästli, Philipp; Heiniger, Lukas; Saul, Joachim; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Clinton, John

    2016-04-01

    QuakeML is a community-backed data model for seismic event parameter description. Its current version 1.2, released in 2013, has become the gold standard for parametric data dissemination at seismological data centers, and has been adopted as an FDSN standard. It is supported by several popular software products and data services, such as FDSN event web services, QuakePy, and SeisComP3. Work on the successor version 2.0 is under way since 2015. The scope of QuakeML has been expanded beyond event parameter description. Thanks to a modular architecture, many thematic packages have been added, which cover peak ground motion, site and station characterization, hydraulic parameters of borehole injection processes, and macroseismics. The first three packages can be considered near final and implementations of program codes and SQL databases are in productive use at various institutions. A public community review process has been initiated in order to turn them into community-approved standards. The most recent addition is a package for single station quake location, which allows a detailed probabilistic description of event parameters recorded at a single station. This package adds some information elements such as angle of incidence, frequency-dependent phase picks, and dispersion relations. The package containing common data types has been extended with a generic type for probability density functions. While on Earth, single station methods are niche applications, they are of prominent interest in planetary seismology, e.g., the NASA InSight mission to Mars. So far, QuakeML is lacking a description of seismic instrumentation (inventory). There are two existing standards of younger age (FDSN StationXML and SeisComP3 Inventory XML). We discuss their respective strengths, differences, and how they could be combined into an inventory package for QuakeML, thus allowing full interoperability with other QuakeML data types. QuakeML is accompanied by QuakePy, a Python package

  18. ML 3.0 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-05-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Az = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the AZTEC 2.1 and AZTECOO iterative package [15]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and non-symmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  19. ML 3.1 smoothed aggregation user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2004-10-01

    ML is a multigrid preconditioning package intended to solve linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. ML should be used on large sparse linear systems arising from partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. While technically any linear system can be considered, ML should be used on linear systems that correspond to things that work well with multigrid methods (e.g. elliptic PDEs). ML can be used as a stand-alone package or to generate preconditioners for a traditional iterative solver package (e.g. Krylov methods). We have supplied support for working with the Aztec 2.1 and AztecOO iterative package [16]. However, other solvers can be used by supplying a few functions. This document describes one specific algebraic multigrid approach: smoothed aggregation. This approach is used within several specialized multigrid methods: one for the eddy current formulation for Maxwell's equations, and a multilevel and domain decomposition method for symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations (like elliptic equations, or compressible and incompressible fluid dynamics problems). Other methods exist within ML but are not described in this document. Examples are given illustrating the problem definition and exercising multigrid options.

  20. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Simone, Charles B; Friedberg, Joseph S; Glatstein, Eli; Stevenson, James P; Sterman, Daniel H; Hahn, Stephen M; Cengel, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy is increasingly being utilized to treat thoracic malignancies. For patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy is primarily employed as an endobronchial therapy to definitely treat endobronchial, roentgenographically occult, or synchronous primary carcinomas. As definitive monotherapy, photodynamic therapy is most effective in treating bronchoscopically visible lung cancers ≤1 cm with no extracartilaginous invasion. For patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy can be used to palliate obstructing endobronchial lesions, as a component of definitive multi-modality therapy, or to increase operability or reduce the extent of operation required. A review of the available medical literature detailing all published studies utilizing photodynamic therapy to treat at least 10 patients with non-small cell lung cancer is performed, and treatment recommendations and summaries for photodynamic therapy applications are described.

  1. Changes in lung vascular permeability after heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mancini, M C; Borovetz, H S; Griffith, B P; Hardesty, R L

    1985-10-01

    We have employed multiple indicator dilution techniques (MID) in six patients after heart-lung transplantation to assess changes in the lung vascular permeability-surface area product for urea (PS). Serial PS values for the patients when normalized to the predicted total lung capacity (TLC) in liters, ranged between 1.04 and 6.27 ml/sec/TLC (patient 1), 0 and 2.76 ml/sec/TLC (patient 2), 0.59 and 2.88 ml/sec/TLC (patient 3), 0.13 and 1.23 ml/sec/TLC (patient 4). The elevated values for PS in patient 1 exceed the lethal range described by K.L. Brigham et al. (J. Clin. Invest. 72:339, 1983) for severe ARDS. This strongly suggests a severely increased lung microvascular permeability in this patient possibly secondary to rejection as indicated by endomyocardial biopsy. PS values for surviving patients 2-6 fell well below the corresponding lethal value for ARDS patients. We conclude that PS urea derived from MID provides an indicator of the status of lung microvascular integrity in heart-lung transplant recipients.

  2. Ultrathin bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of peripheral cavitary lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sonali; Ghatol, Abhijeet; Eberlein, Michael; Yung, Rex C

    2013-04-01

    Ultrathin (UT) bronchoscopy has emerged as a useful tool to diagnose peripheral solid lung lesions of a malignant nature. This technology is superior to standard bronchoscopic techniques, which have low yield in identifying small lesions, especially as they extend further out along the bronchial tree. UT bronchoscopy can prevent the need to pursue more invasive open lung strategies to diagnose suspicious lesions. In this report, we present 3 distinct clinical scenarios where UT bronchoscopy was successful in diagnosing benign peripheral cavitary lesions after standard techniques failed. The use of UT bronchoscopy in each case was instrumental in allowing rapid initiation of appropriate therapy without need for more invasive surgical biopsies in the setting of a benign condition. PMID:23609255

  3. [Lung Volume Reduction Surgery - State of the Art 2016].

    PubMed

    Caviezel, C; Franzen, D; Inci, I; Weder, W

    2016-09-01

    In a number of large case series in the mid-1990s, lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was shown to reduce dyspnoea and improve pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema. The large randomised National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) confirmed this in the early 2000s and also demonstrated that selected patients live longer after surgery. Patient selection is crucial to the success of the procedure and should be performed at a specialised experienced centre with a multidisciplinary team approach on emphysema treatment. The upper-lobe predominant heterogeneous type of emphysema is the best indication, but there are other types of emphysema morphology that are also eligible for surgery, if ideally chosen. Nowadays there is also growing evidence for positive effects after different types of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with increasing quality. These methods add to the range of multimodal emphysema treatment. PMID:27607886

  4. [Therapy of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Reinmuth, N; Gröschel, A; Schumann, C; Sebastian, M; Wiewrodt, R; Reck, M

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer accounts for the leading cause of cancer deaths in Germany and is characterized by early metastasis formation. The majority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will receive systemic therapy for treatment of their disease. Importantly together with the identification of targetable oncogenic alterations, systemic treatment of NSCLC has dramatically changed in recent years with the implementation of various new agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti angiogenic agents, and immune modulating drugs. However, these new therapeutic options also challenge the treating physician since molecular, histologic, and clinical factors need to be considered for the clinical decision-making. Moreover, supportive therapy including bronchoscopic therapy has evolved. The following therapy recommendations will summarize the up-to date treatment strategies for metastatic NSCLC. PMID:27603945

  5. Toward a curated CellML model repository.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, David; Stevens, Carey; Halstead, Matt; Hunter, Peter; Nielsen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    With the development of standards for the description of experimental data and mathematical models of physiological processes has come the advent of publicly accessible repositories of such descriptions. To make these repositories acceptable to the community, the descriptions contained therein must be curated to provide an indication of how accurately the standard description represents the actual experimental data or mathematical model. We define here a curation method for CellML encoded models and propose a model repository workflow using such curation within the CellML model repository.

  6. Image-enhanced bronchoscopic evaluation of bronchial mucosal microvasculature in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Eman Mahmoud; Shafiek, Hanaa; Morsi, Tamer S; El Sabaa, Bassma; Elnekidy, Abdelaziz; Elhoffy, Mohamed; Atta, Mohamed Samy

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial vascular remodeling is an underresearched component of airway remodeling in COPD. Image-enhanced bronchoscopy may offer a less invasive method for studying bronchial microvasculature in COPD. Objectives To evaluate endobronchial mucosal vasculature and changes in COPD by image-enhanced i-scan3 bronchoscopy and correlate them pathologically by analyzing bronchial mucosal biopsies. Methods This case–control study analyzed 29 COPD patients (41.4% Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease B [GOLD B] and 58.6% GOLD D) and ten healthy controls admitted at Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt. Combined high-definition white light bronchoscopy (HD WLB) with i-scan3 was used to evaluate endobronchial mucosal microvasculature. The vascularity was graded according to the level of mucosal red discoloration (ie, endobronchial erythema) from decreased discoloration to normal, mild, moderate, and severe increased red discoloration (G−1, G0, G+1, G+2, and G+3, respectively) and scored by three bronchoscopists independently. Bronchial mucosal biopsies were taken for microvascular density counting using anti-CD34 antibody as angiogenesis marker. Results Different grades of endobronchial erythema were observed across/within COPD patients using combined HD WLB + i-scan3, with significant agreement among scorers (P=0.031; median score of G+1 [G−1–G+2]) being higher in GOLD D (P=0.001). Endobronchial erythema significantly correlated with COPD duration, exacerbation frequency, and body mass index (P<0.05). Angiogenesis was significantly decreased among COPD patients versus controls (10.6 [8–13.3] vs 14 [11–17.1]; P=0.02). Mucosal surface changes (including edema, atrophy, and nodules) were better visualized by the combined HD WLB + i-scan3 rather than HD WLB alone. Conclusion Combined HD WLB + i-scan3 seems to be valuable in evaluating mucosal microvasculature and surface changes in COPD, which may represent vasodilatation rather than

  7. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy-guided fine needle aspiration for the diagnosis of lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Odronic, Shelley I; Gildea, Thomas R; Chute, Deborah J

    2014-12-01

    Many peripheral lung lesions are beyond the reach of conventional bronchoscopes, and require percutaneous CT-guided or open surgical biopsy, which carry increased risks to the patient. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a relatively new technique, which uses an image guided localization system to direct steerable bronchoscopic tools to predetermined points within the bronchial tree. This technology allows improved access to peripheral lesions in particular. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of ENB-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis of lung lesions. All ENB-guided FNAs performed at one institution were included in the study. The superDimension i-Logic System™ was used in all cases. Pathologic reports of the ENB-guided FNAs, as well as all other pulmonary sampling performed simultaneously with the FNA and within 1 year of the ENB-guided FNA were reviewed. Patients with a positive ENB-guided FNA or malignancy within the same lobe within the follow-up period were considered positive for malignancy. Patients with an atypical diagnosis but no definitive malignancy were considered negative for malignancy for statistical purposes. Ninety-one patients underwent 95 ENB-guided FNAs over a 3-year period. Thirty-five patients (38%) were positive for malignancy. ENB-guided FNA had a sensitivity of 63% for the detection of malignancy. The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy using all ENB-guided sampling methods, including FNA, bronchoscopic biopsy, and bronchial brushing was 83%. Pathologists and cytotechnologists should be aware of ENB-guided FNA as an emerging technology with a relatively high sensitivity for the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions.

  8. DocML: A Digital Library of University Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadakis, Ioannis; Karakoidas, Vassileios; Chrissikopoulos, Vassileios

    2002-01-01

    Describes DocML, a Web-based digital library of university data that is used to build a system capable of preserving and managing student assignments. Topics include requirements for a digital library of university data; metadata and XML; three-tier architecture; user interface; searching; browsing; content delivery; and administrative issues.…

  9. AstroML: Python-powered Machine Learning for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Plas, Jake; Connolly, A. J.; Ivezic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    As astronomical data sets grow in size and complexity, automated machine learning and data mining methods are becoming an increasingly fundamental component of research in the field. The astroML project (http://astroML.org) provides a common repository for practical examples of the data mining and machine learning tools used and developed by astronomical researchers, written in Python. The astroML module contains a host of general-purpose data analysis and machine learning routines, loaders for openly-available astronomical datasets, and fast implementations of specific computational methods often used in astronomy and astrophysics. The associated website features hundreds of examples of these routines being used for analysis of real astronomical datasets, while the associated textbook provides a curriculum resource for graduate-level courses focusing on practical statistics, machine learning, and data mining approaches within Astronomical research. This poster will highlight several of the more powerful and unique examples of analysis performed with astroML, all of which can be reproduced in their entirety on any computer with the proper packages installed.

  10. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC VIEW: MLP NO. 1. Sheet A10 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  12. Modeling Off-Nominal Behavior in SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Donahue, Kenneth; Ingham, Michel; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew K.; Post, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Specification and development of fault management functionality in systems is performed in an ad hoc way - more of an art than a science. Improvements to system reliability, availability, safety and resilience will be limited without infusion of additional formality into the practice of fault management. Key to the formalization of fault management is a precise representation of off-nominal behavior. Using the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission for source material, we have modeled the off-nominal behavior of the SMAP system during its initial spin-up activity, using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In the course of developing these models, we have developed generic patterns for capturing off-nominal behavior in SysML. We show how these patterns provide useful ways of reasoning about the system (e.g., checking for completeness and effectiveness) and allow the automatic generation of typical artifacts (e.g., success trees and FMECAs) used in system analyses.

  13. Specifying Imperative ML-Like Programs Using Dynamic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maingaud, Séverine; Balat, Vincent; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Miquel, Alexandre

    We present a logical system suited for specification and verification of imperative ML programs. The specification language combines dynamic logic (DL), explicit state updates and second-order functional arithmetic. Its proof system is based on a Gentzen-style sequent calculus (adapted to modal logic) with facilities for symbolic evaluation. We illustrate the system with some example, and give a full Kripke-style semantics in order to prove its correctness.

  14. ML shear wave velocity tomography for the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri-Peyrov, Mehdi; Ghods, Abdolreza; Abbasi, Madjid; Bergman, Eric; Sobouti, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    Iranian Plateau reflects several different tectonic styles of collision, and large-scale strike-slip faults. We calculate a high-resolution 2-D ML shear velocity map for the Iranian Plateau to detect lateral crustal thickness changes associated with different tectonic boundaries. The ML velocity is very sensitive to strong lateral variations of crustal thickness and varies between the velocity of Lg and Sn phases. Our data set consists of 65 795 ML amplitude velocity measurements from 2531 precisely relocated events recorded by Iranian networks in the period 1996-2014. Using a constrained least-squares inversion scheme, we inverted the ML velocities for a 2-D shear velocity map of Iran. Our results show that the Zagros and South Caspian Basin (SCB) have shear wave velocities close to the Sn phase, and are thus Lg-blocking regions. High velocities in the High Zagros and the Simply Folded Belt imply significant crustal undulations within these zones. We note that in the central and south Zagros, the velocity border between the Zagros and central Iran is not coincident with the Zagros suture line that marks underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath central Iran. The low plains of Gilan and Gorgan to the south of the Caspian Sea show high shear velocities similar to the SCB, implying that they are either underlain by an oceanic type crust or a transitional crust with a strong lateral crustal thickness gradient. The Lut block is an Lg-passing block implying that it is not surrounded by any sudden crustal thickness changes along its borders with central Iran. In the Alborz, NW Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Binalud and most of the central Iran, low shear velocity near the Lg velocity is attributed to smooth or minor Moho undulations within these regions.

  15. IBM techexplorer and MathML: Interactive Multimodal Scientific Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Angel

    2001-06-01

    The World Wide Web provides a standard publishing platform for disseminating scientific and technical articles, books, journals, courseware, or even homework on the internet; however, the transition from paper to web-based interactive content has brought new opportunities for creating interactive content. Students, scientists, and engineers are now faced with the task of rendering the 2D presentational structure of mathematics, harnessing the wealth of scientific and technical software, and creating truly accessible scientific portals across international boundaries and markets. The recent emergence of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards such as the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), Language (XSL), and Aural CSS (ACSS) provide a foundation whereby mathematics can be displayed, enlivened, computed, and audio formatted. With interoperability ensured by standards, software applications can be easily brought together to create extensible and interactive scientific content. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the IBM techexplorer Hypermedia Browser, a web browser plug-in and ActiveX control aimed at bringing interactive mathematics to the masses across platforms and applications. We will demonstrate "live" mathematics where documents that contain MathML expressions can be edited and computed right inside your favorite web browser. This demonstration will be generalized as we show how MathML can be used to enliven even PowerPoint presentations. Finally, we will close the loop by demonstrating a novel approach to spoken mathematics based on MathML, DOM, XSL, ACSS, techexplorer, and IBM ViaVoice. By making use of techexplorer as the glue that binds the rendered content to the web browser, the back-end computation software, the Java applets that augment the exposition, and voice-rendering systems such as ViaVoice, authors can indeed create truly extensible and interactive scientific content. For more information see: [http

  16. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK B. Sheet A14 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS I. Sheet A17 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK 0. Sheet A12 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 1 & 2. Sheet A15 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS IV. Sheet A20 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, SECTIONS II. Sheet A18 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, ELEVATION – SIDE 3 & 4. Sheet A16 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, MLP NO. 1, PLAN – DECK A. Sheet A13 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. CellML and associated tools and techniques.

    PubMed

    Garny, Alan; Nickerson, David P; Cooper, Jonathan; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo; Miller, Andrew K; McKeever, Steve; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Peter J

    2008-09-13

    We have, in the last few years, witnessed the development and availability of an ever increasing number of computer models that describe complex biological structures and processes. The multi-scale and multi-physics nature of these models makes their development particularly challenging, not only from a biological or biophysical viewpoint but also from a mathematical and computational perspective. In addition, the issue of sharing and reusing such models has proved to be particularly problematic, with the published models often lacking information that is required to accurately reproduce the published results. The International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiome Project was launched in 1997 with the aim of tackling the aforementioned issues by providing a framework for the modelling of the human body. As part of this initiative, the specifications of the CellML mark-up language were released in 2001. Now, more than 7 years later, the time has come to assess the situation, in particular with regard to the tools and techniques that are now available to the modelling community. Thus, after introducing CellML, we review and discuss existing editors, validators, online repository, code generators and simulation environments, as well as the CellML Application Program Interface. We also address possible future directions including the need for additional mark-up languages.

  5. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  6. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  7. Lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the nasopharynx following bronchoscopy intervention therapies: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the nasopharynx is extremely rare, and few cases have been reported in the literature. In the present report, we describe the case of a patient with a mass in the nasopharynx found by bronchoscopy. Our patient was a 61-year-old man receiving multiple bronchoscopy intervention therapies for advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which was histopathologically confirmed. The SCC metastasized to the nasopharynx following the bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The lesion was considered metastatic from lung cancer on the basis of clinical and histological clues. The exact mechanism of lung cancer metastasis to the nasopharynx in this case remains unclear because either implantation or hematogenous and lymphatic spread is possible. A thorough head and neck examination should be undertaken during bronchoscopic evaluation, especially in patients receiving bronchoscopy intervention therapies. The early detection of a silent nasopharyngeal metastasis is important to choosing from among the multiple treatment options available. PMID:24673971

  8. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J.; Mirams, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush–Larsen and Generalized Rush–Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a ‘gold standard’ for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior. PMID:25610400

  9. Cellular cardiac electrophysiology modeling with Chaste and CellML.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan; Spiteri, Raymond J; Mirams, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Chaste is an open-source C++ library for computational biology that has well-developed cardiac electrophysiology tissue simulation support. In this paper, we introduce the features available for performing cardiac electrophysiology action potential simulations using a wide range of models from the Physiome repository. The mathematics of the models are described in CellML, with units for all quantities. The primary idea is that the model is defined in one place (the CellML file), and all model code is auto-generated at compile or run time; it never has to be manually edited. We use ontological annotation to identify model variables describing certain biological quantities (membrane voltage, capacitance, etc.) to allow us to import any relevant CellML models into the Chaste framework in consistent units and to interact with them via consistent interfaces. This approach provides a great deal of flexibility for analysing different models of the same system. Chaste provides a wide choice of numerical methods for solving the ordinary differential equations that describe the models. Fixed-timestep explicit and implicit solvers are provided, as discussed in previous work. Here we introduce the Rush-Larsen and Generalized Rush-Larsen integration techniques, made available via symbolic manipulation of the model equations, which are automatically rearranged into the forms required by these approaches. We have also integrated the CVODE solvers, a 'gold standard' for stiff systems, and we have developed support for symbolic computation of the Jacobian matrix, yielding further increases in the performance and accuracy of CVODE. We discuss some of the technical details of this work and compare the performance of the available numerical methods. Finally, we discuss how this is generalized in our functional curation framework, which uses a domain-specific language for defining complex experiments as a basis for comparison of model behavior.

  10. SysML: A Language for Space System Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, S.; Strangapede, A.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an ESA/ESTEC internal study, performed with the support of INTECS, about modeling languages to support Space System Engineering activities and processes, with special emphasis on system requirements identification and analysis. The study was focused on the assessment of dedicated UML profiles, their positioning alongside the system and software life cycles and associated methodologies. Requirements for a Space System Requirements Language were identified considering the ECSS-E-10 and ECSS-E_40 processes. The study has identified SysML as a very promising language, having as theoretical background the reference system processes defined by the ISO15288, as well as industrial practices.

  11. ML detection in hyperspectral imagery: a GMRF modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Susan M.; Moura, Jose M. F.

    1999-07-01

    The use of hyperspectral imagery for remote sensing detection applications has received attention recently due to the ability of the hyperspectral sensor to provide registered information in both space and frequency. In this paper we extend our work on the development of an efficient implementation of the Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector in which we use a 3D Gauss-Markov random field to model the clutter background in the hyperspectral data. We review the details of the optimal ML estimation approach for obtaining the Markov parameters and discuss a gradient based optimization scheme for obtaining these estimates. To improve the computational efficiency of the overall detection algorithm, we develop an estimation method based on some simple mathematical approximations that allows us to explicitly solve for the Markov parameters. In addition, we use a stochastic, rather than deterministic target model by implementing a single hypothesis test in place of the more traditional binary hypothesis paradigm. We compare the detection performance and the computational requirements of our updated model and detector implementation to the benchmark RX detection algorithm for hyperspectral imagery.

  12. Angular momentum transfer in oblique impacts: Implications for 1989ML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Hasegawa, Sunao

    1999-11-01

    We conducted 10 shots of high-velocity oblique impact experiments (1.95-3.52 km/s) using nylon projectiles and spherical mortar targets. Large craters were formed, but these targets were not disrupted by the impacts. We then calculated the efficiencies of momentum transfer from the projectile to the post-impact target for each experiment. The efficiencies of angular momentum transfer from the translational motion of the projectiles to the rotation of the post-impact targets were also derived. A representative efficiency of angular momentum transfer was calculated to be 0.17 for random successive collisions. The efficiency was applied to an equation expressing the precession angle of asteroids. It is shown that 1989ML, target of Japan-US asteroid-sample-return-mission (MUSES-C) would be tumbling.

  13. SBML and CellML translation in Antimony and JSim

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucian P.; Butterworth, Erik; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The creation and exchange of biologically relevant models is of great interest to many researchers. When multiple standards are in use, models are more readily used and re-used if there exist robust translators between the various accepted formats. Summary: Antimony 2.4 and JSim 2.10 provide translation capabilities from their own formats to SBML and CellML. All provided unique challenges, stemming from differences in each format’s inherent design, in addition to differences in functionality. Availability and implementation: Both programs are available under BSD licenses; Antimony from http://antimony.sourceforge.net/and JSim from http://physiome.org/jsim/. Contact: lpsmith@u.washington.edu PMID:24215024

  14. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A.; Olsen, Karen J.; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this “scientific meta-data” and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML—a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML. PMID:27134778

  15. [Technology on Partial Resection and Segmentectomy for Early-stage Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, lung cancer patients who cannot undergo lobectomy because of impaired pulmonary function, co-morbidity, and/or advanced age are increasing. And patients whose lung cancer is small in size, peripherally located, and assumed to be N0 disease are also increasing. Therefore, we have a greater opportunity to perform sublobar lung resection for these patients. For sublobar resection, several surgical technologies have been developed. Virtual-assisted lung mapping (VAL-MAP) is bronchoscopic multiple dye-marking technique under support of 3-dimensional virtual images to provide geometric information on the lung surface. This technic is effective to show the location of hardly palpable small lung cancer for thoracoscopic partial lung resection and to visualize the intersegmental / intersubsegmental planes for segmentectomy. Selective segmental inflation technic is to inflate the segment which includes lung cancer in order to make an intersegmental plane, so-called inflation-deflation line, to be cut. Using this technic, we can recognize the real margin from the tumor edge to the resected plane under thoracoscopic approach. PMID:27440032

  16. Lung cancer screening beyond low-dose computed tomography: the role of novel biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Naveed; Kumar, Rohit; Kavuru, Mani S

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common and lethal malignancy in the world. The landmark National lung screening trial (NLST) showed a 20% relative reduction in mortality in high-risk individuals with screening low-dose computed tomography. However, the poor specificity and low prevalence of lung cancer in the NLST provide major limitations to its widespread use. Furthermore, a lung nodule on CT scan requires a nuanced and individualized approach towards management. In this regard, advances in high through-put technology (molecular diagnostics, multi-gene chips, proteomics, and bronchoscopic techniques) have led to discovery of lung cancer biomarkers that have shown potential to complement the current screening standards. Early detection of lung cancer can be achieved by analysis of biomarkers from tissue samples within the respiratory tract such as sputum, saliva, nasal/bronchial airway epithelial cells and exhaled breath condensate or through peripheral biofluids such as blood, serum and urine. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy has been employed in research setting to identify pre-invasive lesions not identified on CT scan. Although these modalities are not yet commercially available in clinic setting, they will be available in the near future and clinicians who care for patients with lung cancer should be aware. In this review, we present up-to-date state of biomarker development, discuss their clinical relevance and predict their future role in lung cancer management.

  17. Motion Planning for a Three-Stage Multilumen Transoral Lung Access System

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Alan; Torres, Luis G.; Feins, Richard H.; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and early-stage diagnosis is critical to survival. Biopsy is typically required for a definitive diagnosis, but current low-risk clinical options for lung biopsy cannot access all biopsy sites. We introduce a motion planner for a multilumen transoral lung access system, a new system that has the potential to perform safe biopsies anywhere in the lung, which could enable more effective early-stage diagnosis of lung cancer. The system consists of three stages in which a bronchoscope is deployed transorally to the lung, a concentric tube robot pierces through the bronchial tubes into the lung parenchyma, and a steerable needle deploys through a properly oriented concentric tube and steers through the lung parenchyma to the target site while avoiding anatomical obstacles such as significant blood vessels. A sampling-based motion planner computes actions for each stage of the system and considers the coupling of the stages in an efficient manner. We demonstrate the motion planner's fast performance and ability to compute plans with high clearance from obstacles in simulated anatomical scenarios. PMID:26942041

  18. Cross sectional study on lung function of coke oven workers: a lung function surveillance system from 1978 to 1990

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Kreis, I; Griffiths, D; Darling, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the association between lung function of coke oven workers and exposure to coke oven emissions. Methods: Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. Multiple regressions were employed to determine significant predictors for lung function indices. The first sets of lung function tests for 613 new starters were pooled to assess the selection bias. The last sets of lung function tests for 834 subjects with one or more year of coke oven history were pooled to assess determinants of lung function. Results: Selection bias associated with the recruitment process was not observed among the exposure groups. For subjects with a history of one or more years of coke oven work, each year of working in the most exposed "operation" position was associated with reductions in FEV1 of around 9 ml (p = 0.006, 95% CI: 3 ml to 16 ml) and in FVC of around 12 ml (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 4 ml to 19 ml). Negative effects of smoking on lung function were also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to coke oven emissions was found to be associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. Effects of work exposure on lung function are similar to those found in other studies. PMID:12468747

  19. Bronchoscopic diagnosis of pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Baselski, V S; Wunderink, R G

    1994-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality but also by a relative inability to establish a specific etiologic agent on clinical grounds alone. With the recognized shortcomings of expectorated or aspirated secretions toward establishing an etiologic diagnosis, clinicians have increasingly used bronchoscopy to obtain diagnostic samples. A variety of specimen types may be obtained, including bronchial washes or brushes, protected specimen brushings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial biopsies. Bronchoscopy has been applied in three primary clinical settings, including the immunocompromised host, especially human immunodeficiency virus-infected and organ transplant patients; ventilator-associated pneumonia; and severe, nonresolving community- or hospital-acquired pneumonia in nonventilated patients. In each clinical setting, and for each specimen type, specific laboratory protocols are required to provide maximal information. These protocols should provide for the use of a variety of rapid microscopic and quantitative culture techniques and the use of a variety of specific stains and selective culture to detect unusual organism groups. PMID:7834604

  20. Efficacy of a New Blind Insertion Technique of Arndt Endobronchial Blocker for Lung Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peng; Ni, Juan; Zhou, Cheng; Yu, Hai; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to find other methods of blind insertion of Arndt endobronchial blocker (AEB) for lung isolation when a fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is unavailable. We compared the effectiveness and safety of 3 insertion techniques of AEB: Gum elastic bougie (GEB)-, bougie combined with cricoid displacing (BCD)-, and fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB)-guided insertion. Seventy-eight patients undergoing esophageal procedure and requiring left thoracotomy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: GEB group, BCD group, and FOB group. We recorded the successful placement of AEBs at first attempt, placement time, malposition of AEBs in supine and lateral decubitus position, the bronchus injury score, and other complications. The successful placement of AEB for the first attempt was 22/26, 25/26, and 26/26 patients in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. The placement times in GEB and BCD groups were longer than those in the FOB group (P < 0.05). AEB malposition occurred in 1/26, 2/26, 1/26 patients after lateral decubitus position, and AEBs were repositioned in 5/26, 3/26, 1/26 patients by FOB due to poor lung isolation in GEB, BCD, and FOB groups, respectively. There was no difference for the bronchus injury scores and other complications among 3 groups (P > 0.05). Bougie and cricoid displacing-guided blind insertion of AEB seems to be a novel method, which is an effective and safe alternative when FOB was unavailable. PMID:27175708

  1. Integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guibert, Nicolas; Mazieres, Julien; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Rouviere, Damien; Didier, Alain; Hermant, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Tracheal or bronchial proximal stenoses occur as complications in 20-30% of lung cancers, resulting in a dramatic alteration in quality of life and poor prognosis. Bronchoscopic management of these obstructions is based on what are known as "thermal" techniques for intraluminal stenosis and/or placement of tracheal or bronchial prostheses for extrinsic compressions, leading to rapid symptom palliation in the vast majority of patients. This invasive treatment should only be used in cases of symptomatic obstructions and in the presence of viable bronchial tree and downstream parenchyma. This review aims to clarify 1) the available methods for assessing the characteristics of stenoses before treatment, 2) the various techniques available including their preferred indications, outcomes and complications, and 3) the integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the multidisciplinary management of proximal bronchial cancers and its synergistic effects with the other specific treatments (surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy).

  2. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Solid organ transplant - lung ... the new lung Have severe disease of other organs Cannot reliably take their medicines Are unable to ... medicines Damage to your kidneys, liver, or other organs from anti-rejection medicines Future risk of certain ...

  3. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  4. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  5. Lung volumes in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Skinner, J D

    2011-01-01

    We have measured lung mass and trachea dimensions in 46 giraffes of both genders ranging in body mass from 147 kg to 1441 kg, calculated static and dynamic lung volumes, and developed allometric equations that relate changes in them to growth. We found that relative lung mass is 0.6±0.2% of body mass which is significantly less than it is in other mammals (1.1±0.1%). Total lung volume is significantly smaller (46.2±5.9 mL kg⁻¹) than in similar sized mammals (75.0±2.1 mL kg⁻¹). The lung volume:body mass ratio decreases during growth rather than increase as it does in other mammals. Tracheal diameter is significantly narrower than in similar sized mammals but dead space volume (2.9±0.5 mL kg⁻¹) is larger than in similar sized mammals (2.4±0.1 mL kg⁻¹). Our calculations suggest that tidal volume (10.5±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) is increased compared to that in other mammals(10.0±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) so that the dead space:tidal volume ratio is the same as in other mammals. Calculated Functional Residual Capacity is smaller than predicted (53.4±3.5 vs 33.7±0.6 mL kg⁻¹) as is Expiratory Reserve Volume (47.4±2.6 vs 27.2±1.0 mL kg⁻¹, but Residual Volume (6.0±0.4 mL kg⁻¹) is the same as in other similar sized mammals (6.0±0.9 mL kg⁻¹. Our calculations suggest that Inspiratory Reserve Volume is significantly reduced in size (11.6±1.6 vs 3.8±2.4 mL kg⁻¹), and, if so, the capacity to increase tidal volume is limited. Calculated dynamic lung volumes were the same as in similar sized mammals. We have concluded that giraffe morphology has resulted in lung volumes that are significantly different to that of similar sized mammals, but these changes do not compromise ventilatory capacity.

  6. Lung volumes in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Skinner, J D

    2011-01-01

    We have measured lung mass and trachea dimensions in 46 giraffes of both genders ranging in body mass from 147 kg to 1441 kg, calculated static and dynamic lung volumes, and developed allometric equations that relate changes in them to growth. We found that relative lung mass is 0.6±0.2% of body mass which is significantly less than it is in other mammals (1.1±0.1%). Total lung volume is significantly smaller (46.2±5.9 mL kg⁻¹) than in similar sized mammals (75.0±2.1 mL kg⁻¹). The lung volume:body mass ratio decreases during growth rather than increase as it does in other mammals. Tracheal diameter is significantly narrower than in similar sized mammals but dead space volume (2.9±0.5 mL kg⁻¹) is larger than in similar sized mammals (2.4±0.1 mL kg⁻¹). Our calculations suggest that tidal volume (10.5±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) is increased compared to that in other mammals(10.0±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) so that the dead space:tidal volume ratio is the same as in other mammals. Calculated Functional Residual Capacity is smaller than predicted (53.4±3.5 vs 33.7±0.6 mL kg⁻¹) as is Expiratory Reserve Volume (47.4±2.6 vs 27.2±1.0 mL kg⁻¹, but Residual Volume (6.0±0.4 mL kg⁻¹) is the same as in other similar sized mammals (6.0±0.9 mL kg⁻¹. Our calculations suggest that Inspiratory Reserve Volume is significantly reduced in size (11.6±1.6 vs 3.8±2.4 mL kg⁻¹), and, if so, the capacity to increase tidal volume is limited. Calculated dynamic lung volumes were the same as in similar sized mammals. We have concluded that giraffe morphology has resulted in lung volumes that are significantly different to that of similar sized mammals, but these changes do not compromise ventilatory capacity. PMID:20837156

  7. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  8. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-01

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml . PMID:24906114

  9. jqcML: an open-source java API for mass spectrometry quality control data in the qcML format.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris

    2014-07-01

    The awareness that systematic quality control is an essential factor to enable the growth of proteomics into a mature analytical discipline has increased over the past few years. To this aim, a controlled vocabulary and document structure have recently been proposed by Walzer et al. to store and disseminate quality-control metrics for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, called qcML. To facilitate the adoption of this standardized quality control routine, we introduce jqcML, a Java application programming interface (API) for the qcML data format. First, jqcML provides a complete object model to represent qcML data. Second, jqcML provides the ability to read, write, and work in a uniform manner with qcML data from different sources, including the XML-based qcML file format and the relational database qcDB. Interaction with the XML-based file format is obtained through the Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB), while generic database functionality is obtained by the Java Persistence API (JPA). jqcML is released as open-source software under the permissive Apache 2.0 license and can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/jqcml .

  10. The feasibility of molecular testing on cell blocks created from brush tip washings in the assessment of peripheral lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Michael; Beaty, Anne; Lunke, Sebastian; Taylor, Graham; Irving, Louis; Steinfort, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background With the rapid development of genotype-guided therapies, molecular testing is becoming important in the management of lung cancer. Bronchoscopy is one of the most common investigations performed to diagnose and investigate lung cancer. Given the limited samples often produced by bronchoscopy, this study aims to evaluate the feasibility of performing molecular testing on cell blocks created from bronchoscope cytology brush tip washings (BTW). Methods Patients with positive brush cytology for tumour cells had cell blocks created from the BTW. Mutations were detected using amplicon-based massively parallel sequencing of targeted regions of EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF genes. Results A total of 45 patients were included in this study. Of those, 91% had adequate specimens for molecular analysis and 66% of patients with adenocarcinoma had mutations detected. Bronchial brush tip wash cell blocks were the sole specimen available for molecular testing in 27 (60%) patients. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrate that molecular testing can be performed on cell blocks created from BTW and this technique may allow for an increase in bronchoscope specimens amenable to molecular testing without further increasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:27747008

  11. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  12. Lung vasculature imaging using speckle variance optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Lane, Pierre M.; McWilliams, Annette; Shaipanich, Tawimas; MacAulay, Calum E.; Yang, Victor X. D.; Lam, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Architectural changes in and remodeling of the bronchial and pulmonary vasculature are important pathways in diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. However, there is a lack of methods that can find and examine small bronchial vasculature in vivo. Structural lung airway imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has previously been shown to be of great utility in examining bronchial lesions during lung cancer screening under the guidance of autofluorescence bronchoscopy. Using a fiber optic endoscopic OCT probe, we acquire OCT images from in vivo human subjects. The side-looking, circumferentially-scanning probe is inserted down the instrument channel of a standard bronchoscope and manually guided to the imaging location. Multiple images are collected with the probe spinning proximally at 100Hz. Due to friction, the distal end of the probe does not spin perfectly synchronous with the proximal end, resulting in non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD) of the images. First, we apply a correction algorithm to remove NURD. We then use a speckle variance algorithm to identify vasculature. The initial data show a vascaulture density in small human airways similar to what would be expected.

  13. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  14. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  15. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  16. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... gases do not move normally across the lung tissues into the blood vessels of the lung. This ...

  17. Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

    MedlinePlus

    Air around the lung; Air outside the lung; Pneumothorax dropped lung; Spontaneous pneumothorax ... Collapsed lung can be caused by an injury to the lung. Injuries can include a gunshot or knife wound ...

  18. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  19. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  20. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  1. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still necessary

  2. RADIOAUTOGRAPHY OF CHOLESTEROL IN LUNG

    PubMed Central

    Darrah, Hilary K.; Hedley-Whyte, John; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa

    1971-01-01

    30 Swiss albino mice aged 8 days were injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of a solution of 4% N,N-dimethyl-formamide in 5% dextrose in water containing cholesterol-1,2-3H (∼1 mCi/ml). Lung tissue was embedded in an Epon mixture after either acetone and propylene oxide dehydration, partial ethanol and Epon 812 dehydration, or the precipitation of cholesterol by digitonin succeeded by partial dehydration. The distribution of cholesterol-1,2-3H in lung parenchyma in 1µ Epon section radioautograms was compared with that in frozen section radioautograms and was found to be independent of the manner of tissue processing. Grain distribution in the tissue was essentially the same whether 16, 63, 93, or 100% radioactivity was retained in the lung. However, grain distribution in the alveolar spaces differed, presumably due to displacement of pulmonary surfactant, which contains cholesterol. Intracellular distribution of cholesterol, in electron microscope radioautograms, was the same with either 51% or 93% retention of radioactivity in the lung. Loss of radioactivity into the various processing solutions was monitored. The various processing techniques have different drawbacks. PMID:19866763

  3. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration versus Standard Bronchoscopic Modalities for Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Xing; Chen, Ru-Xuan; Huang, Hui; Shao, Chi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yong-Zhe; Xu, Zuo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is an effective technique used to precisely detect enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. The efficacy of EBUS-TBNA versus standard modalities for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains to be elucidated. In this meta-analysis, we compared the efficacies of these methods. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Cpvip, CNKI, and the bibliographies of the relevant references. We analyzed the data obtained with Revman 5.2 (Nordic Cochrane Center, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Stata 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Sixteen studies with a total of 1823 participants met the inclusion criteria, and data were extracted regarding the diagnostic yield of each approach. The ORs for EBUS-TBNA versus transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis ranged from 0.26 to 126.58, and the pooled OR was 5.89 (95% CI, 2.20–15.79, P = 0.0004). These findings indicated that EBUS-TBNA provided a much higher diagnostic yield than TBLB. The pooled OR for EBUS-TBNA + TBLB + endobronchial biopsy (EBB) versus TBNA + TBLB + EBB was 1.54 (95% CI, 0.61–3.93, P = 0.36), implying that there was no significant difference between their diagnostic yields. However, clinical heterogeneity was reflected in the nature of the studies and in the operative variables. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that EBUS-TBNA + TBLB + EBB could be used for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, if available. At medical centers without EBUS-TBNA, TBNA + TBLB + EBB could be used instead. PMID:27364799

  4. [Torsion of the middle lobe after right upper lobectomy of the lung; report of a case and the review of the Japanese literatures].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Tamagawa, S; Okita, M; Tsuchida, K

    2003-03-01

    We report a case of torsion of the residual right middle lobe of the lung, following right upper lobectomy for lung cancer. A 71-year-old man who had medical treatment for emphysema was admitted with a lung tumor on chest computed tomography. The tumor was diagnosed as pulmonary adenocarcinoma by transbronchial biopsy. Right upper lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection, and partial resection of the right lower lobe were performed. On the following day, chest X-ray showed an opacification in the right upper lung field, which gradually increased. Bronchoscopic examination revealed a stenotic middle lobe bronchus. Torsion of the middle lobe was suspected, and rethoracotomy was performed on the second postoperative day. The middle lobe was torsed 90-degree counterclockwise around its bronchovascular pedicle. A middle lobectomy was performed secondary to severe congestion. The patient was discharged in good condition on the 11th postoperative day. In reviewing the literatures including this case, 13 of 16 torsions occurred after right upper lobectomy of the lung. Thirteen patients had rethoracotomy, 10 of them underwent resection of the rotated lung. Simple detorsion was carried out in 3 patients, and 1 of them developed cerebral infarction. Lung torsion was reported to be potentially life-threatening. Therefore, fixation of a remaining lobe should be performed. Exploratory thoracotomy should be performed without delay, if lung torsion is suspected.

  5. Static lung mechanics of intact and excised rhesus monkey lungs and lobes.

    PubMed

    Pare, P D; Boucher, R; Michoud, M C; Hogg, J C

    1978-04-01

    Subdivisions of lung volume and pressure-volume (PV) curves of the lung and chest wall (CW) were measured in 12 rhesus monkeys (Macacca mulatta) under pentobarbital anesthesia. In addition, volumes and PV curves were obtained on the excised lungs and lobes of 12 cynomolgus monkeys (M. fasicularis). Boyle's law was used to determine functional residual capacity (FRC) in the intact animals and water displacement to determine minimal volume (MV) in the excised lungs. Total lung capacity (TLC = lung volume at a transpulmonary pressure of 30 cmH2O) was similar in vivo and in vitro (90 + 83 ml/kg) but residual volume (RV = volume at airway pressure of -50 cmH2O) and MV differed markedly (16.5 + 5.9 ml/kg). In the intact animals a very stiff CW appeared to determine RV, whereas airway closure determined MV in excised lungs. PV curves of upper and lower lobes were not different when expressed as %TLC but when expressed as milliliters of gas per gram of lung, the upper lobes contained significantly more gas per unit weight. PMID:417053

  6. Combination anthelmintics effectively control ML-resistant parasites; a real-world case history.

    PubMed

    Smith, L L

    2014-07-30

    Routine investigation into an ill-thrift situation with grazing cattle led to the discovery of the first reported case of macrocyclic lactone (ML) resistance in cattle in the USA. Research revealed that resistant parasites were originating on pastures in southeastern USA and were not an anomalous resident population on Wisconsin pastures. Prior to using anthelmintics in combination, ML-resistant Cooperia and Haemonchus spp. were shown to survive treatment with single-active MLs and were being transported in shipped cattle and seeding summer grazing pastures. Treatment and management strategies implemented in 2011 and 2012 suggested that ML-surviving parasites were introduced into the conditioning facility and surviving treatment with ML. Data also demonstrated the use of combination ML+oral levamisole was highly effective in minimizing the transport of ML-surviving parasites from southeastern USA to Wisconsin pastures. The value of fecal egg count monitoring and PCR evaluation of nematode species under production conditions are confirmed.

  7. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  8. FastML: a web server for probabilistic reconstruction of ancestral sequences.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Penn, Osnat; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Cohen, Ofir; Cannarozzi, Gina; Zomer, Oren; Pupko, Tal

    2012-07-01

    Ancestral sequence reconstruction is essential to a variety of evolutionary studies. Here, we present the FastML web server, a user-friendly tool for the reconstruction of ancestral sequences. FastML implements various novel features that differentiate it from existing tools: (i) FastML uses an indel-coding method, in which each gap, possibly spanning multiples sites, is coded as binary data. FastML then reconstructs ancestral indel states assuming a continuous time Markov process. FastML provides the most likely ancestral sequences, integrating both indels and characters; (ii) FastML accounts for uncertainty in ancestral states: it provides not only the posterior probabilities for each character and indel at each sequence position, but also a sample of ancestral sequences from this posterior distribution, and a list of the k-most likely ancestral sequences; (iii) FastML implements a large array of evolutionary models, which makes it generic and applicable for nucleotide, protein and codon sequences; and (iv) a graphical representation of the results is provided, including, for example, a graphical logo of the inferred ancestral sequences. The utility of FastML is demonstrated by reconstructing ancestral sequences of the Env protein from various HIV-1 subtypes. FastML is freely available for all academic users and is available online at http://fastml.tau.ac.il/.

  9. A case-control study of dietary factors in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Zhang, X; Qiao, Z; Guan, L; Peng, S; Liu, J; Xie, R; Zheng, L

    1992-09-01

    A case-control study was designed to investigate association of dietary factors with the risk of lung cancer in Sichuan, China. The cases consisted of 135 patients with preinvasive lung cancer which had been confirmed with histopathology, fiber bronchoscope, CT and X-ray film in three provincial hospitals in the recent one year. Controls were healthy subjects who went to one of these hospitals for health check-up; patients with pulmonary diseases was excluded. Controls were matched to cases for sex and age with a ratio of 1:1. Nutrient intakes, the eating habit and other relevant factors were investigated. The data analyzed with the conditional logistic regression model indicated that dietary beta-carotene intakes had a significantly inverse association with the risk of lung cancer. Vitamin C had a less significantly inverse association with the risk. Association of protein, fat, energy, retinol intakes or diet-balance index with the risk was not significant. Association of tea, alcohol, garlic or mushroom, respectively, with the risk was also not observed. Consumption of more processed foods and deep-fried foods were found to be risk factors. Smoking and air pollution from coal burning stoves were also observed as independent risk factors of lung cancer in the present study. The mental stress incidence in the case was significantly higher than that in the control. PMID:1333225

  10. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia , which means you are asleep and pain- ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  11. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  12. Tsunami lung.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Ogino, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Koeda, Yorihiko; Ueda, Hironobu; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Terui, Katsutoshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Aoki, Hidehiko; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2012-04-01

    We encountered three cases of lung disorders caused by drowning in the recent large tsunami that struck following the Great East Japan Earthquake. All three were females, and two of them were old elderly. All segments of both lungs were involved in all the three patients, necessitating ICU admission and endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. All three died within 3 weeks. In at least two cases, misswallowing of oil was suspected from the features noted at the time of the detection. Sputum culture for bacteria yielded isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cause of tsunami lung may be a combination of chemical induced pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia.

  13. Position systématique de Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    1999-07-01

    The species Nupharanassa bohemica Mlíkovsky, 1999, described as a Jacanidae (Aves: Charadriiformes) is very different from the recent and fossil Jacanidae and corresponds to a Coraciidae (Aves: Coraciiformes). It is here placed in the extinct genus Geranopterus and becomes Geranopterus bohemicus ( Mlíkovsky, 1999).

  14. Prilocaine elimination by isolated perfused rat lung and liver.

    PubMed

    Geng, W P; Ebke, M; Foth, H

    1995-01-01

    Prilocaine is assumed to undergo significant elimination by extrahepatic organs and to differ in this respect from other commonly used local anaesthetics. In order to clarify whether the lung may play an important role as a site of elimination of prilocaine, the kinetic parameters were studied in isolated perfused rat lungs and were compared to those of isolated livers. Furthermore, the structurally related compounds bupivacaine and mepivacaine were also investigated in this system. Prilocaine was dispersed into a relatively large apparent distribution volume in perfused rat lung (139 ml versus 97 ml in controls). In single-pass perfused lungs the observed maximum of concentration was decreased by about 60% compared to controls. The mean residence time was prolonged by about 40%. These observations suggest that prilocaine is substantially retained by rat lung and that this effect occurs particularly during first-pass. However, the ability of rat lung to degrade prilocaine was relatively low. The clearance values were about 0.3 ml/min equal to about 20% of the hepatic capacity calculated per g of tissue. Thus it must be assumed that prilocaine is only transiently retained by the lung and will gain systemic availability later on. In rat lungs the kinetics of prilocaine elimination were not substantially different from those of bupivacaine and mepivacaine (16 and 12%). These observations do not support the assumption that especially prilocaine undergoes extrahepatic elimination.

  15. Model-based analysis and quantitative prediction of membrane chromatography: extreme scale-up from 0.08 ml to 1200 ml.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pranay; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Leuthold, Martin; von Lieres, Eric

    2014-03-01

    A model-based approach is presented for quantitatively decoupling the impacts of non-ideal flow and non-ideal binding in membrane chromatography (MC) capsules at different scales. The internal geometry of Sartobind capsules with 0.08 ml and 1200 ml membrane volume is reconstructed from MRI measurements and manufacturer data. Based on this information, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used for computing internal flow patterns of both capsules. Measured breakthrough curves (BTC) under non-binding conditions are used for calibrating PFR and CSTR models of the holdup volumes in the Äkta systems. A suitable binding model is determined and the binding parameters are estimated from binding BTC data of the 0.08 ml capsule. Due to the decoupling of non-idealities, the binding parameters can be directly transferred between the CFD models of both capsules. This advantage is used for quantitatively predicting BTC data of the 1200 ml capsule under binding conditions. The model-based prediction excellently matches with independently measured BTC data, facilitating an extreme scale-up factor of 15,000. The presented approach has previously been shown to be universally applicable to capsules from other vendors with different flow configurations and membrane types.

  16. jmzIdentML API: A Java interface to the mzIdentML standard for peptide and protein identification data.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Florian; Krishna, Ritesh; Ghali, Fawaz; Ríos, Daniel; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Jones, Andrew R

    2012-03-01

    We present a Java application programming interface (API), jmzIdentML, for the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) mzIdentML standard for peptide and protein identification data. The API combines the power of Java Architecture of XML Binding (JAXB) and an XPath-based random-access indexer to allow a fast and efficient mapping of extensible markup language (XML) elements to Java objects. The internal references in the mzIdentML files are resolved in an on-demand manner, where the whole file is accessed as a random-access swap file, and only the relevant piece of XMLis selected for mapping to its corresponding Java object. The APIis highly efficient in its memory usage and can handle files of arbitrary sizes. The APIfollows the official release of the mzIdentML (version 1.1) specifications and is available in the public domain under a permissive licence at http://www.code.google.com/p/jmzidentml/. PMID:22539429

  17. jmzIdentML API: A Java interface to the mzIdentML standard for peptide and protein identification data.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Florian; Krishna, Ritesh; Ghali, Fawaz; Ríos, Daniel; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Jones, Andrew R

    2012-03-01

    We present a Java application programming interface (API), jmzIdentML, for the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) mzIdentML standard for peptide and protein identification data. The API combines the power of Java Architecture of XML Binding (JAXB) and an XPath-based random-access indexer to allow a fast and efficient mapping of extensible markup language (XML) elements to Java objects. The internal references in the mzIdentML files are resolved in an on-demand manner, where the whole file is accessed as a random-access swap file, and only the relevant piece of XMLis selected for mapping to its corresponding Java object. The APIis highly efficient in its memory usage and can handle files of arbitrary sizes. The APIfollows the official release of the mzIdentML (version 1.1) specifications and is available in the public domain under a permissive licence at http://www.code.google.com/p/jmzidentml/.

  18. Polymorphic New World monkeys with more than three M/L cone types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Deegan, Jess F.

    2005-10-01

    Most New World (platyrrhine) monkeys have M/L cone photopigment polymorphisms that map directly into individual variations in visual sensitivity and color vision. We used electroretinogram flicker photometry to examine M/L cone photopigments in the New World monkey Callicebus moloch (the dusky Titi). Like other New World monkeys, this species has an M/L cone photopigment polymorphism that reflects the presence of X-chromosome opsin gene alleles. However, unlike other platyrrhines in which three M/L photopigments are typical, Callicebus has a total of five M/L cone photopigments. The peak sensitivity values for these pigments extend across the range from 530 to 562 nm. The result is an enhanced array of potential color vision phenotypes in this species.

  19. ML3 Is a NEDD8- and Ubiquitin-Modified Protein1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hakenjos, Jana P.; Bejai, Sarosh; Ranftl, Quirin; Behringer, Carina; Vlot, A. Corina; Absmanner, Birgit; Hammes, Ulrich; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Kuster, Bernhard; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2013-01-01

    NEDD8 (NEURAL PRECURSOR CELL-EXPRESSED, DEVELOPMENTALLY DOWN-REGULATED PROTEIN8) is an evolutionarily conserved 8-kD protein that is closely related to ubiquitin and that can be conjugated like ubiquitin to specific lysine residues of target proteins in eukaryotes. In contrast to ubiquitin, for which a broad range of substrate proteins are known, only a very limited number of NEDD8 target proteins have been identified to date. Best understood, and also evolutionarily conserved, is the NEDD8 modification (neddylation) of cullins, core subunits of the cullin-RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases that promote the polyubiquitylation of degradation targets in eukaryotes. Here, we show that Myeloid differentiation factor-2-related lipid-recognition domain protein ML3 is an NEDD8- as well as ubiquitin-modified protein in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and examine the functional role of ML3 in the plant cell. Our analysis indicates that ML3 resides in the vacuole as well as in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies. ER bodies are Brassicales-specific ER-derived organelles and, similar to other ER body proteins, ML3 orthologs can only be identified in this order of flowering plants. ML3 gene expression is promoted by wounding as well as by the phytohormone jasmonic acid and repressed by ethylene, signals that are known to induce and repress ER body formation, respectively. Furthermore, ML3 protein abundance is dependent on NAI1, a master regulator of ER body formation in Arabidopsis. The regulation of ML3 expression and the localization of ML3 in ER bodies and the vacuole is in agreement with a demonstrated importance of ML3 in the defense to herbivore attack. Here, we extend the spectrum of ML3 biological functions by demonstrating a role in the response to microbial pathogens. PMID:23903439

  20. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  1. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml.

  2. The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

  3. Characterization of ML-IAP protein stability and physiological role in vivo.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Eugene; Moradi, Elham; Dynek, Jasmin N; Zha, Jiping; Fedorova, Anna V; Deshayes, Kurt; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Newton, Kim; Le Couter, Jennifer; Vucic, Domagoj

    2012-11-01

    ML-IAP [melanoma IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis)] is an anti-apoptotic protein that is expressed highly in melanomas where it contributes to resistance to apoptotic stimuli. The anti-apoptotic activity and elevated expression of IAP family proteins in many human cancers makes IAP proteins attractive targets for inhibition by cancer therapeutics. Small-molecule IAP antagonists that bind with high affinities to select BIR (baculovirus IAP repeat) domains have been shown to stimulate auto-ubiquitination and rapid proteasomal degradation of c-IAP1 (cellular IAP1) and c-IAP2 (cellular IAP2). In the present paper, we report ML-IAP proteasomal degradation in response to bivalent, but not monovalent, IAP antagonists. This degradation required ML-IAP ubiquitin ligase activity and was independent of c-IAP1 or c-IAP2. Although ML-IAP is best characterized in melanoma cells, we show that ML-IAP expression in normal mammalian tissues is restricted largely to the eye, being most abundant in ciliary body epithelium and retinal pigment epithelium. Surprisingly, given this pattern of expression, gene-targeted mice lacking ML-IAP exhibited normal intraocular pressure as well as normal retinal structure and function. The results of the present study indicate that ML-IAP is dispensable for both normal mouse development and ocular homoeostasis.

  4. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: NORAMET intercomparison of volume standards at 50 mL and 100 mL (SIM.M.FF-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, C.; Trujillo Juarez, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Bean, V.

    2003-01-01

    An intercomparison of volume standards, 50 mL and 100 mL pycnometers, was decided on at the NORAMET Technical Contacts Meeting of 8-9 June 1998. The participating laboratories were CENAM, NIST, and NRC. NRC acted as the pilot laboratory. The comparison was done between April 1999 and October 1999. The pycnometers were not protected against evaporation by a supplementary cap. Even with this handicap, the three laboratories agreed with one another very well. The difference between maximum and minimum reported volumes never exceeded 0.014%. This comparison was assigned the number SIM.M.FF-S1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the SIM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. Executing medical logic modules expressed in ArdenML using Drools.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chai Young; Sward, Katherine A; Haug, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Arden Syntax is an HL7 standard language for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Despite nearly 2 decades of availability, Arden Syntax has not been widely used. This has been attributed to the lack of a generally available compiler to implement the logic, to Arden's complex syntax, to the challenges of mapping local data to data references in the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs), or, more globally, to the general absence of decision support in healthcare computing. An XML representation (ArdenML) may partially address the technical challenges. MLMs created in ArdenML can be converted into executable files using standard transforms written in the Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) language. As an example, we have demonstrated an approach to executing MLMs written in ArdenML using the Drools business rule management system. Extensions to ArdenML make it possible to generate a user interface through which an MLM developer can test for logical errors. PMID:22180871

  7. 95. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1. Shows test and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1. Shows test and control buildings, berms, fencing. March 14, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-1666. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 102. ARAIII. Moving the ML1 reactor on a truck. February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. ARA-III. Moving the ML-1 reactor on a truck. February 12, 1965. Ineel photo no. 65-657. Photographer: Comisky. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Executing medical logic modules expressed in ArdenML using Drools.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chai Young; Sward, Katherine A; Haug, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Arden Syntax is an HL7 standard language for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Despite nearly 2 decades of availability, Arden Syntax has not been widely used. This has been attributed to the lack of a generally available compiler to implement the logic, to Arden's complex syntax, to the challenges of mapping local data to data references in the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs), or, more globally, to the general absence of decision support in healthcare computing. An XML representation (ArdenML) may partially address the technical challenges. MLMs created in ArdenML can be converted into executable files using standard transforms written in the Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) language. As an example, we have demonstrated an approach to executing MLMs written in ArdenML using the Drools business rule management system. Extensions to ArdenML make it possible to generate a user interface through which an MLM developer can test for logical errors.

  10. 34. GENERAL VIEW OF ML9. TOP OF 'MILK STOOL' HAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. GENERAL VIEW OF ML-9. TOP OF 'MILK STOOL' HAS BEEN REMOVED (LEFT) AND MACHINE ROOM OF HAMMERHEAD CRANE IS VISIBLE ON GROUND AT RIGHT. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  11. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  12. Using CellML with OpenCMISS to Simulate Multi-Scale Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, David P.; Ladd, David; Hussan, Jagir R.; Safaei, Soroush; Suresh, Vinod; Hunter, Peter J.; Bradley, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    OpenCMISS is an open-source modeling environment aimed, in particular, at the solution of bioengineering problems. OpenCMISS consists of two main parts: a computational library (OpenCMISS-Iron) and a field manipulation and visualization library (OpenCMISS-Zinc). OpenCMISS is designed for the solution of coupled multi-scale, multi-physics problems in a general-purpose parallel environment. CellML is an XML format designed to encode biophysically based systems of ordinary differential equations and both linear and non-linear algebraic equations. A primary design goal of CellML is to allow mathematical models to be encoded in a modular and reusable format to aid reproducibility and interoperability of modeling studies. In OpenCMISS, we make use of CellML models to enable users to configure various aspects of their multi-scale physiological models. This avoids the need for users to be familiar with the OpenCMISS internal code in order to perform customized computational experiments. Examples of this are: cellular electrophysiology models embedded in tissue electrical propagation models; material constitutive relationships for mechanical growth and deformation simulations; time-varying boundary conditions for various problem domains; and fluid constitutive relationships and lumped-parameter models. In this paper, we provide implementation details describing how CellML models are integrated into multi-scale physiological models in OpenCMISS. The external interface OpenCMISS presents to users is also described, including specific examples exemplifying the extensibility and usability these tools provide the physiological modeling and simulation community. We conclude with some thoughts on future extension of OpenCMISS to make use of other community developed information standards, such as FieldML, SED-ML, and BioSignalML. Plans for the integration of accelerator code (graphical processing unit and field programmable gate array) generated from CellML models is also

  13. Spectra, chromatograms, Metadata: mzML-the standard data format for mass spectrometer output.

    PubMed

    Turewicz, Michael; Deutsch, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes Mass Spectrometry Markup Language (mzML), an XML-based and vendor-neutral standard data format for storage and exchange of mass spectrometer output like raw spectra and peak lists. It is intended to replace its two precursor data formats (mzData and mzXML), which had been developed independently a few years earlier. Hence, with the release of mzML, the problem of having two different formats for the same purposes is solved, and with it the duplicated effort of maintaining and supporting two data formats. The new format has been developed by a broad-based consortium of major instrument vendors, software vendors, and academic researchers under the aegis of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO), Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI), with full participation of the main developers of the precursor formats. This comprehensive approach helped mzML to become a generally accepted standard. Furthermore, the collaborative development insured that mzML has adopted the best features of its precursor formats. In this chapter, we discuss mzML's development history, its design principles and use cases, as well as its main building components. We also present the available documentation, an example file, and validation software for mzML. PMID:21063948

  14. An Ontology for State Analysis: Formalizing the Mapping to SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Karban, Robert; Rouquette, Nicolas; Jenkins, Steven; Ingham, Michel

    2012-01-01

    State Analysis is a methodology developed over the last decade for architecting, designing and documenting complex control systems. Although it was originally conceived for designing robotic spacecraft, recent applications include the design of control systems for large ground-based telescopes. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) began a project to design the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which will require coordinated control of over a thousand articulated mirror segments. The designers are using State Analysis as a methodology and the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a modeling and documentation language in this task. To effectively apply the State Analysis methodology in this context it became necessary to provide ontological definitions of the concepts and relations in State Analysis and greater flexibility through a mapping of State Analysis into a practical extension of SysML. The ontology provides the formal basis for verifying compliance with State Analysis semantics including architectural constraints. The SysML extension provides the practical basis for applying the State Analysis methodology with SysML tools. This paper will discuss the method used to develop these formalisms (the ontology), the formalisms themselves, the mapping to SysML and approach to using these formalisms to specify a control system and enforce architectural constraints in a SysML model.

  15. Live-wire-based segmentation of 3D anatomical structures for image-guided lung interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Xu, Sheng; Xue, Zhong; Wong, Stephen T.

    2012-02-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has been widely used for assisting in lung cancer detection/diagnosis and treatment. In lung cancer diagnosis, suspect lesions or regions of interest (ROIs) are usually analyzed in screening CT scans. Then, CT-based image-guided minimally invasive procedures are performed for further diagnosis through bronchoscopic or percutaneous approaches. Thus, ROI segmentation is a preliminary but vital step for abnormality detection, procedural planning, and intra-procedural guidance. In lung cancer diagnosis, such ROIs can be tumors, lymph nodes, nodules, etc., which may vary in size, shape, and other complication phenomena. Manual segmentation approaches are time consuming, user-biased, and cannot guarantee reproducible results. Automatic methods do not require user input, but they are usually highly application-dependent. To counterbalance among efficiency, accuracy, and robustness, considerable efforts have been contributed to semi-automatic strategies, which enable full user control, while minimizing human interactions. Among available semi-automatic approaches, the live-wire algorithm has been recognized as a valuable tool for segmentation of a wide range of ROIs from chest CT images. In this paper, a new 3D extension of the traditional 2D live-wire method is proposed for 3D ROI segmentation. In the experiments, the proposed approach is applied to a set of anatomical ROIs from 3D chest CT images, and the results are compared with the segmentation derived from a previous evaluated live-wire-based approach.

  16. [Alpha Fetoprotein-producing Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Sato, Kimiaki; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) -producing lung adenocarcinoma. A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to right pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed right moderate pneumothorax, a solid tumor in the upper lobe (S3) and mediastinal lymph node swelling. The serum AFP level was as high as 223.0 ng/ml. Frozen examination revealed a low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma.

  17. Amplification-free point of care immunosensor for detecting type V collagen at a concentration level of ng/ml

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Pei-Yu; Bracho-Sanchez, Evelyn R.; Jiang, Peng; Seagrave, JeanClare; Duncan, Matthew R.; Grotendorst, Gary R.; Schultz, Gregory; Batich, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is applicable in the immediate vicinity of the patient, where timely diagnosis or prognostic information could help doctors decide the following treatment. Among types of developed POCT, gold nanoparticle based lateral flow strip technology provides advantages such as simple operation, cost-effectiveness, and a user-friendly platform. Therefore, this type of POCT is most likely to be used in battlefields and developing countries. However, conventional lateral flow strips suffer from low detection limits. Although enzyme-linked amplification was demonstrated to improve the detection limit and sensitivity by stronger visible lines or by permitting electrochemical analytical instrumentation, the enzyme labels have potential to cause interference with other enzymes in our body fluids. To eliminate this limitation, we developed an amplification-free gold nanoparticle-based immunosensor applied for detecting collagen type V, which is produced or released abnormally during rejection of lung transplants and sulfur mustard exposure. By using suitable blocking protein to stabilize gold nanoparticles as the reporter probe, a low detection limit of ng/ml was achieved. This strategy is a promising platform for clinical POCT, with potential applications in military or disaster response.

  18. Interoperability of unattended ground sensors with an open architecture controller using SensorML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Jon; Fairgrieve, Scott

    2010-04-01

    Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) from a wide range of manufacturers have difficulty interoperating with each other and common control and dissemination points. Typically, sensor data is transmitted via RF or wired connections to a central location where the data can be fused together and transmitted further via satellite to a Processing, Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) system. These PED's are charged with analyzing the data to create real time actionable intelligence for the war fighter. However, when several disparate sensors from different manufacturers are used, interoperability problems arise. Therefore, a central UGS controller that accepts data from a wide range of sensors and helps them interoperate is essential. This paper addresses benefits derived from using the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Model Language (SensorML) sensor descriptions for an UGS controller. SensorML 1.0 is an approved OGC standard and is one of the major components within the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. SensorML provides standard models and an XML encoding for describing any process, including the process of measurement by sensors. By incorporating SensorML, an UGS controller can accept data from various sensors from different manufacturers, and interpret that data with the SensorML descriptions to allow the controller to take programmed actions and interoperate between sensors. Furthermore, SensorML can be used to translate the native sensor formats once the original data has been transmitted to the PED. Therefore, this makes a SensorML enabled UGS controller an extremely powerful tool that provides situational awareness by combining multiple sensors to form a single common operational picture (COP).

  19. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  20. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  1. The evolution of the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Maidment, D.; Tarboton, D. G.; Whiteaker, T.; Hooper, R.; Kirschtel, D.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS, his.cuahsi.org) uses web services as the core data exchange mechanism which provides programmatic connection between many heterogeneous sources of hydrologic data and a variety of online and desktop client applications. The service message schema follows the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML) 1.x specification (see OGC Discussion Paper 07-041r1). Data sources that can be queried via WaterML-compliant water data services include national and international repositories such as USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), USEPA STORET (Storage & Retrieval), USDA SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry), NCDC ISH and ISD(Integrated Surface Hourly and Daily Data), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and DAYMET (Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries). Besides government data sources, CUAHSI HIS provides access to a growing number of academic hydrologic observation networks. These networks are registered by researchers associated with 11 hydrologic observatory testbeds around the US, and other research, government and commercial groups wishing to join the emerging CUAHSI Water Data Federation. The Hydrologic Information Server (HIS Server) software stack deployed at NSF-supported hydrologic observatory sites and other universities around the country, supports a hydrologic data publication workflow which includes the following steps: (1) observational data are loaded from static files or streamed from sensors into a local instance of an Observations Data Model (ODM) database; (2) a generic web service template is configured for the new ODM instance to expose the data as a WaterML-compliant water data service, and (3) the new water data service is registered at the HISCentral registry (hiscentral.cuahsi.org), its metadata are harvested and semantically tagged using concepts from a hydrologic ontology. As a result, the new service is indexed in the CUAHSI central metadata catalog, and becomes

  2. Airflows after inhalation of terbutaline sulphate aerosol from a 750-ml spacer for four weeks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, N E; Hidinger, K G; Rosenhall, L; Hagstad, H; Löfgren, L; Perk, J; Stiksa, G; Ström, K

    1986-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate was administered to 40 adult asthmatic patients via an ordinary metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or one connected to a 750-ml spacer in an open, randomized, crossover study. Spirometry was obtained before the start of the study and again after four weeks of treatment with each inhaler. The patients recorded on a diary card the severity of their asthma symptoms and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in the morning before and after drug administration and in the evening. Preinhalation spirometric values were higher after four weeks with the 750-ml spacer than at the start of the study (P less than or equal to 0.05). Daily morning and evening PEFR values were higher after use of the 750-ml spacer than after use of the ordinary MDI (P less than 0.05). Daily symptom scores were generally low. A significantly better effect (P less than or equal to 0.05) with the 750-ml spacer was achieved only in daytime dyspnea. The investigators conclude that the attachment of a 750-ml spacer to an ordinary metered-dose inhaler can improve the efficacy of terbutaline sulphate in the long-term treatment of asthma. PMID:3698068

  3. Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus Catheter-Related Biofilm Infections Using ML:8 and Citrox.

    PubMed

    Hogan, S; Zapotoczna, M; Stevens, N T; Humphreys, H; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococci are a leading cause of catheter-related infections (CRIs) due to biofilm formation. CRIs are typically managed by either device removal or systemic antibiotics, often in combination with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). CLSs provide high concentrations of the antimicrobial agent at the site of infection. However, the most effective CLSs against staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and suitability of two newly described antimicrobial agents, ML:8 and Citrox, as CLSs against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. ML:8 (1% [vol/vol]) and Citrox (1% [vol/vol]), containing caprylic acid and flavonoids, respectively, were used to treat S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro using newly described static and flow biofilm assays. Both agents reduced biofilm viability >97% after 24 h of treatment. Using a rat model of CRI, ML:8 was shown to inactivate early-stage S. aureus biofilms in vivo, while Citrox inactivated established, mature in vivo biofilms. Cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of ML:8 and Citrox were equivalent to those of other commercially available CLSs. Neither ML:8 nor Citrox induced a cytokine response in human whole blood, and exposure of S. aureus to either agent for 90 days was not associated with any increase in resistance. Taken together, these data reveal the therapeutic potential of these agents for the treatment of S. aureus catheter-related biofilm infections. PMID:27458213

  4. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 65. Lake F, Proudman S. Rheumatoid arthritis and lung disease: from mechanisms to a practical approach. Semin Respir ...

  5. How Lungs Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of ... Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow spaces in the bones ...

  6. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  7. Acyl protein thioesterase 1 and 2 (APT-1, APT-2) inhibitors palmostatin B, ML348 and ML349 have different effects on NRAS mutant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vujic, Igor; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Vujic, Marin; Kwong, Andrew; Tsumura, Aaron; Murphy, Ryan; Moy, Adrian; Posch, Christian; Monshi, Babak; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-02-01

    Oncogenic NRAS mutations are frequent in melanoma and lead to increased downstream signaling and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Since the direct inhibition of NRAS is not possible yet, modulators of NRAS posttranslational modifications have become an area of interest. Specifically, interfering with NRAS posttranslational palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle could disturb proper NRAS localization, and therefore decrease cell proliferation and downstream signaling. Here, we investigate the expression and function of NRAS depalmitoylating acyl protein thioesterases 1 and 2 (APT-1, APT-2) in a panel of NRAS mutant melanoma cells. First, we show that all melanoma cell lines examined express APT-1 and APT-2. Next, we show that siRNA mediated APT-1 and APT-2 knock down and that the specific APT-1 and -2 inhibitors ML348 and ML349 have no biologically significant effects in NRAS mutant melanoma cells. Finally, we test the dual APT-1 and APT-2 inhibitor palmostatin B and conclude that palmostatin B has effects on NRAS downstream signaling and cell viability in NRAS mutant melanoma cells, offering an interesting starting point for future studies. PMID:26771141

  8. [Clinical importance of basal insulin analogues and insulin Toujeo® 300 units/ml].

    PubMed

    Adamíková, Alena

    2015-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease that requires a personalized approach to treatment with goals tailored to capabilities and abilities of the patient, his other diseases so as to ensure good diabetes control without the risk of hypoglycemic events and the development or progression of late diabetic complications. Recommendations for treatment of diabetes is classified in second-line as a one of the possibilities of treatment of basal insulin immediately after the failure of therapy with metformin and diet. The new generation of basal insulin analogues provides its effect profile and features a completely new quality to the treatment of diabetes. Toujeo® 300 units/ml is a new long-acting basal insulin glargine concentration of 300 units/ ml with a low glycemic variability, which in studies has demonstrated consistent control of diabetes in a significant reduction in the risk of hypoglycemia especially at night compared with insulin glargin of concentration 100 units/ml. PMID:26652788

  9. The optical properties of lung as a function of respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, J. F.; van Staveren, H. J.; Posthumus, P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.

    1997-11-01

    Lung consists of alveoli enclosed by tissue and both structures contribute to volume-dependent scattering of light. It is the purpose of this paper to determine the volume-dependent optical properties of lung. In vivo interstitial fibre measurements of the effective attenuation coefficient at 632.8 nm differed during inspiration from that during expiration . In vitro measurements on a piglet lung insufflated with oxygen from 50 to 150 ml showed the effective attenuation coefficient at 632.8 nm decreases as a function of oxygen volume in the lung (at 50 ml , at 100 ml , and at 150 ml ). This was explained by combining scattering of alveoli (Mie theory) with optical properties of collapsed lung tissue using integrating sphere measurements. Theory and measured in vitro values showed good agreement (deviation ). Combination of these data yields the absorption coefficient and scattering parameters of lung tissue as a function of lung volume. We conclude that the light fluence rate in lung tissue should be estimated using optical properties that include scattering by the alveoli.

  10. An overview of the CellML API and its implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CellML is an XML based language for representing mathematical models, in a machine-independent form which is suitable for their exchange between different authors, and for archival in a model repository. Allowing for the exchange and archival of models in a computer readable form is a key strategic goal in bioinformatics, because of the associated improvements in scientific record accuracy, the faster iterative process of scientific development, and the ability to combine models into large integrative models. However, for CellML models to be useful, tools which can process them correctly are needed. Due to some of the more complex features present in CellML models, such as imports, developing code ab initio to correctly process models can be an onerous task. For this reason, there is a clear and pressing need for an application programming interface (API), and a good implementation of that API, upon which tools can base their support for CellML. Results We developed an API which allows the information in CellML models to be retrieved and/or modified. We also developed a series of optional extension APIs, for tasks such as simplifying the handling of connections between variables, dealing with physical units, validating models, and translating models into different procedural languages. We have also provided a Free/Open Source implementation of this application programming interface, optimised to achieve good performance. Conclusions Tools have been developed using the API which are mature enough for widespread use. The API has the potential to accelerate the development of additional tools capable of processing CellML, and ultimately lead to an increased level of sharing of mathematical model descriptions. PMID:20377909

  11. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org . PMID:21063949

  12. VarioML framework for comprehensive variation data representation and exchange

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sharing of data about variation and the associated phenotypes is a critical need, yet variant information can be arbitrarily complex, making a single standard vocabulary elusive and re-formatting difficult. Complex standards have proven too time-consuming to implement. Results The GEN2PHEN project addressed these difficulties by developing a comprehensive data model for capturing biomedical observations, Observ-OM, and building the VarioML format around it. VarioML pairs a simplified open specification for describing variants, with a toolkit for adapting the specification into one's own research workflow. Straightforward variant data can be captured, federated, and exchanged with no overhead; more complex data can be described, without loss of compatibility. The open specification enables push-button submission to gene variant databases (LSDBs) e.g., the Leiden Open Variation Database, using the Cafe Variome data publishing service, while VarioML bidirectionally transforms data between XML and web-application code formats, opening up new possibilities for open source web applications building on shared data. A Java implementation toolkit makes VarioML easily integrated into biomedical applications. VarioML is designed primarily for LSDB data submission and transfer scenarios, but can also be used as a standard variation data format for JSON and XML document databases and user interface components. Conclusions VarioML is a set of tools and practices improving the availability, quality, and comprehensibility of human variation information. It enables researchers, diagnostic laboratories, and clinics to share that information with ease, clarity, and without ambiguity. PMID:23031277

  13. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  14. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  15. ANZSoilML: An Australian - New Zealand standard for exchange of soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Ritchie, Alistair; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The Australian-New Zealand soil information exchange standard (ANZSoilML) is a GML-based standard designed to allow the discovery, query and delivery of soil and landscape data via standard Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services. ANZSoilML modifies the Australian soil exchange standard (OzSoilML), which is based on the Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) database design and exchange protocols, to meet the New Zealand National Soils Database requirements. The most significant change was the removal of the lists of CodeList terms in OzSoilML, which were based on the field methods specified in the 'Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook'. These were replaced with empty CodeLists as placeholders to external vocabularies to allow the use of New Zealand vocabularies without violating the data model. Testing of the use of these separately governed Australian and New Zealand vocabularies has commenced. ANZSoilML attempts to accommodate the proposed International Organization for Standardization ISO/DIS 28258 standard for soil quality. For the most part, ANZSoilML is consistent with the ISO model, although major differences arise as a result of: • The need to specify the properties appropriate for each feature type; • The inclusion of soil-related 'Landscape' features; • Allowing the mapping of soil surfaces, bodies, layers and horizons, independent of the soil profile; • Allowing specifying the relationships between the various soil features; • Specifying soil horizons as specialisations of soil layers; • Removing duplication of features provided by the ISO Observation & Measurements standard. The International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) Working Group on Soil Information Standards (WG-SIS) aims to develop, promote and maintain a standard to facilitate the exchange of soils data and information. Developing an international exchange standard that is compatible with existing and emerging national and

  16. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  17. Lung Circulation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-04-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. PMID:27065170

  18. Who Needs a Lung Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs a Lung Transplant? Your doctor may recommend a lung transplant ... lungs to pick up oxygen. Applying to a Lung Transplant Program Lung transplants are done in medical ...

  19. Diet and obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Trenga, C

    2001-01-01

    The results presented in this review suggest that the impact of nutrition on obstructive lung disease is most evident for antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamin C and, to a lesser extent, vitamin E. By decreasing oxidant insults to the lung, antioxidants could modulate the development of chronic lung diseases and lung function decrement. Antioxidant vitamins could also play an important role in gene-environment interactions in complex lung diseases such as childhood asthma. Data also suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may have a potentially protective effect against airway hyperreactivity and lung function decrements; however, relevant data are still sparse. Although epidemiologic data suggest that consumption of fresh fruit may reduce risk of noncarcinogenic airway limitation, there are no clear data on which nutrients might be most relevant. While some studies evaluate daily intake of vitamin C, other studies use fruit consumption as a surrogate for antioxidant intake. Given the dietary intercorrelations among antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamin C, beta-carotene, and flavonoids, as well as other micronutrients, it may be difficult to isolate a specific effect. Some population subgroups with higher levels of oxidative stress, such as cigarette smokers, may be more likely to benefit from dietary supplementation, since some studies have suggested that antioxidant intake may have a greater impact in this group. Studies of lung function decrement and COPD in adults suggest that daily intake of vitamin C at levels slightly exceeding the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (60 mg/day among nonsmokers and 100 mg/day among smokers) may have a protective effect (20). In the Schwartz and Weiss (85) and Britton et al. (87) studies, an increase of 40 mg/day in vitamin C intake led to an approximate 20-ml increase in FEV1. Daily mean vitamin C intakes in these studies were 66 mg and 99.2 mg, respectively, and the highest intake level (178 mg/day) was approximately

  20. Measurement and Structural Model Class Separation in Mixture CFA: ML/EM versus MCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaoli, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parameter recovery was assessed within mixture confirmatory factor analysis across multiple estimator conditions under different simulated levels of mixture class separation. Mixture class separation was defined in the measurement model (through factor loadings) and the structural model (through factor variances). Maximum likelihood (ML) via the…

  1. Isolation of a recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus lactis ML3.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D G; McKay, L L

    1983-01-01

    A recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus lactis ML3 designated MMS36 was isolated on the basis of its sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate. This mutant also displayed sensitivity to UV irradiation. The inability of MMS36 to mediate homologous recombination was demonstrated by transduction of plasmid-linked lactose fermenting ability but not chromosomally mediated streptomycin resistance. PMID:6409888

  2. INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. BROWN; SWITCHER, BILL CLARK; DESULPHUR OPERATORS, CHARLIE WILLIAMS AND TIM BUSH. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  3. INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH MIXER TO LADLE TRANSFER. CRANE OPERATOR, M.L. BROWN; SWITCHER, BILL CLARK; DESULPHUR OPERATORS, CHARLIE WILLIAMS AND TIM BUSH - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  5. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures. PMID:26528560

  6. 97. ARAIII. ML1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor building (ARA-608) for examination of corrosion on its underside and repair. May 24, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-3485. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    SciTech Connect

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  8. The mzQuantML data standard for mass spectrometry-based quantitative studies in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Qi, Da; Mayer, Gerhard; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Sachsenberg, Timo; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Deutsch, Eric W; Reisinger, Florian; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Jones, Andrew R

    2013-08-01

    The range of heterogeneous approaches available for quantifying protein abundance via mass spectrometry (MS)(1) leads to considerable challenges in modeling, archiving, exchanging, or submitting experimental data sets as supplemental material to journals. To date, there has been no widely accepted format for capturing the evidence trail of how quantitative analysis has been performed by software, for transferring data between software packages, or for submitting to public databases. In the context of the Proteomics Standards Initiative, we have developed the mzQuantML data standard. The standard can represent quantitative data about regions in two-dimensional retention time versus mass/charge space (called features), peptides, and proteins and protein groups (where there is ambiguity regarding peptide-to-protein inference), and it offers limited support for small molecule (metabolomic) data. The format has structures for representing replicate MS runs, grouping of replicates (for example, as study variables), and capturing the parameters used by software packages to arrive at these values. The format has the capability to reference other standards such as mzML and mzIdentML, and thus the evidence trail for the MS workflow as a whole can now be described. Several software implementations are available, and we encourage other bioinformatics groups to use mzQuantML as an input, internal, or output format for quantitative software and for structuring local repositories. All project resources are available in the public domain from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative http://www.psidev.info/mzquantml.

  9. A tailored ML-EM algorithm for reconstruction of truncated projection data using few view angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yanfei; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2013-06-01

    Dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems have the advantage of high speed and sensitivity at no loss, or even a gain, in resolution. The potential drawbacks of these dedicated systems are data truncation by the small field of view (FOV) and the lack of view angles. Serious artifacts, including streaks outside the FOV and distortion in the FOV, are introduced to the reconstruction when using the traditional emission data maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm to reconstruct images from the truncated data with a small number of views. In this note, we propose a tailored ML-EM algorithm to suppress the artifacts caused by data truncation and insufficient angular sampling by reducing the image updating step sizes for the pixels outside the FOV. As a consequence, the convergence speed for the pixels outside the FOV is decelerated. We applied the proposed algorithm to truncated analytical data, Monte Carlo simulation data and real emission data with different numbers of views. The computer simulation results show that the tailored ML-EM algorithm outperforms the conventional ML-EM algorithm in terms of streak artifacts and distortion suppression for reconstruction from truncated projection data with a small number of views.

  10. E[superscript 2]ML: A Visual Language for the Design of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botturi, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has brought about a major change in higher education. Course design has developed from a craftsmanship-like process to a structured production, which involves interdisciplinary teams and requires more complex communication skills. This conceptual article introduces E[superscript 2]ML--Educational Environment Modeling Language--a…

  11. Identification and Characterization of ML352: A Novel, Noncompetitive Inhibitor of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is the rate-limiting determinant of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis, yet the transporter remains a largely undeveloped target for the detection and manipulation of synaptic cholinergic signaling. To expand CHT pharmacology, we pursued a high-throughput screen for novel CHT-targeted small molecules based on the electrogenic properties of transporter-mediated choline transport. In this effort, we identified five novel, structural classes of CHT-specific inhibitors. Chemical diversification and functional analysis of one of these classes identified ML352 as a high-affinity (Ki = 92 nM) and selective CHT inhibitor. At concentrations that fully antagonized CHT in transfected cells and nerve terminal preparations, ML352 exhibited no inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) and also lacked activity at dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters, as well as many receptors and ion channels. ML352 exhibited noncompetitive choline uptake inhibition in intact cells and synaptosomes and reduced the apparent density of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding sites in membrane assays, suggesting allosteric transporter interactions. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed limited in vitro metabolism and significant CNS penetration, with features predicting rapid clearance. ML352 represents a novel, potent, and specific tool for the manipulation of CHT, providing a possible platform for the development of cholinergic imaging and therapeutic agents. PMID:25560927

  12. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  13. Web-access to a Lung Deposition Model for radiation protection and physiological modeling.

    PubMed

    Ward, Richard C; Eckerman, Keith F; Ahmad, Lin S

    2003-01-01

    A C++ implementation of the ICRP Lung Deposition Model was validated and made accessible by creating a web interface using Perl. Considerable understanding of this lung deposition model was obtained and a small number of errors identified in the code during this process. Documentation was developed using MathML and scalable vector graphics (SVG). PMID:15455931

  14. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  15. Activation of calpains mediates early lung neutrophilic inflammation in ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dejie; Yan, Zhibo; Minshall, Richard D.; Schwartz, David E.; Chen, Yuguo

    2012-01-01

    Lung inflammatory responses in the absence of infection are considered to be one of primary mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury. Here, we determined the role of calpain in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation attributable to mechanical ventilation. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to high (28 ml/kg) tidal volume ventilation for 2 h in the absence and presence of calpain inhibitor I (10 mg/kg). To address the isoform-specific functions of calpain 1 and calpain 2 during mechanical ventilation, we utilized a liposome-based delivery system to introduce small interfering RNAs targeting each isoform in pulmonary vasculature in vivo. Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume induced rapid (within minutes) and persistent calpain activation and lung inflammation as evidenced by neutrophil recruitment, production of TNF-α and IL-6, pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability, and lung edema formation. Pharmaceutical calpain inhibition significantly attenuated these inflammatory responses caused by lung hyperinflation. Depletion of calpain 1 or calpain 2 had a protective effect against ventilator-induced lung inflammatory responses. Inhibition of calpain activity by means of siRNA silencing or pharmacological inhibition also reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS-3)-mediated NO production and subsequent ICAM-1 phosphorylation following high tidal volume ventilation. These results suggest that calpain activation mediates early lung inflammation during ventilator-induced lung injury via NOS-3/NO-dependent ICAM-1 phosphorylation and neutrophil recruitment. Inhibition of calpain activation may therefore provide a novel and promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:22140070

  16. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  17. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  18. The lung microbiome after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia; Poroyko, Valeriy; Bhorade, Sangeeta

    2014-04-01

    Lung transplantation survival remains significantly impacted by infections and the development of chronic rejection manifesting as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Traditional microbiologic data has provided insight into the role of infections in BOS. Now, new non-culture-based techniques have been developed to characterize the entire population of microbes resident on the surfaces of the body, also known as the human microbiome. Early studies have identified that lung transplant patients have a different lung microbiome and have demonstrated the important finding that the transplant lung microbiome changes over time. Furthermore, both unique bacterial populations and longitudinal changes in the lung microbiome have now been suggested to play a role in the development of BOS. In the future, this technology will need to be combined with functional assays and assessment of the immune responses in the lung to help further explain the microbiome's role in the failing lung allograft.

  19. WaterML, an Information Standard for the Exchange of in-situ hydrological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D.; Taylor, P.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2012-04-01

    The WaterML 2.0 Standards Working Group (SWG), working within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in cooperation with the joint OGC-World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), has developed an open standard for the exchange of water observation data; WaterML 2.0. The focus of the standard is time-series data, commonly generated from in-situ style monitoring. This is high value data for hydrological applications such as flood forecasting, environmental reporting and supporting hydrological infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems), which is commonly exchanged, but a lack of standards inhibits efficient reuse and automation. The process of developing WaterML required doing a harmonization analysis of existing standards to identify overlapping concepts and come to agreement on a harmonized definition. Generally the formats captured similar requirements, all with subtle differences, such as how time-series point metadata was handled. The in-progress standard WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, and is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. WaterML2.0 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: exchange of data for operational hydrological monitoring programs; supporting operation of infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems); cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting The first phase of WaterML2.0 focused on structural definitions allowing for the transfer of time-series, with less work on harmonization of vocabulary items such as quality codes. Vocabularies from various organizations tend to be specific and take time to

  20. Role of fetal breathing movements in control of fetal lung distension.

    PubMed

    Miller, A A; Hooper, S B; Harding, R

    1993-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the role of fetal breathing movements (FBM) in the maintenance of fetal lung liquid volume. Experiments were performed in 14 chronically catheterized fetal sheep. FBM were selectively abolished for 48 h by the infusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX) onto the phrenic nerves of five fetuses. Lung liquid volumes and secretion rates were measured before each treatment, 46-48 h after the start of the TTX infusion, and 22-24 h after the end of the infusion. Blockade of the phrenic nerves reduced fetal lung liquid volumes from 27.6 +/- 1.9 to 21.8 +/- 2.6 ml/kg and increased lung liquid secretion rates from 3.8 +/- 0.6 to 6.2 +/- 1.1 ml.h-1.kg-1. Control experiments confirmed the lack of effect of TTX infused intravenously and saline infused intrapleurally on changes in fetal lung liquid volume and secretion rate. To measure the static relaxation volume of the fetal lung, in six fetuses we combined skeletal muscle paralysis with bypass of the upper airway for 48 h. This reduced fetal lung liquid volume from 39.1 +/- 3.1 to 23.0 +/- 2.5 ml/kg and increased lung liquid secretion rates from 4.1 +/- 0.7 to 5.8 +/- 0.9 ml.h-1.kg-1. This experiment demonstrates that the fetal lung is normally maintained at a level of expansion that is much greater than its static relaxation volume. We conclude that the volume of luminal liquid in the fetal lungs is dependent on the diaphragmatic contractions associated with FBM. Their effect is to resist the elastic recoil of the fetal lungs, thereby reducing the loss of liquid from the lungs via the trachea. PMID:8125894

  1. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. PMID:26700566

  2. A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML Web servers.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Alexandros; Hoover, Paul; Rougemont, Jacques

    2008-10-01

    Despite recent advances achieved by application of high-performance computing methods and novel algorithmic techniques to maximum likelihood (ML)-based inference programs, the major computational bottleneck still consists in the computation of bootstrap support values. Conducting a probably insufficient number of 100 bootstrap (BS) analyses with current ML programs on large datasets-either with respect to the number of taxa or base pairs-can easily require a month of run time. Therefore, we have developed, implemented, and thoroughly tested rapid bootstrap heuristics in RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) that are more than an order of magnitude faster than current algorithms. These new heuristics can contribute to resolving the computational bottleneck and improve current methodology in phylogenetic analyses. Computational experiments to assess the performance and relative accuracy of these heuristics were conducted on 22 diverse DNA and AA (amino acid), single gene as well as multigene, real-world alignments containing 125 up to 7764 sequences. The standard BS (SBS) and rapid BS (RBS) values drawn on the best-scoring ML tree are highly correlated and show almost identical average support values. The weighted RF (Robinson-Foulds) distance between SBS- and RBS-based consensus trees was smaller than 6% in all cases (average 4%). More importantly, RBS inferences are between 8 and 20 times faster (average 14.73) than SBS analyses with RAxML and between 18 and 495 times faster than BS analyses with competing programs, such as PHYML or GARLI. Moreover, this performance improvement increases with alignment size. Finally, we have set up two freely accessible Web servers for this significantly improved version of RAxML that provide access to the 200-CPU cluster of the Vital-IT unit at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the 128-CPU cluster of the CIPRES project at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. These Web servers offer the possibility to conduct

  3. Ectopic ACTH Production in Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, George; Yalow, Rosalyn S.

    1974-01-01

    Immunoreactive ACTH was found in almost all tissue extracts of lung carcinoma from patients without clinical evidence of Cushing's syndrome; i.e. 14 of 15 primary tumors, nine of nine metastatic lymph nodes, and four of four metastatic liver nodules contained immunoreactive ACTH. The incidence of ACTH in extracts of other tumor types was much lower. Comparable normal tissues contained no detectable ACTH. Immunoreactive growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, or gastrin was not found in the same carcinoma tissue. The predominant form of ACTH in the tumor extracts was big ACTH. In pituitary extracts little ACTH predominated. 53% of 83 patients with lung carcinoma had afternoon plasma ACTH levels greater than 150 pg/ml; more than 90% of plasmas containing less than 150 pg/ml were obtained from patients who had received radiation therapy or chemotherapy. 31% of 45 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 28% of 25 patients with other severe lung disease, and 6% of 33 controls had elevated values. Big ACTH predominated in the plasma of patients with lung carcinoma or COPD having elevated ACTH levels. Tissue from the lung of a smoking dog with atypical histologic changes contained immunoreactive ACTH, almost exclusively in the big form, while tissue from another smoking dog that was histologically normal contained no ACTH. Thus ACTH may be present even in precancerous lung lesions. These studies suggest that serial plasma ACTH levels may be of value in screening for, and/or management of, patients with carcinoma of the lung. PMID:4360854

  4. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; McErlean, Aoife M.; Ginsberg, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promising molecular targets for treatment. PMID:24436524

  5. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  6. Producing over 100 ml of highly concentrated hyperpolarized solution by means of dissolution DNP

    PubMed Central

    Comment, A.; Rentsch, J.; Kurdzesau, F.; Jannin, S.; Uffmann, K.; van Heeswijk, R. B.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; van den Brandt, B.; van der Klink, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    New low-temperature inserts compatible with an existing hyperpolarizer were developed to dynamically polarize nuclei in large samples. The performance of the system was tested on 8 ml glassy frozen solutions containing 13C-labeled molecules and doped with nitroxyl free radicals. The obtained 13C low-temperature polarization was comparable to the one measured on 20 times smaller sample volume with only 3–4 times higher microwave power. By using a dissolution insert that fits to the new design, it was possible to obtain about 120 ml of room-temperature hyperpolarized solution. The polarization as well as the molecule concentration was comparable to the values obtained in standard size hyperpolarized samples. Such large samples are interesting for future studies on larger animals and possibly for potential clinical applications. PMID:18595751

  7. Galaxy luminosity functions, M/L ratios, and closure of the Universe - Numbers and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felten, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies are reviewed and compared, and the result of Kirshner et al. (1983) giving a 'standard LF' is chosen as a best guess. Departures from the 'standard LF' for specific galaxy types and environments (clusters, groups, field) are discussed briefly. A luminosity density of about 1.4 x 10 to the -2nd h 'galaxies' per cubic megaparsec is obtained. The mean M/L ratio needed to give critical cosmological density (Omega sub 0 = 1) is then 920 h in solar units on the face-on magnitude system. Comparison with measured M/L ratios for galaxies and clusters, and with constraints imposed by inflation and nucleosynthesis, poses two problems of 'invisible mass'.

  8. The mzIdentML Data Standard for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Results

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew R.; Eisenacher, Martin; Mayer, Gerhard; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Siepen, Jennifer; Hubbard, Simon J.; Selley, Julian N.; Searle, Brian C.; Shofstahl, James; Seymour, Sean L.; Julian, Randall; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W.; Hermjakob, Henning; Reisinger, Florian; Griss, Johannes; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Chambers, Matthew; Pizarro, Angel; Creasy, David

    2012-01-01

    We report the release of mzIdentML, an exchange standard for peptide and protein identification data, designed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative. The format was developed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative in collaboration with instrument and software vendors, and the developers of the major open-source projects in proteomics. Software implementations have been developed to enable conversion from most popular proprietary and open-source formats, and mzIdentML will soon be supported by the major public repositories. These developments enable proteomics scientists to start working with the standard for exchanging and publishing data sets in support of publications and they provide a stable platform for bioinformatics groups and commercial software vendors to work with a single file format for identification data. PMID:22375074

  9. ClaML: a standard for the electronic publication of classification coding schemes.

    PubMed

    van der Haring, E J; Broënhorst, S; ten Napel, H; Weber, S; Schopen, M; Zanstra, P E

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a number of revisions to CEN/TS 14463 (ClaML), which is a pre-standard mark-up language for the electronic publication of classification coding schemes. A CEN Taskforce in close collaboration with the WHO network carefully analysed 70 classifications from the healthcare domain. All were transformed in ClaML using a dedicated classification management tool. The proposal removes all formatting elements and adds a number of layout structuring elements. Several elements have been replaced by attributes to enforce internal consistency. A modest number of extensions are proposed to help users and authors in maintenance and version control. A pilot implementation has shown that ICD10 as one of the most complex traditional classifications can be adequately represented to produce quality printed output. PMID:17108612

  10. A 500-ml plastic bottle: an effective spacer for children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Zar, Heather J; Asmus, Michael J; Weinberg, Eugene G

    2002-06-01

    Inhaled therapy using a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with attached spacer has been increasingly recognized as the optimal method for delivering asthma medication for acute attacks and chronic prophylaxis. However, in developing countries the cost and availability of commercially produced spacers limit the use of MDI-spacer delivery systems. A 500-ml plastic bottle has been recently adapted to function as a spacer. This article reviews the current data on the efficacy of this bottle-spacer and discusses its advantages and limitations. It is concluded that a modified 500-ml plastic bottle is an effective spacer; modification and use of this device should be incorporated into international guidelines for the management of children with asthma.

  11. ML Frame Synchronization for OFDM Systems Using a Known Pilot and Cyclic Prefixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Heon

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular air interface technology that is adopted as a standard modulation scheme for 4G communication systems owing to its excellent spectral efficiency. For OFDM systems, synchronization problems have received much attention along with peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. In addition to frequency offset estimation, frame synchronization is a challenging problem that must be solved to achieve optimal system performance. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) frame synchronizer for OFDM systems. The synchronizer exploits a synchronization word and cyclic prefixes together to improve the synchronization performance. Numerical results show that the performance of the proposed frame synchronizer is better than that of conventional schemes. The proposed synchronizer can be used as a reference for evaluating the performance of other suboptimal frame synchronizers. We also modify the proposed frame synchronizer to reduce the implementation complexity and propose a near-ML synchronizer for time-varying fading channels.

  12. The mzIdentML data standard for mass spectrometry-based proteomics results.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew R; Eisenacher, Martin; Mayer, Gerhard; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Siepen, Jennifer; Hubbard, Simon J; Selley, Julian N; Searle, Brian C; Shofstahl, James; Seymour, Sean L; Julian, Randall; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W; Hermjakob, Henning; Reisinger, Florian; Griss, Johannes; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Chambers, Matthew; Pizarro, Angel; Creasy, David

    2012-07-01

    We report the release of mzIdentML, an exchange standard for peptide and protein identification data, designed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative. The format was developed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative in collaboration with instrument and software vendors, and the developers of the major open-source projects in proteomics. Software implementations have been developed to enable conversion from most popular proprietary and open-source formats, and mzIdentML will soon be supported by the major public repositories. These developments enable proteomics scientists to start working with the standard for exchanging and publishing data sets in support of publications and they provide a stable platform for bioinformatics groups and commercial software vendors to work with a single file format for identification data.

  13. Mission options for rendezvous with the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid - 1989 ML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadams, Jim V.

    1992-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Amor-class 1989 ML, the most accessible known asteroid for minimum-energy rendezvous missions, has expedited the search for frequent, low-cost Near-Earth Asteroid rendezvous and round-trip missions. This paper identifies trajectory characteristics and assesses mass performance for low Delta V ballistic rendezvous opportunities to 1989 ML during the period 1996-2010. This asteroid also offers occasional unique extended mission opportunities, such as the lowest known Delta V requirement for any asteroid sample return mission as well as pre-rendezvous asteroid flyby and post-rendezvous comet flyby opportunities requiring less than 5.25 km/sec total Delta V. This paper also briefly comments concerning mission opportunities for asteroid 1991 JW, which recently replaced other known asteroids as the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid for fast rendezvous and round-trip missions.

  14. Further optimization of the M5 NAM MLPCN probe ML375: Tactics and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Haruto; Gentry, Patrick R.; Kokubo, Masaya; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Byers, Frank W.; Wood, Michael R.; Daniels, J. Scott; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    This letter describes the continued optimization of the MLPCN probe ML375, a highly selective M5 negative allosteric modulator (NAM), through a combination of matrix libraries and iterative parallel synthesis. True to certain allosteric ligands, SAR was shallow, and the matrix library approach highlighted the challenges with M5 NAM SAR within in this chemotype. Once again, enantiospecific activity was noted, and potency at rat and human M5 were improved over ML375, along with slight enhancement in physiochemical properties, certain in vitro DMPK parameters and CNS distribution. Attempts to further enhance pharmacokinetics with deuterium incorporation afforded mixed results, but pretreatment with a pan-P450 inhibitor (1-aminobenzotriazole; ABT) provided increased plasma exposure. PMID:25542588

  15. Mission options for rendezvous with the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid - 1989 ML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, Jim V.

    1992-08-01

    The recent discovery of the Amor-class 1989 ML, the most accessible known asteroid for minimum-energy rendezvous missions, has expedited the search for frequent, low-cost Near-Earth Asteroid rendezvous and round-trip missions. This paper identifies trajectory characteristics and assesses mass performance for low Delta V ballistic rendezvous opportunities to 1989 ML during the period 1996-2010. This asteroid also offers occasional unique extended mission opportunities, such as the lowest known Delta V requirement for any asteroid sample return mission as well as pre-rendezvous asteroid flyby and post-rendezvous comet flyby opportunities requiring less than 5.25 km/sec total Delta V. This paper also briefly comments concerning mission opportunities for asteroid 1991 JW, which recently replaced other known asteroids as the most accessible Near-Earth Asteroid for fast rendezvous and round-trip missions.

  16. Determination of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Aluminum-Lithium Alloy ML377

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Bryan C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications is currently being studied at NASA Langley Research Center's Metallic Materials Branch. The alloys in question will operate under stress in a corrosive environment. These conditions are ideal for the phenomena of Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) to occur. The test procedure for SCC calls for alternate immersion and breaking load tests. These tests were optimized for the lab equipment and materials available in the Light Alloy lab. Al-Li alloy ML377 specimens were then subjected to alternate immersion and breaking load tests to determine residual strength and resistance to SCC. Corrosion morphology and microstructure were examined under magnification. Data shows that ML377 is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.

  17. Vasorelaxant effects of novel Kv7.4 channel enhancers ML213 and NS15370

    PubMed Central

    Jepps, T A; Bentzen, B H; Stott, J B; Povstyan, O V; Sivaloganathan, K; Dalby-Brown, W; Greenwood, I A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The KCNQ-encoded voltage-gated potassium channel family (Kv7.1-Kv7.5) are established regulators of smooth muscle contractility, where Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 predominate. Various Kv7.2–7.5 channel enhancers have been developed that have been shown to cause a vasorelaxation in both rodent and human blood vessels. Recently, two novel Kv7 channel enhancers have been identified, ML213 and NS15370, that show increased potency, particularly on Kv7.4 channels. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of these novel enhancers in different rat blood vessels and compare them with Kv7 enhancers (S-1, BMS204352, retigabine) described previously. We also sought to determine the binding sites of the new Kv7 enhancers. Key Results Both ML213 and NS15370 relaxed segments of rat thoracic aorta, renal artery and mesenteric artery in a concentration-dependent manner. In the mesenteric artery ML213 and NS15370 displayed EC50s that were far lower than other Kv7 enhancers tested. Current-clamp experiments revealed that both novel enhancers, at low concentrations, caused significant hyperpolarization in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. In addition, we determined that the stimulatory effect of these enhancers relied on a tryptophan residue located in the S5 domain, which is the same binding site for the other Kv7 enhancers tested in this study. Conclusions and Implications This study has identified and characterized ML213 and NS15370 as potent vasorelaxants in different blood vessels, thereby highlighting these new compounds as potential therapeutics for various smooth muscle disorders. PMID:24909207

  18. ML212: A small-molecule probe for investigating fluconazole resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Youngsaye, Willmen; Hartland, Cathy L; Morgan, Barbara J; Ting, Amal; Nag, Partha P; Vincent, Benjamin; Mosher, Carrie A; Bittker, Joshua A; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Palmer, Michelle; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Summary The National Institutes of Health Molecular Libraries and Probe Production Centers Network (NIH-MLPCN) screened >300,000 compounds to evaluate their ability to restore fluconazole susceptibility in resistant Candida albicans isolates. Additional counter screens were incorporated to remove substances inherently toxic to either mammalian or fungal cells. A substituted indazole possessing the desired bioactivity profile was selected for further development, and initial investigation of structure–activity relationships led to the discovery of ML212. PMID:23946849

  19. Design and implementation of CUAHSI WaterML and WaterOneFlow Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.; Maidment, D.

    2007-12-01

    WaterOneFlow is a term for a group of web services created by and for the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) community. CUAHSI web services facilitate the retrieval of hydrologic observations information from online data sources using the SOAP protocol. CUAHSI Water Markup Language (below referred to as WaterML) is an XML schema defining the format of messages returned by the WaterOneFlow web services. \

  20. Identification of ML251, a Potent Inhibitor of T. brucei and T. cruzi Phosphofructokinase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a severe, often fatal disease caused by the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei. The glycolytic pathway has been identified as the sole mechanism for ATP generation in the infective stage of these organisms, and several glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) in particular, have shown promise as potential drug targets. Herein, we describe the discovery of ML251, a novel nanomolar inhibitor of T. brucei PFK, and the structure–activity relationships within the series. PMID:24900769

  1. Lung function growth and ambient ozone: a three-year population study in school children.

    PubMed

    Frischer, T; Studnicka, M; Gartner, C; Tauber, E; Horak, F; Veiter, A; Spengler, J; Kühr, J; Urbanek, R

    1999-08-01

    We followed a cohort of 1,150 children for 3 yr to investigate long-term effects of ambient ozone. Nine study sites were selected on the basis of air-quality data to represent a broad range of ozone exposure. In 1994, 1995, and 1996 lung function was recorded biannually, always before and after summertime. The effect of ozone was analyzed with regression analyses and study-site, a child's sex, atopy, passive smoking, baseline lung function, and increase in height were considered as confounding variables. A negative effect of summertime ozone on the pre- to post-summer-time change in FEV(1) (ml/d) was present in 1994 (beta = -0.019 ml/d/ppb; p < 0.01) and in 1995 (beta = -0.017 ml/d/ ppb; p < 0.05), but not in 1996 (beta = 0. 004 ml/d/ppb; p = 0.6); corresponding estimates for FVC were in 1994: beta = -0.022 ml/d/ppb, p < 0.005; 1995: beta = -0.018 ml/d/ppb, p < 0.05; and 1996: beta = 0.006 ml/d/ppb, p = 0.46. When all three study years were considered simultaneously, i.e., the changes in lung function between each of two subsequent surveys being the dependent variable, summertime ozone was associated with a lesser increase in FEV(1) (beta = -0.029 ml/d/ppb; p < 0.001), FVC (beta = -0.018 ml/d/ppb; p < 0.001), and MEF(50) (beta = -0.076 ml/s/d; p = 0.001). No consistent associations were observed for lung function and NO(2), SO(2) and PM(10). Long-term ambient ozone exposure might negatively influence lung function growth.

  2. A Case of Multifocal Skin Metastases from Lung Cancer Presenting with Vasculitic-type Cutaneous Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Babacan, Nalan Akgul; Kiliçkap, Saadettin; Sene, Soner; Kacan, Turgut; Yucel, Birsen; Eren, Mehmet Fuat; Cihan, Sener

    2015-01-01

    Although cutaneous metastasis occurs usually at the terminal stage of the disease, it may be rarely concurrent with the diagnosis and may also present as the first sign of the illness. A 55-year-old male patient presented with vasculitic-type cutaneous nodular lesions and a necrotic distal phalangeal lesion developed over the last month. He was a tradesman and smoked 40 packets year. On physical examination, he was found to have multiple cutaneous lesions on the skin of the face, limbs, neck, scalp, dorsal side, fingers, subungual side, right leg, and feet. A skin lesion punch biopsy was performed and squamous cell carcinoma metastasis was detected. He was diagnosed as having squamous cell lung cancer with bronchoscopic biopsy. Although it is very rare, cutaneous metastases that is concurrent with the diagnosis of lung cancer may be the first sign of the disease. In patients with suspicious skin lesions, the patient's age, smoking history, and other symptoms should be evaluated and a biopsy should be performed. PMID:25814739

  3. The DaveMLTranslator: An Interface for DAVE-ML Aerodynamic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Melissa A.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    It can take weeks or months to incorporate a new aerodynamic model into a vehicle simulation and validate the performance of the model. The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) has been proposed as a means to reduce the time required to accomplish this task by defining a standard format for typical components of a flight dynamic model. The purpose of this paper is to describe an object-oriented C++ implementation of a class that interfaces a vehicle subsystem model specified in DAVE-ML and a vehicle simulation. Using the DaveMLTranslator class, aerodynamic or other subsystem models can be automatically imported and verified at run-time, significantly reducing the elapsed time between receipt of a DAVE-ML model and its integration into a simulation environment. The translator performs variable initializations, data table lookups, and mathematical calculations for the aerodynamic build-up, and executes any embedded static check-cases for verification. The implementation is efficient, enabling real-time execution. Simple interface code for the model inputs and outputs is the only requirement to integrate the DaveMLTranslator as a vehicle aerodynamic model. The translator makes use of existing table-lookup utilities from the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++). The design and operation of the translator class is described and comparisons with existing, conventional, C++ aerodynamic models of the same vehicle are given.

  4. ML-PMHT track detection threshold determination for K-distributed clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenecker, Steven; Willett, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2014-06-01

    Recentwork developed a novelmethod for determining tracking thresholds for theMaximumLikelihood ProbabilisticMulti- Hypothesis Tracker (ML-PMHT). Under certain "ideal" conditions, probability density functions (PDFs) for the peak points in the ML-PMHT log-likelihood ratio (LLR) due to just clutter measurements could be calculated. Analysis of these clutter-induced peak PDFs allowed for the calculation of tracking thresholds, which previously had to be donewith time-consumingMonte Carlo simulations. However, this work was done for a very specific case: the amplitudes of both target and cluttermeasurements followed Rayleigh distributions. The Rayleigh distribution is a very light-tailed distribution, and it can be overly optimistic in predicting that high-SNR measurements are target-originated. This work examines the case where the clutter amplitudes do not follow a Rayleigh distribution at all, but instead follow a K-distribution, which more accurately describes active acoustic clutter. This will provide a framework for determining accurate tracking thresholds for the ML-PMHT algorithm.

  5. Serology with ML Flow test in health professionals from three different states of Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Karla Lucena Sampaio; Magnanini, Mônica Maria Ferreira; de Moura, Rodrigo Scaliante; Gallo, Maria Eugenia Noviski; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; de Oliveira, Maria Leide Wand-Del-Rey

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In highly endemic countries, transmission and sub-clinical infection of leprosy are likely and the disease manifests itself in individuals without any known close contact with a leprosy patient. Health workers are social contacts belonging to the same network (the Health System) and some of them share the same social environment (nursing assistants) as patients with known patients and / or carriers. OBJECTIVE To identify ML Flow seropositivity among health professionals. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using a serological survey with the ML Flow test in 450 health professionals (doctors, nurses and nursing assistants), in order to detect seropositivity in areas of high and low endemicity in municipalities from three Brazilian states (RJ, MS and RS). RESULTS The results showed general 16% seropositivity, higher in low endemic areas, regardless of whether there was direct care for leprosy patients. Paradoxically, a statistical association was observed between the area studied and seropositivity, as the place with the lowest endemicity (CA) had the highest seropositivity rate (p = 0.033). CONCLUSION The authors suggest these results are associated with a presence of an unspecified link to bovine serum albumin (BSA), carrier of PGL-1 in the ML Flow test, and recommend expanded seroepidemiological research utilizing tests with human and bovine albumin. PMID:24474100

  6. A standardized framing for reporting protein identifications in mzIdentML 1.2.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Sean L; Farrah, Terry; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Chalkley, Robert J; Cottrell, John S; Searle, Brian C; Tabb, David L; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Prieto, Gorka; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Ghali, Fawaz; Jones, Andrew R

    2014-11-01

    Inferring which protein species have been detected in bottom-up proteomics experiments has been a challenging problem for which solutions have been maturing over the past decade. While many inference approaches now function well in isolation, comparing and reconciling the results generated across different tools remains difficult. It presently stands as one of the greatest barriers in collaborative efforts such as the Human Proteome Project and public repositories such as the PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) database. Here we present a framework for reporting protein identifications that seeks to improve capabilities for comparing results generated by different inference tools. This framework standardizes the terminology for describing protein identification results, associated with the HUPO-Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) mzIdentML standard, while still allowing for differing methodologies to reach that final state. It is proposed that developers of software for reporting identification results will adopt this terminology in their outputs. While the new terminology does not require any changes to the core mzIdentML model, it represents a significant change in practice, and, as such, the rules will be released via a new version of the mzIdentML specification (version 1.2) so that consumers of files are able to determine whether the new guidelines have been adopted by export software.

  7. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - ...

  8. [Lung cancer in elderly patients: lung cancer and lung function].

    PubMed

    Tanita, Tatsuo

    2005-07-01

    The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma is increasing as life expectancy rises. With increase in the aged population in Japan, the number of patients suffering from lung cancer and candidates for lung resections are increasing. In this paper, the author lists up indispensable procedures for diagnosis, namely, lung function tests, unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion test and exercise tolerance test. The cut-offs for identifying candidates for elderly patients for lung resections can be applied the same cut-offs for younger patients. Also the author indicates the importance of postoperative management for lung lobe resections. In order to prevent postoperative problems such as congestive heart failure that might be a fetal complication, the most useful check values after the lung surgery for elderly patients are rate of transfusion and urine volume. In conclusion, when elderly patients assert their rights to undergo lung surgery, we, the thoracic surgeons, should reply their requests under the equal quality of safe surgery as that for younger patients. Besides, it is desirable that even elderly patients, over 80 years old, who undergo lung surgery should guarantee their quality of daily life after surgery.

  9. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  11. EnzML: multi-label prediction of enzyme classes using InterPro signatures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manual annotation of enzymatic functions cannot keep up with automatic genome sequencing. In this work we explore the capacity of InterPro sequence signatures to automatically predict enzymatic function. Results We present EnzML, a multi-label classification method that can efficiently account also for proteins with multiple enzymatic functions: 50,000 in UniProt. EnzML was evaluated using a standard set of 300,747 proteins for which the manually curated Swiss-Prot and KEGG databases have agreeing Enzyme Commission (EC) annotations. EnzML achieved more than 98% subset accuracy (exact match of all correct Enzyme Commission classes of a protein) for the entire dataset and between 87 and 97% subset accuracy in reannotating eight entire proteomes: human, mouse, rat, mouse-ear cress, fruit fly, the S. pombe yeast, the E. coli bacterium and the M. jannaschii archaebacterium. To understand the role played by the dataset size, we compared the cross-evaluation results of smaller datasets, either constructed at random or from specific taxonomic domains such as archaea, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, plants and vertebrates. The results were confirmed even when the redundancy in the dataset was reduced using UniRef100, UniRef90 or UniRef50 clusters. Conclusions InterPro signatures are a compact and powerful attribute space for the prediction of enzymatic function. This representation makes multi-label machine learning feasible in reasonable time (30 minutes to train on 300,747 instances with 10,852 attributes and 2,201 class values) using the Mulan Binary Relevance Nearest Neighbours algorithm implementation (BR-kNN). PMID:22533924

  12. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  13. ML-oriented NDA carrier synchronization for general rotationally symmetric signal constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeneclaey, Marc; Dejonghe, Geert

    1994-08-01

    In this contribution we point out that the nondecision-aided (NDA) carrier synchronizer, maximizing the low E(sub s)/N(sub o) limit of the likelihood function averaged over a general 2(pi) /N-rotationally symmetric signal constellation, reduces to the familiar timing-aided Nth power synchronizer. Whereas in the case of M-PSK the tracking error variance of this NDA ML synchronizer is known to converge to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) with increasing E(sub s)/N(sub o), we show that for other rotationally symmetric constellations (such as QAM) the tracking error variance is substantially larger than the CRB.

  14. Spin-Ml and El responses of nuclei probed by proton inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamii, Atsushi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    We pick up two studies on the nuclear responses from the recent experiments of high-resolution proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University; 1) study of the nuclear symmetry and the neutron skin thickness by the measurement of energy electric dipole (El) response of 208Pb, and 2) study of the tensor correlation in the ground state by the measurement of the spin-Ml responses of even-even self-conjugate nuclei in the sd-shell nuclei.

  15. 12-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (PMA) produces injury to isolated rat lungs in the presence and absence of perfused neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    PMA produced injury to isolated, perfused rat lungs when eutrophils were added to or omitted from the buffer/albumin perfusion medium. When a high dose of PMA (57 ng/ml) was added to medium devoid of added neutrophils, perfusion pressure and lung weight increased. Together, superoxide dismutase (500 U/ml) and catalase (400 U/ml) had no effect on the increases in lung weight or perfusion pressure. However, papaverine (0.5 mM) prevented both the increase in perfusion pressure and fluid accumulation. When a concentration of PMA (14 ng/ml) that did not by itself cause lungs to accumulate fluid was added to perfusion medium containing neutrophils (1 x 10/sup 8/), perfusion pressures increased and lungs accumulated fluid. This concentration of PMA stimulated neutrophils (1 x 10/sup 8/) to release superoxide. Addition of superoxide dismutase (500 U/ml) and catalase (400 U/ml) to this medium prevented the increase in lung weight, but not the increase in perfusion pressure. Papaverine (0.5 mM) attenuated the increase in perfusion pressure and prevented fluid accumulation in these lungs. In summary, high concentrations of PMA produce lung injury which is independent of oxygen radicals; at lower concentrations it produces injury which is neutrophil-dependent and mediated by oxygen radicals.

  16. Isolated lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2012-01-01

    Isolated lung perfusion (ILP) has been historically used as a method to study basic lung physiologic concepts using animal models. More recently, ILP has been applied in lung transplantation and thoracic oncology. In lung transplantation, ILP has been used to assess physiological integrity of donor lungs after the organ is removed from the donor. This procedure is called Ex vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP), and it has also been proposed as a method for active treatment and repair of injured unsuitable donor organs ex vivo. In oncology, ILP is an attractive method to deliver high dose chemotherapy to treat pulmonary metastatic disease. Since the lung vasculature is isolated in vivo, this technique is called in vivo lung perfusion (IVLP). This review will focus on the rationale, technical aspects, experimental and clinical experience of EVLP and IVLP. A perspective on the future use of these techniques is described. PMID:22202033

  17. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo

    2014-08-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  18. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  19. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improve, a chest tube is inserted to expand your lung. In rare cases, pneumothorax can be ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 197. Silvestri GA, Jett JR. Clinical aspects of lung cancer. In: ...

  20. American Lung Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Washington DC West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming November Is Lung Cancer Awareness Month If you or someone you ... RESEARCH Our vision is a world FREE OF LUNG DISEASE Make Each Breath Count: Learn, Engage, Act! ...

  1. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  2. Early airway infection, inflammation, and lung function in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, G; Armstrong, D; Carzino, R; Carlin, J; Olinsky, A; Robertson, C; Grimwood, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the relation between lower airway infection and inflammation, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective study of children with CF aged younger than 3 years, diagnosed by a newborn screening programme. All were clinically stable and had testing as outpatients. Subjects underwent bronchial lavage (BL) and lung function testing by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique under general anaesthesia. BL fluid was cultured and analysed for neutrophil count, interleukin 8, and neutrophil elastase. Lung function was assessed by forced expiratory volume in 0.5, 0.75, and 1 second. Results: Thirty six children with CF were tested on 54 occasions. Lower airway infection shown by BL was associated with a 10% reduction in FEV0.5 compared with subjects without infection. No relation was identified between airway inflammation and lung function. Daily moist cough within the week before testing was reported on 20/54 occasions, but in only seven (35%) was infection detected. Independent of either infection status or airway inflammation, those with daily cough had lower lung function than those without respiratory symptoms at the time of BL (mean adjusted FEV0.5 195 ml and 236 ml respectively). Conclusions: In young children with CF, both respiratory symptoms and airway infection have independent, additive effects on lung function, unrelated to airway inflammation. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of airway obstruction in these young patients. PMID:12244003

  3. Corticosteroids prevent acute lung dysfunction caused by thoracic irradiation in unanesthetized sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Wickersham, N.; Malcolm, A.W.; Brigham, K.L.

    1988-11-01

    We sought to determine the effect of corticosteroid therapy in a new acute model of oxidant lung injury, thoracic irradiation in awake sheep. Sheep were irradiated with 1,500 rads to the whole chest except for blocking the heart and adjacent ventral lung. Seven experimental sheep were given methylprednisolone (1 g intravenously every 6 h for four doses) and thoracic irradiation; control sheep received only irradiation. In irradiated control sheep, lung lymph flow increased from baseline (7.6 ml/h) to peak at 3 h (13.2), and lung lymph protein clearance increased from 5.1 to 9.7 ml/h. Mean pulmonary artery pressure increased in the irradiated control sheep from 19 to 32.4 cm H/sub 2/O, whereas the lung lymph thromboxane concentration increased from 0.09 to 6.51 ng/ml at 3 h. Arterial oxygen tension in irradiated control sheep fell gradually from 86 mm Hg at baseline to 65 mm Hg at 8 h. Methylprednisolone administration significantly prevented the increase in lung lymph protein clearance, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and lung lymph thromboxane concentration. Methylprednisolone also prevented the fall in arterial oxygen tension after thoracic irradiation, but did not prevent a further decrease in lymphocytes in blood or lung lymph after radiation. We conclude that corticosteroid therapy prevents most of the acute physiologic changes caused by thoracic irradiation in awake sheep.

  4. Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapunova, Elena; Nikituk, Alexander; Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg; Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young's moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.

  5. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  6. Isolation of a novel LPS-induced component of the ML superfamily in Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Aiti; Bonura, Angela; Longo, Valeria; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Parrinello, Daniela; Cammarata, Matteo; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    ML superfamily represents a group of proteins playing important roles in lipid metabolism and innate immune response. In this study, we report the identification of the first component of the ML superfamily in the invertebrate Ciona intestinalis by means of a subtractive hybridization strategy. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that this protein forms a specific clade with vertebrate components of the Niemann-Pick type C2 protein and, for this reason, it has been named Ci-NPC2. The putative Ci-NPC2 is a 150 amino acids long protein with a short signal peptide, seven cysteine residues, three putative lipid binding site and a three-dimensional model showing a characteristic β-strand structure. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the Ci-NPC2 protein is positively upregulated after LPS inoculum with a peak of expression 1 h after challenge. Finally, in-situ hybridization demonstrated that the Ci-NPC2 protein is preferentially expressed in hemocytes inside the vessel lumen. PMID:26159403

  7. GeoSciML: Development of a generic GeoScience Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Marcus; Duffy, Tim

    2005-11-01

    The use of eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema for geoscience data exchange is an improvement on non XML data formats because the XML format is partially self-documenting and provides common methods for parsing files, obtaining their structure and transforming them to alternative formats. The British Geological Survey (BGS) believes it is important to develop some common ML for the exchange of generic geoscience information. If communities share a common data transfer model for their domains of interest, data exchange becomes even easier and more likely to take place efficiently. To address this need the BGS is proposing the development of GeoSciML, a geoscience information markup language, as an application of the OpenGIS Consortium's (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML), building upon the applied geoscience domain focused eXploration and Mining Markup Language (XMML). We are aiming for an open standard with the support of bodies such as the International Union of Geological Sciences' (IUGS) Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information and the OGC. This paper illustrates the proposed approach with some initial development work to cover geoscientific domains of particular interest, such as boreholes, text and structural geology. The development process has been iterative, with successive prototypes incorporating the comments of experts in each geoscientific domain. We propose that development be extended to the wider geoscience community with the developing schemas and documentation available on a collaborative web site.

  8. PepArML: A Meta-Search Peptide Identification Platform

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform provides a unified search interface to seven search engines; a robust cluster, grid, and cloud computing scheduler for large-scale searches; and an unsupervised, model-free, machine-learning-based result combiner, which selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum, estimates false-discovery rates, and outputs pepXML format identifications. The meta-search platform supports Mascot; Tandem with native, k-score, and s-score scoring; OMSSA; MyriMatch; and InsPecT with MS-GF spectral probability scores — reformatting spectral data and constructing search configurations for each search engine on the fly. The combiner selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum based on search engine results and features that model enzymatic digestion, retention time, precursor isotope clusters, mass accuracy, and proteotypic peptide properties, requiring no prior knowledge of feature utility or weighting. The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform often identifies 2–3 times more spectra than individual search engines at 10% FDR. PMID:25663956

  9. PepArML: A Meta-Search Peptide Identification Platform for Tandem Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nathan J

    2013-12-01

    The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform for tandem mass spectra provides a unified search interface to seven search engines; a robust cluster, grid, and cloud computing scheduler for large-scale searches; and an unsupervised, model-free, machine-learning-based result combiner, which selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum, estimates false-discovery rates, and outputs pepXML format identifications. The meta-search platform supports Mascot; Tandem with native, k-score and s-score scoring; OMSSA; MyriMatch; and InsPecT with MS-GF spectral probability scores—reformatting spectral data and constructing search configurations for each search engine on the fly. The combiner selects the best peptide identification for each spectrum based on search engine results and features that model enzymatic digestion, retention time, precursor isotope clusters, mass accuracy, and proteotypic peptide properties, requiring no prior knowledge of feature utility or weighting. The PepArML meta-search peptide identification platform often identifies two to three times more spectra than individual search engines at 10% FDR.

  10. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever in small non-human primates✩

    PubMed Central

    Lukashevich, Igor S.; Carrion, Ricardo; Salvato, Maria S.; Mansfield, Keith; Brasky, Kathleen; Zapata, Juan; Cairo, Cristiana; Goicochea, Marco; Hoosien, Gia E.; Ticer, Anysha; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Hammamieh, Rasha; Mayda, Maria; Jett, Marti; Patterson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    A single injection of ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever induces low, transient viremia, and low or moderate levels of ML29 replication in tissues of common marmosets depending on the dose of the vaccination. The vaccination elicits specific immune responses and completely protects marmosets against fatal disease by induction of sterilizing cell-mediated immunity. DNA array analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exposed to ML29 revealed that gene expression patterns in ML29-exposed PBMC and control, media-exposed PBMC, clustered together confirming safety profile of the ML29 in non-human primates. The ML29 reassortant is a promising vaccine candidate for Lassa fever. PMID:18692539

  11. [Successful One-lung Ventilation with a Right-sided Double-lumen Tube in a Patient with a Right Upper Tracheal Bronchus, who Underwent Left Pneumonectomy for Left Hilar Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Izumi; Kohchiyama, Tsukasa; Hayashida, Masakazu; Satoh, Daizoh; Suzuki, Kenji; Inada, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    A 60-year-old male patient with left hilar lung cancer was scheduled to undergo left pneumonectomy or left sleeve lower lobectomy. Preoperative computer tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the bronchus (B1) to the right apical segment (S1) was a tracheal bronchus (TB) originating from the trachea approximately 10 mm above the carina. Because the left main bronchus was to be dissected, a right-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) was selected to completely protect the right lung from spillage of secretions or cancer cells from the left lung. The right-sided DLT was placed so as to fit its lateral opening of the bronchial lumen to normal upper branches (B2, B3), while sacrificing ventilation of S1 with an abnormal branch (B1). However, one-lung ventilation (OLV) of the right lung could not be achieved, since a gas leakage from the opened tracheal lumen occurred, most probably due to intra-lobar micro-airway communications between S1 and S2/S3. The DLT was withdrawn until the blue bronchial cuff occluded the orifice of the TB (B1). Although the upper half of the blue bronchial cuff appeared above the tracheal carina, OLV through the two bronchial lumen openings could be achieved due to a specific, slanted doughnut shape of the blue bronchial cuff and the location of the abnormal branch (B1) approximate to the carina. Left pneumonectomy using successful OLV was completed safely without hypoxemia or hypercapnea. Our experience indicates that management of OLV for patients with a thoracheal bronchus needs special considerations of the exact location of the TB and intra-lobar micro-airway communications, in addition to types of scheduled surgical procedures. PMID:27483653

  12. Leukocyte filtration in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, Mark; Roach, John D; Vertrees, Roger A; Girouard, Mark K; Lick, Scott D

    2002-05-01

    Controlled reperfusion of the transplanted lung has been used in nine consecutive patients to decrease manifestations of lung reperfusion injury. An extracorporeal circuit containing a roller pump, heat exchanger and leukodepleting filter is primed with substrate-enhanced reperfusion solution mixed with approximately 2000 ml of the patient's blood. This solution is slowly recirculated to remove leukocytes prior to reperfusion. When the pulmonary anastomoses are completed, the pulmonary artery is cannulated through the untied anastomosis using a catheter containing a pressure lumen for measurement of infusion pressure. An atrial clamp is left in place on the patient's native atrial cuff to decrease the risk of systemic air embolism during the brief period of reperfusion from the extracorporeal reservoir. During reperfusion, the water bath to the heat exchanger is kept at 35 degrees C and the flow rate for reperfusion solution is between 150 and 200 m/min, keeping the pulmonary artery pressure <14 mmHg. Eight of nine patients were ventilated on 40% inspired oxygen within a few hours of operation and 7/9 were extubated on or before postoperative day 1. Six of nine patients are long-term survivors.

  13. Leukocyte filtration in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, Mark; Roach, John D; Vertrees, Roger A; Girouard, Mark K; Lick, Scott D

    2002-05-01

    Controlled reperfusion of the transplanted lung has been used in nine consecutive patients to decrease manifestations of lung reperfusion injury. An extracorporeal circuit containing a roller pump, heat exchanger and leukodepleting filter is primed with substrate-enhanced reperfusion solution mixed with approximately 2000 ml of the patient's blood. This solution is slowly recirculated to remove leukocytes prior to reperfusion. When the pulmonary anastomoses are completed, the pulmonary artery is cannulated through the untied anastomosis using a catheter containing a pressure lumen for measurement of infusion pressure. An atrial clamp is left in place on the patient's native atrial cuff to decrease the risk of systemic air embolism during the brief period of reperfusion from the extracorporeal reservoir. During reperfusion, the water bath to the heat exchanger is kept at 35 degrees C and the flow rate for reperfusion solution is between 150 and 200 m/min, keeping the pulmonary artery pressure <14 mmHg. Eight of nine patients were ventilated on 40% inspired oxygen within a few hours of operation and 7/9 were extubated on or before postoperative day 1. Six of nine patients are long-term survivors. PMID:12009087

  14. Factors Affecting the Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Biopsy Using Endobronchial Ultrasonography with a Guide Sheath in Peripheral Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Okachi, Shotaro; Imai, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Iwano, Shingo; Ando, Masahiko; Hase, Tetsunari; Aso, Hiromichi; Morise, Masahiro; Wakahara, Keiko; Ito, Satoru; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Sato, Mitsuo; Kondo, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) and virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN) improves the diagnostic yield in patients with peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). Most previous reports on EBUS-GS-guided transbronchial biopsy (TBB) have included patients with benign and malignant diseases. We aimed to determine the factors that predicted a successful diagnosis by EBUS-GS-guided TBB diagnostic in patients with small peripheral lung cancer, with a focus on the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings before bronchoscopy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 173 consecutive patients with 175 small (≤30 mm) PPLs who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer between June 2010 and October 2013 at Nagoya University Hospital. All patients underwent EBUS-GS-guided TBB with VBN using a ZioStation computer workstation (Ziosoft, Osaka, Japan). We analyzed the patient characteristics, HRCT findings, diagnostic yield, and the diagnostic factors in small peripheral lung carcinoma. Results The EBUS probe position was within the PPL in 83 of the 175 lesions (47%) and 112 (64.0%) cases were successfully diagnosed by EBUS-GS-guided TBB. A univariate analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with a significantly higher diagnostic yield: CT bronchus sign positivity, a lesion of >20 mm in diameter, a solid nodule, and a probe position that was within the lesion. The following factors were not significant: the lesion location, the number of biopsies, and the lung cancer histology. A multivariate analysis revealed that the following factors significantly affected the diagnostic yield: CT bronchus sign positivity [odds ratio (OR) =2.479]; a probe position that was within the lesion (OR=2.542); and a solid nodule (OR=2.304). Conclusion The significant factors that were significantly associated with a successful diagnosis using EBUS-GS-guided TBB in small peripheral lung carcinoma were as follows: CT

  15. Efficacy and safety of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy with or without radial endobronchial ultrasound for peripheral lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ozgul, Guler; Cetinkaya, Erdogan; Ozgul, Mehmet Akif; Abul, Yasin; Gencoglu, Atayla; Kamiloglu, Emine; Gul, Sule; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a promising new technology to increase the diagnostic yield of peripheral lung and mediastinal lesions. Conventional flexible bronchoscopy has a limited yield in peripheral pulmonary lesions, even in experienced hands. Radial endobronchial ultrasound (r-EBUS) with its real-time imaging capability can help to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield and safety of ENB with or without r-EBUS for peripheral lung lesions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary medical center, and 56 consecutive patients who were thought to be the best candidates for bronchoscopic biopsies at a multidisciplinary meeting were enrolled. ENB was performed under conscious sedation by using an electromagnetic tracking system with multiplanar reconstruction of previously acquired computed tomography (CT) data. Sampling was performed by biopsy forceps, endobronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Results: Fifty-six patients (50 men and 6 women; mean age, 60 ± 9 years) were studied. While an electromagnetic navigation system was used in all patients, r-EBUS was used in 26 of 56 patients. The median diameter of the lesions was 30 mm (interquartile range: 23-44 mm). Mean distance of the lesions from the pleura was 14.9 ± 14.6 mm. Mean procedure time was 20 ± 11.5 min. Mean registration error was 5.8 ± 1.5 mm. Mean navigation error was 1.2 ± 0.5 mm. The diagnostic yield of the procedure was 71.4% for peripheral lesions (non-small cell lung cancer = 23, small cell lung cancer = 3, benign diseases = 14). Pneumothorax occurred in only 1 patient (1.7%). Conclusion: ENB with or without r-EBUS is a safe, efficient, and easily applied method for sampling of peripheral lung lesions, with high diagnostic yield independent of lesion size and location. PMID:27386477

  16. CFTR and lung homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Collawn, James F; Matalon, Sadis

    2014-12-15

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  17. Lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Coscio, Angela M; Garst, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women; however, there are some clear gender-based differences. As the incidence of lung cancer is declining in men, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in women. Women are more likely than men to have adenocarcinoma, a histologic subtype that correlates with worsened prognosis, but women have improved survival compared with men. Genetic predisposition and the presence of estrogen receptors in lung cancer cells may predispose women to developing lung cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism and significance of these findings. PMID:17254523

  18. The lung in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, which induces gradients in ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange. Studies of lungs in microgravity provide a means of elucidating the effects of gravity. They suggest a mechanism by which gravity serves to match ventilation to perfusion, making for a more efficient lung than anticipated. Despite predictions, lungs do not become edematous, and there is no disruption to, gas exchange in microgravity. Sleep disturbances in microgravity are not a result of respiratory-related events; obstructive sleep apnea is caused principally by the gravitational effects on the upper airways. In microgravity, lungs may be at greater risk to the effects of inhaled aerosols.

  19. Xenogeneic lung transplantation models

    PubMed Central

    Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Study of lung xenografts has proven useful to understand the remaining barriers to successful transplantation of other organ xenografts. In this chapter, the history and current status of lung xenotransplantation will be briefly reviewed and two different experimental models, the ex vivo porcine-to-human lung perfusion and the in vivo xenogeneic lung transplantation, will be presented. We will focus on the technical details of these lung xenograft models in sufficient detail, list the needed materials and mention analysis techniques to allow others to adopt them with minimal learning curve. PMID:22565996

  20. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Deffebach, Mark E; Humphrey, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Screening for lung cancer in high-risk individuals with annual low-dose computed tomography has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% and is recommended by multiple health care organizations. Lung cancer screening is not a specific test; it is a process that involves appropriate selection of high-risk individuals, careful interpretation and follow-up of imaging, and annual testing. Screening should be performed in the context of a multidisciplinary program experienced in the diagnosis and management of lung nodules and early-stage lung cancer.

  1. WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observations data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Peter; Walker, Gavin; Valentine, David; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Our ability to share and understand water information from various sources is currently limited by the use of incompatible information management and publication technologies. Water resource managers, hydro-power generators, meteorologists and other interested stakeholders all monitor water resources and store their data using a wide array of technologies. Standards are multi-party agreements that provide a common ground on which people can share information by minimising ambiguity and sharing definitions for domain concepts. They are most effective when surrounded by an active community who, along with taking part in defining such concepts, develop supporting tools that allow for easy transmission and interpretation of data sets. Existing standards for water observations only exist within organisations or countries; there are no internationally agreed upon standards for encoding such data. Groups such as the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and others, have developed standards for national exchange of water information, such as WaterML1.1 and the Water Data Transfer Format; other standards such as Xhydro have been developed at the sub national level. An initial analysis of existing standards (including WaterML1.1, WDTF, XHydro and the UK EA format) found sufficient commonality to suggest a role for an international standard. Such a standard would reduce the load on organisations developing their own standards. The commonalities exist in the way in which measurements and observations are made and described, such as time series data produced from automated sensors commonly used for hydrological monitoring. The Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), is capable of describing measurements made by sensors and humans in a common way, involving both remote and in-situ sensing. O&M is generic, in that it does not define the concepts for a

  2. [The effect of cerebrolysin in dosage 50 ml on the volume of lesion in ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Shamalov, N A; Stakhovskaia, L V; Burenchev, D V; Kichuk, I V; Tvorogova, T V; Botsina, A Iu; Smychkov, A S; Kerbikov, O B; Moessler, H; Novak, P; Skvortsova, V I

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess safety and efficacy of cerebrolysin used in dosage 50 ml in acute ischemic stroke. Forty-seven patients with ischemic stroke, aged 45-85 years, who were admitted to a clinical unit within the first 12 h after stroke onset were included in the study. A quantitative time-related MRI analysis of the dynamics of neurological deficit revealed the more rapid decrease of stroke volume to the 28th day in the group treated with cerebrolysin (45.4% versus 43.6% in the placebo-group (p < 0.05)). No side-effects of treatment with cerebrolysin was found. The results of this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study suggest the positive effect of cerebrolysin on the dynamics of volume lesion in patients with ischemic stroke.

  3. Real-time combining of residual carrier array signals using ML weight estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Rodemich, Eugene R.; Dolinar, Samuel J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time digital signal combining system for use with array feeds is proposed. The combining system attempts to compensate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss resulting from antenna deformations induced by gravitational and atmospheric effects. The combining weights are obtained directly from the observed residual carrier samples in each channel using a 'sliding-window' implementation of a maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimator. It is shown that with averaging times of about 0.1 s, combining loss for a seven-element array can be limited to about 0.1 dB in a realistic operational environment. This result suggests that the real-time combining system proposed here is capable of recovering virtually all of the signal power captured by the array feed, even in the presence of severe wind gusts and similar disturbances.

  4. Modeling Complex Cross-Systems Software Interfaces Using SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandutianu, Sanda; Morillo, Ron; Simpson, Kim; Liepack, Otfrid; Bonanne, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The complex flight and ground systems for NASA human space exploration are designed, built, operated and managed as separate programs and projects. However, each system relies on one or more of the other systems in order to accomplish specific mission objectives, creating a complex, tightly coupled architecture. Thus, there is a fundamental need to understand how each system interacts with the other. To determine if a model-based system engineering approach could be utilized to assist with understanding the complex system interactions, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) sponsored a task to develop an approach for performing cross-system behavior modeling. This paper presents the results of applying Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) principles using the System Modeling Language (SysML) to define cross-system behaviors and how they map to crosssystem software interfaces documented in system-level Interface Control Documents (ICDs).

  5. Parallel and Scalable Big Data Analysis in the Earth Sciences with JuML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments of using a significantly increasing number of sensors with better resolutions in the wide variety of different earth observation projects continously contribute to the availability of 'big data' in the earth sciences. Not only the volume, velocity, and variety of the datasets pose increasing challenges for its analysis, but also the complexity of datasets (e.g. high number of dimensions in hyper-spectral images) requires data algorithms that are able to scale. This contribution will provide insights about the Juelich Machine learning Library (JuML) and its contents that have been actively used in several scientific use cases in the earth sciences. We discuss and categorize challenges related to 'big data' analysis and outline parallel algorithmic solutions driven by those use cases.

  6. Use of XML and MathML for Scientific Documents and Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, Chaitan

    2001-06-01

    The Extensible Markup Language is quickly becoming a part of the infrastructure of the Web and is the next "Web language", after HTML. We will provide an overview of the use of XML for modeling, exchange, and storage of document information. We will provide a brief overview of the basic features including, XML syntax, DTDs, and generic tools for authoring, validating, storing, and querying XML. We will focus on how XML technologies may affect future electronic versions of math and science documents and teaching materials. In particular, the use of MathML is permitting Web access to research and educational materials in which the mathematical equations and figures convey content in more than graphical form. This permits multi-modal access to the materials for diverse groups as well as user interactions with the equations and figures. We will provide examples of how one can develop flexible, interactive interfaces using XML data and open XML standards. note

  7. Using SysML for verification and validation planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the tool, language, and methodology used for Verification and Validation Planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project. LSST has implemented a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach as a means of defining all systems engineering planning and definition activities that have historically been captured in paper documents. Specifically, LSST has adopted the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) standard and is utilizing a software tool called Enterprise Architect, developed by Sparx Systems. Much of the historical use of SysML has focused on the early phases of the project life cycle. Our approach is to extend the advantages of MBSE into later stages of the construction project. This paper details the methodology employed to use the tool to document the verification planning phases, including the extension of the language to accommodate the project's needs. The process includes defining the Verification Plan for each requirement, which in turn consists of a Verification Requirement, Success Criteria, Verification Method(s), Verification Level, and Verification Owner. Each Verification Method for each Requirement is defined as a Verification Activity and mapped into Verification Events, which are collections of activities that can be executed concurrently in an efficient and complementary way. Verification Event dependency and sequences are modeled using Activity Diagrams. The methodology employed also ties in to the Project Management Control System (PMCS), which utilizes Primavera P6 software, mapping each Verification Activity as a step in a planned activity. This approach leads to full traceability from initial Requirement to scheduled, costed, and resource loaded PMCS task-based activities, ensuring all requirements will be verified.

  8. Sensor metadata blueprints and computer-aided editing for disciplined SensorML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliolato, Paolo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The need for continuous, accurate, and comprehensive environmental knowledge has led to an increase in sensor observation systems and networks. The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative has been promoted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to foster interoperability among sensor systems. The provision of metadata according to the prescribed SensorML schema is a key component for achieving this and nevertheless availability of correct and exhaustive metadata cannot be taken for granted. On the one hand, it is awkward for users to provide sensor metadata because of the lack in user-oriented, dedicated tools. On the other, the specification of invariant information for a given sensor category or model (e.g., observed properties and units of measurement, manufacturer information, etc.), can be labor- and timeconsuming. Moreover, the provision of these details is error prone and subjective, i.e., may differ greatly across distinct descriptions for the same system. We provide a user-friendly, template-driven metadata authoring tool composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. This results in a form-based user interface that conceals the high complexity of the underlying format. This tool also allows for plugging in external data sources providing authoritative definitions for the aforementioned invariant information. Leveraging these functionalities, we compiled a set of SensorML profiles, that is, sensor metadata blueprints allowing end users to focus only on the metadata items that are related to their specific deployment. The natural extension of this scenario is the involvement of end users and sensor manufacturers in the crowd-sourced evolution of this collection of prototypes. We describe the components and workflow of our framework for computer-aided management of sensor metadata.

  9. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  10. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-23 is elevated in lung cancer, particularly small cell type

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Caner; Muftuoglu, Tuba; Bigi, Oguz; Emirzeoglu, Levent; Celik, Serkan; Ozgun, Alpaslan; Tuncel, Tolga; Top, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 play roles in inflammation and autoimmunity. The function of the IL-17/IL-23 pathway has not been completely evaluated in cancer patients. We aimed to investigate serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels and their relationship with clinicopathological and biochemical parameters in lung cancer patients. Material and methods Forty-five lung cancer patients and 46 healthy volunteers were included in the study. IL-17 and IL-23 measurements were made with the ELISA method. The ages of patients (53–84 years) and healthy subjects (42–82 years) were similar. Results Serum IL-23 levels were higher in lung cancer patients than in healthy subjects (491.27 ±1263.38 pg/ml vs. 240.51 ±233.18 pg/ml; p = 0.032). IL-23 values were higher in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients than in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (1325.30 ±2478.06 pg/ml vs. 229.15 ±103.22 pg/ml; p = 0.043). Serum IL-17 levels were lower in the patients, but the difference was not statistically significant (135.94 ±52.36 pg/ml vs. 171.33 ±133.51 pg/ml; p = 0.124). Presence of comorbid disease (diabetes mellitus, hypertension or chronic obstructive lung disease) did not have any effect on the levels of IL-17 or IL-23. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate values were positively correlated with cytokine levels, but serum albumin levels were negatively correlated. Conclusions Serum IL-23 levels are elevated in lung cancer patients, particularly those with SCLC. IL-17 and IL-23 values are correlated with inflammatory markers in the patients. PMID:27647985

  11. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening.

  12. Effects of budesonide and N-acetylcysteine on acute lung hyperinflation, inflammation and injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Anne-Helene; Eriksson, Christina; Wang, Xiangdong

    2005-08-01

    Leukocyte activation and production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species are important in the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. The present study investigated acute lung hyperinflation, edema, and lung inflammation 4 h after an intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 microg/ml/kg). Effects of budesonide, an inhaled anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, were evaluated in Wistar rats receiving either low (2.5 microg/ml/kg) or high (50 microg/ml/kg) concentrations of LPS. This study demonstrates that LPS in a concentration-dependent pattern induces acute lung hyperinflation measured by excised lung gas volume (25-45% above control), lung injury indicated by increased lung weight (10-60%), and lung inflammation characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes (40-14000%) and neutrophils (80-17000%) and the production of cytokines (up to 2700%) and chemokines (up to 350%) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pretreatment with NAC partially prevented tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production induced by the low concentration of LPS, while pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the increased production of TNFalpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractive protein (MCP)-1 after LPS challenge at both low and high concentrations. Budesonide failed to prevent BALF levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (GRO/CINC-1) as well as lung hyperinflation induced by both low and high concentrations of LPS. Pretreatment with budesonide totally prevented the formation of lung edema at the low concentration of LPS and had partial effects on acute lung injury and leukocyte influx at the high concentrations. Thus, our data indicate that therapeutic effects of budesonide and NAC are dependent upon the severity of the disease.

  13. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment. PMID:24795618

  14. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C.; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P.; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P. C.; Silver, R. Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment. PMID:24795618

  15. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  16. Lung biological activity of American attapulgite

    SciTech Connect

    Begin, R.; Masse, S.; Rola-Pleszczynski, M.; Geoffroy, M.; Martel, M.; Desmarais, Y.; Sebastien, P.

    1987-04-01

    Attapulgite is a fibrous mineral industrially consumed at the rate of over a million tons per year but the biological activity of the material is not fully known. To evaluate the in vivo toxicity of the fibrous materials, they exposed the tracheal lobe of 16 sheep to a single exposure of either 100 ml saline, 100 mg UICC asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, 100 mg short asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, or 100 mg attapulgite in 100 ml saline. The animals were studied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at Days 2, 12, 24, 40, and 60 and by autopsy at Day 60. In the saline-exposed sheep, BAL and lung histology did not change. In the UICC asbestos-exposed animals, they reproduced the BAL changes previously reported. In the short asbestos-exposed sheep, there were no significant BAL changes. In the attapulgite sheep, they found significant and sustained increases in total BAL cells, macrophages, neutrophils, fibronectin, lactate dehydrogenase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, but BAL cellularity returned to control levels by Day 60 whereas in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, it remained significantly above control. Lung histology demonstrated the characteristic peribronchiolar fibrosing alveolitis in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep and in all of the attapulgite-exposed sheep but three which had typical peribronchiolar alveolitis quite similar to that observed in UICC-exposed sheep, but of lower intensity.

  17. MicroPET Evaluation of a Hydroxamate-Based MMP Inhibitor, [(18)F]FB-ML5, in a Mouse Model of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Acute Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matusiak, Nathalie; van Waarde, Aren; Rozeveld, Dennie; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Heijink, Irene H; Castelli, Riccardo; Overkleeft, Herman S; Bischoff, Rainer; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Elsinga, Philip H

    2015-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main proteolytic enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A radiolabeled MMP inhibitor, [(18)F]FB-ML5, was prepared, and its in vivo kinetics were tested in a mouse model of pulmonary inflammation. BALB/c mice were exposed for 4 days to cigarette smoke (CS) or air. On the fifth day, a dynamic microPET scan was made with [(18)F]FB-ML5. Standardized uptake values (PET-SUVmean) were 0.19 ± 0.06 in the lungs of CS-exposed mice (n = 6) compared to 0.11 ± 0.03 (n = 5) in air-exposed controls (p < 0.05), 90 min post-injection MMP-9 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were increased from undetectable level to 4615 ± 1963 pg/ml by CS exposure. Increased MMP expression in a COPD mouse model was shown to lead to increased retention of [(18)F]FB-ML5.

  18. Fabrication of large-sized silica monolith exceeding 1000 mL with high structural homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Riichi; Ando, Yukiko; Kurusu, Chie; Bai, Hong-zhi; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Ippommatsu, Masamichi

    2013-06-01

    Reproducible fabrication of the hierarchically porous monolithic silica in a large volume exceeding 1000 mL has been established. By the hydrothermal enlargement of the fully accessible small pores to exceed 50 nm in diameter, the capillary force emerged on solvent evaporation was dramatically reduced, which allowed the preparation of crack-free monoliths with evaporative solvent removal under an ambient pressure. The local temperature inhomogeneity within a reaction vessel in a large volume was precisely controlled to cancel the heat evolved by the hydrolysis reaction of tetramethoxysilane and that consumed to melt ice cubes dispersed in the solution, resulting in large monolithic silica pieces with improved structural homogeneity. Homogeneity of the pore structure was confirmed, both on macro- and mesoscales, using SEM, mercury intrusion, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. Furthermore, the deviations in chromatographic performance were examined by evaluating multiple smaller monolithic columns prepared from the monolithic silica pieces cut from different parts of a large monolith. All the daughter columns thus prepared exhibited comparable performances to each other to prove the overall homogeneity of the mother monolith. Preliminary results on high-speed separation of peptides and proteins by the octadecylsilylated silica monolith of the above production have also been demonstrated. PMID:23568889

  19. Fast nearly ML estimation of Doppler frequency in GNSS signal acquisition process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinhua; Falletti, Emanuela; Lo Presti, Letizia

    2013-04-29

    It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequency estimate. Based on the simple equation derived from this mathematical expression of the CAF, a family of novel algorithms is proposed to refine the Doppler frequency estimate with respect to that provided by a conventional acquisition method. In an ideal scenario where there is no noise and other nuisances, the frequency estimation error can be theoretically reduced to zero. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the new algorithm almost reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) which is derived as benchmark. For comparison, a least-square (LS) method is proposed. It is shown that the proposed solution achieves the same performance of LS, but requires a dramatically reduced computational burden. An averaging method is proposed to mitigate the influence of noise, especially when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, the influence of the grid resolution in the search space is analyzed in both time and frequency domains.

  20. Fast Nearly ML Estimation of Doppler Frequency in GNSS Signal Acquisition Process

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinhua; Falletti, Emanuela; Presti, Letizia Lo

    2013-01-01

    It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequency estimate. Based on the simple equation derived from this mathematical expression of the CAF, a family of novel algorithms is proposed to refine the Doppler frequency estimate with respect to that provided by a conventional acquisition method. In an ideal scenario where there is no noise and other nuisances, the frequency estimation error can be theoretically reduced to zero. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the new algorithm almost reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) which is derived as benchmark. For comparison, a least-square (LS) method is proposed. It is shown that the proposed solution achieves the same performance of LS, but requires a dramatically reduced computational burden. An averaging method is proposed to mitigate the influence of noise, especially when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, the influence of the grid resolution in the search space is analyzed in both time and frequency domains. PMID:23628761

  1. Virtual Construction of Space Habitats: Connecting Building Information Models (BIM) and SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polit-Casillas, Raul; Howe, A. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Current trends in design, construction and management of complex projects make use of Building Information Models (BIM) connecting different types of data to geometrical models. This information model allow different types of analysis beyond pure graphical representations. Space habitats, regardless their size, are also complex systems that require the synchronization of many types of information and disciplines beyond mass, volume, power or other basic volumetric parameters. For this, the state-of-the-art model based systems engineering languages and processes - for instance SysML - represent a solid way to tackle this problem from a programmatic point of view. Nevertheless integrating this with a powerful geometrical architectural design tool with BIM capabilities could represent a change in the workflow and paradigm of space habitats design applicable to other aerospace complex systems. This paper shows some general findings and overall conclusions based on the ongoing research to create a design protocol and method that practically connects a systems engineering approach with a BIM architectural and engineering design as a complete Model Based Engineering approach. Therefore, one hypothetical example is created and followed during the design process. In order to make it possible this research also tackles the application of IFC categories and parameters in the aerospace field starting with the application upon the space habitats design as way to understand the information flow between disciplines and tools. By building virtual space habitats we can potentially improve in the near future the way more complex designs are developed from very little detail from concept to manufacturing.

  2. Effect of 400 ml blood loss on adaptation of certain functions of the organism to exercise.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, K; Cholewa, M; Górski, L; Jaszczuk, J; Chmura, J; Bartniczak, Z

    1981-01-01

    Eighteen men aged 19-23 years, volunteer blood donors, donated 400 ml of blood. Twenty-four hours before donation, one hour and 24 hours after it they performed a 10-minute exercise on Monark cycle ergometer at workloads raising the heart rate to 170/min. During the exercise the oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2), respiratory quotient (RQ), oxygen uptake to maximal oxygen uptake ratio (VO2/VO2 max), heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure (Ps and Pd) were determined. The obtained results were compared with the values of haemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte count. One hour after blood donation raised values of HR and Pd were obtained (p less than 0.05) with decreased Ps (p less than 0.05) and VO2 (p less than 0.05). Twenty-four hours after blood loss these parameters were not different from the initial ones (p less than 0.05). Submaximal exercise performed 1 hour after blood loss produced a significantly greater increase of the heart rate than this exercise performed before blood loss. The values of VO2, VCO2, and VO2/VO2 max were slightly lower and those of RQ and HRXPs slightly higher than during control exercise (p less than 0.05). Exercise performed 24 hours after blood loss caused identical changes in these parameters as during control tests. PMID:6816010

  3. Identification of SR3335 (ML176): a Synthetic RORα Selective Inverse Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Solt, Laura A.; Kumar, K. Ganesh; Nuhant, Philippe; Duckett, Derek R.; Cameron, Michael D.; Butler, Andrew A.; Roush, William R.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors (NRs) are still characterized as orphan receptors since ligands have not yet been identified for these proteins. The retinoic acid receptor-related receptors (RORs) have no well-defined physiological ligands. Here, we describe the identification of a selective RORα synthetic ligand, SR3335 (ML-176). SR3335 directly binds to RORα, but not other RORs, and functions as a selective partial inverse agonist of RORα in cell-based assays. Furthermore, SR3335 suppresses the expression of endogenous RORα target genes in HepG2 involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis including glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that SR3335 displays reasonable exposure following an i.p. injection into mice. We assess the ability of SR3335 to suppress gluconeogenesis in vivo using a diet induced obesity (DIO) mouse model where the mice where treated with 15 mg/kg b.i.d., i.p. for 6-days followed by a pyruvate tolerance test. SR3335 treated mice displayed lower plasma glucose levels following the pyruvate challenge consistent with suppression of gluconeogenesis. Thus, we have identified the first selective synthetic RORα inverse agonist and this compound can be utilized as a chemical tool to probe the function of this receptor both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, our data suggests that RORα inverse agonists may hold utility for suppression of elevated hepatic glucose production in type 2 diabetics. PMID:21090593

  4. Specification and Design of Electrical Flight System Architectures with SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKelvin, Mark L., Jr.; Jimenez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern space flight systems are required to perform more complex functions than previous generations to support space missions. This demand is driving the trend to deploy more electronics to realize system functionality. The traditional approach for the specification, design, and deployment of electrical system architectures in space flight systems includes the use of informal definitions and descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled but highly interdependent design documents. Traditional methods become inefficient to cope with increasing system complexity, evolving requirements, and the ability to meet project budget and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for more rigorous methods to capture the relevant information about the electrical system architecture as the design evolves. In this work, we propose a model-centric approach to support the specification and design of electrical flight system architectures using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In our approach, we develop a domain specific language for specifying electrical system architectures, and we propose a design flow for the specification and design of electrical interfaces. Our approach is applied to a practical flight system.

  5. Architecting the Human Space Flight Program with Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Maddalena M.; Fernandez, Michela Munoz; McVittie, Thomas I.; Sindiy, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of missions in NASA's Human Space Flight program focuses on the development and deployment of highly complex systems (e.g., Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, Space Launch System, 21st Century Ground System) that will enable astronauts to venture beyond low Earth orbit and explore the moon, near-Earth asteroids, and beyond. Architecting these highly complex system-of-systems requires formal systems engineering techniques for managing the evolution of the technical features in the information exchange domain (e.g., data exchanges, communication networks, ground software) and also, formal correlation of the technical architecture to stakeholders' programmatic concerns (e.g., budget, schedule, risk) and design development (e.g., assumptions, constraints, trades, tracking of unknowns). This paper will describe how the authors have applied System Modeling Language (SysML) to implement model-based systems engineering for managing the description of the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) architecture and associated development activities and ultimately enables stakeholders to understand, reason, and answer questions about the EEIS under design for proposed lunar Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2).

  6. Targeted delivery of liquid microvolumes into the lung.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; O'Neill, John D; Dorrello, N Valerio; Bacchetta, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-09-15

    The ability to deliver drugs to specific sites in the lung could radically improve therapeutic outcomes of a variety of lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, severe bronchopneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Using conventional methods for pulmonary drug administration, precise, localized delivery of exact doses of drugs to target regions remains challenging. Here we describe a more controlled delivery of soluble reagents (e.g., drugs, enzymes, and radionuclides) in microvolume liquid plugs to targeted branches of the pulmonary airway tree: upper airways, small airways (bronchioles), or the most distal alveoli. In this approach, a soluble liquid plug of very small volume (<1 mL) is instilled into the upper airways, and with programmed air ventilation of the lungs, the plug is pushed into a specific desired (more distal) airway to achieve deposition of liquid film onto the lung epithelium. The plug volume and ventilation conditions were determined by mathematical modeling of plug transport in a tubular geometry, and targeted liquid film deposition was demonstrated in rat lungs by three different in vivo imaging modalities. The experimental and modeling data suggest that instillation of microvolumes of liquid into a ventilated pulmonary airway could be an effective strategy to deliver exact doses of drugs to targeted pathologic regions of the lung, especially those inaccessible by bronchoscopy, to increase in situ efficacy of the drug and minimize systemic side effects. PMID:26324893

  7. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the purpose, theoretical approach, and use of a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) being presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson, described in a related Infotech 2013 ISHM abstract titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management", this paper will describe the core framework used to implement the GFTbased systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). These two papers are ideally accepted and presented together in the same Infotech session. Statement of problem: SysML, as a tool, is currently not capable of implementing the theoretical approach described within the "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" paper cited above. More generally, SysML's current capabilities to model functional decompositions in the rigorous manner required in the GFT approach are limited. The GFT is a new Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to the development of goals and requirements, functions, and its linkage to design. As a growing standard for systems engineering, it is important to develop methods to implement GFT in SysML. Proposed Method of Solution: Many of the central concepts of the SysML language are needed to implement a GFT for large complex systems. In the implementation of those central concepts, the following will be described in detail: changes to the nominal SysML process, model view definitions and examples, diagram definitions and examples, and detailed SysML construct and stereotype definitions.

  8. Lung fluid balance in lambs before and after premature birth.

    PubMed Central

    Bland, R D; Carlton, D P; Scheerer, R G; Cummings, J J; Chapman, D L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if lung vascular protein permeability is greater in preterm lambs with respiratory distress than it is in lambs without lung disease. We measured pulmonary vascular pressures, lung lymph flow, and concentrations of protein in lymph and plasma of 10 chronically catheterized preterm lambs (gestation 133 +/- 1 d) for 2-4 h before and for 4-8 h after delivery by cesarean section. All lambs were treated with mechanical ventilation after birth and received a constant intravenous infusion of glucose-saline solution at an hourly rate of 10 ml/kg. Respiratory failure developed in six lambs, in which there was a sustained threefold postnatal increase in lung lymph flow and lymph protein flow, with an even greater increase in pleural liquid drainage. Concentrations of protein in lymph and pleural liquid were almost identical, averaging approximately 75% of the plasma protein concentration. In the four preterm lambs without lung disease, lymph flow and lymph protein flow were either near or below fetal values by 6-8 h after birth, and there was little or no pleural liquid drainage. Extravascular lung water averaged 7.3 +/- .8 g/g dry lung in lambs with respiratory failure compared to 4.8 +/- .5 g/g dry lung in lambs without lung disease. Thus, pulmonary edema with abnormal leakage of protein-rich liquid from the lung microcirculation into the interstitium is an important pathological feature of the respiratory disease that often occurs after premature birth. Images PMID:2760201

  9. An uptake of cationized ferritin by alveolar type I cells in airway-instilled goat lung: distribution of anionic sites on the epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Atwal, O S; Viel, L; Minhas, K J

    1990-07-01

    The present study has investigated ultrastructural localization of anionic sites on the luminal surface of the alveolar epithelium of goat lung by direct airway instillation of cationized ferritin (CF) in the cranial lobe of the right lung through a bronchoscope. The cationic probe decorated preferentially the luminal plasmalemmal vesicles and plasmalemma proper of alveolar type I cell. This indicated the presence of highly charged anionic microdomains at these binding sites. The ligand was internalized in the free plasmalemmal vesicles of alveolar type I cell within 2 min. Heavy decoration of vesicles at 5 min of perfusion indicated that the amount of CF internalization increased with its concentration in the alveoli. It is suggested that exposure of alveolar surface to several gases of ruminal-origin induces changes in the surface charge of luminal plasmalemma of alveolar type I cells. The significance of these anionic plasmalemmal sites is discussed in relation to the adjustment of osmotic pressure gradient across the alveolar-capillary membrane of the ruminant lung.

  10. An uptake of cationized ferritin by alveolar type I cells in airway-instilled goat lung: distribution of anionic sites on the epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Atwal, O S; Viel, L; Minhas, K J

    1990-07-01

    The present study has investigated ultrastructural localization of anionic sites on the luminal surface of the alveolar epithelium of goat lung by direct airway instillation of cationized ferritin (CF) in the cranial lobe of the right lung through a bronchoscope. The cationic probe decorated preferentially the luminal plasmalemmal vesicles and plasmalemma proper of alveolar type I cell. This indicated the presence of highly charged anionic microdomains at these binding sites. The ligand was internalized in the free plasmalemmal vesicles of alveolar type I cell within 2 min. Heavy decoration of vesicles at 5 min of perfusion indicated that the amount of CF internalization increased with its concentration in the alveoli. It is suggested that exposure of alveolar surface to several gases of ruminal-origin induces changes in the surface charge of luminal plasmalemma of alveolar type I cells. The significance of these anionic plasmalemmal sites is discussed in relation to the adjustment of osmotic pressure gradient across the alveolar-capillary membrane of the ruminant lung. PMID:2390765

  11. Lung transplantation at Duke

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Alice L.; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation represents the gold-standard therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Utilization of this therapy continues to rise. The Lung Transplant Program at Duke University Medical Center was established in 1992, and since that time has grown to one of the highest volume centers in the world. The program to date has performed over 1,600 lung transplants. This report represents an up-to-date review of the practice and management strategies employed for safe and effective lung transplantation at our center. Specific attention is paid to the evaluation of candidacy for lung transplantation, donor selection, surgical approach, and postoperative management. These evidence-based strategies form the foundation of the clinical transplantation program at Duke. PMID:27076968

  12. Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Hoffknecht, Petra; Dicken, Volker; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Lange, Tobias; Thomas, Michael; Heindel, Walter

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed by prototype software: automated segmentation and volumetry of lung lobes was performed with minimal user interaction. Determined volumes of different lung lobes were used to predict postoperative FEV1 as percentage of the preoperative values. Predicted FEV1 values were compared to the observed postoperative values as standard of reference. Patients underwent lobectomy in twelve cases (6 upper lobes; 1 middle lobe; 5 lower lobes; 6 right side; 6 left side) and pneumonectomy in three cases. Automated calculation of predicted postoperative lung function was successful in all cases. Predicted FEV1 ranged from 54% to 95% (mean 75% +/- 11%) of the preoperative values. Two cases with obviously erroneous LFT were excluded from analysis. Mean error of predicted FEV1 was 20 +/- 160 ml, indicating absence of systematic error; mean absolute error was 7.4 +/- 3.3% respective 137 +/- 77 ml/s. The 200 ml reproducibility criterion for FEV1 was met in 11 of 13 cases (85%). In conclusion, software-assisted prediction of postoperative lung function yielded a clinically acceptable agreement with the observed postoperative values. This method might add useful information for evaluation of functional operability of patients with lung cancer.

  13. Advances in lung preservation.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2013-12-01

    After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. PMID:24206857

  14. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  15. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries.

  16. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  17. Nicotine and lung development.

    PubMed

    Maritz, Gert S

    2008-03-01

    Nicotine is found in tobacco smoke. It is a habit forming substance and is prescribed by health professionals to assist smokers to quit smoking. It is rapidly absorbed from the lungs of smokers. It crosses the placenta and accumulates in the developing fetus. Nicotine induces formation of oxygen radicals and at the same time also reduces the antioxidant capacity of the lungs. Nicotine and the oxidants cause point mutations in the DNA molecule, thereby changing the program that controls lung growth and maintenance of lung structure. The data available indicate that maternal nicotine exposure induces a persistent inhibition of glycolysis and a drastically increased cAMP level. These metabolic changes are thought to contribute to the faster aging of the lungs of the offspring of mothers that are exposed to nicotine via the placenta and mother's milk. The lungs of these animals are more susceptible to damage as shown by the gradual deterioration of the lung parenchyma. The rapid metabolic and structural aging of the lungs of the animals that were exposed to nicotine via the placenta and mother's milk, and thus during phases of lung development characterized by rapid cell division, is likely due to "programming" induced by nicotine. It is, therefore, not advisable to use nicotine during gestation and lactation. PMID:18383131

  18. A library of near-infrared integral field spectra of young M-L dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Rojo, P.; Allard, F.; Pinte, C.; Dumas, C.; Homeier, D.

    2014-02-01

    Context. At young ages, low surface gravity affects the atmospheric properties of ultracool dwarfs. The impact on medium-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectra has only been slightly investigated at the M-L transition so far. Aims: We present a library of NIR (1.1-2.45 μm) medium-resolution (R ~ 1500-2000) integral field spectra of 15 young M6-L0 dwarfs. We aim at deriving updated NIR spectral type, luminosity, and physical parameters (Teff, log g, M, L/L⊙) for each source. This work also aims at testing the latest generation of BT-SETTL atmospheric models. Methods: We estimated spectral types using spectral indices and the spectra of young objects classified in the optical. We used the 2010 and 2012 releases of the BT-SETTL synthetic spectral grid and cross-checked the results with the DRIFT-PHOENIX models to derive the atmospheric properties of the sources. Results: We do not find significant differences between the spectra of young companions and those of young isolated brown dwarfs in the same spectral type range. We derive infrared spectral types L0 ± 1, L0 ± 1, M9.5 ± 0.5, M9.5 ± 0.5, M9.25 ± 0.25, M8+0.5-0.75, and M8.5 ± 0.5 for AB Pic b, Cha J110913-773444, USco CTIO 108B, GSC 08047-00232 B, DH Tau B, CT Cha b, and HR7329B, respectively. The BT-SETTL and DRIFT-PHOENIX models yield close Teff and log g estimates for each source. The models seem to show a 600+600-300 K drop in the effective temperature at the M-L transition. Assuming the former temperatures are correct, we then derive new mass estimates that confirm that DH Tau B, USco CTIO 108B, AB Pic b, KPNO Tau 4, OTS 44, and Cha1109 lie inside or at the boundary of the planetary mass range. We combine the empirical luminosities of the M9.5-L0 sources to the Teff to derive semi-empirical radii estimates that do not match "hot-start" evolutionary models predictions at 1-3 Myr. We use complementary data to demonstrate that atmospheric models are able to reproduce the combined optical and infrared

  19. Scalp psoriasis: topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion.

    PubMed

    Duweb, G A; Abuzariba, O; Rahim, M; al-Taweel, M; Abdulla, S A

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two patients aged between 6 and 61 years (mean: 33.5 years) with psoriasis of the scalp were enrolled in this study. Twenty-seven patients (69%) were males and 15 (31%) were females. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion in the treatment of psoriasis of the scalp. The study was randomized with the twice-daily application of either calcipotriol solution or betamethasone valerate lotion for 6 weeks. Treatment evaluation was clinically based on signs of psoriasis (thickness, redness, scaliness) which were scored from 0 = absent to 4 = severest possible involvement and was performed at the start of treatment and at weeks 2 and 6 of treatment. The results showed a marked improvement and clearance at the end of treatment in 15 (72.8%) of the 24 patients in the calcipotriol group and in 13 of the 18 patients (72%) in the betamethasone group. The mean total sign score at baseline was 5.1 in the calcipotriol group and 5.4 in the betamethasone valerate group. At the end of treatment, this score was decreased to 2.1 and 1.49, respectively. No significant adverse effects were reported in either group except in two patients (8.3%) in the calcipotriol group who developed signs of irritation including itching and erythema. In conclusion, both drugs were effective and well tolerated in the treatment of scalp psoriasis but in some patients calcipotriol had to be given for more prolonged courses.

  20. Macroseismic survey of the ML5.5, 2014 Orkney earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, V.; Zulu, B.; Manzunzu, B.; Mulabisana, T.; Pule, T.; Myendeki, S.; Gubela, W.

    2015-07-01

    On 5 August 2014 at 1222 hours (local time), an earthquake of local magnitude ML = 5.5 occurred in the Orkney area in the North West Province, South Africa. The earthquake shaking was felt widely in South Africa as far as Cape Town as well as in Maputo, Mozambique, and Gaborone in Botswana. One person was killed when a wall collapsed on him, and more than 600 houses were damaged. Following the earthquake, many people submitted reports to the Council for Geoscience (CGS) through an online questionnaire which recorded their experience, whilst others reported the event and its effects on social networks like Twitter and in newspapers. The CGS also sent out a team of scientists to further assess the effects of the event in the community by interviewing members of the public and completing additional questionnaires. A total of 866 observations were collected. Analysis of the collected macroseismic data produced 170 intensity data points which showed that a maximum intensity of VII was experienced in communities located in the epicentral area. The observed attenuation of intensity values was comparable to that observed on the French stable continental region especially in the area of 600-km radius from the epicentre. Airborne geophysical data were used to try and identify the fault along which the earthquake occurred. This was necessary as there was no surface expression of the earthquake and no previously identified fault near the epicentre. The interpretation of the data showed a fault located about 500 m from the epicentre appearing to form a boundary to the east of located aftershocks.

  1. AstroML: "better, faster, cheaper" towards state-of-the-art data mining and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Connolly, Andrew J.; Vanderplas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    We present AstroML, a Python module for machine learning and data mining built on numpy, scipy, scikit-learn, matplotlib, and astropy, and distributed under an open license. AstroML contains a growing library of statistical and machine learning routines for analyzing astronomical data in Python, loaders for several open astronomical datasets (such as SDSS and other recent major surveys), and a large suite of examples of analyzing and visualizing astronomical datasets. AstroML is especially suitable for introducing undergraduate students to numerical research projects and for graduate students to rapidly undertake cutting-edge research. The long-term goal of astroML is to provide a community repository for fast Python implementations of common tools and routines used for statistical data analysis in astronomy and astrophysics (see http://www.astroml.org).

  2. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer ... in lung cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate ( ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lung cancer lung cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the ...

  5. TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG CANCER.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing. Many studies on PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities have revealed that active PTB is noted in 2-5% of lung cancer cases, whereas lung cancer is noted in 1-2% of active PTB cases. In such instances of comorbidity, many active PTB cases showed Type II (non-extensively cavitary disease) and Spread 2-3 (intermediate-extensive diseases) on chest X-rays, but standard anti-tuberculosis treatment easily eradicates negative conversion of sputum culture for M. tuberculosis; lung cancer cases were often stage III- IV and squamous cell carcinoma predominant, and the administration of aggressive treatment for lung cancer is increasing. The major clinical problems associated with PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities include delay in diagnosis (doctor's delay) and therapeutic limitations. The former involves two factors of radiographic interpretation: the principles of parsimony (Occam's razor) and visual search; the latter involves three factors of lung cancer treatment: infectivity of M.tuberculosis, anatomical limitation due to lung damage by tuberculosis, and drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and anti-cancer drugs, especially molecularly targeted drugs. The comorbidity of these two diseases is an important health-related issue in Japan. In the treatment of PTB, the possibility of concurrent lung cancer should be kept

  6. One-lung anesthesia update.

    PubMed

    Mirzabeigi, Edwin; Johnson, Calvin; Ternian, Alen

    2005-09-01

    One-lung ventilation is used during a variety of cardiac, thoracic, and major vascular procedures. Endobronchial tubes, bronchial blockers, and occasionally, single-lumen tubes are used to isolate the lungs. Patients with difficult airways and pediatric patients provide special challenges for lung isolation. Finally, intraoperative hypoxia and hypercarbia in patients with intrinsic lung disease frequently complicate one-lung anesthesia. The concepts and controversies in lung isolation techniques are discussed.

  7. [Prenatal evaluation of fetal lung maturity by determination of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) concentration in amniotic fluid].

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G; Sałacińska, B; Broniarczyk, D; Swiatkowska, E

    2001-09-01

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is considered to be the most important phospholipid of lung surfactant, responsible for its biological activity. The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) concentration in amniotic fluid in prediction of neonatal lung maturity. The study was carried out on 180 pregnant women, chosen by random selection, hospitalized in Polish Mother's Health Centre Hospital in the period from 15.06.1994 to 31.12.1995. 223 samples of amniotic fluid were tested--phosphatidylglycerol (PG) concentration was assayed by immunological test Amnio Stat FLM. In the study value PG < or = 0.2 microgram/ml was found in 110 (49.3%) samples of amniotic fluid, PG = 0.5 microgram/ml in 57 (25.6%) and PG > or = 2.0 micrograms/ml in 56 (25.1%). In our research predictive value of PG in relation to clinical lung maturity of neonates was verified. It turned out that PG concentration in amniotic fluid < or = 0.2 microgram/ml indicates a possibility of RDS occurring in neonates born before 72 hours of performed determination. Concentration PG in amniotic fluid PG > or = 2.0 micrograms/ml corresponds to complete clinical lung maturity of neonates with predictive value 98%. PMID:11757479

  8. New design for a pumping artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, A J; Mockros, L F; Mavroudis, C

    1996-01-01

    A new prototype of a pumping artificial lung (PAL) has been designed and tested. The device performs the functions of both the pump and oxygenator components of an extracorporeal perfusion circuit. Previous prototypes that the authors developed (Type A) had gas exchanging microporous fibers formed into propeller-like vanes that, upon rotation, pump the blood. The design of the new PAL prototypes (Type B) uses the rotation of an annular bank of fibers to drive flow. The fiber bank, including sealed gas manifolds, lies within the housing of a modified Bio-Medicus BMP-50 pump head (Bio-Medicus, Eden Prairie, MN). Rotation of the fiber bank is driven through a magnetic coupling. Inlet and outlet gas lines enter the pump head through a sealed bearing. The Type A PAL suffered from insufficient pumping rates and gas exchange, necessitating redesign. The authors have constructed two PAL-B prototypes with a priming volume of only 140 ml and gas exchange surface areas of 0.16 and 0.60 m2. During in vitro saline testing, these prototypes showed significant pump performance, pumping 7.0 L/min against zero head at 3,500 rpm. The larger prototype had exchange rates in saline of up to 71 ml O2/min and 75 ml CO2/min. Gas exchange fluxes (O2 = 119 ml/[min.m2] and CO2 = 125 ml/[min.m2]) for the PAL-B are significantly higher than that of commercially available oxygenators in saline. Future prototypes will have increased surface area and fibers smaller than the 0.038 cm outside diameter fibers used in the present prototypes. A primary concern in using microporous fibers to push the blood was the durability of the fibers at high pump speeds. High speeds exhibited no negative effects on gas exchange abilities or fiber durability. PMID:8944954

  9. Automatic publishing ISO 19115 metadata with PanMetaDocs using SensorML information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, Vivien; Ulbricht, Damian; Schroeder, Matthias; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. A challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data repOsitORry). TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes data available through standard web services. Geographic sensor information and services are described using the ISO 19115 metadata schema. TEODOOR accesses the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) interfaces offered by the regional observatories. In addition to the SWE interface, TERENO Northeast also published data through DataCite. The necessary metadata are created in an automated process by extracting information from the SWE SensorML to

  10. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  11. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of N2 means cancer has spread to the middle part of the chest (called the mediastinum). A rating ... so that the surgeon can remove the cancerous part of the lung and/or lymph node ... biopsied are your lungs, bones, and brain. These types of biopsies can be done with ...

  12. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  13. Lung vascular injury with protease infusion. Relationship to plasma fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Cohler, L F; Saba, T M; Lewis, E P

    1985-01-01

    Fibronectin exists in a soluble form in plasma and in an insoluble form in tissues. Plasma fibronectin can modulate phagocytic function as well as incorporate into the tissue matrix where it is believed to influence microvascular integrity and tissue repair. The temporal alterations in plasma and lung lymph fibronectin were studied in relation to increased pulmonary vascular permeability induced by protease infusion. The acute sheep lung lymph fistula model was used. A 39% decrease in plasma fibronectin (control = 421 +/- 67 micrograms/ml) was observed 2.5 hours (255 +/- 43 micrograms/ml) after protease infusion. There was an elevation of lymph fibronectin early after protease infusion, followed by a progressive decline. Concomitant with the decrease in plasma fibronectin, an increase in lymph flow (QL) of greater than 200% (from a control of 6.7 +/- 1.0 ml/hr to 13.9 +/- 1.4 ml/hr) was observed within 2.5 hours. Also, there was a sustained elevation in the total protein lymph/plasma concentration (L/P) ratio, which was maximal at 2.5 hours. The transvascular protein clearance (TVPC = QL X L/P) was 4.5 +/- 0.7 ml/hr at the control period and 13.1 +/- 2.0 ml/hr by 2.5 hours. This was indicative of increased flux of protein-rich fluid across the pulmonary endothelial barrier. Lung vascular permeability stabilized after 2.5 hours as manifested by a slowly declining L/P ratio. Thus, plasma fibronectin deficiency may contribute to the etiology of increased lung vascular permeability with protease infusion. Since the progressive decline in plasma fibronectin was not reflected in a proportional increase in lymph fibronectin, plasma fibronectin may have sequestered in tissues such as the lung, or perhaps in reticuloendothelial cells during the injury phase. Whether the progressive decrease in plasma fibronectin reflects its incorporation into the endothelial barrier matrix where it may mediate stabilization of the pulmonary microvascular barrier remains to be determined

  14. The Effects of Lung Protective Ventilation or Hypercapnic Acidosis on Gas Exchange and Lung Injury in Surfactant Deficient Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hummler, Helmut D.; Banke, Katharina; Wolfson, Marla R.; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Ebsen, Michael; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Fuchs, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background Permissive hypercapnia has been shown to reduce lung injury in subjects with surfactant deficiency. Experimental studies suggest that hypercapnic acidosis by itself rather than decreased tidal volume may be a key protective factor. Objectives To study the differential effects of a lung protective ventilatory strategy or hypercapnic acidosis on gas exchange, hemodynamics and lung injury in an animal model of surfactant deficiency. Methods 30 anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were mechanically ventilated (FiO2 = 0.8, PEEP = 7cmH2O) and randomized into three groups: Normoventilation-Normocapnia (NN)-group: tidal volume (Vt) = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 40 mmHg; Normoventilation-Hypercapnia (NH)-group: Vt = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg by increasing FiCO2; and a Hypoventilation-Hypercapnia (HH)-group: Vt = 4.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg. Plasma lactate and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured every 2 h. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h to perform bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), to measure lung wet-to-dry weight, lung tissue IL-8, and to obtain lung histology. Results PaO2 was significantly higher in the HH-group compared to the NN-group (p<0.05), with values of the NH-group between the HH- and NN-groups. Other markers of lung injury (wet-dry-weight, BAL-Protein, histology-score, plasma-IL-8 and lung tissue IL-8) resulted in significantly lower values for the HH-group compared to the NN-group and trends for the NH-group towards lower values compared to the NN-group. Lactate was significantly lower in both hypercapnia groups compared to the NN-group. Conclusion Whereas hypercapnic acidosis may have some beneficial effects, a significant effect on lung injury and systemic inflammatory response is dependent upon a lower tidal volume rather than resultant arterial CO2 tensions and pH alone. PMID:26840779

  15. Genetic Ancestry Influences Asthma Susceptibility and Lung Function Among Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Oh, Sam S.; Vora, Hita; Huntsman, Scott; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Donglei; Drake, Katherine A.; Conti, David V.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Lurmann, Fred; Islam, Talat S.; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A.; Ford, Jean G.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M.; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Williams, L. Keoki; Gilliland, Frank D.; Gauderman, W. James; Kumar, Rajesh; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity varies among Latinos in the United States, with Puerto Ricans having the highest and Mexicans the lowest. Objective To determine whether genetic ancestry is associated with the odds of asthma among Latinos, and secondarily whether genetic ancestry is associated with lung function among Latino children. Methods We analyzed 5,493 Latinos with and without asthma from three independent studies. For each participant we estimated the proportion of African, European, and Native American ancestry using genome-wide data. We tested whether genetic ancestry was associated with the presence of asthma and lung function among subjects with and without asthma. Odds ratios (OR) and effect sizes were assessed for every 20% increase in each ancestry. Results Native American ancestry was associated with lower odds of asthma (OR=0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66–0.78, p=8.0×10−15), while African ancestry was associated with higher odds of asthma (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 1.14–1.72, p=0.001). These associations were robust to adjustment for covariates related to early life exposures, air pollution and socioeconomic status. Among children with asthma, African ancestry was associated with lower lung function, including both pre- and post-bronchodilator measures of forced expiratory volume in the first second (−77±19 ml, p=5.8×10−5 and −83±19 ml, p=1.1×10−5, respectively) and forced vital capacity (−100±21 ml, p=2.7×10−6 and −107±22 ml, p=1.0×10−6, respectively). Conclusion Differences in the proportions of genetic ancestry can partially explain disparities in asthma susceptibility and lung function among Latinos. PMID:25301036

  16. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  17. Industrial Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Maxwell

    1982-01-01

    There are many known chemical and physical causes of industrial lung cancer. Their common feature is a long latent period—usually ten to 40 years—between initial exposure to the carcinogen and clinical recognition of the lesion. Occupationally induced lung cancer is indistinguishable from lung cancer of unknown etiology or that caused by cigaret smoking. Smoking alone is responsible for a very large proportion of all lung cancer and it potentiates the effect of most other carcinogens. Most cases of lung cancer in the next 20-30 years will be the result of exposures which have already occurred. In these cases, early diagnosis of pre-invasive resectable lesions offers the only hope for prolonging life. PMID:21286559

  18. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  19. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  20. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  1. Autoantibodies against insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 as a serological biomarker in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; YING, XIA; HAN, SUXIA; WANG, JING; ZHOU, XIA; BAI, E; ZHANG, JIANYING; ZHU, QING

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is considered to be a human tumor antigen, and the tumor-specific immunity of IGFBP-2 has been reported in several types of cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether autoantibodies to IGFBP-2 can be used as diagnostic markers in lung cancer. The results demonstrated that serum anti-IGFBP-2 autoantibody levels were significantly elevated in lung cancer (mean, 1,633.318 ng/ml; median, 1,651.462 ng/ml; range, 342.732–4932.582 ng/ml) compared with benign lung disease (1,210.139, 1,035.900, 547.596–2,331.167 ng/ml) and normal controls (1,303.369, 1,194.800, 528.200–2140.500 ng/ml). The sensitivity and specificity of anti-IGFBP-2 autoantibodies in diagnosing lung cancer was 73.2 and 60.6%, respectively. When serum IGFBP-2 and anti-IGFBP-2 autoantibody were used together in the diagnosis of lung cancer, it can increase the discriminative power for lung cancer with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 57.5%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that circulating anti-IGFBP-2 autoantibodies can be used as a potential biomarker in diagnosing lung cancer. PMID:23165420

  2. The performance of ML, DWLS, and ULS estimation with robust corrections in structural equation models with ordinal variables.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-09-01

    Three estimation methods with robust corrections-maximum likelihood (ML) using the sample covariance matrix, unweighted least squares (ULS) using a polychoric correlation matrix, and diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) using a polychoric correlation matrix-have been proposed in the literature, and are considered to be superior to normal theory-based maximum likelihood when observed variables in latent variable models are ordinal. A Monte Carlo simulation study was carried out to compare the performance of ML, DWLS, and ULS in estimating model parameters, and their robust corrections to standard errors, and chi-square statistics in a structural equation model with ordinal observed variables. Eighty-four conditions, characterized by different ordinal observed distribution shapes, numbers of response categories, and sample sizes were investigated. Results reveal that (a) DWLS and ULS yield more accurate factor loading estimates than ML across all conditions; (b) DWLS and ULS produce more accurate interfactor correlation estimates than ML in almost every condition; (c) structural coefficient estimates from DWLS and ULS outperform ML estimates in nearly all asymmetric data conditions; (d) robust standard errors of parameter estimates obtained with robust ML are more accurate than those produced by DWLS and ULS across most conditions; and (e) regarding robust chi-square statistics, robust ML is inferior to DWLS and ULS in controlling for Type I error in almost every condition, unless a large sample is used (N = 1,000). Finally, implications of the findings are discussed, as are the limitations of this study as well as potential directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27571021

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor in human preterm lung.

    PubMed

    Lassus, P; Ristimäki, A; Ylikorkala, O; Viinikka, L; Andersson, S

    1999-05-01

    Endothelial cell damage is characteristic for respiratory distress syndrome and development of chronic lung disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial mitogen that takes part in the growth and repair of vascular endothelial cells. We measured VEGF in 189 tracheal aspirate samples (TAF), and in 24 plasma samples from 44 intubated preterm infants (gestational age, 27.3 +/- 2.0 wk; birth weight, 962 +/- 319 g) during their first postnatal week. VEGF in TAF increased from 25 +/- 12 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM) on Day 1 to 526 +/- 120 pg/ml on Day 7 (mean concentrations, 106 +/- 25 pg/ml on Days 1 to 3 and 342 +/- 36 pg/ml on Days 4 to 7). In plasma, mean concentration of VEGF during the first week was 48 +/- 6 pg/ml, with no increase observed. In TAF, higher VEGF was found in patients born to mothers with premature rupture of the membranes, or chorionamnionitis, whereas preeclampsia of the mother was associated with lower VEGF (all p < 0.05). In TAF, no correlations existed between VEGF and gestational age or birth weight, but a correlation existed between lecithin/sphengomyelin ratio and VEGF (p < 0.05). During Days 4 to 7 patients developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had lower VEGF in TAF than did those surviving without BPD (235 +/- 31 versus 383 +/- 50; p < 0.05). VEGF increased rapidly in the lungs of the preterm infant during the first days of life. VEGF may be indicative of pulmonary maturity and may participate in pulmonary repair after acute lung injury.

  4. Human lung cancer-derived microparticles enhanced angiogenesis and growth of hepatoma cells in rodent lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Meng-Shen TongYen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Chia-Lo; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human lung cancer-derived microparticles (LcD-MPs) played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. Fischer 344 rats (F344, n=18) were equally categorized into group 1 [Sham Control (3.0 mL normal saline intravenous injection (IV))], group 2 [hepatoma cell line (2.0 x 10(6) cells, IV)], and group 3 [hepatoma cell line + LcD-MPs (3.0 x 10(6), IV)]. Animals were euthanized by day 28 after hepatoma cells transfusion. Our result showed that the gross pathology confirmed growth of hepatoma cell line in lung parenchyma. The size and weight of the lungs were significantly increased in group 2 and further elevated in group 3 than in group 1 (all p<0.001). Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the lung crowded score and number of small vessel exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the number of alveolar sacs showed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among the three groups (all p<0.0001). The cellular expressions of CD34(+), CXCR4(+), c-Kit(+), CK19(+), VEGF(+) and vimentin+ cells in lung parenchyma exhibited an identical pattern compared to those of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The protein expressions of apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and c-PARP), fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-β), and tumor suppression (PTEN) biomarkers showed an identical pattern, whereas that of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and anti-fibrotic (Smad1/5, BMP-2) biomarkers were displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The MPs could enhance angiogenesis and accelerated hepatoma cell growth in rodent lung parenchyma.

  5. Human lung cancer-derived microparticles enhanced angiogenesis and growth of hepatoma cells in rodent lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Meng-Shen TongYen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Chia-Lo; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human lung cancer-derived microparticles (LcD-MPs) played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. Fischer 344 rats (F344, n=18) were equally categorized into group 1 [Sham Control (3.0 mL normal saline intravenous injection (IV))], group 2 [hepatoma cell line (2.0 x 106 cells, IV)], and group 3 [hepatoma cell line + LcD-MPs (3.0 x 106, IV)]. Animals were euthanized by day 28 after hepatoma cells transfusion. Our result showed that the gross pathology confirmed growth of hepatoma cell line in lung parenchyma. The size and weight of the lungs were significantly increased in group 2 and further elevated in group 3 than in group 1 (all p<0.001). Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the lung crowded score and number of small vessel exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the number of alveolar sacs showed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among the three groups (all p<0.0001). The cellular expressions of CD34+, CXCR4+, c-Kit+, CK19+, VEGF+ and vimentin+ cells in lung parenchyma exhibited an identical pattern compared to those of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The protein expressions of apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and c-PARP), fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-β), and tumor suppression (PTEN) biomarkers showed an identical pattern, whereas that of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and anti-fibrotic (Smad1/5, BMP-2) biomarkers were displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The MPs could enhance angiogenesis and accelerated hepatoma cell growth in rodent lung parenchyma. PMID:27186261

  6. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with the contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP driven by numerical weather prediction (NWP) data provided from the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and global aircraft waypoint data show a mean computed cover (for optical depth larger than 0.1) of 0.23% globally, and 5.4% over mid Europe (Schumann and Graf, JGR, 2013). The computed mean longwave radiative forcing (RF) reaches 3 W m-2 over mid Europe (10°W-20°E and 40°N-55°N), and 0.13 W m-2 globally. The global net RF is about 40-60% smaller because of compensating shortwave cooling induced by contrails during daytime. The results depend on several model details such as the number of ice particles forming from aircraft soot emissions, the contrail plume dispersion, ice particle sedimentation etc., all influencing contrail life time and their optical properties. The quantitative results depend also strongly on ambient relative humidity, vertical motion and on ice water content of other cirrus predicted by the NWP model. In order to test and possibly improve this and other contrail models, high-quality observations are needed to which multi-parameter model output can be compared. The Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment ML-CIRRUS was performed (see C. Voigt et al., this conference) with a suite of in-situ and Lidar instruments for airborne measurements on the research aircraft HALO. Before and during the mission, CoCiP was run daily to provide 3-days forecasts of contrail cover using operational ECMWF forecasts and historical traffic data. CoCiP forecast output was made available in an internet tool twice a day for experiment planning. The one-day and two-day contrail forecasts often showed only small differences. Still, most recent forecasts and detailed satellite observations results were transmitted via satellite link to the crew for onboard campaign optimization. After the campaign, a data base of realistic air traffic data has been setup from various sources, and CoCiP was

  7. Corticosteroids and surfactant change lung function and protein leaks in the lungs of ventilated premature rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, M; Berry, D; elKady, T; Pettenazzo, A; Seidner, S; Jobe, A

    1987-01-01

    Fetal rabbits were treated with corticosteroids by maternal administration for 48 h before delivery at 27 d gestational age. The treated and control rabbits were placed on ventilator-plethysmographs so that ventilation could be adjusted by regulation of tidal volumes to 10-13 ml/kg body wt. [125I]albumin was mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth, alternate rabbits from each litter were treated with Surfactant-TA, and [131I]albumin was injected intravascularly. The movement of the labeled albumins into and out of the alveolar wash and lung tissue was measured after 30 min of ventilation. Corticosteroid treatment (total dose, 0.2 mg/kg betamethasone) significantly decreased the protein leak across the endothelium (P less than 0.001) but increased the protein leak across the epithelium (P less than 0.001). Surfactant treatment decreased both the endothelial and epithelial leaks, and the combination of surfactant and corticosteroid treatments decreased endothelial leaks to 29% of control values and increased compliance more than either treatment alone. The 48-h corticosteroid treatment did not increase alveolar surfactant pool sizes. Corticosteroids significantly changed lung protein leaks independently of surfactant, and improved the response of the preterm lung to surfactant treatments. PMID:3571492

  8. Perinatal lung function and invasive antenatal procedures

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, B.; Greenough, A.; Naik, S.; Cheeseman, P.; Nicolaides, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Second trimester amniocentesis has been associated with an excess of perinatal lung function abnormalities. Early amniocentesis might have a similar adverse effect, as could other invasive investigations carried out in the first trimester. METHODS: Plethysmographic measurements of thoracic gas volume (TGV) and airway resistance (Raw), from which specific conductance (sGaw) was calculated, were made in the perinatal period in non-sedated infants. In addition, functional residual capacity (FRC) was measured using a helium gas dilution technique. Measurements were made in 47 infants whose mothers had undergone early amniocentesis, 19 whose mothers had undergone chorion villus sampling, and 25 controls whose mothers had undergone no invasive antenatal procedures. RESULTS: The infants of mothers who had undergone early amniocentesis had higher TGV (95% CI - 6.3 to 1.1 ml/kg) and Raw values (95% CI -10.68 to -5.23 cm H2O/l/s) and lower sGaw (0.11 to 0.84 l/cm H2O.s) and FRC (-5.17 to - 0.87 ml/kg) values than the controls. Infants whose mothers had undergone chorion villus sampling also differed significantly from the controls with higher Raw (-7.59 to -1.99 cm H2O/l/s) and lower sGaw values (0.11 to 0.24 l/cm H2O.s), and had lower Raw values than those in the early amniocentesis group (not significant). Logistic regression analysis, taking into account possible risk factors for abnormal lung function, showed that the procedures performed in the first trimester were independently associated with a high airways resistance. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that invasive procedures performed in the first trimester of pregnancy have an adverse effect on perinatal lung function. 


 PMID:9059482

  9. Bambuterol: uptake and metabolism in guinea pig isolated lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Ryrfeldt, A.; Nilsson, E.; Tunek, A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    The lung uptake and biotransformation of /sup 3/H-bambuterol, a prodrug to terbutaline, were studied using isolated perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs. /sup 14/C-Sucrose was used as an extracellular marker. The lung uptake of bambuterol was significantly (0.05 greater than or equal to P greater than or equal to 0.001) higher than that found for sucrose in single-pass perfusion experiments. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that 95.6 +/- 3.6% of the effluent /sup 3/H radioactivity was attributable to bambuterol. In recirculating experiments (120 min) the lung biotransformation of /sup 3/H-bambuterol (8.5 pmol/ml) was studied. Both oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism took place. The dominating metabolites were hydroxylated bambuterol and the monocarbamate derivative which is a product of hydrolysis of bambuterol. Traces of terbutaline were also formed. The results show that bambuterol has a certain affinity to lung tissue and that the drug is, to some extent, biotransformed in the guinea pig lung.

  10. Safety and feasibility of prolonged bronchoscopy involving diagnosis of lung cancer, systematic nodal staging, and fiducial marker placement in a high-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Kular, Harman; Mudambi, Lakshmi; Lazarus, Donald R.; Cornwell, Lorraine; Zhu, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is considered the standard treatment for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer. Bronchoscopy has shown to be effective in obtaining diagnosis of peripheral lung tumors, staging the mediastinum (with endobronchial ultrasound- EBUS-), and placing fiducial markers (FMs). However, the combination of these 3 procedures in a single bronchoscopy has not been studied. The aim of this study is to describe safety and feasibility of performing diagnosis, systematic nodal staging, and placement of FMs in a single bronchoscopic procedure. Methods Retrospective review of patients who underwent bronchoscopy with diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer, EBUS for nodal staging, and FM placement in a single procedure at Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center between January 2011 and July 2015. Results Twenty-one patients met our criteria, one having 2 synchronous tumors. 95% of patients had an ASA score of at least 3. Twenty-two tumors were diagnosed with a size of 2.72±1.06 cm. Distance from pleura was 1.33±1.42 cm. Median duration of bronchoscopy was 96 minutes (range, 75 to 136 minutes). Guided-bronchoscopy provided diagnosis of lung cancer in all cases. Fluoroscopy and RP-EBUS were utilized in 21 patients, “hybrid” scope in 14, and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in 3. A total of 100 lymph nodes (LN) were sampled with EBUS-TBNA, with 95% of the patients having at least 4 LN sampled. A total of 71 FM were placed for 22 tumors. All markers were retained and allowed for successful SBRT. There were no pneumothoraces and no major complications. Conclusions Although it results in lengthy procedures, a single bronchoscopy obtaining diagnosis of peripheral lung nodules, systematic nodal staging, and FM placement can be safely performed in high-risk patients. Our “all-in-one” strategy could potentially expedite treatment, decrease complications, and reduce costs. Further prospective studies are needed to

  11. Short-term hypoxic exposure at rest and during exercise reduces lung water in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Eric M; Beck, Kenneth C; Hulsebus, Minelle L; Breen, Jerome F; Hoffman, Eric A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2006-12-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise increase pulmonary arterial pressure, cause pulmonary capillary recruitment, and may influence the ability of the lungs to regulate fluid. To examine the influence of hypoxia, alone and combined with exercise, on lung fluid balance, we studied 25 healthy subjects after 17-h exposure to 12.5% inspired oxygen (barometric pressure = 732 mmHg) and sequentially after exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer with 12.5% inspired oxygen. We also studied subjects after a rapid saline infusion (30 ml/kg over 15 min) to demonstrate the sensitivity of our techniques to detect changes in lung water. Pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and alveolar-capillary conductance (D(M)) were determined by measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Lung tissue volume and density were assessed using computed tomography. Lung water was estimated by subtracting measures of Vc from computed tomography lung tissue volume. Pulmonary function [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV(1)), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF(50))] was also assessed. Saline infusion caused an increase in Vc (42%), tissue volume (9%), and lung water (11%), and a decrease in D(M) (11%) and pulmonary function (FVC = -12 +/- 9%, FEV(1) = -17 +/- 10%, FEF(50) = -20 +/- 13%). Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise resulted in increases in Vc (43 +/- 19 and 51 +/- 16%), D(M) (7 +/- 4 and 19 +/- 6%), and pulmonary function (FVC = 9 +/- 6 and 4 +/- 3%, FEV(1) = 5 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 3%, FEF(50) = 4 +/- 2 and 12 +/- 5%) and decreases in lung density and lung water (-84 +/- 24 and -103 +/- 20 ml vs. baseline). These data suggest that 17 h of hypoxic exposure at rest or with exercise resulted in a decrease in lung water in healthy humans. PMID:16902060

  12. [Lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation to treat emphysema].

    PubMed

    Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Caramori, Marlova Luzzi; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2010-01-01

    Despite preventive measures, lung hyperinflation is a relatively common complication following single lung transplantation to treat pulmonary emphysema. The progressive compression of the graft can cause mediastinal shift and respiratory failure. In addition to therapeutic strategies such as independent ventilation, the treatment consists of the reduction of native lung volume by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery. We report two cases of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation. Both cases were treated by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery.

  13. Development and preliminary results of an in vivo Raman probe for early lung cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael A.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2008-02-01

    Our previous results from Raman spectroscopy studies on ex vivo lung tissue showed the technique had great potential to differentiate between samples with different pathologies. In this work, a fast dispersive-type near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy system was developed to collect real-time, noninvasive, in vivo human lung spectra. The 785 nm excitation, and the collection of tissue emission were accomplished by using a reusable fiber optic catheter which passed down the instrument channel of a bronchoscope. Filters in two stages blocked laser emission other than 785 nm from reaching the tissue surface, and reduced fiber fluorescence and elastically scattered excitation light from being passed to the spectrometer. The spectrometer itself consisted of one of two holographic gratings with usable frequency ranges of: 700 to 2000 cm -1 and 1500 to 3400 cm -1. The dispersed light was detected by a cooled CCD array consisting of 400 by 1340 pixels. To increase the resolution of the system, while maximizing the throughput, a second fiber bundle, consisting of 54×100 μm diameter fibers connected the catheter to the spectrometer. The fibers in this second bundle were spread out to form a parabolic arc which replaced the conventional entrance slit. This geometry corrected for image aberrations, permitting complete CCD vertical binning, thereby yielding up to a 20-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated spectral resolution of the system was 9 cm -1 for both gratings. So far we have measured spectra from 20 patients and have seen clear differences between spectra from tumor and normal tissue.

  14. Impact of Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction on Right Ventricular Myocardial Function

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Tuleta, Izabela; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) provides a minimally invasive therapy for patients with severe lung emphysema. As its impact on right ventricular (RtV) function is undefined, we examined the extent of RtV functional changes following ELVR, as assessed by use of speckle tracking-based RtV deformation analysis. Methods We enrolled 32 patients with severe emphysematous COPD scheduled for bronchoscopic LVR using endobronchial valves (Zephyr, PulmonX, Inc.), comprising 16 matched clinical responders and 16 non-responders. Echocardiography was conducted one day prior to ELVR and at an eight-week postprocedural interval. Results Patients were predominantly of late middle-age (65.8±8.7yrs), male (62.5%) and presented advanced COPD emphysema (means FEV1 and RV: 32.6% and 239.1% of predicted, respectively). After ELVR, RtV apical longitudinal strain improved significantly in the total study cohort (-7.96±7.02% vs. -13.35±11.48%, p=0.04), whereas there were no significant changes in other parameters of RtV function such as RtV global longitudinal strain, TAPSE or pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. In responding patients, 6MWT-improvement correlated with a decrease in NT-proBNP (Pearson´s r: -0.53, p=0.03). However, clinical non-responders did not exhibit any RtV functional improvement. Discussion ELVR beneficially impacts RtV functional parameters. Speckle tracking-based RtV apical longitudinal strain analysis allows early determination of RtV contractile gain and identification of clinical responsiveness. PMID:25856379

  15. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  16. Endotoxin suppresses surfactant synthesis in cultured rat lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Pulmonary complications secondary to postburn sepsis are a major cause of death in burned patients. Using an in vitro organotypic culture system, we examined the effect of E. coli endotoxin (LPS) on lung cell surfactant synthesis. Our results showed that E. coli endotoxin (1.0, 2.5, 10 micrograms LPS/ml) was capable of suppressing the incorporation of /sup 3/H-choline into de novo synthesized surfactant, lamellar bodies (LB), and common myelin figures (CMF) at 50%, 68%, and 64%, respectively. In a similar study, we were able to show that LPS also inhibited /sup 3/H-palmitate incorporation by cultured lung cells. LPS-induced suppression of surfactant synthesis was reversed by hydrocortisone. Our results suggest that LPS may play a significant role in reducing surfactant synthesis by rat lung cells, and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis-related respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in burn injury.

  17. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  18. Lung disease in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, C. P.

    1977-01-01

    Lung diseases in farmers attributable to their occupation include (a) farmer's lung, caused by exposure to mouldy hay, (b) the asthma caused by exposure to grain dust and (c) silo-filler's disease. Their prevalence in Canada is unknown. Farmer's lung results from inhalation of mould spores in hay; the mechanism is immunologic. The exact cause and mechanism of grain dust asthma are unknown but may be immunologic. Silo-filler's disease is caused by the toxic effects of inhaled nitrogen dioxide. PMID:321110

  19. Microgravity and the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  20. Tropical parasitic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2008-01-01

    Though parasitic lung diseases are frequently seen in tropical countries, these are being increasingly reported from many parts of the world due to globalisation and travel across the continents. In addition, the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the frequent use of immunosuppressive drugs in many diseases and the increasing numbers of organ transplantations have resulted in a renewed interest in many tropical parasitic lung diseases. This review outlines the recent developments in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of common and rare parasitic lung diseases.

  1. Blood filling and flow in lungs during change in body position in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogodin, A. S.; Mazhbich, B. I.

    1980-01-01

    In the horizontal position (supine and lateral), in the upright position (head up and head down) and during change of the cat body position in space, quantitative responses of regional blood volume and blood flow in the lungs (ml/100 cu cm) revealed presence of the gradient in the gravitation direction. Blood volume and blood flow of different lung portions changed qualitatively and quantitatively in different ways. These changes occurred only in the direction producing the equality of regional hydrostatical and hemodynamic loads in the lungs at either horizontal level.

  2. QuakeML: Recent Development and First Applications of the Community-Created Seismological Data Exchange Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Kästli, P.; Quakeml Group, T

    2008-12-01

    QuakeML is an XML-based exchange format for seismological data which is being developed using a community-driven approach. It covers basic event description, including picks, arrivals, amplitudes, magnitudes, origins, focal mechanisms, and moment tensors. Contributions have been made from ETH, GFZ, USC, SCEC, USGS, IRIS DMC, EMSC, ORFEUS, GNS, ZAMG, BRGM, and ISTI. The current release (Version 1.1, Proposed Recommendation) reflects the results of a public Request for Comments process which has been documented online at http://quakeml.org/RFC_BED_1.0. QuakeML has recently been adopted as a distribution format for earthquake catalogs by GNS Science, New Zealand, and the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). These institutions provide prototype QuakeML web services. Furthermore, integration of the QuakeML data model in the CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, http://www.cseptesting.org) testing center software developed by SCEC is under way. QuakePy is a Python- based seismicity analysis toolkit which is based on the QuakeML data model. Recently, QuakePy has been used to implement the PMC method for calculating network recording completeness (Schorlemmer and Woessner 2008, in press). Completeness results for seismic networks in Southern California and Japan can be retrieved through the CompletenessWeb (http://completenessweb.org). Future QuakeML development will include an extension for macroseismic information. Furthermore, development on seismic inventory information, resource identifiers, and resource metadata is under way. Online resources: http://www.quakeml.org, http://www.quakepy.org

  3. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the core framework used to implement a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) based systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language. It defines a set of principles built upon by the theoretical approach described in the InfoTech 2013 ISHM paper titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson. Using the SysML language, the principles in this paper describe the expansion of the SysML language as a baseline in order to: hierarchically describe a system, describe that system functionally within success space, and allocate detection mechanisms to success functions for system protection.

  4. Overview of Clinical Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Jonathan C.; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2014-01-01

    Since the first successful lung transplant 30 years ago, lung transplantation has rapidly become an established standard of care to treat end-stage lung disease in selected patients. Advances in lung preservation, surgical technique, and immunosuppression regimens have resulted in the routine performance of lung transplantation around the world for an increasing number of patients, with wider indications. Despite this, donor shortages and chronic lung allograft dysfunction continue to prevent lung transplantation from reaching its full potential. With research into the underlying mechanisms of acute and chronic lung graft dysfunction and advances in personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to both the donor lung and the lung transplant recipient, there is increasing confidence that we will improve short- and long-term outcomes in the near future. PMID:24384816

  5. Diaphragm and lungs (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The diaphragm, located below the lungs, is the major muscle of respiration. It is a large, dome-shaped muscle ... most of the time, involuntarily. Upon inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and flattens and the chest cavity enlarges. ...

  6. Abscess in the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscesses are streptococci and staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is a serious infection. Obstruction ... night sweats. In contrast, lung abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA can be fatal within days, ...

  7. Lung Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... substances increases the risk of lung cancer: Asbestos . Arsenic . Chromium. Nickel. Beryllium. Cadmium . Tar and soot. These ...

  8. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  9. Women and Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

  10. Reflux and Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reflux and Lung Disease Proper Hydration Sodium Dangers Plant-Based Diets Why Breakfast Matters Patients & Visitors Giving For Professionals About Us Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make an Appointment Make a Donation ...

  11. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation in the lungs, most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... up very little gallium. What Abnormal Results Mean Sarcoidosis Other respiratory infections, most often pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia ...

  12. Justice and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, yet research funding is by far the lowest for lung cancer than for any other cancer compared with respective death rates. Although this discrepancy should appear alarming, one could argue that lung cancer deserves less attention because it is more attributable to poor life choices than other common cancers. Accordingly, the general question that I ask in this article is whether victims of more avoidable diseases, such as lung cancer, deserve to have their needs taken into less consideration than those of less avoidable diseases, on the grounds of either retributive or distributive justice. Such unequal treatment may be the "penalty" one incurs for negligent or reckless behavior. However, I hope to show that such unequal treatment cannot be supported by any coherent accounts of retributive or distributive justice.

  13. Justice and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, yet research funding is by far the lowest for lung cancer than for any other cancer compared with respective death rates. Although this discrepancy should appear alarming, one could argue that lung cancer deserves less attention because it is more attributable to poor life choices than other common cancers. Accordingly, the general question that I ask in this article is whether victims of more avoidable diseases, such as lung cancer, deserve to have their needs taken into less consideration than those of less avoidable diseases, on the grounds of either retributive or distributive justice. Such unequal treatment may be the "penalty" one incurs for negligent or reckless behavior. However, I hope to show that such unequal treatment cannot be supported by any coherent accounts of retributive or distributive justice. PMID:23449364

  14. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide actually takes place. Each lung houses about 300- ... growth. Without oxygen, the body's cells would die. Carbon dioxide is the waste gas produced when carbon is ...

  15. What Are the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen from the air. They also help remove carbon dioxide (a waste gas that can be toxic) from ... The lungs' intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide is called gas exchange. Gas exchange is part ...

  16. Significant blood resistance to nitric oxide transfer in the lung.

    PubMed

    Borland, Colin D R; Dunningham, Helen; Bottrill, Fiona; Vuylsteke, Alain; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Dane, D Merrill; Hsia, Connie C W

    2010-05-01

    Lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) is used to measure alveolar membrane conductance (DMNO), but disagreement remains as to whether DMNO=DLNO, and whether blood conductance (thetaNO)=infinity. Our previous in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that thetaNOml/kg each, total exchange 30 ml/kg). At baseline, DLNO/DLCO=4.5. After exchange transfusion, DLNO rose 57+/-16% (mean+/-SD, P=0.02) and DLNO/DLCO=7.1, whereas DLCO remained unchanged. Thus, in vitro and in vivo data directly demonstrate a finite thetaNO. We conclude that the erythrocyte and/or its immediate environment imposes considerable resistance to alveolar-capillary NO uptake. DLNO is sensitive to dynamic hematological factors and is not a pure index of conductance of the alveolar tissue membrane. With successive exchange transfusion, the estimated in vivo thetaNO [5.1 ml NO.(ml blood.min.Torr)(-1)] approached 4.5 ml NO.(ml blood.min.Torr)(-1), which was derived from in vitro measurements by Carlsen and Comroe (J Gen Physiol 42: 83-107, 1958). Therefore, we suggest use of thetaNO=4.5 ml NO.(min.Torr.ml blood)(-1) for calculation of DM(NO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume from DLNO and DLCO.

  17. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  18. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  19. Scotland's first iron lung.

    PubMed

    Porter, I A; Williams, M J

    1997-08-01

    The history of artificial ventilation and the development of the iron lung in the USA by Drinker and his colleagues is discussed. The building and use of an iron lung by Dr R G Henderson in Aberdeen in 1933 is described. The development of other types of ventilator in the UK is recorded and the circumstances whereby positive pressure ventilation was introduced in Denmark in 1952 is outlined. PMID:9507591

  20. Lung epinephrine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.; Elayan, H.; Ziegler, M.G. )

    1990-04-01

    We studied in vitro and in vivo epinephrine (E) synthesis by rat lung. Nine days after removal of the adrenal medullas, circulating E was reduced to 7% of levels found in sham-operated rats but 30% of lung E remained. Treatment of demedullated rats with 6 hydroxydopamine plus reserpine did not further reduce lung E. In the presence of S-(3H)adenosylmethionine lung homogenates readily N-methylated norepinephrine (NE) to form (3H)E. The rate of E synthesis by lung homogenates was progressively more rapid with increasing NE up to a concentration of 3 mM, above which it declined. The rate of E formation was optimal at an incubation pH of 8 and at temperatures of approximately 55 degrees C. We compared the E-forming enzyme(s) of lung homogenates with those of adrenal and cardiac ventricle. The adrenal contains mainly phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which is readily inhibited by SKF 29661 and methylates dopamine (DA) very poorly. Cardiac ventricles contain mainly nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT), which is poorly inhibited by SKF 29661 and readily methylates both DA and NE. Lung homogenates were inhibited by SKF 29661 about half as well as adrenal but more than ventricle. We used the rate of E formation from NE as an index of PNMT-like activity and deoxyepinephrine synthesis from DA as an index of NMT-like activity. PNMT and NMT activity in rat lung homogenates were not correlated with each other, displayed different responses to change in temperature, and were affected differently by glucocorticoids.

  1. Killing of human lung cancer cells using a new ( sup 111 In)bleomycin complex ( sup 111 In)BLMC

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, D.Y.; Hamburger, A.W.; Beach, J.L.; Maruyama, Y. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of a ({sup 111}In)bleomycin complex (({sup 111}In)BLMC) to kill five cell lines of human lung cancer (small cell lung cancer) was investigated. Cells were exposed to either 0.9% NaCl, ({sup 111}In)Cl3, BLM, ({sup 111}In)BLMC, nonradioactive InCl3, or In-BLMC for 60 minutes, plated in soft agarose, and assessed for colony formation. ({sup 111}In)BLMC (40-200 microCi carried by 15-25 micrograms BLM/ml) was more cytotoxic than BLM (15-25 micrograms BLM/ml) by a factor of 1.6-5.3 for five cell lines. The percent survival of N417 cells was 28.4 for ({sup 111}In)BLMC (40 microCi/15 micrograms BLM/ml) and 54.3 for BLM (15 micrograms/ml); 1.9 for ({sup 111}In)BLMC (200 microCi/25 micrograms BLM/ml), and 10.0 for BLM (25 micrograms/ml). {sup 111}InCl3 (200 microCi/ml) and nonradioactive InCl3 failed to inhibit colony formation. The new ({sup 111}In)BLMC may be useful for therapy of some lung cancer patients.

  2. Lung Parenchymal Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Suki, Béla; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Hubmayr, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The lung parenchyma comprises a large number of thin-walled alveoli, forming an enormous surface area, which serves to maintain proper gas exchange. The alveoli are held open by the transpulmonary pressure, or prestress, which is balanced by tissues forces and alveolar surface film forces. Gas exchange efficiency is thus inextricably linked to three fundamental features of the lung: parenchymal architecture, prestress, and the mechanical properties of the parenchyma. The prestress is a key determinant of lung deformability that influences many phenomena including local ventilation, regional blood flow, tissue stiffness, smooth muscle contractility, and alveolar stability. The main pathway for stress transmission is through the extracellular matrix. Thus, the mechanical properties of the matrix play a key role both in lung function and biology. These mechanical properties in turn are determined by the constituents of the tissue, including elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties are also influenced by the surface tension and, to some extent, the contractile state of the adherent cells. This article focuses on the biomechanical properties of the main constituents of the parenchyma in the presence of prestress and how these properties define normal function or change in disease. An integrated view of lung mechanics is presented and the utility of parenchymal mechanics at the bedside as well as its possible future role in lung physiology and medicine are discussed. PMID:23733644

  3. Label-free electrochemical impedance biosensor to detect human interleukin-8 in serum with sub-pg/ml sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, R.; Deacon, S.E.; Nowak, D.; George, S.E.; Szymonik, M.P.; Tang, A.A.S.; Tomlinson, D.C.; Davies, A.G.; McPherson, M.J.; Wälti, C.

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors with high sensitivity and short time-to-result that are capable of detecting biomarkers in body fluids such as serum are an important prerequisite for early diagnostics in modern healthcare provision. Here, we report the development of an electrochemical impedance-based sensor for the detection in serum of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), a pro-angiogenic chemokine implicated in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The sensor employs a small and robust synthetic non-antibody capture protein based on a cystatin scaffold that displays high affinity for human IL-8 with a KD of 35±10 nM and excellent ligand specificity. The change in the phase of the electrochemical impedance from the serum baseline, ∆θ(ƒ), measured at 0.1 Hz, was used as the measure for quantifying IL-8 concentration in the fluid. Optimal sensor signal was observed after 15 min incubation, and the sensor exhibited a linear response versus logarithm of IL-8 concentration from 900 fg/ml to 900 ng/ml. A detection limit of around 90 fg/ml, which is significantly lower than the basal clinical levels of 5–10 pg/ml, was observed. Our results are significant for the development of point-of-care and early diagnostics where high sensitivity and short time-to-results are essential. PMID:26897263

  4. Label-free electrochemical impedance biosensor to detect human interleukin-8 in serum with sub-pg/ml sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Deacon, S E; Nowak, D; George, S E; Szymonik, M P; Tang, A A S; Tomlinson, D C; Davies, A G; McPherson, M J; Wälti, C

    2016-06-15

    Biosensors with high sensitivity and short time-to-result that are capable of detecting biomarkers in body fluids such as serum are an important prerequisite for early diagnostics in modern healthcare provision. Here, we report the development of an electrochemical impedance-based sensor for the detection in serum of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), a pro-angiogenic chemokine implicated in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The sensor employs a small and robust synthetic non-antibody capture protein based on a cystatin scaffold that displays high affinity for human IL-8 with a KD of 35 ± 10 nM and excellent ligand specificity. The change in the phase of the electrochemical impedance from the serum baseline, ∆θ(ƒ), measured at 0.1 Hz, was used as the measure for quantifying IL-8 concentration in the fluid. Optimal sensor signal was observed after 15 min incubation, and the sensor exhibited a linear response versus logarithm of IL-8 concentration from 900 fg/ml to 900 ng/ml. A detection limit of around 90 fg/ml, which is significantly lower than the basal clinical levels of 5-10 pg/ml, was observed. Our results are significant for the development of point-of-care and early diagnostics where high sensitivity and short time-to-results are essential.

  5. SEM with Missing Data and Unknown Population Distributions Using Two-Stage ML: Theory and Its Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Lu, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the theory and application of the 2-stage maximum likelihood (ML) procedure for structural equation modeling (SEM) with missing data. The validity of this procedure does not require the assumption of a normally distributed population. When the population is normally distributed and all missing data are missing at random…

  6. Serum lipid levels and M/L55 allele distribution of HDL paraoxonase gene in Saami and Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Malin, R; Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    2001-01-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is an antioxidative enzyme, which eliminates lipid peroxides. The mutation in codon 55 of PON1 gene causes a change of methionine (M-allele) to leucine (L-allele) and influences PON activity. The Saami are a population living in the northern part of Fennoscandia. In previous studies their death rate from coronary artery disease (CAD) was found to be low. We compared PON M/L55 allele frequencies of 68 Saami and 68 Finnish men and related the PON genotypes to plasma lipid levels and to the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL. The M/L55 genotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. ELISA was used to measure antibodies against oxidized LDL. The L- and M-allele frequencies were 64% and 36% in Saami population and 64% and 36% in Finnish men, respectively (p = NS, Fisher's exact test). There were also no significant differences in plasma lipid levels or in antibody levels against oxidized LDL between PON genotypes or between Saami and Finnish men. Our results indicate that the PON M/L55 genotype is not associated with plasma lipid levels or the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL in these populations. The Saami men have the same PON M/L55 allele distribution as the Finnish men and the PON genotype might thus not be one factor protecting Saami against CAD.

  7. Effects of surfactant/budesonide therapy on oxidative modifications in the lung in experimental meconium-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mikolka, P; Kopincova, J; Tomcikova Mikusiakova, L; Kosutova, P; Antosova, M; Calkovska, A; Mokra, D

    2016-02-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a serious condition, which can be treated with exogenous surfactant and mechanical ventilation. However, meconium-induced inflammation, lung edema and oxidative damage may inactivate delivered surfactant and thereby reduce effectiveness of the therapy. As we presumed that addition of anti-inflammatory agent into the surfactant may alleviate inflammation and enhance efficiency of the therapy, this study was performed to evaluate effects of surfactant therapy enriched with budesonide versus surfactant-only therapy on markers of oxidative stress in experimental model of MAS. Meconium suspension (25 mg/ml, 4 ml/kg) was instilled into the trachea of young rabbits, whereas one group of animals received saline instead of meconium (C group, n = 6). In meconium-instilled animals, respiratory failure developed within 30 min. Then, meconium-instilled animals were divided into 3 groups according to therapy (n = 6 each): with surfactant therapy (M + S group), with surfactant + budesonide therapy (M + S + B), and without therapy (M group). Surfactant therapy consisted of two bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) with diluted surfactant (Curosurf, 5 mg phospholipids/ml, 10 ml/kg) followed by undiluted surfactant (100 mg phospholipids/kg), which was in M + S + B group enriched with budesonide (Pulmicort, 0.5 mg/ml). Animals were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 hours. At the end of experiment, blood sample was taken for differential white blood cell (WBC) count. After euthanizing animals, left lung was saline-lavaged and cell differential in BAL was determined. Oxidative damage, i.e. oxidation of lipids (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated dienes) and proteins (dityrosine and lysine-lipoperoxidation products) was estimated in lung homogenate and isolated mitochondria. Total antioxidant capacity was evaluated in lung homogenate and plasma. Meconium instillation increased transmigration of neutrophils and production of free

  8. Interfractional Positional Variability of Fiducial Markers and Primary Tumors in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer During Audiovisual Biofeedback Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, Nicholas O.; Shepherd, Wes; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate implanted markers as a surrogate for tumor-based setup during image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy with audiovisual biofeedback. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were implanted bronchoscopically with gold coils. Markers, tumor, and a reference bony structure (vertebra) were contoured for all 10 phases of the four-dimensional respiration-correlated fan-beam computed tomography and weekly four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography. Results: The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-tumor centroid displacements were 2/3, 2/2, and 3/3 mm in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) directions, respectively. The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/3, and 2/3 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. The systematic/random tumor-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/4, and 4/4 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All displacements changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although marker-based image guidance may decrease the risk for geometric miss compared with bony anatomy-based positioning, the observed displacements between markers and tumor centroids indicate the need for repeated soft tissue imaging, particularly in situations with large tumor volume change and large initial marker-to-tumor centroid distance.

  9. Variation in Levels of the Lung Carcinogen NNAL and its Glucuronides in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Ming, Xun; Stram, Daniel O.; Marchand, Loic Le; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results of the Multiethnic Cohort study (MEC) demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarettes smoked, African Americans (AfrAm) and Native Hawaiians (NH) have a higher risk of lung cancer compared to Whites, whereas Latinos (LA) and Japanese Americans (JA) have a lower risk. We hypothesize that the uptake and/or metabolism of the lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) could explain the differences in lung cancer risk. Methods We measured urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides and their sum (total NNAL), biomarkers of NNK uptake, in 2,252 smokers from the MEC. Ethnic-specific geometric means were compared adjusting for age at urine collection, sex, creatinine and total nicotine equivalents, a marker of total nicotine uptake. Results AfrAm had the highest median total NNAL levels (1.80 pmol/ml urine) and JA the lowest (0.914 pmol/ml urine), with intermediate values in the other three groups. Geometric mean of total NNAL in AfrAm was also highest and in JA was lowest; JA geometric mean was statistically different from Whites (P=0.004). Conclusions AfrAm had higher levels of total NNAL per ml urine than Whites while JA had lower levels, consistent with lung cancer risk among smokers in these groups. However, our data were not consistent with the high and low lung cancer risks of NH and LA smokers, respectively. Impact The higher lung cancer susceptibility of AfrAm smokers and the lower susceptibility of JA smokers compared to Whites can be explained in part by exposure to the potent lung carcinogen NNK. PMID:25542827

  10. Changes in breath sound power spectra during experimental oleic acid-induced lung injury in pigs.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute lung injury on the frequency spectra of breath sounds, we made serial acoustic recordings from nondependent, midlung and dependent regions of both lungs in ten 35- to 45-kg anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated pigs during development of acute lung injury induced with intravenous oleic acid in prone or supine position. Oleic acid injections rapidly produced severe derangements in the gas exchange and mechanical properties of the lung, with an average increase in venous admixture from 16 ± 12 to 62 ± 16% (P < 0.01), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 25 ± 4 to 14 ± 4 ml/cmH2O (P < 0.01). A concomitant increase in sound power was seen in all lung regions (P < 0.05), predominantly in frequencies 150-800 Hz. The deterioration in gas exchange and lung mechanics correlated best with concurrent spectral changes in the nondependent lung regions. Acute lung injury increases the power of breath sounds likely secondary to redistribution of ventilation from collapsed to aerated parts of the lung and improved sound transmission in dependent, consolidated areas.

  11. Heterozygous germline mutations in A2ML1 are associated with a disorder clinically related to Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Bonetti, Monica; Paardekooper Overman, Jeroen; Nillesen, Willy M; Frints, Suzanna G M; de Ligt, Joep; Zampino, Giuseppe; Justino, Ana; Machado, José C; Schepens, Marga; Brunner, Han G; Veltman, Joris A; Scheffer, Hans; Gros, Piet; Costa, José L; Tartaglia, Marco; van der Burgt, Ineke; Yntema, Helger G; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. To date, all mutations known to cause NS are dominant, activating mutations in signal transducers of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In 25% of cases, however, the genetic cause of NS remains elusive, suggesting that factors other than those involved in the canonical RAS/MAPK pathway may also have a role. Here, we used family-based whole exome sequencing of a case-parent trio and identified a de novo mutation, p.(Arg802His), in A2ML1, which encodes the secreted protease inhibitor α-2-macroglobulin (A2M)-like-1. Subsequent resequencing of A2ML1 in 155 cases with a clinical diagnosis of NS led to the identification of additional mutations in two families, p.(Arg802Leu) and p.(Arg592Leu). Functional characterization of these human A2ML1 mutations in zebrafish showed NS-like developmental defects, including a broad head, blunted face and cardiac malformations. Using the crystal structure of A2M, which is highly homologous to A2ML1, we identified the intramolecular interaction partner of p.Arg802. Mutation of this residue, p.Glu906, induced similar developmental defects in zebrafish, strengthening our conclusion that mutations in A2ML1 cause a disorder clinically related to NS. This is the first report of the involvement of an extracellular factor in a disorder clinically related to RASopathies, providing potential new leads for better understanding of the molecular basis of this family of developmental diseases. PMID:24939586

  12. ML418: The First Selective, Sub-Micromolar Pore Blocker of Kir7.1 Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Swale, Daniel R; Kurata, Haruto; Kharade, Sujay V; Sheehan, Jonathan; Raphemot, Rene; Voigtritter, Karl R; Figueroa, Eric E; Meiler, Jens; Blobaum, Anna L; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R; Denton, Jerod S

    2016-07-20

    The inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel Kir7.1 (KCNJ13) has recently emerged as a key regulator of melanocortin signaling in the brain, electrolyte homeostasis in the eye, and uterine muscle contractility during pregnancy. The pharmacological tools available for exploring the physiology and therapeutic potential of Kir7.1 have been limited to relatively weak and nonselective small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we report the discovery in a fluorescence-based high-throughput screen of a novel Kir7.1 channel inhibitor, VU714. Site-directed mutagenesis of pore-lining amino acid residues identified glutamate 149 and alanine 150 as essential determinants of VU714 activity. Lead optimization with medicinal chemistry generated ML418, which exhibits sub-micromolar activity (IC50 = 310 nM) and superior selectivity over other Kir channels (at least 17-fold selective over Kir1.1, Kir2.1, Kir2.2, Kir2.3, Kir3.1/3.2, and Kir4.1) except for Kir6.2/SUR1 (equally potent). Evaluation in the EuroFins Lead Profiling panel of 64 GPCRs, ion-channels, and transporters for off-target activity of ML418 revealed a relatively clean ancillary pharmacology. While ML418 exhibited low CLHEP in human microsomes which could be modulated with lipophilicity adjustments, it showed high CLHEP in rat microsomes regardless of lipophilicity. A subsequent in vivo PK study of ML418 by intraperitoneal (IP) administration (30 mg/kg dosage) revealed a suitable PK profile (Cmax = 0.20 μM and Tmax = 3 h) and favorable CNS distribution (mouse brain/plasma Kp of 10.9 to support in vivo studies. ML418, which represents the current state-of-the-art in Kir7.1 inhibitors, should be useful for exploring the physiology of Kir7.1 in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27184474

  13. New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0.

    PubMed

    Guindon, Stéphane; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lefort, Vincent; Anisimova, Maria; Hordijk, Wim; Gascuel, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    PhyML is a phylogeny software based on the maximum-likelihood principle. Early PhyML versions used a fast algorithm performing nearest neighbor interchanges to improve a reasonable starting tree topology. Since the original publication (Guindon S., Gascuel O. 2003. A simple, fast and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 52:696-704), PhyML has been widely used (>2500 citations in ISI Web of Science) because of its simplicity and a fair compromise between accuracy and speed. In the meantime, research around PhyML has continued, and this article describes the new algorithms and methods implemented in the program. First, we introduce a new algorithm to search the tree space with user-defined intensity using subtree pruning and regrafting topological moves. The parsimony criterion is used here to filter out the least promising topology modifications with respect to the likelihood function. The analysis of a large collection of real nucleotide and amino acid data sets of various sizes demonstrates the good performance of this method. Second, we describe a new test to assess the support of the data for internal branches of a phylogeny. This approach extends the recently proposed approximate likelihood-ratio test and relies on a nonparametric, Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like procedure. A detailed analysis of real alignments sheds light on the links between this new approach and the more classical nonparametric bootstrap method. Overall, our tests show that the last version (3.0) of PhyML is fast, accurate, stable, and ready to use. A Web server and binary files are available from http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/.

  14. Lung function, breathing pattern, and gas exchange in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, S; Sicilian, L

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the severity of abnormalities in ventilatory function tests and tidal breathing pattern and gas exchange indices in interstitial lung disease. METHODS: Pulmonary function, ventilation, carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, arterial blood gas tensions, and pH were measured during resting steady state conditions in 60 patients with proved interstitial lung disease. Patients were categorised by forced vital capacity (FVC) (percentage of predicted values) as having a mild, moderate, or severe restrictive defect with means (SD) of 71% (4%), 57% (4%), and 41% (7%) of predicted values, respectively. RESULTS: FVC varied from 29% to 79% of predicted values and from 0.99 l to 4.32 l. The two measurements of FVC correlated strongly with most static lung volumes and with transfer factor for carbon monoxide. Mean respiratory rates (per minute) and tidal volumes (ml) were 17 (4) and 484 (131), 20 (4) and 460 (139), and 23 (5) and 377 (109) in mild, moderate, and severe restrictive defects, respectively. FVC correlated negatively with respiratory rate and positively with tidal volume. Arterial carbon dioxide tension ranged from 30 to 49 mm Hg; only two patients were hypercapnic. Mean arterial oxygen tensions were not significantly different among the three groups, and there were no significant correlations between forced expiratory volume in one second or FVC and arterial carbon dioxide tension or carbon dioxide production. CONCLUSION: Low values of FVC were associated with increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume; this pattern of breathing mimics external elastic loading, suggesting that mechanoreceptors may contribute to the rapid and shallow pattern of breathing in interstitial lung disease. Hypercapnia seems to be rare in interstitial lung disease even when functional impairment is severe and tidal volume is small. The increased respiratory rate is important in maintaining adequate

  15. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  16. A prospective study of decline in lung function in relation to welding emissions

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Sigve W; Bonde, Jens Peter; Omland, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have reported reduced lung function among welders but limitations of exposure assessment and design preclude causal inference. The aim of this study was to investigate if long-term exposure to welding fume particulates accelerates the age-related decline in lung function. Methods Lung function was measured by spirometry in 1987 and 2004 among 68 steel welders and 32 non-welding production workers. The decline in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was analysed in relation to cumulated exposure to fume particulates among welders during the follow-up period. Results Among smokers the decline in FEV1 through follow-up period was in average 150 ml larger among welders than non-welders while the difference was negligible among non-smokers. The results did not reach statistical significance and within welders the decline in lung function was not related to the cumulated welding particulate exposure during follow-up period Conclusion Long-term exposure to welding emissions may accelerate the age-related decline of lung function but at exposure levels in the range of 1.5 to 6.5 mg/m3 the average annual excess loss of FEV1 is unlikely to exceed 25 ml in smokers and 10 ml in non-smokers. PMID:18302754

  17. Ropivacaine 0.025% mixed with fentanyl 3.0 μg/ml and epinephrine 0.5 μg/ml is effective for epidural patient-controlled analgesia after cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shaul; Chhokra, Renu; Stein, Mark H; Denny, John T; Shah, Shruti; Mohiuddin, Adil; Naftalovich, Rotem; Zhao, Rong; Pashkova, Anna; Rolleri, Noah; Patel, Arpan G; Hunter-Fratzola, Christine W

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: We aimed to determine the ropivacaine concentration that provided adequate analgesia with early ambulation and minimal urinary retention or other side-effects when used with fentanyl and epinephrine for patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) after elective cesarean section. Material and Methods: Forty-eight patients were randomized to four groups in a double-blinded fashion. All groups received an initial 10 ml/h of epidural study solution for 24 h. The solution contained: 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, or 0.025% ropivacaine for Groups I-IV, respectively, with fentanyl 3.0 μg/ml and epinephrine 0.5 μg/ml. Patients could administer additional PCEA doses of 4 ml of their study solution with a lock-out time of 10 min. Overall satisfaction, side-effects, motor block, neurologic function, and pain using Visual Analog Scale were assessed. Results: Patients in all groups showed no difference in sedation, pruritus, nausea, vomiting, and uterine cramps. Pain scores at rest were lower for Group IV than Groups I-III (P < 0.001). Twelve, five, one, and zero patients could not ambulate in Groups I-IV, respectively. Nine, nine, two, and zero (III

  18. Three months' treatment with cyclophosphamide, VP-16-213 followed by methotrexate and thoracic radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, N; James, R D; Steward, W P; Barber, P V; Feinmann, D; Lawson, B A; Carroll, K B

    1985-09-15

    One hundred eleven patients with inoperable but limited-stage small cell lung cancer were treated with three courses of cyclophosphamide (1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 g/m2, respectively) and VP-16-213 followed by methotrexate and thoracic radiotherapy. The total duration of treatment was 3 months. Patients were included who had pleural effusions, contralateral neck nodes, and bone marrow infiltration. The complete response (CR) rate was 56%, the majority confirmed by repeat bronchoscopy, with an 81% overall response rate. The minimum follow-up was 14 months. Median survival for all 111 patients was 11 months and 14 months (1-34+) for complete responders; the median survival was also 11 months for the 91 patients with conventional limited-stage disease, although 15 of the 19 patients alive at 14 months or more were from this subpopulation. There was no significant difference in the survival of those CR patients whose response was confirmed bronchoscopically and patients whose CR was assessed only radiologically and clinically. Forty-four patients with leukopenia (less than 1000 cells/microliter) received intravenous antibiotics for malaise and suspected infection. Close monitoring between treatments and direct access of patients to the hospital was encouraged. The majority of patients improved symptomatically as assessed by Karnofsky and Respiratory scores. These results support the view that short but intensive treatment without long-term or maintenance chemotherapy is beneficial.

  19. Comparison of the serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products with cytokeratin 19 fragment as biomarkers in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    So, Hee Jin; Hong, Seok-Il; Lee, Jin Kyung; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Kang, Sun Jung; Hong, Young Jun

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality. The identification of early diagnostic biomarkers improved outcomes for lung cancer patients. Serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) levels are elevated in numerous malignancies due to hemostatic alterations. The serum FDP levels were compared to the levels of cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen (CYFRA 21-1), another well-established biomarker. The serum samples from 193 lung cancer patients, 84 healthy controls and 106 patients with benign respiratory diseases were obtained. The serum FDP level was measured using the DR-70 immunoassay and the CYFRA 21-1 level was measured by electrochemiluminescence using the Roche Analytics E170. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to assess the predictive sensitivity and specificity. The mean serum FDP level in lung cancer patients (35.01±229.02 μg/ml) was significantly higher compared to the 190 non-cancerous subjects (0.60±0.75 μg/ml; P=0.039). The mean serum CYFRA 21-1 level in lung cancer patients (4.50±6.67 ng/ml) was also significantly higher compared to the non-cancerous subjects (1.40±0.83 ng/ml; P<0.05). FDP exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 86 and 75%, respectively, at an optimal cut-off at 0.67 μg/ml. CYFRA 21-1 exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively, at a cut-off of 1.65 ng/ml. The serum FDP area under the curve (0.87) was slightly higher compared to CYFRA 21-1 (0.83). Therefore, it is apparent that serum FDP is comparable to CYFRA 21-1 as a lung cancer biomarker and can be used for clinical practice. PMID:25054020

  20. The effects of ambient NO[sub 2] on lung function in primary schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect

    Frischer, T.; Studnicka, M.; Beer, E.; Neumann, M. )

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ambient NO2 on lung function was investigated in a sample of 423 schoolchildren. At each of four locations NO2 was monitored continuously. Over a 6-month period from January to June 1990 two surveys were performed and spirometry recorded each time for each child. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of NO2 for different time intervals preceding lung function testing. A decrease of NO2 between surveys was significantly associated with a higher forced vital capacity (FVC) at the second survey. For each microgram/m3 NO2 decrease the model predicted an increase in FVC of 1.5 ml [for the 2-hr mean (P < 0.05)] and 3.1 ml [for the 12-hr mean (P < 0.01)]. We conclude that even at NO2 levels below current air-quality standards children demonstrate significant changes in lung function.

  1. Radon and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Tarsheen K; El-Ghamry, Moataz N; Kloecker, Goetz H

    2012-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer, following tobacco smoke. Radon is not only an independent risk factor; it also increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Numerous cohort, case-control, and experimental studies have established the carcinogenic potential of radon. The possibility of radon having a causative effect on other cancers has been explored but not yet proven. One of the postulated mechanisms of carcinogenesis is DNA damage by alpha particles mediated by the production of reactive oxygen species. The latter are also thought to constitute one of the common mechanisms underlying the synergistic effect of radon and tobacco smoke. With an estimated 21,000 lung cancer deaths attributable to radon in the United States annually, the need for radon mitigation is well acknowledged. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an indoor limit of 4 picocuries (pCi)/L, and various methods are available for indoor radon reduction when testing shows higher levels. Radon mitigation should accompany smoking cessation measures in lung cancer prevention efforts.

  2. Lung Cancer Statistics.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. It is also the leading cause of cancer death among men and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Lung cancer rates and trends vary substantially by sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography because of differences in historical smoking patterns. Lung cancer mortality rates in the United States are highest among males, blacks, people of lower socioeconomic status, and in the mid-South (e.g., Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee). Globally, rates are highest in countries where smoking uptake began earliest, such as those in North America and Europe. Although rates are now decreasing in most of these countries (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Australia), especially in men, they are increasing in countries where smoking uptake occurred later. Low- and middle-income countries now account for more than 50% of lung cancer deaths each year. This chapter reviews lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the United States and globally.

  3. Donor management and lung preservation for lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Laveena; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cypel, Marcelo

    2013-06-01

    Although lung transplantation has become a life-saving option for patients with end-stage lung disease, this intervention is hampered by a shortage of lungs in view of the growing number of people on the waiting list. Lungs are retrieved from only a small percentage of multiorgan donors, and the transplantation and intensive-care communities have recognised the need to develop innovative methods to expand the donor pool. Advancements in lung-preservation techniques in the preretrieval and postretrieval periods have increased the pool of available donors, and novel research and discoveries in this area have steadily improved post-transplantation adverse events. This Review summarises current best practice and the latest research on intensive-care management of a potential lung donor. We also discuss lung-preservation techniques, including advancements in normothermic ex-vivo lung perfusion, and the potential for a personalised medicine approach to the organ. PMID:24429157

  4. Antipseudomonal Bacteriophage Reduces Infective Burden and Inflammatory Response in Murine Lung

    PubMed Central

    Pabary, Rishi; Singh, Charanjit; Morales, Sandra; Bush, Andrew; Alshafi, Khalid; Bilton, Diana; Alton, Eric W. F. W.; Smithyman, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance increases, there is a need for new therapies to treat infection, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF), where Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous pathogen associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative treatment, as they are specific to the target bacteria and have no documented side effects. The efficacy of phage cocktails was established in vitro. Two P. aeruginosa strains were taken forward into an acute murine infection model with bacteriophage administered either prophylactically, simultaneously, or postinfection. The infective burden and inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed at various times. With low infective doses, both control mice and those undergoing simultaneous phage treatment cleared P. aeruginosa infection at 48 h, but there were fewer neutrophils in BALF of phage-treated mice (median, 73.2 × 104/ml [range, 35.2 to 102.1 × 104/ml] versus 174 × 104/ml [112.1 to 266.8 × 104/ml], P < 0.01 for the clinical strain; median, 122.1 × 104/ml [105.4 to 187.4 × 104/ml] versus 206 × 104/ml [160.1 to 331.6 × 104/ml], P < 0.01 for PAO1). With higher infective doses of PAO1, all phage-treated mice cleared P. aeruginosa infection at 24 h, whereas infection persisted in all control mice (median, 1,305 CFU/ml [range, 190 to 4,700 CFU/ml], P < 0.01). Bacteriophage also reduced CFU/ml in BALF when administered postinfection (24 h) and both CFU/ml and inflammatory cells in BALF when administered prophylactically. A reduction in soluble inflammatory cytokine levels in BALF was also demonstrated under different conditions. Bacteriophages are efficacious in reducing both the bacterial load and inflammation in a murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. This study provides proof of concept for future clinical trials in patients with CF. PMID:26574007

  5. Optimization of the choline transporter (CHT) inhibitor ML352: Development of VU6001221, an improved in vivo tool compound.

    PubMed

    Bertron, Jeanette L; Ennis, Elizabeth A; Tarr, Christopher J; Wright, Jane; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Locuson, Charles W; Blobaum, Anna L; Rook, Jerri M; Blakely, Randy D; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-10-01

    This Letter describes the further lead optimization of the CHT inhibitor probe, ML352 (VU0476201), and the development of VU6001221, an improved in vivo tool. A multi-dimensional optimization effort encountered steep SAR, and ultimately, subtle tuning of the electronics of the central phenyl core provided VU6001221, a CHT inhibitor with comparable potency for choline uptake inhibition as ML352, yet improved PK and CNS penetration. Moreover, VU6001221 enabled evaluation, for the first time, of a CHT inhibitor in a standard preclinical rodent cognition model, novel object recognition (NOR). We observed VU6001221 to elicit a dose-responsive increase in NOR, raising the possibility of agonism of synaptic α7 nicotinic ACh receptors by elevated extracellular choline, that if confirmed would represent a novel molecular strategy to enhance cognition. PMID:27575469

  6. Mean lung pressure during adult high-frequency oscillatory ventilation: an experimental study using a lung model.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Takahiro; Nagano, Osamu; Shiba, Naoki; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Keiji; Terado, Michihisa; Ugawa, Toyomu; Ichiba, Shingo; Ujike, Yoshihito

    2014-12-01

    In adult high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), stroke volume (SV) and mean lung pressure (PLung) are important for lung protection. We measured the airway pressure at the Y-piece and the lung pressure during HFOV using a lung model and HFOV ventilators for adults (R100 and 3100B). The lung model was made of a 20-liter, airtight rigid plastic container (adiabatic compliance: 19.3 ml/cmH2O) with or without a resistor (20 cmH2O/l/sec). The ventilator settings were as follows: mean airway pressure (MAP), 30 cmH2O; frequency, 5-15 Hz (every 1 Hz); airway pressure amplitude (AMP), maximum;and % of inspiratory time (IT), 50% for R100, 33% or 50% for 3100B. The measurements were also performed with an AMP of 2/3 or 1/3 maximum at 5, 10 and 15 Hz. The PLung and the measured MAP were not consistently identical to the setting MAP in either ventilator, and decreasing IT decreased the PLung in 3100B. In conclusion, we must pay attention to the possible discrepancy between the PLung and the setting MAP during adult HFOV. PMID:25519026

  7. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  8. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  9. Lung Transcriptomics during Protective Ventilatory Support in Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Lorenzo-Diaz, Fabian; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Corrales, Almudena; Valladares, Francisco; Klassert, Tilman E.; Valladares, Basilio; Slevogt, Hortense; Ma, Shwu-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe inflammatory process of the lung. The only proven life-saving support is mechanical ventilation (MV) using low tidal volumes (LVT) plus moderate to high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, it is currently unknown how they exert the protective effects. To identify the molecular mechanisms modulated by protective MV, this study reports transcriptomic analyses based on microarray and microRNA sequencing in lung tissues from a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis-induced ALI. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 24 hours post-CLP, septic animals were randomized to three ventilatory strategies: spontaneous breathing, LVT (6 ml/kg) plus 10 cmH2O PEEP and high tidal volume (HVT, 20 ml/kg) plus 2 cmH2O PEEP. Healthy, non-septic, non-ventilated animals served as controls. After 4 hours of ventilation, lung samples were obtained for histological examination and gene expression analysis using microarray and microRNA sequencing. Validations were assessed using parallel analyses on existing publicly available genome-wide association study findings and transcriptomic human data. The catalogue of deregulated processes differed among experimental groups. The ‘response to microorganisms’ was the most prominent biological process in septic, non-ventilated and in HVT animals. Unexpectedly, the ‘neuron projection morphogenesis’ process was one of the most significantly deregulated in LVT. Further support for the key role of the latter process was obtained by microRNA studies, as four species targeting many of its genes (Mir-27a, Mir-103, Mir-17-5p and Mir-130a) were found deregulated. Additional analyses revealed 'VEGF signaling' as a central underlying response mechanism to all the septic groups (spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated). Based on this data, we conclude that a co-deregulation of 'VEGF signaling' along with 'neuron projection

  10. Development, testing, and certification of the Northrup, Inc., ML series concentrating solar collector model NSC-01-0732

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is presented of the additional development work on the existing ML Series concentrating solar collector for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. This report shows that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.

  11. Clinical evaluation of serum tumour marker CA 242 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, J. L.; Cooper, E. H.; Lehmann, M.; Purves, D. A.; Dan-Aouta, M.; Midander, J.; Godard, P.; Michel, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    CA 242, a novel tumour carbohydrate antigen present in serum (upper limit of normal values: 20.0 U ml-1), has been measured in a group of 102 pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer patients. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify any relationship between pre-treatment serum CA 242 level and different features of lung cancer including prognosis. Serum CA 242 was measured using the delayed europium lanthanide fluoroimmunometric assay. Sensitivity and specificity were 28.5% and 95.6% respectively. Its level was significantly lower in squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with non-squamous histologies (adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma). The CA 242 level was higher in metastatic disease (median: 15.3 U ml-1) in comparison with non-metastatic (median: 7.9 U ml-1; Mann Whitney U test; P < 0.003), and increased significantly from stage I to stage IV. In 50 patients who underwent chemotherapy, the serum CA 242 level was higher in non-responder patients when compared with responders (median: 16.8 U ml-1 and 9.5 U ml-1 respectively; Mann Whitney; P < 0.02). Univariate analysis of the entire population showed serum CA 242 levels were not related to survival. However, patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer and elevated CA 242 level proved to have a significantly shorter survival than those with a CA 242 < 20 U ml-1. In Cox's model analysis, stage of the disease and performance status were the only significant determinants of survival. We conclude that a high level of serum CA 242 (1) is significantly related to the stage of disease, (2) predictive of no response to chemotherapy but seems to add weak prognostic information to stage of disease and performance status, the main prognostic determinants of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:8390291

  12. FTIR characterization of animal lung cells: normal and precancerous modified e10 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezell, D. M.; Pereira, T. M.; Mennecier, G.; Bachmann, L.; Govone, A. B.; Dagli, M. L. Z.

    2012-06-01

    The chemical carcinogens from tobacco are related to over 90% of lung cancers around the world. The risk of death of this kind of cancer is high because the diagnosis usually is made only in advanced stages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new diagnostic methods for detecting the lung cancer in earlier stages. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) can offer high sensibility and accuracy to detect the minimal chemical changes into the biological sample. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences on infrared spectra between normal lung cells and precancerous lung cells transformed by NNK. Non-cancerous lung cell line e10 (ATCC) and NNK-transformed e10 cell lines were maintained in complete culture medium (1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F12 [DMEM/Ham's F12], supplemented with 100 ng/ml cholera enterotoxin, 10 lg/ml insulin, 0.5 lg/ml. hydrocortisol, 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor, and 5% horse serum. The cultures were maintained in alcohol 70%. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Nicolet 6700 spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 3 spectra recorded, 30 infrared spectra were obtained from each cell line. The second derivate of spectra indicates that there are displacement in 1646 cm-1 (amine I) and 1255 cm-1(DNA), allowing the possibility to differentiate the two king of cells, with accuracy of 89,9%. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal e10 lung cells from precancerous e10 transformed by NNK.

  13. Measures of body habitus are associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis: A population-based study☆

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Doug L.; Knox, Alan J.; Smyth, Alan R.; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body habitus differences may explain some of the variation in lung function between individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that measures of lean muscle mass and obesity are independently associated with lung function in CF. Methods Cross-sectional study design using UK CF registry data from 2096 clinically stable adults. Results Serum creatinine and BMI were positively and independently associated with FEV1 and FVC. One standard deviation increment in serum creatinine was associated with an FEV1 increase of 171 ml (95% confidence intervals CI: + 116 to + 227 ml) in males and 90 ml (95% CI: + 46 to + 133 ml) in females. Compared to the reference group of 20–24.9 kg/m2, those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2 had lower FEV1 with values of − 642 ml (95%CI: − 784 to − 500 ml) for males and − 468 ml (95%CI: − 564 to − 372 ml) for females. Conclusions Prospective studies and controlled trials are required to ascertain if these associations have therapeutic potential in modifying disease progression. PMID:22958983

  14. Regulation of lung surfactant secretion by intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Chander, A

    1989-12-01

    We investigated secretion of lung surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC) using isolated perfused rat lung preparation after labeling the lung lipids in vitro with [methyl-3H]choline. The perfusion medium was Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 10 mM glucose and 3% fatty acid-poor bovine serum albumin. After ventilation of lungs with air containing 5% CO2 (control) for 1 h, 0.91% +/- 0.04 (mean +/- SE, n = 6) of total lung lipid radioactivity (greater than 95% in PC) was recovered in the cell-free lavage fluid. The secretion of PC was increased with terbutaline (50 microM), 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcAMP, 100 microM), phorbol L2-myristate 13-acetate (30 ng/ml), and ATP (1 mM), in each case by approximately 150%. Secretion of PC was also increased by 160% if the lungs were ventilated with air containing 0% CO2. The low CO2-mediated PC secretion was time and concentration dependent. The dose-response curve for 0-10% CO2 was S-shaped. The low CO2-induced increase in PC secretion could be largely reversed with diffusible weak acids (25 mM, acetate or butyrate) in the perfusion medium. An increase (70%) in secretion was also induced with 10 mM NH4Cl, suggesting a role for intracellular alkalosis. These observations suggest that intracellular alkalosis stimulates lung surfactant secretion. Alkalosis-stimulated secretion of PC was additive with that with terbutaline (5 X 10(-7) to 5 X 10(-4) M) or 10(-4) M 8-BrcAMP, suggesting that alkalosis effect was not mediated through the beta-adrenergic pathway of surfactant secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2514603

  15. Effect of ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl ethyl ketone on butanol oxidase activity in rat lung and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Tha ability of the rat liver to oxidize 2-butanol via a cytochrome P-450-mediated mixed-function oxidase reaction is well known. The purpose of this study was to examine this microsomal alcohol oxidizing system in rat lung and determine if it could be altered by treatments that inhibit or induce this activity. 2-Butanol was incubated with microsomal preparations from male rats, and methyl ethyl ketone production was measured by gas chromatography. The rate was six to eight times lower in lung than in liver. Administration of low doses of ethanol (0.5 ml/kg and 1.0 ml/kg) ip for 7 d did not alter activity in the liver but was inhibitory in the lung, as was a high dose of 3.0 ml/kg in the liver. Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 ml/kg, ip) decreased activity in both tissues, especially the lung. The effects of the two inhibitors were not additive. Methyl ethyl ketone induced 2-butanol oxidation in both tissues. The lung possesses butanol oxidase activity that is alterable by both inhibitors and inducers.

  16. Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaib, Alam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.

  17. Screening for lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, D.

    1981-01-01

    The survival from bronchogenic carcinoma is highly dependent upon stage at the time of treatment. This is particularly true for squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma, but holds true for small cell carcinoma as well. The problem presented to the medical profession has been to find a practical means of detecting lung cancer while it is still at an early stage. Three studies in progress have indicated that a larger proportion of the patients may be found to have early stage lung cancer when screened with a combination of chest X-rays and sputum cytology. However, the detection of these early stage cases has not yet been translated into an improvement in the overall mortality rate from lung cancer. PMID:6278787

  18. Mitochondria in Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

  19. [Indium lung disease].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-01

    "Indium lung" is a new occupational lung disease. The global demand for indium, the major material used in manufacturing flat-screen display panels, has skyrocketed since the 1990s (Japan comprises 85% of the worldwide demand). The first case was reported in Japan in 2003, followed by seven cases (interstitial pneumonia and emphysema) in Japan. Two pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) cases in the USA followed in 2011. Indium lung has been described as interstitial pneumonia, pneumothorax, emphysema, and PAP. In 2013, The Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued an "Ordinance on the Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified Chemical Substances" requiring employers to provide regular health checks for employees and measurements of work environment concentrations of respirable indium dust.

  20. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  1. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, Peter C.; Gordon, N. Ross; Simmons, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an "authentic lung tissue" or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  2. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  3. Adenocarcinoma of Lung Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Aggarwal, Deepak; Punia, Rajpal S; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) presenting as lung cancer have been reported rarely from India. The present case describes a possibly primary lung cancer in a non-smoker who presented radiologically as a case of ILD. The possible mechanisms available in the literature are discussed.

  4. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and

  5. The ALCHEMIST Lung Cancer Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the ALCHEMIST lung cancer trial that will examine tumor tissue from patients with early-stage, completely resected lung cancer for gene mutations in the EGFR and ALK genes, and a

  6. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  7. Lung-MAP Clinical Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the Lung-MAP study, which will examine treatment outcomes for patients with squamous cell lung cancer assigned to different targeted drugs based on the results of genomic tumor profiling.

  8. The ALCHEMIST Lung Cancer Trials

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the ALCHEMIST lung cancer trials that will examine tumor tissue from patients with early-stage, completely resected lung cancer for gene mutations in the EGFR and ALK genes, and a

  9. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Cancer.gov

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  10. [Ultrasonic dissection and coagulation by attachment ("Harmonic Focus" in anatomic resection of the lung].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Karlson, A

    2014-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the efficacy of application of ultrasound dissection technology and coagulation by using "Harmonic Focus" (HF) instrument, while performing anatomical resection of the lung in open thoracic surgery. The method was carried out in serial 20 patients with lung cancer, whom the lung anatomical resection was performed. A long attachment (17 cm) with curved branches was applied. There were 11 lobectomies and 9 pneumoectomies. The application of HF allowed the dissection of pleural adhesions, pulmonary ligament, a separation of roots of the lung elements, lymphatic nodes of roots of the lung and mediastinum, in spite of being very close to vessels. A fatty tissue of the mediastinum was removed quickly and practically without blood. The HF considerably accelerated the process of vessel treatment, especially, while performing the lobectomy. At the same time, the attempts of application of HF instrument for separation of interlobal fissure resulted in not quite satisfactory aerostasis and hemostasis. The duration of the lobectomy was 127 +/- 35 minutes at the average and in the case of pneumoectomy, it consisted of 120 +/- 45 minutes. An intraoperative hemorrhage was 300 +/- 145 ml. A quantity of exudates was 440 +/- 280 ml by drainage on the first day. The pleural cavity drainage was used during 3 +/- 1 days. The HF instrument, which was applied for ultrasonic dissection and coagulation, was characterized by multifunctionality and simplicity of usage. It was recommended for a wide application in the thoracic surgery for performing the anatomical lung resections by thoracotomy method. PMID:25055517

  11. Computer-aided lung nodule detection and assessment by using a hybrid PET/CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franquiz, Juan; Vaddadi, Sulohita; Soler, George

    2004-04-01

    In this study we present an automatic algorithm for the detection and functional assessment of lung nodules on three-dimensional slices derived from a hybrid PET/CT scanner. In addition to differentiate malignant from benign lesions, the algorithm was mainly designed for assessing the response of lung cancer to therapy. The automated algorithm involves three major steps. First, the lung region is segmented from low resolution multislice CT images. Once the lung is segmented on CT images, a search of seed pixels with maximum activity of 18FDG is undertaken into the lung regions of the electronically registered PET images. A 3D growing algorithm identified the lesion pixels around the maximum 18FDG activity seed pixels. In the third step, the total activity (Bq), concentration (Bq/ml), metabolically active volume (ml) and standard uptake values (SUV) were calculated for lesions on PET images. A threshold and filtering method was applied to high resolution CT scans to determine the CT volume of these lesions identified on PET images. All PET images were corrected for attenuation and partial volume effect and cross calibrated with a standard activity measured in a dose calibrator. Studies were performed using a hybrid PET/CT Discovery LS (GE Medical Systems). The feasibility and robustness of the automatic algorithm was demonstrated in studies with a lung-chest phantom and by retrospective analysis of clinical studies.

  12. Radon and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.

    1989-05-10

    Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general population, which is exposed through contamination of indoor air by radon from soil, water, and building materials. This review describes radon's sources, levels in U.S. homes, dosimetry, the epidemiologic evidence from studies of miners and the general population, and the principal, recent risk assessments.91 references.

  13. Radon and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Samet, J M

    1989-05-10

    Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general population, which is exposed through contamination of indoor air by radon from soil, water, and building materials. This review describes radon's sources, levels in U.S. homes, dosimetry, the epidemiologic evidence from studies of miners and the general population, and the principal, recent risk assessments.

  14. Developing SoilML as a global standard for the collation and transfer of soil data and information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; McBratney, Alex; Ahamed, Sonya; McMillan, Bob; Jacquier, David; Fortner, Jim

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing need to collect, collate and share soil data and information within countries, across regions and globally. Timely access to consistent and authoritative data and information is critical to issues related to food production, climate change, water management, energy production and biodiversityl. Soil data and information is managed by numerous agencies and organisations using a plethora of processes, scales and standards. A number of national and international activities and projects are currently dealing with the issues associated with collation of disparate data sets. Standards are being developed for data storage, transfer and collation like, for example, in the GobalSoilMap.net project, e-SOTER and the EU Inspire GS-SOIL. Individually these will not provide a single internationally recognised and adopted standard for soil data and information exchange. A recent GlobalSoilMap.net meeting held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, discussed the needs of a harmonized information model for collation of a global 90 metre grid of key soil attributes (organic carbon, soil texture, pH, depth to bedrock/impeding layer, and predictions of bulk density and available water capacity) at six specified depth increments. The meeting considered a number of existing data base implementations (such as ASRIS, NASIS, WISE, SOTER) as well as emerging abstract information models that are being expressed in UML (such as e-SOTER). It examined related information models, such as GeoSciML and the lessons learnt in developing and implementing such community agreed models, features and vocabularies. There is a need to develop a global soil information standard, to be called SoilML, that would allow access and use of data across a broad range of international initiatives (such as GEOSS and INSPIRE) as well as supporting national, regional and local data interoperability and integration. The meeting agreed to adopt the interoperability approaches of formalising the

  15. ML detection of steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Mark T.; Hurley, Neil J.; Silvestre, Guenole C. M.; Balado, Felix; Whelan, Kevin M.

    2005-03-01

    Digital steganography is the art of hiding information in multimedia content, such that it remains perceptually and statistically unchanged. The detection of such covert communication is referred to as steganalysis. To date, steganalysis research has focused primarily on either, the extraction of features from a document that are sensitive to the embedding, or the inference of some statistical difference between marked and unmarked objects. In this work, we evaluate the statistical limits of such techniques by developing asymptotically optimal tests (Maximum Likelihood) for a number of side informed embedding schemes. The required probability density functions (pdf) are derived for Dither Modulation (DM) and Distortion-Compensated Dither Modulation (DC-DM/SCS) from an steganalyst's point of view. For both embedding techniques, the pdfs are derived in the presence and absence of a secret dither key. The resulting tests are then compared to a robust blind steganalytic test based on feature extraction. The performance of the tests is evaluated using an integral measure and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

  16. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

  17. Environmental radiation and the lung

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Philip E.; Walsh, Phillip J.

    1974-01-01

    Environmental sources of radioactive materials and their relation to lung doses and lung burdens are described. The approaches used and the problems encountered in estimating lung doses are illustrated. Exposure to radon daughter products is contrasted to exposure to plutonium as particular examples of the hazards associated with radioactive materials of different chemical and physical characteristics. PMID:4620334

  18. Ex-vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Neyrinck, Arne; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2015-06-01

    This review outlines the new and promising technique of ex vivo lung perfusion and its clinical potential to increase the number of transplantable lungs and to improve the early and late outcome after transplantation. The rationale, the experimental background, the technique and protocols, and available devices for ex vivo lung perfusion are discussed. The current clinical experience worldwide and ongoing clinical trials are reviewed.

  19. Response of Smooth Bronchial Musculature in Bronchoconstrictor Substances in Newborn with Lung Atelectasis at the Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Lirim; Islami, Pëllumb; Shabani, Nora; Jashanica, Adelina; Islami, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Role of the atelectasis (hypoxia) in the respiratory system of the live and exited newborn (250 up to 3000 g. of body weight), which has died due to different causes was studied in this work. Methods: Response of tracheal rings to dopamine, serotonine and ethanol in the different molar concentrations (dopamine: 0,05 mg/ml, 0,5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml; serotonine (5-HT): 10-4, 10-3, 10-2, 10-1 mol/dm3; ethanol: 0,2 ml, 0,5 ml, 1,0 ml; 96%) was followed up. Study of the smooth tracheal musculature tone (STM) was elaborated in 16 tracheal preparations taken following the newborn death due to different causes. Results: Based on functional researches of tracheal isolated preparations, it was ascertained as follows: atelectasis (cases born with lung hypoxia) has changed the response of STM to dopamine, serotonine and ethanol in a significant manner (p<0,01) in comparison to cases of controlling group, which has died due to lung inflammatory processes (e.g. pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, cerebral hemorrhage), which have also caused significant response (p<0,05). Conclusion: Results suggest that exited cases from lung atelectasis and cases of controlling group reacts to above mentioned substances by causing significant constrictor action of tracheobronchial system. PMID:24783902

  20. Lung inflammatory responses and hyperinflation induced by an intratracheal exposure to lipopolysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Anne-Helene; Eriksson, Christina; Wang, Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of the respiratory tract to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute local inflammation and tissue injury associated with the various deliveries of LPS. To determine potential association of local inflammatory responses with respiratory tract dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells, production of inflammatory mediators, lung hyperinflation and edema were measured in Wister rats 2, 4, and 24 h after an intratracheal administration of LPS at different doses (5, 50, 500 and 5000 microg/ml/kg). Lung hyperinflation determined by an increased excised lung gas volume was significantly increased 2 and 4 h after LPS instillation and lung edema occurred from 2 h onward. Peak BAL levels of TNFalpha appeared at 2 h, MCP-1 at 4 h, and IL-6 at 2 and 4 h, while BAL levels of IL-1beta were increased during 24 h after the intratracheal instillation of LPS. Neutrophilia in BAL fluid was noted from 2 h post-challenge. Our results demonstrate a clear dose-related change in the lung weight at 4 and 24 h, in the BAL levels of MCP-1 at 4 h, and IL-6 and IL-1beta at 2 and 4 h. It seems important to understand polymorphisms of LPS-induced lung hyperinflation and inflammation. Lung hyperinflation and inflammation may be independent during the development of acute lung injury.

  1. Imaging Phenotype of Occupational Endotoxin-Related Lung Function Decline

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peggy S.; Hang, Jing-qing; Zhang, Feng-ying; Sun, J.; Zheng, Bu-Yong; Su, Li; Washko, George R.; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although occupational exposures contribute to a significant proportion of obstructive lung disease, the phenotype of obstructive lung disease associated with work-related organic dust exposure independent of smoking remains poorly defined. Objective: We identified the relative contributions of smoking and occupational endotoxin exposure to parenchymal and airway remodeling as defined by quantitative computed tomography (CT). Methods: The Shanghai Textile Worker Study is a longitudinal study of endotoxin-exposed cotton workers and endotoxin-unexposed silk workers that was initiated in 1981. Spirometry, occupational endotoxin exposure, and smoking habits were assessed at 5-year intervals. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 464 retired workers in 2011, along with quantitative lung densitometric and airway analysis. Results: Significant differences in all CT measures were noted across exposure groups. Occupational endotoxin exposure was associated with a decrease (–1.3%) in percent emphysema (LAAI-950), a 3.3-Hounsfield unit increase in 15th percentile density, an 18.1-g increase in lung mass, and a 2.3% increase in wall area percent. Current but not former smoking was associated with a similar CT phenotype. Changes in LAAI-950 were highly correlated with 15th percentile density (correlation –1.0). Lung mass was the only measure associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) decline, with each 10-g increase in lung mass associated with an additional loss (–6.1 mL) of FEV1 (p = 0.001) between 1981 and 2011. Conclusions: There are many similarities between the effects of occupational endotoxin exposure and those of tobacco smoke exposure on lung parenchyma and airway remodeling. The effects of occupational endotoxin exposure appear to persist even after the cessation of exposure. LAAI-950 may not be a reliable indicator of emphysema in subjects without spirometric impairment. Lung mass is a CT-based biomarker of

  2. Analysis of Lung Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush and Sputum Samples from Subjects with Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Deborah A; Willger, Sven D; Dolben, Emily L; Hampton, Thomas H; Stanton, Bruce A; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L; Czum, Julianna; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irreversible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling of mucus plugs. Sputum samples were obtained from six of the nine subjects immediately prior to the procedure. Microbial community analysis was performed on DNA extracted from these samples and the extent of damage in each lobe was quantified from a recent CT scan. The extent of damage observed in regions of the right lung did not correlate with specific microbial genera, levels of community diversity or composition, or bacterial genome copies per ml of BAL fluid. In all subjects, BAL fluid from different regions of the lung contained similar microbial communities. In eight out of nine subjects, PB samples from different regions of the lung were also similar in microbial community composition, and were similar to microbial communities in BAL fluid from the same lobe. Microbial communities in PB samples were more diverse than those in BAL samples, suggesting enrichment of some taxa in mucus plugs. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the microbiota in different regions of the CF lung in clinically stable individuals with mild-to-moderate CF-related lung disease. PMID:26943329

  3. Analysis of Lung Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush and Sputum Samples from Subjects with Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Deborah A.; Willger, Sven D.; Dolben, Emily L.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Stanton, Bruce A.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Czum, Julianna; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irreversible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling of mucus plugs. Sputum samples were obtained from six of the nine subjects immediately prior to the procedure. Microbial community analysis was performed on DNA extracted from these samples and the extent of damage in each lobe was quantified from a recent CT scan. The extent of damage observed in regions of the right lung did not correlate with specific microbial genera, levels of community diversity or composition, or bacterial genome copies per ml of BAL fluid. In all subjects, BAL fluid from different regions of the lung contained similar microbial communities. In eight out of nine subjects, PB samples from different regions of the lung were also similar in microbial community composition, and were similar to microbial communities in BAL fluid from the same lobe. Microbial communities in PB samples were more diverse than those in BAL samples, suggesting enrichment of some taxa in mucus plugs. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the microbiota in different regions of the CF lung in clinically stable individuals with mild-to-moderate CF-related lung disease. PMID:26943329

  4. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. Lung and Bronchus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 224,390 % of All New Cancer Cases 13.3% Estimated Deaths in 2016 158,080 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 415,707 people living with lung and bronchus ...

  6. Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of high-resolution computed tomography in clinical and research settings has increased the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals. We reported that in smokers, ILA were present in about 1 of every 12 high-resolution computed tomographic scans; however, the long-term significance of these subclinical changes remains unclear. Studies in families affected with pulmonary fibrosis, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with inflammatory lung disease have shown that asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals with ILA have reductions in lung volume, functional limitations, increased pulmonary symptoms, histopathologic changes, and molecular profiles similar to those observed in patients with clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). These findings suggest that, in select at-risk populations, ILA may represent early stages of pulmonary fibrosis or subclinical ILD. The growing interest surrounding this topic is motivated by our poor understanding of the inciting events and natural history of ILD, coupled with a lack of effective therapies. In this perspective, we outline past and current research focused on validating radiologic, physiological, and molecular methods to detect subclinical ILD. We discuss the limitations of the available cross-sectional studies and the need for future longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of subclinical ILD in populations at risk of developing clinically significant ILD. PMID:22366047

  7. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  8. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  9. Arsenic Exposure and Impaired Lung Function. Findings from a Large Population-based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Yunus, Mahbub; Olopade, Christopher; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Akter, Mahmud M.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to arsenic through drinking water has been linked to respiratory symptoms, obstructive lung diseases, and mortality from respiratory diseases. Limited evidence for the deleterious effects on lung function exists among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Objectives: To determine the deleterious effects on lung function that exist among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Methods: In 950 individuals who presented with any respiratory symptom among a population-based cohort of 20,033 adults, we evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, measured by well water and urinary arsenic concentrations measured at baseline, and post-bronchodilator–administered pulmonary function assessed during follow-up. Measurements and Main Results: For every one SD increase in baseline water arsenic exposure, we observed a lower level of FEV1 (−46.5 ml; P < 0.0005) and FVC (−53.1 ml; P < 0.01) in regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, socioeconomic status, betel nut use, and arsenical skin lesions status. Similar inverse relationships were observed between baseline urinary arsenic and FEV1 (−48.3 ml; P < 0.005) and FVC (−55.2 ml; P < 0.01) in adjusted models. Our analyses also demonstrated a dose-related decrease in lung function with increasing levels of baseline water and urinary arsenic. This association remained significant in never-smokers and individuals without skin lesions, and was stronger in male smokers. Among male smokers and individuals with skin lesions, every one SD increase in water arsenic was related to a significant reduction of FEV1 (−74.4 ml, P < 0.01; and −116.1 ml, P < 0.05) and FVC (−72.8 ml, P = 0.02; and −146.9 ml, P = 0.004), respectively. Conclusions: This large population-based study confirms that arsenic exposure is associated with impaired lung function and the deleterious effect is evident at low- to moderate-dose range. PMID:23848239

  10. A threshold lung volume for optimal mechanical effects on upper airway airflow dynamics: studies in an anesthetized rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Kairaitis, Kristina; Verma, Manisha; Amatoury, Jason; Wheatley, John R; White, David P; Amis, Terence C

    2012-04-01

    Increasing lung volume improves upper airway airflow dynamics via passive mechanisms such as reducing upper airway extraluminal tissue pressures (ETP) and increasing longitudinal tension via tracheal displacement. We hypothesized a threshold lung volume for optimal mechanical effects on upper airway airflow dynamics. Seven supine, anesthetized, spontaneously breathing New Zealand White rabbits were studied. Extrathoracic pressure was altered, and lung volume change, airflow, pharyngeal pressure, ETP laterally (ETPlat) and anteriorly (ETPant), tracheal displacement, and sternohyoid muscle activity (EMG%max) monitored. Airflow dynamics were quantified via peak inspiratory airflow, flow limitation upper airway resistance, and conductance. Every 10-ml lung volume increase resulted in caudal tracheal displacement of 2.1 ± 0.4 mm (mean ± SE), decreased ETPlat by 0.7 ± 0.3 cmH(2)O, increased peak inspiratory airflow of 22.8 ± 2.6% baseline (all P < 0.02), and no significant change in ETPant or EMG%max. Flow limitation was present in most rabbits at baseline, and abolished 15.7 ± 10.5 ml above baseline. Every 10-ml lung volume decrease resulted in cranial tracheal displacement of 2.6 ± 0.4 mm, increased ETPant by 0.9 ± 0.2 cmH(2)O, ETPlat was unchanged, increased EMG%max of 11.1 ± 0.3%, and a reduction in peak inspiratory airflow of 10.8 ± 1.0%baseline (all P < 0.01). Lung volume, resistance, and conductance relationships were described by exponential functions. In conclusion, increasing lung volume displaced the trachea caudally, reduced ETP, abolished flow limitation, but had little effect on resistance or conductance, whereas decreasing lung volume resulted in cranial tracheal displacement, increased ETP and increased resistance, and reduced conductance, and flow limitation persisted despite increased muscle activity. We conclude that there is a threshold for lung volume influences on upper airway airflow dynamics. PMID:22241061

  11. Bleomycin induced lung fibrosis increases work of breathing in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Peng, Ruoqi; Burns, Lisa; Harris, Paul; Garrido, Rosario; Tyagi, Gaurav; Fine, Jay S; Stevenson, Christopher S

    2012-08-01

    Bleomycin induces a transient lung fibrosis in mice that has been used to investigate mechanisms related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Our aim was to determine a sensitive method for assessing lung function in bleomycin treated mice that correlated with the degree of lung fibrosis as measured by collagen immunohistochemistry. Bleomycin (2 U/kg) or saline was intratracheally microsprayed to male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia. Lung function (single compartment model, constant phase model, and work of breathing) was assessed using the flexiVent system, and after euthanasia lungs were inflated with formalin in situ for histological analysis. The lung fibrosis histopathology score for the bleomycin treated animals on day 21 was indicative of mild-to-moderate fibrosis (Saline treated control: 0 ± 0, Bleomycin treated: 4.9 ± 0.4). There were at least three large areas of fibrosis in the peribronchial alveolar regions of the lung, but less than 50% of each lung was affected by fibrosis. Although changes in lung function were less obvious, volume normalized dynamic work of breathing measured at 30 ml/kg tidal volume (Saline treated control: 9.2 ± 0.1 J/l, Bleomycin treated: 10.6 ± 0.3 J/l) and the oscillatory mechanics constant phase model parameter tissue elastance (H; Saline treated control: 31 ± 2 cm H(2)O/ml, Bleomycin treated: 38 ± 3 cm H(2)O/ml) were significantly increased on day 21. The work of breathing (r = 0.83) correlated slightly better with fibrosis histopathology score than H (r = 0.64). Work of breathing can detect decrements in lung function due to pulmonary fibrosis, correlates well with the amount of collagen in the lungs, and may be a more sensitive quantitative measure of efficacy for drugs being developed to treat pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Isolation of CD146+ Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Rat Lungs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer J P; Möbius, Marius A; Thébaud, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly recognized for their therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, including lung diseases. Besides the use of bone marrow and umbilical cord MSCs for exogenous cell therapy, there is also increasing interest in the repair and regenerative potential of resident tissue MSCs. Moreover, they likely have a role in normal organ development, and have been attributed roles in disease, particularly those with a fibrotic nature. The main hurdle for the study of these resident tissue MSCs is the lack of a clear marker for the isolation and identification of these cells. The isolation technique described here applies multiple characteristics of lung resident MSCs (L-MSCs). Upon sacrifice of the rats, lungs are removed and rinsed multiple times to remove blood. Following mechanical dissociation by scalpel, the lungs are digested for 2-3 hr using a mix of collagenase type I, neutral protease and DNase type I. The obtained single cell suspension is subsequently washed and layered over density gradient medium (density 1.073 g/ml). After centrifugation, cells from the interphase are washed and plated in culture-treated flasks. Cells are cultured for 4-7 days in physiological 5% O2, 5% CO2 conditions. To deplete fibroblasts (CD146(-)) and to ensure a population of only L-MSCs (CD146(+)), positive selection for CD146(+) cells is performed through magnetic bead selection. In summary, this procedure reliably produces a population of primary L-MSCs for further in vitro study and manipulation. Because of the nature of the protocol, it can easily be translated to other experimental animal models. PMID:27340891

  13. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. )

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  14. Potency enhancement of the κ-opioid receptor antagonist probe ML140 through sulfonamide constraint utilizing a tetrahydroisoquinoline motif

    PubMed Central

    Frankowski, Kevin J.; Slauson, Stephen R.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Phillips, Angela M.; Streicher, John M.; Zhou, Lei; Whipple, David A.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Bohn, Laura M.; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of the sulfonamide-based kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist probe molecule ML140 through constraint of the sulfonamide nitrogen within a tetrahydroisoquinoline moiety afforded a marked increase in potency. This strategy, when combined with additional structure-activity relationship exploration, has led to a compound only six-fold less potent than norBNI, a widely utilized KOR antagonist tool compound, but significantly more synthetically accessible. The new optimized probe is suitably potent for use as an in vivo tool to investigate the therapeutic potential of KOR antagonists. PMID:25593096

  15. NK cell activating receptor ligand expression in lymphangioleiomyomatosis is associated with lung function decline

    PubMed Central

    Osterburg, Andrew R.; Nelson, Rebecca L.; Yaniv, Benyamin Z.; Foot, Rachel; Donica, Walter R.F.; Nashu, Madison A.; Liu, Huan; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Moss, Joel; McCormack, Francis X.; Borchers, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease of women that leads to progressive cyst formation and accelerated loss of pulmonary function. Neoplastic smooth muscle cells from an unknown source metastasize to the lung and drive destructive remodeling. Given the role of NK cells in immune surveillance, we postulated that NK cell activating receptors and their cognate ligands are involved in LAM pathogenesis. We found that ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor UL-16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2) and ULBP3 are localized in cystic LAM lesions and pulmonary nodules. We found elevated soluble serum ULBP2 (mean = 575 pg/ml ± 142) in 50 of 100 subjects and ULBP3 in 30 of 100 (mean = 8,300 pg/ml ± 1,515) subjects. LAM patients had fewer circulating NKG2D+ NK cells and decreased NKG2D surface expression. Lung function decline was associated with soluble NKG2D ligand (sNKG2DL) detection. The greatest rate of decline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, –124 ± 30 ml/year) in the 48 months after enrollment (NHLBI LAM Registry) occurred in patients expressing both ULBP2 and ULBP3, whereas patients with undetectable sNKG2DL levels had the lowest rate of FEV1 decline (–32.7 ± 10 ml/year). These data suggest a role for NK cells, sNKG2DL, and the innate immune system in LAM pathogenesis. PMID:27734028

  16. Lung volumes during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to influence the mechanical behavior of the lung and chest wall. However, the effect of sustained microgravity (microgravity) on lung volumes has not been reported. Pulmonary function tests were performed by four subjects before, during, and after 9 days of microgravity exposure. Ground measurements were made in standing and supine postures. Tests were performed using a bag-in-box-and-flowmeter system and a respiratory mass spectrometer. Measurements included functional residual capacity (FRC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume (RV), inspiratory and expiratory vital capacities (IVC and EVC), and tidal volume (V9sub T)). Total lung capacity (TLC) was derived from the measured EVC and RV values. With preflight standing values as a comparison, FRC was significantly reduced by 15% (approximately 500 ml) in microgravity and 32% in the supine posture. ERV was reduced by 10 - 20% in microgravity and decreased by 64% in the supine posture. RV was significantly reduced by 18% (310 ml) in microgravity but did not significantly change in the supine posture compared with standing. IVC and EVC were slightly reduced during the first 24 h of microgravity but returned to 1-G standing values within 72 h of microgravity exposure. IVC and EVC in the supine posture were significantly reduced by 12% compared with standing. During microgravity, V(sub T) decreased by 15% (approximately 90 ml), but supine V(sub T) was unchanged compared with preflight standing values. TLC decreased by approximately 8% during microgravity and in the supine posture compared with preflight standing. The reductions in FRC, ERV, and RV during microgravity are probably due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm, an increase in intrathoracic blood volume, and more uniform alveolar expansion.

  17. Lung isolation, one-lung ventilation and hypoxaemia during lung isolation

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Atul; Bhargava, Suresh; Mangal, Vandana; Parashar, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Lung isolation is being used more frequently in both adult and paediatric age groups due to increasing incidence of thoracoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in these patients. Various indications for lung isolation and one-lung ventilation include surgical and non-surgical reasons. Isolation can be achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tubes or bronchial blocker. Different issues arise in prone and semi-prone position. The management of hypoxia with lung isolation is a stepwise drill of adding inhaled oxygen, adding positive end-expiratory pressure to ventilated lung and continuous positive airway pressure to non-ventilated side. PMID:26556920

  18. Supine to upright lung mechanics: do changes in lung shape influence lung tissue deformation?

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho-Fung; Tawhai, Merryn H; Levin, David L; Bartholmai, Brian B; Clark, Alys R

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze lung shape change between the upright and supine postures and the effect of this shape change on the deformation of lung tissue under gravity. We use supine computed tomography images along with upright tomosynthesis images obtained on the same day to show that there is significant diaphragmatic movement between postures. Using a continuum model of lung tissue deformation under gravity we show that the shape changes due to this diaphragmatic movement could result in different lung tissue expansion patterns between supine and upright lungs. This is an essential consideration when interpreting imaging data acquired in different postures or translating data acquired in supine imaging to upright function.

  19. Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning (NLP/ML): Applying Advances in Biomedicine to the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, R.; Myers, S.; Palmer, M.; Jenkins, C. J.; Thessen, A.; Martin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Semantics underlie many of the tools and services available from and on the web. From improving search results to enabling data mashups and other forms of interoperability, semantic technologies have proven themselves. But creating semantic resources, especially re-usable semantic resources, is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. Why? Because it is not just a matter of technology but also of obtaining rough consensus if not full agreement amongst community members on the meaning and order of things. One way to develop these resources in a more automated way would be to use NLP/ML techniques to extract the required resources from large corpora of subject-specific text such as peer-reviewed papers where presumably a rough consensus has been achieved at least about the basics of the particular discipline involved. While not generally applied to Earth Sciences, considerable resources have been spent in other fields such as medicine on these types of techniques with some success. The NSF-funded ClearEarth project is applying the techniques developed for biomedicine to the cryosphere, geology, and biology in order to spur faster development of the semantic resources needed in these fields. The first area being addressed by the project is the cryosphere, specifically sea ice nomenclature where an existing set of sea ice ontologies are being used as the "Gold Standard" against which to test and validate the NLP/ML techniques. The processes being used, lessons learned and early results will be described.

  20. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, J.; Plötzing, T.; Rohe, D.; Pieranski, P.

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay “dry”. This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.