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Sample records for mls jaanus paal

  1. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  2. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

  3. Wither the MLS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years a troubling pattern has emerged, one that might be termed the trivialization of the Master of Library Science (MLS). As a result of several factors, not least the closing of library schools, low rates of pay for librarians, and high costs of living in many parts of the country, some college libraries have found it difficult…

  4. Wither the MLS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years a troubling pattern has emerged, one that might be termed the trivialization of the Master of Library Science (MLS). As a result of several factors, not least the closing of library schools, low rates of pay for librarians, and high costs of living in many parts of the country, some college libraries have found it difficult…

  5. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  6. Complementary MLS and GNSS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander E.; Burcham, Karen L.; McDonald, Keith D.

    A framework for developing complementary roles for the MLS and the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is established. Emphasis is given to the development by the FAA and the aviation industry of techniques and the infrastructure to support fully integrated MLS and GNSS operations. The operational role of each system is evaluated during each flight phase, and the benefits attributable to reduced delays and optimum routings are discussed.

  7. Validation of UARS MLS C10 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J.; Read, W.; Froideveaux, L.; Lungu, T.; Perun, V.; Stachnik, R.; Jarnot, R.; Cofield, R.; Fishbein, E.; Flower, D.; hide

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of stratospheric C10 measurements by the MLS on the UARS. The comparisons done to date between MLS and other measurements of C10 indicate general agreement to within the estimated MLS uncertainties and the uncertainties of the comparative measurements.

  8. Validation of UARS MLS C10 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J.; Read, W.; Froideveaux, L.; Lungu, T.; Perun, V.; Stachnik, R.; Jarnot, R.; Cofield, R.; Fishbein, E.; Flower, D.; Burke, J.; Hardy, J.; Nakamura, L.; Ridenoure, B.; Shippony, Z.; Thurstans, R.; Avallone, L.; Toohey, D.; deZafra, R.; Shindell, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of stratospheric C10 measurements by the MLS on the UARS. The comparisons done to date between MLS and other measurements of C10 indicate general agreement to within the estimated MLS uncertainties and the uncertainties of the comparative measurements.

  9. Research on MLS airborne antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical solutions for the radiation patterns of antennas mounted on aircraft are developed. The airborne antenna problems associated with the Microwave Landing System (MLS) are emphasized. Based on the requirements of the MLS, volumetric pattern solutions are essential. Previous attempts at solving for the volumetric patterns were found to be far too complex and very inefficient. However as a result of previous efforts, it is possible to combine the elevation and roll plane pattern solutions to give the complete volumetric pattern. This combination is described as well as the aircraft simulation models used in the analysis. A numerical technique is presented to aid in the simulation of the aircraft studied. Finally, a description of the input data used in the computer code is given.

  10. Mls presentation by peritoneal cavity B cells.

    PubMed

    Riggs, James E; Howell, Koko F; Taylor, Justin; Mahjied, Tazee; Prokopenko, Nataliya; Alvarez, John; Coleman, Clenton

    2004-01-01

    DBA/2J spleen and peritoneal cells were compared for their ability to present the minor lymphocyte stimulatory superantigen Mls-1a. Although capable of Mls presentation in vivo, peritoneal cells were less effective than spleen cells in vitro. This difference was not due to cell concentration or culture duration. Flow cytometric comparison of spleen and peritoneal B cells revealed no significant differences in cell surface markers needed for cognate interaction with T cells. Resolution of peritoneal B cell subsets by cell sorting revealed that even though B-1 cells were capable of Mls presentation, they were less effective than B-2 cells. Mixing experiments showed that B-1 cells did not inhibit B-2 cell presentation of Mls. In contrast, total peritoneal cells inhibited T cell responses to Mls presented by spleen cells. The peritoneal cavity harbors B cells that can present Mls as well as other cells that can suppress this response.

  11. Validation of UARS MLS Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lungu, T. A; Cofield, R. E.; Fishbein, E. F.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. f.; Ridenoure, B. P.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; hide

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of ozone data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The MLS ozone retrievals are obtained from the calibrated microwave radiances (emission spectra) in two separate bands, at frequencies near 205 and 183 GHz.

  12. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Highfill, J. H., III; Tzeng, C. P. J.; Koleyni, G.

    1978-01-01

    Reduced order receiver (suboptimal receiver) analysis in multipath environments is presented. The origin and objective of MLS is described briefly. Signal modeling in MLS the optimum receiver is also included and a description of a computer oriented technique which was used in the simulation study of the suboptimal receiver is provided. Results and conclusion obtained from the research for the suboptimal receiver are reported.

  13. Towards an Infrastructure for MLS Distributed Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Distributed computing owes its success to the development of infrastructure, middleware, and standards (e.g., CORBA) by the computing industry. This...Government must protect national security information against unauthorized information flow. To support MLS distributed computing , a MLS infrastructure...protection of classified information and use both the emerging distributed computing and commercial security infrastructures. The resulting infrastructure

  14. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Highfill, J. H., III; Irwin, S. H.; Padgett, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A receiver is designed for aircraft (A/C), which, as a component of the proposed Microwave Landing System (MLS), is capable of optimal performance in the multipath environments found in air terminal areas. Topics discussed include: the angle-tracking problem of the MLS receiver; signal modeling; preliminary approaches to optimal design; suboptimal design; and simulation study.

  15. Validation of UARS MLS Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lungu, T. A; Cofield, R. E.; Fishbein, E. F.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. f.; Ridenoure, B. P.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; Margitan, J. J.; Stachnik, I. S.; Peckham, G. E.; Braathen, G.; Deshler, T.; Fishman, J.; Hofmann, D. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McDermid, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of ozone data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The MLS ozone retrievals are obtained from the calibrated microwave radiances (emission spectra) in two separate bands, at frequencies near 205 and 183 GHz.

  16. Solution-Phase Synthesis of a Tricyclic Pyrrole-2-Carboxamide Discovery Library Applying a Stetter-Paal-Knorr Reaction Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Pravin S.; Fodor, Matthew D.; Coleman, Claire M.; Twining, Leslie A.; Mitasev, Branko

    2012-01-01

    The solution phase synthesis of a discovery library of 178 tricyclic pyrrole-2-carboxamides was accomplished in nine steps and seven purifications starting with three benzoyl protected amino acid methyl esters. Further diversity was introduced by two glyoxaldehydes and forty-one primary amines. The combination of Pauson-Khand, Stetter and microwave assisted Paal Knorr reactions was applied as a key sequence. The discovery library was designed with the help of QikProp 2.1 and physicochemical data are presented for all pyrroles. Library members were synthesized and purified in parallel and analyzed by LC-MS. Selected compounds were fully characterized. PMID:16677007

  17. MLS/Airplane system design. RF component design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walen, D. B.; Stapleton, B. P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of analysis and design conducted as part of multiyear Microwave Landing System (MLS) study are reported. Design of airborne radio frequency RF MLS components was performed. MLS omnidirectional antennas are developed using microstrip technology. A remote, low-noise, radio frequency (RF) preamplifier is designed for airborne MLS installations.

  18. Flow synthesis using gaseous ammonia in a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube reactor: Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation and gas concentration measurement by inline flow titration.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Philippa B; O'Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L; Koos, Peter; Polyzos, Anastasios; Peña-López, Miguel; Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-14

    Using a simple and accessible Teflon AF-2400 based tube-in-tube reactor, a series of pyrroles were synthesised in flow using the Paal-Knorr reaction of 1,4-diketones with gaseous ammonia. An inline flow titration technique allowed measurement of the ammonia concentration and its relationship to residence time and temperature.

  19. Successively recycle waste as catalyst: a one-pot Wittig/1,4-reduction/Paal-Knorr sequence for modular synthesis of substituted furans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Du, Yi; Zeng, Xing-Ping; Shi, Tao-Da; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Jian

    2015-03-20

    A one-pot tandem Wittig/conjugate reduction/Paal-Knorr reaction is reported for the synthesis of di- or trisubstituted furans. This novel sequence first demonstrates the possibility of successively recycling waste from upstream steps to catalyze downstream reactions.

  20. Arctic Ozone Depletion from UARS MLS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of ozone during four Arctic winters are compared. The evolution of ozone in the lower stratosphere is related to temperature, chlorine monoxide (also measured by MLS), and the evolution of the polar vortex. Lagrangian transport calculations using winds from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Stratosphere-Troposphere Data Assimilation system are used to estimate to what extent the evolution of lower stratospheric ozone is controlled by dynamics. Observations, along with calculations of the expected dynamical behavior, show evidence for chemical ozone depletion throughout most of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex during the 1992-93 middle and late winter, and during all of the 1994-95 winter that was observed by MLS. Both of these winters were unusually cold and had unusually cold and had unusually strong Arctic polar vortices compared to meteorological data over the past 17 years.

  1. Assimilation of MLS and OMI Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Chang, L.-P.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.

    2005-01-01

    Ozone data from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were assimilated into the ozone model at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). This assimilation produces ozone fields that are superior to those from the operational GMAO assimilation of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) instrument data. Assimilation of Aura data improves the representation of the "ozone hole" and the agreement with independent Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III and ozone sonde data. Ozone in the lower stratosphere is captured better: mean state, vertical gradients, spatial and temporal variability are all improved. Inclusion of OMI and MLS data together, or separately, in the assimilation system provides a way of checking how consistent OMI and MLS data are with each other, and with the ozone model. We found that differences between OMI total ozone column data and model forecasts decrease after MLS data are assimilated. This indicates that MLS stratospheric ozone profiles are consistent with OMI total ozone columns. The evaluation of error characteristics of OMI and MLS ozone will continue as data from newer versions of retrievals becomes available. We report on the initial step in obtaining global assimilated ozone fields that combine measurements from different Aura instruments, the ozone model at the GMAO, and their respective error characteristics. We plan to use assimilated ozone fields in estimation of tropospheric ozone. We also plan to investigate impacts of assimilated ozone fields on numerical weather prediction through their use in radiative models and in the assimilation of infrared nadir radiance data from NASA's Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS).

  2. Assimilation of MLS and OMI Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Chang, L.-P.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.

    2005-01-01

    Ozone data from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were assimilated into the ozone model at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). This assimilation produces ozone fields that are superior to those from the operational GMAO assimilation of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) instrument data. Assimilation of Aura data improves the representation of the "ozone hole" and the agreement with independent Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III and ozone sonde data. Ozone in the lower stratosphere is captured better: mean state, vertical gradients, spatial and temporal variability are all improved. Inclusion of OMI and MLS data together, or separately, in the assimilation system provides a way of checking how consistent OMI and MLS data are with each other, and with the ozone model. We found that differences between OMI total ozone column data and model forecasts decrease after MLS data are assimilated. This indicates that MLS stratospheric ozone profiles are consistent with OMI total ozone columns. The evaluation of error characteristics of OMI and MLS ozone will continue as data from newer versions of retrievals becomes available. We report on the initial step in obtaining global assimilated ozone fields that combine measurements from different Aura instruments, the ozone model at the GMAO, and their respective error characteristics. We plan to use assimilated ozone fields in estimation of tropospheric ozone. We also plan to investigate impacts of assimilated ozone fields on numerical weather prediction through their use in radiative models and in the assimilation of infrared nadir radiance data from NASA's Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS).

  3. MLS Students' Choice of a Library Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of library school students examined: (1) preferences influencing career choice; (2) reasons for getting an MLS; (3) comparisons with alternative occupations; (4) accuracy of expectations about salaries and placement; (5) comparison of expectations of students with and without previous library experience; and (6) differences between male…

  4. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Irwin, S. H.; NELSON; Roleyni, G.

    1977-01-01

    Optimal design studies of MLS angle-receivers and a theoretical design-study of MLS DME-receivers are reported. The angle-receiver results include an integration of the scan data processor and tracking filter components of the optimal receiver into a unified structure. An extensive simulation study comparing the performance of the optimal and threshold receivers in a wide variety of representative dynamical interference environments was made. The optimal receiver was generally superior. A simulation of the performance of the threshold and delay-and-compare receivers in various signal environments was performed. An analysis of combined errors due to lateral reflections from vertical structures with small differential path delays, specular ground reflections with neglible differential path delays, and thermal noise in the receivers is provided.

  5. Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS : Characteristics and Interpretation DONG L. WU Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of...stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder ( MLS ) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically...orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5–8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere

  6. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Highfill, J. H., III

    1976-01-01

    The design of a microwave landing system (MLS) aircraft receiver, capable of optimal performance in multipath environments found in air terminal areas, is reported. Special attention was given to the angle tracking problem of the receiver and includes tracking system design considerations, study and application of locally optimum estimation involving multipath adaptive reception and then envelope processing, and microcomputer system design. Results show processing is competitive in this application with i-f signal processing performance-wise and is much more simple and cheaper. A summary of the signal model is given.

  7. Detection of Persons in Mls Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgmann, B.; Hebel, M.; Arens, M.; Stilla, U.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach for the detection of persons in point clouds gathered by mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems. The approach consists of a preprocessing and the actual detection. The main task of the preprocessing is to reduce the amount of data which has to be processed by the detection. To fulfill this task, the preprocessing consists of ground removal, segmentation and several filters. The detection is based on an implicit shape models (ISM) approach which is an extension to bag-of-words approaches. For this detection method, it is sufficient to work with a small amount of training data. Although in this paper we focus on the detection of persons, our approach is able to detect multiple classes of objects in point clouds. Using a parameterization of the approach which offers a good compromise between detection and runtime performance, we are able to achieve a precision of 0.68 and a recall of 0.76 while having a average runtime of 370 ms per single scan rotation of the rotating head of a typical MLS sensor.

  8. Space Station Water Processor Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzarone, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development testing conducted under this contract to the Space Station Water Processor (WP) Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS). The MLS units built and modified during this testing demonstrated acceptable air/water separation results in a variety of water conditions with inlet flow rates ranging from 60 - 960 LB/hr.

  9. Nonlymphoid peritoneal cells suppress the T cell response to Mls.

    PubMed

    Rosini, Laura; Matlack, Robin; Taylor, Justin; Howell, Koko F; Yeh, Kenneth; Pennello, Anthony; Riggs, James E

    2004-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the ability of lymphoid tissue to present the minor lymphocyte stimulatory (Mls) superantigen Mls-1a in vitro revealed that all tissues containing mature B cells, except peritoneal cavity (PerC) cells, induced Mls-1a-specific T cell activation. Irradiation and mitomycin C treatment, addition of IL-2 and IL-12, and neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-beta did not restore Mls-1a antigen presentation by PerC cells. Co-culture studies revealed that PerC cells actively suppress the T cell response to Mls-1a. PerC cells from severe-combined immune-defective (SCID) mice also suppressed this response indicating that nonlymphoid cells mediate this effect. These results suggest that in addition to antigen processing and presentation, resident peritoneal cavity cells may temper lymphocyte activation.

  10. Monitoring of MLS Measurements for Ozone Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Nathan; Stajner, I.; Rood, R.; Goplan, A.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ozone data assimilation system at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has operationally provided near real time global three dimensional analyzed ozone fields since December 1999. Presently, 4 system assimilates both total column ozone and profile measurements from the NOAA - 16 SBUV/2 instrument into an off-line transport model using a physical space statistical analysis scheme (PS AS). Recently, this system was modified to investigate a possible impact from including MLS profile observations. Over a period from December 13, 1991 to March 1, 1992 the system assimilated both NOAA 11 SBUV/2 profile measurements and TOMS total column measurements. Short term ozone forecasts were produced and compared to MLS observations. The resulting observed -minus -forecast (O-F) residuals were studied regionally (by both latitude bands and pressure levels) in order to explore the potential impact of MLS observations on the assimilation and sensitivity to the UARS yaw maneuver and other instrument and algorithm characteristics. In addition, MLS profiles were compared to nearest neighbor SBUV and analysis profiles. In the tropics, analyzed ozone values tend to be too high from 1-3 hPa and too low from 10-20 hPa. MLS measurements in these regions tend be lower and higher (respectively) than forecast ozone values. This indicates that assimilating MLS measurements may improve, analysis results in these areas. Further, nearest neighbor profile comparisons in the southern high latitudes indicate that laminar features present in the analysis but not present in SBUV measurements, are also present in MLS measurements. This, together with the availability of MLS measurements in polar night regions indicates that assimilating MLS measurements in polar night regions indicates that assimilating MLS measurements may improve analyzed ozone values in high latitudes.

  11. Monitoring of MLS Measurements for Ozone Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Nathan; Stajner, I.; Rood, R.; Goplan, A.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ozone data assimilation system at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Data Assimilation Office (DAO) has operationally provided near real time global three dimensional analyzed ozone fields since December 1999. Presently, 4 system assimilates both total column ozone and profile measurements from the NOAA - 16 SBUV/2 instrument into an off-line transport model using a physical space statistical analysis scheme (PS AS). Recently, this system was modified to investigate a possible impact from including MLS profile observations. Over a period from December 13, 1991 to March 1, 1992 the system assimilated both NOAA 11 SBUV/2 profile measurements and TOMS total column measurements. Short term ozone forecasts were produced and compared to MLS observations. The resulting observed -minus -forecast (O-F) residuals were studied regionally (by both latitude bands and pressure levels) in order to explore the potential impact of MLS observations on the assimilation and sensitivity to the UARS yaw maneuver and other instrument and algorithm characteristics. In addition, MLS profiles were compared to nearest neighbor SBUV and analysis profiles. In the tropics, analyzed ozone values tend to be too high from 1-3 hPa and too low from 10-20 hPa. MLS measurements in these regions tend be lower and higher (respectively) than forecast ozone values. This indicates that assimilating MLS measurements may improve, analysis results in these areas. Further, nearest neighbor profile comparisons in the southern high latitudes indicate that laminar features present in the analysis but not present in SBUV measurements, are also present in MLS measurements. This, together with the availability of MLS measurements in polar night regions indicates that assimilating MLS measurements in polar night regions indicates that assimilating MLS measurements may improve analyzed ozone values in high latitudes.

  12. MLS CLO observations and arctic polar vortex temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Lait, L. R.; Waters, J. W.; Froidevaux, L.; Ready, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of Upper Altmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations in early January 1992 shows a clear relationship between predicted polar stratospheric cloud formation along the back trajectory and elevated ClO amounts. These findings are in good agreement with aircraft observations. The MLS observed variation of ClO amounts within the vortex also fits the pattern of ClO change as a result of air parcel solar exposure and nitric acid photolysis. Outside the polar vortex, the occasional highly elevated ClO appear statistically consistent with MLS measurement noise.

  13. MLS CLO observations and arctic polar vortex temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Lait, L. R.; Waters, J. W.; Froidevaux, L.; Ready, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of Upper Altmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations in early January 1992 shows a clear relationship between predicted polar stratospheric cloud formation along the back trajectory and elevated ClO amounts. These findings are in good agreement with aircraft observations. The MLS observed variation of ClO amounts within the vortex also fits the pattern of ClO change as a result of air parcel solar exposure and nitric acid photolysis. Outside the polar vortex, the occasional highly elevated ClO appear statistically consistent with MLS measurement noise.

  14. MLS ClO observations and arctic polar vortex temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeberl, M.R.; Stolarski, R.S.; Douglass, A.R.; Newman, P.A.; Lait, L. R. ); Waters, J.W.; Froidevaux, L.; Ready, W.G. )

    1993-12-23

    Analysis of UARS microwave limb sounder (MLS) observations in early January 1992 shows a clear relationship between predicted polar stratospheric cloud formation along the back trajectory and elevated ClO amounts. These findings are in good agreement with aircraft observations. The MLS observed variation of ClO amounts within the vortex also fits the pattern of ClO change as a result of air parcel solar exposure and nitric acid photolysis. Outside the polar vortex, the occasional highly elevated ClO appear statistically consistent with MLS measurement noise. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Testing of CMA-2000 Microwave Landing System (MLS) airborne receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labreche, L.; Murfin, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    Microwave landing system (MLS) is a precision approach and landing guidance system which provides position information and various air to ground data. Position information is provided on a wide coverage sector and is determined by an azimuth angle measurement, an elevation angle measurement, and a range measurement. MLS performance standards and testing of the MLS airborne receiver is mainly governed by Technical Standard Order TSO-C104 issued by the Federal Aviation Administration. This TSO defines detailed test procedures for use in determining the required performance under standard and stressed conditions. It also imposes disciplines on software development and testing procedures. Testing performed on the CMA-2000 MLS receiver and methods used in its validation are described. A computer automated test system has been developed to test for compliance with RTCA/DO-177 Minimum Operation Performance Standards. Extensive software verification and traceability tests designed to ensure compliance with RTCA/DO-178 are outlined.

  16. Processing EOS MLS Level-2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. Van; Wu, Dong; Read, William; Jiang, Jonathan; Wagner, Paul; Livesey, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Michael; Filipiak, Mark; Pumphrey, Hugh; Shippony, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    A computer program performs level-2 processing of thermal-microwave-radiance data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The purpose of the processing is to estimate the composition and temperature of the atmosphere versus altitude from .8 to .90 km. "Level-2" as used here is a specialists f term signifying both vertical profiles of geophysical parameters along the measurement track of the instrument and processing performed by this or other software to generate such profiles. Designed to be flexible, the program is controlled via a configuration file that defines all aspects of processing, including contents of state and measurement vectors, configurations of forward models, measurement and calibration data to be read, and the manner of inverting the models to obtain the desired estimates. The program can operate in a parallel form in which one instance of the program acts a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each slave operating on a portion of the data. Optionally, the configuration file can be made to instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on state vectors formed from sets of geophysical data-product files taken as input.

  17. MLS Multipath Studies. Phase 3. Volume II. Development and Valiadation of Model for MLS Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-07

    Lhn I.-- L- OL I.- V) J 0 c0 Ln aJ Li- a. 0) -C 3t. o toIII CC M 0) -CC 4 0 U, - CD (9a 9a Hiwlv31S VIH 1O NIVA1 I.- 2-21 1413cr 04-7 RUN NC. 4...Buenos Aires, Argentina . Figure 2-43 shows details of the airport near the MLS elevation sites. Elevation signal reflections from the OSN building (see...scans at wr -5 woff followed by N scans att Wr + .5 Woff" By advancing the time origin an amount Ts on each scan, we can write for the transmitted

  18. Performance of a commercial transport under typical MLS noise environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 747-200 automatic flight control system (AFCS) subjected to typical Microwave Landing System (MLS) noise is discussed. The performance is then compared with the results from a previous study which had a B747 AFCS subjected to the MLS standards and recommended practices (SARPS) maximum allowable noise. A glide slope control run with Instrument Landing System (ILS) noise is also conducted. Finally, a linear covariance analysis is presented.

  19. Observations of Volcanic SO2 and HCl from Aura MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Santee, M. L.; Livesey, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Aura satellite has been taking composition measurements of the Earth's upper troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere for the past 5 years. During this time period, MLS has observed volcanic emissions from Manam, Anatahan, Soufriere Hills, Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt,and Sarychev eruptions. The eruptions from these volcanoes injected SO2 and HCl into the lower stratosphere. MLS makes vertically resolved measurements of these gases and therefore can determine the injection height of these volcanoes. We will provide a survey of the eruptions MLS has observed to date and compare results to SO2 columns seen by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), also on the Aura satellite. Aura MLS however, can only make measurements along its orbit track twice daily which limits its usefulness for hazards detection or determining the amount of injected SO2. The utility of these measurements for hazard detection will be greatly enhanced in the next generation MLS instrument envisioned for the third tier decadal survey Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM). The future mission will provide 50 km^2 near global coverage with 4--6 observations per day.

  20. The challenging journey of CLS/MLS student recruitment.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J Michele

    2003-01-01

    Clinical laboratory science/medical laboratory science (CLS/MLS) programs struggle for student applicants. At the same time, the health-care industry suffers from a shortage of qualified laboratory scientists. This article addresses the University of Utah's (U of U) Medical Laboratory Science program efforts to increase student enrollment. Student applicants were needed desperately. The Director of Medical Laboratory Science Education appointed a 0.5-FTE person to manage student recruitment and academic advisement. Immediately, we took a "shotgun" approach to promote and attract qualified students, followed by specific exploratory methods to examine students' motivations in applying to the U of U MLS program. Recently, we conducted a national study of university-based CLS/MLS programs to research what motivates students' enrollment in CLS/MLS programs. We found that the most important motivational factors for a student's choice of a CLS/MLS program are 1) based on geographical location, 2) influenced by family and friends in making their decision, 3) viewing the laboratory profession as a stepping stone to other professions, and 4) their college advisor, the most relevant information source for these students. The U of U MLS program markets locally and encourages family and friends to spread the word about the profession. We remain visible to college advisors and find new opportunities to expose the profession to high school students.

  1. Production and characterization of an Mls-1-specific monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Superantigens (SAGs) represent a new class of antigens, characterized as T cell receptor (TCR) V beta-reactive elements. Bacterial toxins constitute the major group of exogenous SAGs, while the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-encoded Mls molecules represent the endogenous SAGs. Mls-1 is the prototype of the latter SAGs, because it elicits a very potent T cell stimulatory response in vitro in unprimed T cells expressing the TCR V beta 6 or 8.1 chains. In vivo, Mls-1 causes deletion of immature T cells bearing the V beta 6, 7, 8.1, or 9 chains. Although Mls-1 was functionally discovered > 20 yr ago, it has not been possible to raise antibodies against this molecule. We have previously cloned and sequenced the Mtv-7 sag gene, which encodes Mls-1. Sequence comparisons with other MMTV sag genes suggested that the polymorphic 3' end encodes the TCR V beta specificity of these SAGs. We have, therefore, immunized hamsters with a 14-amino acid peptide from the deduced COOH-terminal sequence of the Mtv-7 sag gene. We describe here the production of a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3B12, which is peptide specific and reacts with a recombinant baculovirus product of Mtv-7 sag. This mAb blocks Mls-1-specific T cell recognition and detects the Mls-1 protein on the surface of the B cell hybridoma LBB.A, but not on LBB.11, which is an Mtv-7 loss variant of LBB.A. Transfection of the Mtv-7 sag gene into LBB.11 renders this cell functionally Mls-1+ as well as positive for 3B12 binding, confirming the specificity of this mAb. It is well documented that B cells and CD8+ T cells express T cell stimulatory Mls-1 determinants, and we show here that this functional profile correlates with the expression of MMTV-specific mRNA. However, primary lymphocytes derived from Mls-1+ mice do not stain with 3B12, even after in vitro activation with mitogens or phorbol ester. PMID:8381154

  2. Equatorial Kelvin waves: A UARS MLS view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Holton, James R.; Fishbein, Evan; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.

    1994-01-01

    Data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to compare two periods of Kelvin wave activity during different stages of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation. The analysis is carried out using an asynoptic mapping technique. A wide bandpass filter is used to isolate the frequency bands where Kelvin waves have been identified in previous studies. Time-height and time-latitude plots of the bandpassed data are used to identify Kelvin wave activity in the temperature and ozone fields. Frequency spectra of temperature and ozone amplitudes are constructed to further analyze the latitudinal and meridional distribution of Kelvin wave activity in zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. The characteristics identified in these plots agree well with theoretical predictions and previous observations of middle atmosphere Kelvin waves. The time-height and time-latitude plots support the existence of Kelvin waves in discrete frequency bands; the slow, fast, and ultrafast Kelvin modes are all identified in the data. The characteristics of these modes do not vary much despite different mean flow conditions in the two periods examined. For the Kelvin wave-induced perturbations in ozone, the change from a transport-dominated regime below 10 hPa to a photochemically controlled regime above 10 hPa is clearly apparent in the height dependence of the phase difference between temperature and ozone. The ratios of the ozone perturbation amplitude to the temperature perturbation amplitude for the various observed Kelvin wave modes are in agreement with model estimates and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observations in the lower half of the region sampled but appear to be too large in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere.

  3. Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The gravity wave (GW)-resolving capabilities of 118-GHz saturated thermal radiances acquired throughout the stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically thick) radiances resolve GW perturbations from a given altitude at different horizontal locations, variances are evaluated at 12 pressure altitudes between 21 and 51 km using the 40 saturated radiances found at the bottom of each limb scan. Forward modeling simulations show that these variances are controlled mostly by GWs with vertical wavelengths z 5 km and horizontal along-track wavelengths of y 100-200 km. The tilted cigar-shaped three-dimensional weighting functions yield highly selective responses to GWs of high intrinsic frequency that propagate toward the instrument. The latter property is used to infer the net meridional component of GW propagation by differencing the variances acquired from ascending (A) and descending (D) orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5?8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS. Like UARS MLS variances, monthly-mean Aura MLS variances in January and July 2005 are enhanced when local background wind speeds are large, due largely to GW visibility effects. Zonal asymmetries in variance maps reveal enhanced GW activity at high latitudes due to forcing by flow over major mountain ranges and at tropical and subtropical latitudes due to enhanced deep convective generation as inferred from contemporaneous MLS cloud-ice data. At 21-28-km altitude (heights not measured by the UARS MLS), GW variance in the tropics is systematically enhanced and shows clear variations with the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, in general agreement with GW temperature variances derived from radiosonde, rocketsonde, and limb-scan vertical profiles.

  4. Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The gravity wave (GW)-resolving capabilities of 118-GHz saturated thermal radiances acquired throughout the stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically thick) radiances resolve GW perturbations from a given altitude at different horizontal locations, variances are evaluated at 12 pressure altitudes between 21 and 51 km using the 40 saturated radiances found at the bottom of each limb scan. Forward modeling simulations show that these variances are controlled mostly by GWs with vertical wavelengths z 5 km and horizontal along-track wavelengths of y 100-200 km. The tilted cigar-shaped three-dimensional weighting functions yield highly selective responses to GWs of high intrinsic frequency that propagate toward the instrument. The latter property is used to infer the net meridional component of GW propagation by differencing the variances acquired from ascending (A) and descending (D) orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5?8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS. Like UARS MLS variances, monthly-mean Aura MLS variances in January and July 2005 are enhanced when local background wind speeds are large, due largely to GW visibility effects. Zonal asymmetries in variance maps reveal enhanced GW activity at high latitudes due to forcing by flow over major mountain ranges and at tropical and subtropical latitudes due to enhanced deep convective generation as inferred from contemporaneous MLS cloud-ice data. At 21-28-km altitude (heights not measured by the UARS MLS), GW variance in the tropics is systematically enhanced and shows clear variations with the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, in general agreement with GW temperature variances derived from radiosonde, rocketsonde, and limb-scan vertical profiles.

  5. Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Livesey, N. J.; Yang, K.

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is an important atmospheric constituent, particularly in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions. These events can inject large amounts of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, where it is oxidised to form sulphate aerosols; these in turn have a significant effect on the climate. The MLS instrument on the Aura satellite has observed the SO2 mixing ratio in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from August 2004 to the present, during which time a number of volcanic eruptions have significantly affected those regions of the atmosphere. We describe the MLS SO2 data and how various volcanic events appear in the data. As the MLS SO2 data are currently not validated we take some initial steps towards their validation. First we establish the level of internal consistency between the three spectral regions in which MLS is sensitive to SO2. We compare SO2 column values calculated from MLS data to total column values reported by the OMI instrument. The agreement is good in cases where the SO2 is clearly at altitudes above 147 hPa.

  6. Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Livesey, N. J.; Yang, K.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important atmospheric constituent, particularly in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions. These events can inject large amounts of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, where it is oxidised to form sulfate aerosols; these in turn have a significant effect on the climate. The MLS instrument on the Aura satellite has observed the SO2 mixing ratio in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from August 2004 to the present, during which time a number of volcanic eruptions have significantly affected those regions of the atmosphere. We describe the MLS SO2 data and how various volcanic events appear in the data. As the MLS SO2 data are currently not validated we take some initial steps towards their validation. First we establish the level of internal consistency between the three spectral regions in which MLS is sensitive to SO2. We compare SO2 column values calculated from MLS data to total column values reported by the OMI instrument. The agreement is good (within about 1 DU) in cases where the SO2 is clearly at altitudes above 147 hPa.

  7. The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, J. W.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Lau, G. K.; Pickett, H. M.; Santee, M. L.; Wu, D. L.; Boyles, M. A.; Burke, J. R.; Lay, R. R.; Loo, M. S.; Livesey, N. J.; Lungu, T. A.; Manney, G. L.; Nakamura, L. L.;  Perun, V. S.;  Ridenoure, B. P.;  Shippony, Z.;  Siegel, P. H.;  Thurstans, R. P.;  Harwood, R. S.;  Pumphrey, H. C.;  Filipiak, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments obtain measurements of atmospheric composition, temperature, and pressure by observations of millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength thermal emission as the instrument field of view is scanned through the atmospheric limb. Features of the measurement technique include the ability to measure many atmospheric gases as well as temperature and pressure, to obtain measurements even in the presence of dense aerosol and cirrus, and to provide near-global coverage on a daily basis at all times of day and night from an orbiting platform. The composition measurements are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature. An accurate spectroscopic database is available, and the instrument calibration is also very accurate and stable. The first MLS experiment in space, launched on the (NASA) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in September 1991, was designed primarily to measure stratospheric profiles of ClO, O3, H2O, and atmospheric pressure as a vertical reference. Global measurement of ClO, the predominant radical in chlorine destruction of ozone, was an especially important objective of UARS MLS. All objectives of UARS MLS have been accomplished and additional geophysical products beyond those for which the experiment was designed have been obtained, including measurement of upper-tropospheric water vapor, which is important for climate change studies. A follow-on MLS experiment is being developed for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) and is scheduled to be launched on the EOS CHEMISTRY platform in late 2002. EOS MLS is designed for many stratospheric measurements, including HOx radicals, which could not be measured by UARS because adequate technology was not available, and better and more extensive upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements.

  8. Automatic road edge detection from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabo, Carlos; García-Cortés, Silverio; Menéndez-Díaz, Agustín.; Ordoñez, Celestino

    2016-11-01

    In this article we present an algorithm for automatic road edge detection from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) data. The method takes advantage of linear structures derived from MLS point clouds. These lines are extracted from the point cloud and grouped following geometric restrictions. Then, the outlines of the groups are extracted as road edges. Finally, a moving window filter is applied to those points in order to remove outliers and delineate the road edge. The method was tested on an 800m stretch of road, and the results were checked through visual inspection. Correctness and completeness were 99.1% and 97.5%, respectively.

  9. Vibration Analysis of Plates by MLS-Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Xiang, Y.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel numerical method, the moving least square element (MLS-element) method for the free vibration analysis of plates based on the Mindlin shear deformable plate theory. In the MLS-element method, a plate can be first divided into multiple elements which are connected through selected nodal points on the interfaces of the elements. An element can be of any shape and the size of the element varies dependent on the problem at hand. The shape functions of the element for the transverse displacement and the rotations are derived based on the MLS interpolation technique. The convergence and accuracy of the method can be controlled by either increasing the number of elements or by increasing the number of MLS interpolation points within elements. Two selected examples for vibration of a simply supported square Mindlin plate and a clamped L-shaped Mindlin plate are studied to illustrate the versatility and accuracy of the proposed method. It shows that the proposed method is highly accurate and flexible for the vibration analysis of plate problems. The method can be further developed to bridge the existing meshless method and the powerful finite element method in dealing with various engineering computational problems, such as large deformation and crack propagation in solid mechanics.

  10. EOS Aura MLS, first year post-launch engineering assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Karen A.; Lay, Richard R.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Cofield, Richard E.; Flower, Dennis A.; Pickett, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the MLS instrument which now continuously provides data to produce global maps of targeted chemical species as well as temperature, cloud ice, and gravity wave activity. Performance trends are assessed with respect to characterization during initial on-orbit activiation of the instrument, and with data from ground test verification prior to launch.

  11. EOS Aura MLS, first year post-launch engineering assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Karen A.; Lay, Richard R.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Cofield, Richard E.; Flower, Dennis A.; Pickett, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the MLS instrument which now continuously provides data to produce global maps of targeted chemical species as well as temperature, cloud ice, and gravity wave activity. Performance trends are assessed with respect to characterization during initial on-orbit activiation of the instrument, and with data from ground test verification prior to launch.

  12. 78 FR 74157 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2014-1)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2014-1) AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... by Units of Local Governments (ULGs) and Non-profit Corporations on December 12, 2013 (MLS 2014-1..., Boston, MA 02111, Attention: MLS 2014-1 Sale Coordinator, Fax: 1-978-967-8607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  13. TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2COS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-07-20

    TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2COS) Atmospheric ... profile estimates and associated errors derived using TES & MLS spectral radiance measurements taken at nearest time and locations. Also ... V1 Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/MLS Aura L2 CO Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ...

  14. MLS student active learning within a "cloud" technology program.

    PubMed

    Tille, Patricia M; Hall, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009, the MLS program in a large public university serving a geographically large, sparsely populated state instituted an initiative for the integration of technology enhanced teaching and learning within the curriculum. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the system requirements and sample instructional exercises used to create an active learning technology-based classroom. Discussion includes the following: 1.) define active learning and the essential components, 2.) summarize teaching methods, technology and exercises utilized within a "cloud" technology program, 3.) describe a "cloud" enhanced classroom and programming 4.) identify active learning tools and exercises that can be implemented into laboratory science programs, and 5.) describe the evaluation and assessment of curriculum changes and student outcomes. The integration of technology in the MLS program is a continual process and is intended to provide student-driven active learning experiences.

  15. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  16. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  17. TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2CO)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-07-20

    TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2CO) Atmospheric ... profile estimates and associated errors derived using TES & MLS spectral radiance measurements taken at nearest time and locations. Also ... V1 Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/MLS Aura L2 CO Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ...

  18. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  19. [Macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramines (MLS): mechanisms of action and resistance].

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, Vasilica

    2010-01-01

    Macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramines are distinct antibiotic (AB) families, with different chemical structure, but with similar antibacterial spectre and mechanisms. Macrolides are natural products of secondary metabolism of several species of actynomyces; they represent a group of compounds with a lactonic ring of variable dimensions (12-22 atoms of C) that can bind, by means of glycosidic bonds, sacharridic and/or amino-sacharridic structures. Most of the MLS antibiotics are bacteriostatic. Their mechanisms consist in inhibiting protein synthesis. the target being 50 S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, the binding sites being different for the different MLS classes. Erythromycin (E) was introduced in therapy in 1952; quickly, several bacterial genera started developing resistance to E. Strains resistant to E were as well resistant to all macrolides and other antibiotics with different structures--lincosamides and streptogramines B--resistance phenotype called MLSB. The main molecular mechanisms for bacterial resistance to MLS are: (1) Target modification, coded by erm genes (>12 classes). In Gram-positive cocii MLSB resistance, regardless of erm gene, can be: inducible (i MLSB)--when the presence of the inductor AB is necessary for methylation enzyme production; constitutive (c MLSB)--when the methylation enzyme is continuously produced Distinction between iMLSB and cMLSB can be easily appreciated based on the phenotypic expression of bacteria. In streptococci--all MLSB antibiotics can act as methylase inductors. (2) The decrease of AB intracellular concentration by active efflux, coded by mef genes--also called M resistance phenotype, low level resistance (LLR). (3) AB inactivation (enzymatic modification of AB); there are different resistance phenotypes: MLSB +SA and L phenotype (in staphyilococci) or SA4 phenotype and L phenotype (in enterococci).

  20. Air traffic control by distributed management in a MLS environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Hart, S.

    1977-01-01

    The microwave landing system (MLS) is a technically feasible means for increasing runway capacity since it could support curved approaches to a short final. The shorter the final segment of the approach, the wider the variety of speed mixes possible so that theoretically, capacity would ultimately be limited by runway occupance time only. An experiment contrasted air traffic control in a MLS environment under a centralized form of management and under distributed management which was supported by a traffic situation display in each of the 3 piloted simulators. Objective flight data, verbal communication and subjective responses were recorded on 18 trial runs lasting about 20 minutes each. The results were in general agreement with previous distributed management research. In particular, distributed management permitted a smaller spread of intercrossing times and both pilots and controllers perceived distributed management as the more 'ideal' system in this task. It is concluded from this and previous research that distributed management offers a viable alternative to centralized management with definite potential for dealing with dense traffic in a safe, orderly and expeditious manner.

  1. Simulation of Detonation Problems with MLS Grid Free Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, J; Gunger, M E; Matuska, D A

    2002-06-05

    The MLS grid free rezone method, a simple, flexible finite difference method to solve general mechanics problems, especially detonation problems, is proposed in this paper. The spatial points that carry time dependent data are distributed in space in such a way that provides nearly uniform spacing of points, accurate presentation of boundaries, easy variation of resolutions and arbitrary deletion of irrelevant regions. Local finite difference operators are obtained with simple MLS differentiation. There is no specific topological or geometrical restriction with the distribution of data points. Therefore this method avoids many drawbacks of the traditional CFD methods. Because of its flexibility, it can be used to simulate a wide range of mechanics problems. Because of its simplicity, it has the potential to become a preferred method. Most traditional CFD methods, from a SPH view, can be considered as special cases of grid free methods of specific kernel functions. Such a generalization allows the development of a unified grid free CFD code that can be switched to various CFD methods by switching the kernel functions. Because of the flexibility in management and simplicity of coding, such a unified code is desired.

  2. Mesodermal expression of the C. elegans HMX homolog mls-2 requires the PBC homolog CEH-20.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Shi, Herong; Amin, Nirav M; Sultan, Ibrahim; Liu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Metazoan development proceeds primarily through the regulated expression of genes encoding transcription factors and components of cell signaling pathways. One way to decipher the complex developmental programs is to assemble the underlying gene regulatory networks by dissecting the cis-regulatory modules that direct temporal-spatial expression of developmental genes and identify corresponding trans-regulatory factors. Here, we focus on the regulation of a HMX homoebox gene called mls-2, which functions at the intersection of a network that regulates cleavage orientation, cell proliferation and fate specification in the Caenorhabditis elegans postembryonic mesoderm. In addition to its transient expression in the postembryonic mesodermal lineage, the M lineage, mls-2 expression is detected in a subset of embryonic cells, in three pairs of head neurons and transiently in the somatic gonad. Through mutational analysis of the mls-2 promoter, we identified two elements (E1 and E2) involved in regulating the temporal-spatial expression of mls-2. In particular, we showed that one of the elements (E1) required for mls-2 expression in the M lineage contains two critical putative PBC-Hox binding sites that are evolutionarily conserved in C. briggsae and C. remanei. Furthermore, the C. elegans PBC homolog CEH-20 is required for mls-2 expression in the M lineage. Our data suggest that mls-2 might be a direct target of CEH-20 in the M lineage and that the regulation of CEH-20 on mls-2 is likely Hox-independent.

  3. Mesodermal expression of the C. elegans HMX homolog mls-2 requires the PBC homolog CEH-20

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Shi, Herong; Amin, Nirav M.; Sultan, Ibrahim; Liu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Metazoan development proceeds primarily through the regulated expression of genes encoding transcription factors and components of cell signaling pathways. One way to decipher the complex developmental programs is to assemble the underlying gene regulatory networks by dissecting the cis-regulatory modules that direct temporal-spatial expression of developmental genes and identify corresponding trans-regulatory factors. Here, we focus on the regulation of a HMX homoebox gene called mls-2, which functions at the intersection of a network that regulates cleavage orientation, cell proliferation and fate specification in the C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm. In addition to its transient expression in the postembryonic mesodermal lineage, the M lineage, mls-2 expression is detected in a subset of embryonic cells, in three pairs of head neurons and transiently in the somatic gonad. Through mutational analysis of the mls-2 promoter, we identified two elements (E1 and E2) involved in regulating the temporal-spatial expression of mls-2. In particular, we showed that one of the elements (E1) required for mls-2 expression in the M lineage contains two critical putative PBC-Hox binding sites that are evolutionarily conserved in C. briggsae and C. remanei. Furthermore, the C. elegans PBC homolog CEH-20 is required for mls-2 expression in the M lineage. Our data suggests that mls-2 might be a direct target of CEH-20 in the M lineage and that the regulation of CEH-20 on mls-2 is likely Hox-independent. PMID:18316179

  4. Software safety analysis activities during software development phases of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hui-Yin; Sherif, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the MLS software safety analysis activities and documents the SSA results. The scope of this software safety effort is consistent with the MLS system safety definition and is concentrated on the software faults and hazards that may have impact on the personnel safety and the environment safety.

  5. The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afkar, E.; Lisak, J.; Saltikov, C.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.S.; Stolz, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The respiratory arsenate reductase from the Gram-positive, haloalkaliphile, Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10 was purified and characterized. It is a membrane bound heterodimer (150 kDa) composed of two subunits ArrA (110 kDa) and ArrB (34 kDa), with an apparent Km for arsenate of 34 ??M and Vmax of 2.5 ??mol min-1 mg-1. Optimal activity occurred at pH 9.5 and 150 g l-1 of NaCl. Metal analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) of the holoenzyme and sequence analysis of the catalytic subunit (ArrA; the gene for which was cloned and sequenced) indicate it is a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoproteins. ?? 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aura MLS Cloud Measurements: First-Year Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wu, Dong L.

    2005-01-01

    Aura MLS provides the first vertical upper tropospheric cloud profiling from space, enabling global survey of the vertical structure of cloud systems, with seasonal and geographical variations, needed to evaluate the way clouds are parameterized in global models, thereby contributing to the understanding of cloud-climate feedbacks, and improved weather and climate predictions. The vertical structure of cloud systems is fundamentally important for understanding how clouds affect both their regional and large-scale atmospheric and radiative environments. The regional cloud profiles provide a critical tests of important parameterizations that enable the calculation of radiative flux profiles and heating rates throughout the atmospheric column, which in turn also regulates the water and energy cycles in the upper troposphere

  7. Aura MLS Cloud Measurements: First-Year Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wu, Dong L.

    2005-01-01

    Aura MLS provides the first vertical upper tropospheric cloud profiling from space, enabling global survey of the vertical structure of cloud systems, with seasonal and geographical variations, needed to evaluate the way clouds are parameterized in global models, thereby contributing to the understanding of cloud-climate feedbacks, and improved weather and climate predictions. The vertical structure of cloud systems is fundamentally important for understanding how clouds affect both their regional and large-scale atmospheric and radiative environments. The regional cloud profiles provide a critical tests of important parameterizations that enable the calculation of radiative flux profiles and heating rates throughout the atmospheric column, which in turn also regulates the water and energy cycles in the upper troposphere

  8. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  9. Modeling methodology for MLS range navigation system errors using flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Flight test data was used to develop a methodology for modeling MLS range navigation system errors. The data used corresponded to the constant velocity and glideslope approach segment of a helicopter landing trajectory. The MLS range measurement was assumed to consist of low frequency and random high frequency components. The random high frequency component was extracted from the MLS range measurements. This was done by appropriate filtering of the range residual generated from a linearization of the range profile for the final approach segment. This range navigation system error was then modeled as an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) process. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to identify the parameters of the ARMA process.

  10. The T-box factor MLS-1 acts as a molecular switch during specification of nonstriated muscle in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kostas, Stephen A; Fire, Andrew

    2002-01-15

    We have isolated mutations in a gene mls-1 that is required for proper specification of nonstriated muscle fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of MLS-1 activity causes uterine muscle precursors to forego their normal fates, instead differentiating as vulval muscles. We have cloned mls-1 and shown that the product is a member of the T-box family of transcriptional regulators. MLS-1 acts as a cell fate determinant in that ectopic expression can transform other cell types to uterine muscle precursors. Uterine muscle patterning is executed by regulation of MLS-1 at several different levels. The mls-1 promoter is activated by the C. elegans orthologs of Twist and Daughterless, but is only active in a subset of the lineage where these two transcription factors are present. mls-1 activity also appears to be regulated by posttranscriptional processes, as expression occurs in both uterine and vulval muscle precursors.

  11. The T-box factor MLS-1 acts as a molecular switch during specification of nonstriated muscle in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kostas, Stephen A.; Fire, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    We have isolated mutations in a gene mls-1 that is required for proper specification of nonstriated muscle fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of MLS-1 activity causes uterine muscle precursors to forego their normal fates, instead differentiating as vulval muscles. We have cloned mls-1 and shown that the product is a member of the T-box family of transcriptional regulators. MLS-1 acts as a cell fate determinant in that ectopic expression can transform other cell types to uterine muscle precursors. Uterine muscle patterning is executed by regulation of MLS-1 at several different levels. The mls-1 promoter is activated by the C. elegans orthologs of Twist and Daughterless, but is only active in a subset of the lineage where these two transcription factors are present. mls-1 activity also appears to be regulated by posttranscriptional processes, as expression occurs in both uterine and vulval muscle precursors. PMID:11799068

  12. Geographical distribution and interseasonal variability of tropical deep convection: UARS MLS observations and analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, J. H.; Wang, B.; Goya, K.; Hocke, K.; Eckermann, S. D.; Ma, J.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    Tropical deep convection and its dynamical effect on the tropopause and stratosphere are investigated using a suite of data from the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), including upper tropospheric humidity, cloud radiance, and gravity wave measurements.

  13. Early Validation Analyses of Atmospheric Profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Read, William G.; Jiang, Yibo B.; Jimenez, Carlos; Filipiak, Mark J.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Santee, Michelle L.; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We present results of early validation studies using retrieved atmospheric profiles from the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Aura satellite. 'Global' results are presented for MLS measurements of atmospheric temperature, ozone, water vapor, hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide, with a focus on the January-March 2005 time period. These global comparisons are made using long-standing global satellites and meteorological datasets, as well as some measurements from more recently launched satellites. Comparisons of MLS data with measurements from the Ft. Sumner, NM, September 2004 balloon flights are also presented. Overall, good agreeement is obtained, often within 5% to 10%, but we point out certain issues to resolve and some larger systematic differences; some artifacts in the first publicly released MLS (version 1.5) dataset are noted.We comment briefly on future plans for validation and software improvements.

  14. Early Validation Analyses of Atmospheric Profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Read, William G.; Jiang, Yibo B.; Jimenez, Carlos; Filipiak, Mark J.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Santee, Michelle L.; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wu, Dong L.; Manney, Gloria L.; Drouin, Brian J.; Waters, Joe W.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Boone, Chris D.; Walker, Kaley A.; Jucks, Kenneth W.; Geoffrey, C. Toon; Margitan, James J.; Sen, Bhaswar; Webster, Christopher R.; Christensen, Lance E.; Elkins, James W.

    2006-01-01

    We present results of early validation studies using retrieved atmospheric profiles from the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Aura satellite. 'Global' results are presented for MLS measurements of atmospheric temperature, ozone, water vapor, hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide, with a focus on the January-March 2005 time period. These global comparisons are made using long-standing global satellites and meteorological datasets, as well as some measurements from more recently launched satellites. Comparisons of MLS data with measurements from the Ft. Sumner, NM, September 2004 balloon flights are also presented. Overall, good agreeement is obtained, often within 5% to 10%, but we point out certain issues to resolve and some larger systematic differences; some artifacts in the first publicly released MLS (version 1.5) dataset are noted.We comment briefly on future plans for validation and software improvements.

  15. Guidance law simulation studies for complex approaches using the Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents results for MLS guidance algorithm development conducted by DAC for NASA under the Advance Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Technology Studies program (NAS1-18028). The study consisted of evaluating guidance laws for vertical and lateral path control, as well as speed control, by simulating an MLS approach for the Washington National Airport. This work is an extension and generalization of a previous ATOPS contract (NAS1-16202) completed by DAC in 1985. The Washington river approach was simulated by six waypoints and one glideslope change and consisted of an eleven nautical mile approach path. Tracking performance was generated for 10 cases representing several different conditions, which included MLS noise, steady wind, turbulence, and windshear. Results of this simulation phase are suitable for use in future fixed-base simulator evaluations employing actual hardware (autopilot and a performance management system), as well as crew procedures and information requirements for MLS.

  16. Physical Mechanisms Controlling Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor as Revealed by MLS Data from UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The third year and final report on the physical mechanisms controlling upper tropospheric water vapor revealed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is presented.

  17. EOS MLS Level 2 Data Processing Software Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, Nathaniel J.; VanSnyder, Livesey W.; Read, William G.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Froidevaux, Lucien; wang, Shuhui; Manney, Gloria L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This software accepts the EOS MLS calibrated measurements of microwave radiances products and operational meteorological data, and produces a set of estimates of atmospheric temperature and composition. This version has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The software is controlled by a Level 2 Configuration File that controls all aspects of the software: defining the contents of state and measurement vectors, defining the configurations of the various forward models available, reading appropriate a priori spectroscopic and calibration data, performing retrievals, post-processing results, computing diagnostics, and outputting results in appropriate files. In production mode, the software operates in a parallel form, with one instance of the program acting as a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each computing the results for individual chunks of data. In addition, to do conventional retrieval calculations and producing geophysical products, the Level 2 Configuration File can instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on a state vector formed from a set of geophysical product files taken as input. Combining both the retrieval and simulation tasks in a single piece of software makes it far easier to ensure that identical forward model algorithms and parameters are used in both tasks. This also dramatically reduces the complexity of the code maintenance effort.

  18. Monitoring and Assimilation of MLS Measurements in the DAO Ozone Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Winslow, Nathan; Stajner, Ivanka; Rood, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Since 1999 the DAO (Data Assimilation Office) at NASA Goddard has operationally assimilated ozone measurements in near real time. Currently, the assimilation system analyzes SBUV profile and total column measurements using an off line CTM with parameterized chemistry within the 3D-PSAS algorithm. During the last year the assimilation system was modified to either monitor or actively assimilate MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) measurements in conjunction with the active assimilation of TOMS total column and SBUV profiles. It is expected that the active assimilation of MLS profiles will improve analysis results in two ways. First, there should be an improvement in the vertical resolution. Second, there should be an improvement in regions where SBUV measurements do not exist (such as in the polar night). A series of experiments using UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) MLS data from December 1991 to March 1992 were run. In these experiments MLS data was either monitored in conjunction with active assimilation of the SBUV profile and TOMS total column measurements, or some combination of MLS, TOMS, and SBUV observations was actively assimilated. Monitoring of MLS data indicated that the MLS observations contain verifiable information that should improve the vertical structure of the analysis results, especially below the ozone peak and above the tropopause. The monitoring also substantiated the potential to improve the assimilation in the polar night. Active assimilation of MLS data does indeed improve the analysis results in these two ways, although the quality of the improvements is not uniform. This suggests that refinement of the specification of the error covariances might be needed to optimize the system. In addition it may be necessary to account for biases between the different sources of ozone information.

  19. Monitoring and Assimilation of MLS Measurements in the DAO Ozone Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Winslow, Nathan; Stajner, Ivanka; Rood, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Since 1999 the DAO (Data Assimilation Office) at NASA Goddard has operationally assimilated ozone measurements in near real time. Currently, the assimilation system analyzes SBUV profile and total column measurements using an off line CTM with parameterized chemistry within the 3D-PSAS algorithm. During the last year the assimilation system was modified to either monitor or actively assimilate MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) measurements in conjunction with the active assimilation of TOMS total column and SBUV profiles. It is expected that the active assimilation of MLS profiles will improve analysis results in two ways. First, there should be an improvement in the vertical resolution. Second, there should be an improvement in regions where SBUV measurements do not exist (such as in the polar night). A series of experiments using UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) MLS data from December 1991 to March 1992 were run. In these experiments MLS data was either monitored in conjunction with active assimilation of the SBUV profile and TOMS total column measurements, or some combination of MLS, TOMS, and SBUV observations was actively assimilated. Monitoring of MLS data indicated that the MLS observations contain verifiable information that should improve the vertical structure of the analysis results, especially below the ozone peak and above the tropopause. The monitoring also substantiated the potential to improve the assimilation in the polar night. Active assimilation of MLS data does indeed improve the analysis results in these two ways, although the quality of the improvements is not uniform. This suggests that refinement of the specification of the error covariances might be needed to optimize the system. In addition it may be necessary to account for biases between the different sources of ozone information.

  20. Climatology 2011: An MLS and Sonde Derived Ozone Climatology for Satellite Retrieval Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Labow, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    The ozone climatology used as the a priori for the version 8 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) retrieval algorithms has been updated. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on Aura has excellent latitude coverage and measures ozone daily from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. The new climatology consists of monthly average ozone profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering pressure altitudes from 0 to 65 km. The climatology was formed by combining data from Aura MLS (2004-2010) with data from balloon sondes (1988-2010). Ozone below 8 km (below 12 km at high latitudes) is based on balloons sondes, while ozone above 16 km (21 km at high latitudes) is based on MLS measurements. Sonde and MLS data are blended in the transition region. Ozone accuracy in the upper troposphere is greatly improved because of the near uniform coverage by Aura MLS, while the addition of a large number of balloon sonde measurements improves the accuracy in the lower troposphere, in the tropics and southern hemisphere in particular. The addition of MLS data also improves the accuracy of climatology in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The revised climatology has been used for the latest reprocessing of SBUV and TOMS satellite ozone data.

  1. Phenotypes of staphylococcal resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLS) in a Turkish university hospital.

    PubMed

    Tunçkanat, F; Arikan, S

    2000-01-01

    Resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLS) which is expressed either constitutively or inducibly, is mediated by erm genes (erm A, erm B, and erm C in staphylococci). The transposon TN 554, harbouring the erm A gene also encodes spectinomycin resistance. In Turkey, data related to MLS resistance phenotypes of staphylococci are not available. In this study, we screened 500 consecutive clinical isolates of staphylococci isolated in Hacettepe University Hospital, for MLS and spectinomycin resistance by the standard disk diffusion method. All MLS-resistant isolates were further tested for spectinomycin susceptibility by the agar screening method. Of 500 staphylococcal isolates, 368 (73.6%) were susceptible and 132 (26.4%) were resistant to MLS antibiotics. Ninety-one (18.2%) of the resistant isolates exhibited a constitutive resistance pattern, whereas 40 were inducibly resistant. MS (resistance to macrolides and lincosamides only) resistance was detected in only one isolate (0.2%). Of 40 inducibly resistant isolates, 21 were found to be resistant to spectinomycin by both the disk diffusion and agar screening tests, probably indicating a presence of the erm A gene. These results suggest that MLS resistance has been considerably high among clinical isolates of staphylococci in our hospital. On the whole, constitutive resistance was the pattern most frequently encountered. In contrast, MS resistance was very rare. Further epidemiological and molecular investigations are required for clarification of the data presented.

  2. Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria; Daffer, William H.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Bernath, Peter F.; Hoppel, Karl W.; Walker, Kaley A.; Knosp, Brian W.; Boone, Chris; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Santee, Michelle L.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Derived Meteorological Products (DMPs, including potential temperature (theta), potential vorticity, equivalent latitude (EqL), horizontal winds and tropopause locations) have been produced for the locations and times of measurements by several solar occultation (SO) instruments and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). DMPs are calculated from several meteorological analyses for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II and III, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement II and III SO instruments and MLS. Time-series comparisons of MLS version 1.5 and SO data using DMPs show good qualitative agreement in time evolution of O3, N2O, H20, CO, HNO3, HCl and temperature; quantitative agreement is good in most cases. EqL-coordinate comparisons of MLS version 2.2 and SO data show good quantitative agreement throughout the stratosphere for most of these species, with significant biases for a few species in localized regions. Comparisons in EqL coordinates of MLS and SO data, and of SO data with geographically coincident MLS data provide insight into where and how sampling effects are important in interpretation of the sparse SO data, thus assisting in fully utilizing the SO data in scientific studies and comparisons with other sparse datasets. The DMPs are valuable for scientific studies and to facilitate validation of non-coincident measurements.

  3. European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): outpatient macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin (MLS) use in Europe.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Samuel; Ferech, Matus; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Hendrickx, Erik; Suetens, Carl; Goossens, Herman

    2006-08-01

    Data on outpatient macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin (MLS) use in Europe were collected from 25 countries within the ESAC project, funded by DG SANCO of the European Commission, using the WHO ATC/DDD methodology. For the period 1997-2003, data on outpatient use of systemic MLS aggregated at the level of the active substance were collected and expressed in DDD (WHO, version 2004) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). Macrolide use was analysed in detail, using a classification based on their mean plasma elimination half-life. Total outpatient MLS use in 2003 varied by a factor of 11 between the country with the highest (9.36 DID in Greece) and lowest (0.85 DID in Sweden) use. MLS use showed high seasonal variation. Short-, intermediate- and long-acting macrolides were used most in 6, 18 and 1 countries, respectively (mainly erythromycin, clarithromyin and azithromycin, respectively). Lincosamide use was observed in all countries (mainly clindamycin) and substantial streptogramin use only in France (pristinamycin). From 1997 to 2003, MLS use increased in 14 countries and was most pronounced in Greece (increase of >5 DID). Except for Sweden, a relative increase of intermediate- (mainly clarithromycin) and/or long-acting (mainly azithromycin) macrolide use was observed, at the expense of short-acting macrolide (mainly erythromycin) use. The observed differences between European countries in the levels of MLS use and the extreme seasonal variations in their use suggest that this class of antibiotics is prescribed inappropriately in many countries. The MLS classification developed here facilitates a more comprehensive description of macrolide use in Europe. These data (collected as part of ESAC) could promote investigations that lead to a deeper understanding of the link between macrolide use and resistance.

  4. The Caenorhabditis elegans T-box factor MLS-1 requires Groucho co-repressor interaction for uterine muscle specification.

    PubMed

    Miller, Raymond R; Okkema, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    T-box proteins are conserved transcription factors that play crucial roles in development of all metazoans; and, in humans, mutations affecting T-box genes are associated with a variety of congenital diseases and cancers. Despite the importance of this transcription factor family, very little is known regarding how T-box factors regulate gene expression. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome contains 21 T-box genes, and their characterized functions include cell fate specification in a variety of tissues. The C. elegans Tbx1 sub-family member MLS-1 functions during larval development to specify the fate of non-striated uterine muscles; and, in mls-1 mutants, uterine muscles are transformed to a vulval muscle fate. Here we demonstrate that MLS-1 function depends on binding to the Groucho-family co-repressor UNC-37. MLS-1 interacts with UNC-37 via a conserved eh1 motif, and the MLS-1 eh1 motif is necessary for MLS-1 to specify uterine muscle fate. Moreover, unc-37 loss-of-function produces uterine muscle to vulval muscle fate transformation similar to those observed in mls-1 mutants. Based on these results, we conclude that MLS-1 specifies uterine muscle fate by repressing target gene expression, and this function depends on interaction with UNC-37. Moreover, we suggest that MLS-1 shares a common mechanism for transcriptional repression with related T-box factors in other animal phyla.

  5. The Caenorhabditis elegans T-Box Factor MLS-1 Requires Groucho Co-Repressor Interaction for Uterine Muscle Specification

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Raymond R.; Okkema, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    T-box proteins are conserved transcription factors that play crucial roles in development of all metazoans; and, in humans, mutations affecting T-box genes are associated with a variety of congenital diseases and cancers. Despite the importance of this transcription factor family, very little is known regarding how T-box factors regulate gene expression. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome contains 21 T-box genes, and their characterized functions include cell fate specification in a variety of tissues. The C. elegans Tbx1 sub-family member MLS-1 functions during larval development to specify the fate of non-striated uterine muscles; and, in mls-1 mutants, uterine muscles are transformed to a vulval muscle fate. Here we demonstrate that MLS-1 function depends on binding to the Groucho-family co-repressor UNC-37. MLS-1 interacts with UNC-37 via a conserved eh1 motif, and the MLS-1 eh1 motif is necessary for MLS-1 to specify uterine muscle fate. Moreover, unc-37 loss-of-function produces uterine muscle to vulval muscle fate transformation similar to those observed in mls-1 mutants. Based on these results, we conclude that MLS-1 specifies uterine muscle fate by repressing target gene expression, and this function depends on interaction with UNC-37. Moreover, we suggest that MLS-1 shares a common mechanism for transcriptional repression with related T-box factors in other animal phyla. PMID:21852953

  6. Recent Divergences Between Stratospheric Water Vapor Measurements by Aura MLS and Frost Point Hygrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.; Read, W. G.; Voemel, H.; Selkirk, H. B.

    2015-12-01

    A recent comparison of stratospheric water vapor measurements by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and frost point hygrometers (FPs) during 2004-2012 reported agreement better than 1% from 68 to 26 hPa, small but statistically significant biases at 83 and 100 hPa, and no compelling evidence of long-term linear trends in FP-MLS differences [Hurst et al., 2014]. A previous comparison [Voemel et al., 2007] also found good agreement above 83 hPa. Recently it has become evident that differences between FP and MLS stratospheric water vapor measurements have widened during the last 5 years at two Northern Hemisphere (NH) mid-latitude sounding sites. Here we examine differences between coincident MLS and FP measurements of stratospheric water vapor at five sounding sites: two in the NH mid-latitudes (Boulder, Colorado and Lindenberg, Germany), two in the tropics (San Jose, Costa Rica and Hilo, Hawaii), and one in the SH mid-latitudes (Lauder, New Zealand). Analyses of the Boulder and Lindenberg data reveal reasonably uniform breakpoints in the timeseries of FP-MLS differences throughout the stratosphere, indicating that trends after mid-2010 are statistically different from trends before mid-2010. At Boulder and Lindenberg the post-breakpoint trends are statistically significant and fairly consistent over eight MLS retrieval pressures (100-26 hPa), averaging -0.08 ± 0.02 and -0.05 ± 0.02 ppmv per year, respectively (Figure 1). These translate to mean changes in stratospheric FP-MLS differences of -0.42 ± 0.08 ppmv (-10 ± 2%) and -0.23 ± 0.08 ppmv (-6 ± 2%) between mid-2010 and mid-2015. Breakpoints for the eight MLS pressure levels above Lauder are less uniform than for the two NH sites, however forced breakpoints of mid-2010 produce a mean stratospheric trend of -0.05 ± 0.02 ppmv per year in the FP-MLS differences. Breakpoints for the two tropical sites are inconsistent, as are the trend results with forced breakpoints of mid-2010. Hurst, D.F., et al., (2014

  7. Carbon monoxide (CO) vertical profiles derived from joined TES and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Read, William; Kulawik, Susan; Worden, John; Livesey, Nathaniel; Bowman, Kevin; Herman, Robert

    2013-09-01

    (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) nadir and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) limb measurements from the Aura satellite are used to jointly estimate an atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) profile with extended vertical range compared to profiles retrieved from the individual measurement. We describe the algorithms, the processing procedures, the prototyping results, and the evaluations for this new joint product. TES and MLS "stand-alone" CO profile retrievals are largely complementary, with TES being largely sensitive to lower to middle troposphere while MLS measures CO in the upper troposphere and above. We pair TES nadir and MLS limb tangent locations within 6-8 min and within 220 km. The paired radiance measurements of the two instruments in each location are optimally combined to retrieve a single CO profile along with other trace gases whose signal interferes with that from CO. This combined CO profile has a vertical resolution and vertical range that is an improvement over the two stand-alone products, especially in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. For example, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) between surface and 50 hPa for TES alone are < 2, and for the combined CO profiles are 2-4. This new Aura CO product will be made available to the public using TES V005 and MLS V003 processing results and will provide a unique data set for studying tropospheric transport of air pollutants and troposphere-stratospheric exchange processes.

  8. A total ozone-dependent ozone profile climatology based on ozonesondes and Aura MLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, Gordon J.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; McPeters, Richard D.; Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2015-03-01

    Ozone profiles measured with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and ozonesondes are used to create a new ozone climatology that can be used for satellite retrievals and radiative transfer studies. The climatology is binned according to total column ozone amount and latitude rather than with season. Because of high correlation between ozone profile shape and total ozone, the ozone profiles in this climatology capture ozone variations well, especially near the tropopause. This climatology has been constructed from nearly a million individual MLS ozone profile measurements taken between 2004 and 2013 as well as over 55,000 ozonesonde measurements from 1988 to 2011. The MLS profiles were sorted by total column ozone as measured by Ozone Monitoring Instrument in observations that were coincident with the MLS measurements. The data from the sondes were used in the troposphere and lower stratosphere and MLS in the middle and upper stratosphere. These two data sets were blended together between 13 and 17 km (~159-88 hPa). This climatology consists of average ozone profiles as a function of total ozone for six 30° latitude bands covering altitudes between 0 and 75 km (in Z* pressure altitude coordinates) as well as the corresponding standard deviations for each layer. There is no seasonal component. This new climatology shows some remarkable and somewhat unexpected correlations between the total column ozone and the ozone amount at some layers, particularly in the lower and middle troposphere in some latitude bands.

  9. Relationships of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor, Clouds and SST: MLS Observations, ECMWF Analyses and GCM Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Waliser, Duane E.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Li, Jui-lin; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Tompkins, Adrian M.

    2006-01-01

    The relationships of upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV), cloud ice and sea surface temperature (SST) are examined in the annual cycles of ECMWF analyses and simulations from 15 atmosphere-ocean coupled models which were contributed to the IPCC AR4. The results are compared with the observed relationships based on UTWV and cloud ice measurements from MLS on Aura. It is shown that the ECMWF analyses produce positive correlations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST, similar to the MLS data. The rate of the increase of cloud ice and UTWV with SST is about 30% larger than that for MLS. For the IPCC simulations, the relationships between UTWV, cloud ice and SST are qualitatively captured. However, the magnitudes of the simulated cloud ice show a considerable disagreement between models, by nearly a factor of 10. The amplitudes of the approximate linear relations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST vary by a factor up to 4.

  10. Comparisons of EOS MLS cloud ice measurements with ECMWF analyses and GCM simulations: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-L.; Waliser, D. E.; Jiang, J. H.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W.; Waters, J. W.; Tompkins, A. M.; Donner, L. J.; Chern, J.-D.; Tao, W.-K.; Atlas, R.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Del Genio, A.; Khairoutdinov, M.; Gettelman, A.

    2005-09-01

    To assess the status of global climate models (GCMs) in simulating upper-tropospheric ice water content (IWC), a new set of IWC measurements from the Earth Observing System's Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used. Comparisons are made with ECMWF analyses and simulations from several GCMs, including two with multi-scale-modeling framework. For January 2005 monthly and daily mean values, the spatial agreement between MLS and ECMWF is quite good, although MLS estimates are higher by a factor of 2-3 over the Western Pacific, tropical Africa and South America. For the GCMs, the model-data agreement is within a factor of 2-4 with larger values of disagreement occurring over Eastern Pacific and Atlantic ITCZs, tropical Africa and South America. The implications arising from sampling and uncertainties in the observations, the modeled values and their comparison are discussed. These initial results demonstrate the potential usefulness of this data set for evaluating GCM performance and guiding development efforts.

  11. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS): a male with a mosaic paracentric inversion of Xp.

    PubMed

    Kutsche, K; Werner, W; Bartsch, O; von der Wense, A; Meinecke, P; Gal, A

    2002-01-01

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked dominant disorder with male lethality. In the majority of the patients reported, the MLS syndrome is caused by segmental monosomy of the Xp22.3 region. To date, five male patients with MLS and 46,XX karyotype ("XX males") have been described. Here we report on the first male case with MLS and an XY complement. The patient showed agenesis of the corpus callosum, histiocytoid cardiomyopathy, and lactic acidosis but no microphthalmia, and carried a mosaic subtle inversion of the short arm of the X chromosome in 15% of his peripheral blood lymphocytes, 46,Y,inv(X)(p22.13 approximately 22.2p22.32 approximately 22.33)[49]/46,XY[271]. By fluorescence IN SITU hybridization (FISH), we showed that YAC 225H10 spans the breakpoint in Xp22.3. End-sequencing and database analysis revealed a YAC insert of at least 416 kb containing the genes HCCS and AMELX, and exons 2-16 of ARHGAP6. Molecular cytogenetic data suggest that the Xp22.3 inversion breakpoint is located in intron 1 of ARHGAP6, the gene encoding the Rho GTPase activating protein 6. Future molecular studies in karyotypically normal female MLS patients to detect submicroscopic rearrangements including the ARHGAP6 gene as well as mutation screening of ARHGAP6 in patients with no obvious chromosomal rearrangements will clarify the role of this gene in MLS syndrome. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Mote, P. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Swinbank, R.

    1995-03-01

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semiannual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapour are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the LIMS and SAGE II instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and polewards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retrieved 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  13. Refinement and validation of two digital Microwave Landing System (MLS) theoretical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duff, W. G.; Guarino, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Two digital microwave landing system theoretical models are considered which are generic models for the Doppler and scanning-beam frequency reference versions of the MLS. These models represent errors resulting from both system noise and discrete multipath. The data used for the validation effort were obtained from the Texas Instrument conventional scanning beam and the Hazeltine Doppler feasibility hardware versions of the MLS. Topics discussed include tape read software, time history plots, computation of power spectral density, smoothed power spectra, best-fit models, different equations for digital simulation, and discrete multipath errors.

  14. Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole : first results from MLS on Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Froidevaux, L.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Schwartz, M. J.; Waters, J. W.; Harwood, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura is providing an extensive data set on stratospheric winter polar processing, including the first daily global observations of HCl, together with simultaneous measurements of ClO, HNO3, H2O, O3, N2O, and temperature (among others). We present first results charting the evolution of these quantities during the 2004 Antarctic late winter. MLS observations of chlorine deactivation and ozone loss during this period are shown to be consistent with results from the SLIMCAT chemical transport model.

  15. Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.S.; Harwood, R.S.; Mote, P.W.

    1995-03-15

    The lower stratospheric variability of equatorial water vapor, measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), follows an annual cycle modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation. At levels higher in the stratosphere, water vapor measurements exhibit a semiannual oscillatory signal with the largest amplitudes at 2.2 and 1hPa. Zonal-mean cross sections of MLS water vapour are consistent with previous satellite measurements from the LIMS and SAGE II instruments in that they show water vapor increasing upwards and pole-wards from a well defined minimum in the tropics. The minimum values vary in height between the retreived 46 and 22hPa pressure levels.

  16. L-Band DME Multipath Environment in the Microwave Landing System (MLS) Approach and Landing Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-13

    present hope is that an L-band DME which is fully compatible with current VOR/DME navigation and/or RNAV requirements can provide range guidance which is...adequate for all the MLS needs (e.g., RNAV to MLS transition, complex terminal maneuvers for curved approach, flare initiation and the flare maneu...NTERROGATOR ANTENA 4r 1 X1ro 2 ANTENNA I - T V1- - - - - - - - - h RUNWAYI’ M~ Fig 3-. Cnfi~raionused to determine multipath parameters due to scatterinlg

  17. Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole : first results from MLS on Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Froidevaux, L.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Schwartz, M. J.; Waters, J. W.; Harwood, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura is providing an extensive data set on stratospheric winter polar processing, including the first daily global observations of HCl, together with simultaneous measurements of ClO, HNO3, H2O, O3, N2O, and temperature (among others). We present first results charting the evolution of these quantities during the 2004 Antarctic late winter. MLS observations of chlorine deactivation and ozone loss during this period are shown to be consistent with results from the SLIMCAT chemical transport model.

  18. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 3: A comparison of waypoint guidance algorithms for RNAV/MLS transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation carried out for the Langley Research Center Terminal Configured Vehicle Program are presented. The investigation generated and compared three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first, called the Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude error by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called the Tangent Path also eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude and choose a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called the Continued Track eliminates the discontinuity in cross track, altitude and track angle by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. A method is presented for providing a waypoint guidance path reconstruction which treats turns of less than, and greater than, 180 degrees in a uniform manner to construct the desired path.

  19. Algorithms and logic for incorporating MLS back azimuth information into the NASA TCV B-737 airplane area navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Navigation position estimates are based on range information form a randomly located DME and MLS back azimuth angular information. The MLS volmetric coverage checks are performed to ensure that proper navigation inputs are being utilized. These algorithms and volumetric checks were designed so that they could be added to most existing area navigation systems with minimum software modification.

  20. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  1. ALA, the MLS, and Professional Employment: An Observer's Field Guide to the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Pauline

    1984-01-01

    Examines issues arising from recent controversy associated with American Library Association's (ALA) support of MLS degree as minimum requirement for professional employment. Highlights include ALA involvement in legal cases and viewpoints of ALA groups focusing on goals, constituency and handling of conflict versus nature of librarianship and its…

  2. Effect of multiple path approach procedures on runway landing capacity. [under ILS and MLS conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1976-01-01

    When using the Instrument Landing System (ILS) all aircraft must follow a straight line approach path before landing. The Microwave Landing System (MLS) will allow use of differing curved approach paths. The objective of this research is to find out whether the introduction of MLS and consequently multiple approach paths can bring an increase in runway landing capacity. A model is developed which is capable of computing the expected ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and Air Traffic Control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS-described multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach velocities and particularly in situations when a vertical separation can be applied.

  3. A Total Ozone Dependent Ozone Profile Climatology Based on Ozone-Sondes and Aura MLS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, G. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A new total ozone-based ozone profile climatology has been created for use in satellite and/or ground based ozone retrievals. This climatology was formed by combining data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) with data from balloon sondes and binned by zone and total ozone. Because profile shape varies with total column ozone, this climatology better captures the ozone variations than the previously used seasonal climatologies, especially near the tropopause. This is significantly different than ozone climatologies used in the past as there is no time component. The MLS instrument on Aura has excellent latitude coverage and measures ozone profiles daily from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at ~3.5 km resolution. Almost a million individual MLS ozone measurements are merged with data from over 55,000 ozonesondes which are then binned as a function of total ozone. The climatology consists of average ozone profiles as a function of total ozone for six 30 degree latitude bands covering altitudes from 0-75 km (in Z* pressure altitude coordinates). This new climatology better represents the profile shape as a function of total ozone than previous climatologies and shows some remarkable and somewhat unexpected correlations between total ozone and ozone in the lower altitudes, particularly in the lower and middle troposphere. These data can also be used to infer biases and errors in either the MLS retrievals or ozone sondes.

  4. Trabectedin in myxoid liposarcomas (MLS): a long-term analysis of a single-institution series.

    PubMed

    Grosso, F; Sanfilippo, R; Virdis, E; Piovesan, C; Collini, P; Dileo, P; Morosi, C; Tercero, J C; Jimeno, J; D'Incalci, M; Gronchi, A; Pilotti, S; Casali, P G

    2009-08-01

    Trabectedin has been approved in Europe as second-line therapy for advanced soft tissue sarcomas. A previous analysis showed that myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) are particularly sensitive to the drug. We report on the long-term efficacy of trabectedin in a subgroup of that series. Since September 2002, 32 advanced pretreated MLS patients received trabectedin at our center. Data were reviewed focusing on their long-term outcome. Trabectedin was given as a 24-h continuous infusion every 21 days. A total of 376 and a median of 12 courses per patient (range 2-26; interquartiles range (IQR) 8-15) were delivered. Response rate per RECIST was 50% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32% to 68%], median progression-free survival (PFS) was 17 months (95% CI 13.5-30.1) and median overall survival is still not reached. In 10 patients, therapy was stopped in the absence of any evident disease, mostly after complete surgery of residual lesions. In these 10 patients, at a median follow-up of 25 months, PFS was 28.1 months (95% CI 25.6-36.4) from treatment start. These data indicate that the high response rate of MLS to trabectedin translates into prolonged PFS. Surgery of residual metastatic disease is already used quite extensively in metastatic MLS. Trabectedin may give further significance to this kind of surgery.

  5. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Grillo, A.; Ferrero, G.B.; Baldini, A.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y.; Roth, E.J.; Magenis, E.; Grompe, M.; Hulten, M.

    1994-01-15

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome (MIM309801) is a severe developmental disorder observed in XX individuals with distal Xp segmental monosomy. The phenotype of this syndrome overlaps with that of both Aicardi (MIM 305050) and Goltz (MIM 305600) syndromes, two X-linked dominant, male-lethal disorders. Here the authors report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of 3 patients with this syndrome. Two of these patients are females with a terminal Xpter-p22.2 deletion. One of these 2 patients had an aborted fetus with anencephaly and the same chromosome abnormality. The third patient is an XX male with Xp/Yp exchange spanning the SRY gene which results in distal Xp monosomy. The extensive clinical variability observed in these patients and the results of the molecular analysis suggest that X-inactivation plays an important role in determining the phenotype of the MLS syndrome. The authors propose that the MLS, Aicardi, and Goltz syndromes are due to the involvement of the same gene(s), and that different patterns of X-inactivation are responsible for the phenotypic differences observed in these 3 disorders. However, they cannot rule out that each component of the MLS phenotype is caused by deletion of a different gene (a contiguous gene syndrome). 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Comparisons of EOS MLS cloud ice measurements with ECMWF analyses and GCM simulations : initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, J. - L.; Waliser, D. E.; Jiang, J. H.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W.; Waters, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the status of global climate models (GCMs) in simulating upper-tropospheric ice water content (IWC), a new set of IWC measurements from the Earth Observing System's Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used. Comparisons are made with ECMWF analyses and simulations from several GCMs, including two with multi-scale-modeling framework.

  7. Automated landing, rollout, and turnoff using MLS and magnetic cable sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.; Schmidt, S. F.; Mann, F. I.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the simulation program used to study the landing approach, rollout and turnoff of the B737-100 aircraft utilizing MLS and a buried magnetic leader cable as navigation aids is presented. Simulation results are given and show the concept to be both feasible and practical for commercial type aircraft terminal area control.

  8. Mesospheric Temperature Inversion Layers: Recent Observations from UARS ISAMS and MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an observational study of the mesospheric temperature inversion layer with Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The satellite data show that the temperature inversion layer can be generated from deep penetration of planetary waves in the mesosphere.

  9. Automatic Registration of TLS-TLS and TLS-MLS Point Clouds Using a Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Tan, Junxiang; Liu, Hua; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun

    2017-08-29

    Registration of point clouds is a fundamental issue in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing because point clouds scanned from multiple scan stations or by different platforms need to be transformed to a uniform coordinate reference frame. This paper proposes an efficient registration method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for automatic alignment of two terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) point clouds (TLS-TLS point clouds) and alignment between TLS and mobile LiDAR scanning (MLS) point clouds (TLS-MLS point clouds). The scanning station position acquired by the TLS built-in GPS and the quasi-horizontal orientation of the LiDAR sensor in data acquisition are used as constraints to narrow the search space in GA. A new fitness function to evaluate the solutions for GA, named as Normalized Sum of Matching Scores, is proposed for accurate registration. Our method is divided into five steps: selection of matching points, initialization of population, transformation of matching points, calculation of fitness values, and genetic operation. The method is verified using a TLS-TLS data set and a TLS-MLS data set. The experimental results indicate that the RMSE of registration of TLS-TLS point clouds is 3~5 mm, and that of TLS-MLS point clouds is 2~4 cm. The registration integrating the existing well-known ICP with GA is further proposed to accelerate the optimization and its optimizing time decreases by about 50%.

  10. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  11. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attié, J.-L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2013-06-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite datasets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite dataset, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these datasets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS/TES and AIRS/MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only retrievals, and improved coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  12. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attié, J.-L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  13. 76 FR 24045 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-1)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ..., extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call 202- 708-4594 (TTY). These are not toll... Loans in MLS 2011-1. Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and... HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all...

  14. Automatic Registration of TLS-TLS and TLS-MLS Point Clouds Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun

    2017-01-01

    Registration of point clouds is a fundamental issue in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing because point clouds scanned from multiple scan stations or by different platforms need to be transformed to a uniform coordinate reference frame. This paper proposes an efficient registration method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for automatic alignment of two terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) point clouds (TLS-TLS point clouds) and alignment between TLS and mobile LiDAR scanning (MLS) point clouds (TLS-MLS point clouds). The scanning station position acquired by the TLS built-in GPS and the quasi-horizontal orientation of the LiDAR sensor in data acquisition are used as constraints to narrow the search space in GA. A new fitness function to evaluate the solutions for GA, named as Normalized Sum of Matching Scores, is proposed for accurate registration. Our method is divided into five steps: selection of matching points, initialization of population, transformation of matching points, calculation of fitness values, and genetic operation. The method is verified using a TLS-TLS data set and a TLS-MLS data set. The experimental results indicate that the RMSE of registration of TLS-TLS point clouds is 3~5 mm, and that of TLS-MLS point clouds is 2~4 cm. The registration integrating the existing well-known ICP with GA is further proposed to accelerate the optimization and its optimizing time decreases by about 50%. PMID:28850100

  15. CloudSat and Aura MLS Constrain upon Ice Cloud Particle Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan Valle, L. F.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Despite years of measurements, ice clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in climate models. In part, because individual cloud ice remote sensing techniques or instruments observe only portions of the complete ice particle size distribution (PSD) and therefore, to deduce cloud ice water, the retrievals need to assume a given PSD. Uncertainty in such knowledge currently accounts for most of the factor of two or greater uncertainties in satellite based cloud ice water content measurements. The Aura-Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observes limb microwave emissions from the Earth's atmosphere at 118, 191, 240, 640 and 2500 GHz enabling cloud ice measurements across a large range of particle sizes. This study explores the synergy of collocated A-train radar backscatter CloudSat measurements and MLS radiances in search of a better understanding of cloud ice PSDs. For each "scene" jointly observed by CloudSat and MLS, we quantify the ability of each of several candidate PSDs to account for the observed signals. First, a CloudSat retrieval is used to determine the cloud altitude and location along the MLS line of sight as well as the cloud ice water content that, for a given PSD, would give rise to the observed CloudSat signal. Then, for each PSD, estimated MLS measurements are reconstructed, compared to those actually observed and a chi-squared metric is used to determined which PSD gives the best fit. We will discuss potential applications of this technique to studies of convection and the impacts of aerosol pollution on ice PSD.

  16. Ribosomal RNA methylation in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli: effect of the "MLS" (erythromycin resistance) methylase.

    PubMed

    Thakker-Varia, S; Ranzini, A C; Dubin, D T

    1985-09-01

    Classical acquired resistance to erythromycin in Staphylococcus aureus ("MLS," or macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, resistance) was shown by Weisblum and colleagues to be a direct consequence of the conversion of one or more adenosine residues of 23S rRNA, within the subsequence(s) GA3G, to N6-dimethyladenosine (m62A). The methylation reaction is effected by a class of methylase, whose genes are typically plasmid- or transposon-associated, and whose synthesis is inducible by erythromycin. Using a recently obtained clinical MLS isolate of S. aureus, we have further defined the methylation locus as YGG X m62A X AAGAC; and have shown that this subsequence occurs once in the 23S RNA and that it is essentially completely methylated in all copies of 23S RNA that accumulate in induced cultures. Similar findings were obtained with laboratory S. aureus strains containing two well-characterized evolutionary variants (ermB, ermC) of MLS methylase genes. Analyses of a strain of E. coli containing the ermC gene indicated that the specificity of the methylase gene was unchanged, but that its expression was muted. Even after prolonged periods of induction, the strain manifested only partial resistance to erythromycin, and only about one-third of the copies of the MLS subsequence were methylated in such "induced" cultures. Since the E. coli 23S RNA sequence is known in its entirety, localization of the MLS subsequence is in this case unambiguous; as inferred by homology arguments applied earlier to the S. aureus data, the subsequence is in a highly conserved region of 23S RNA considered to contribute to the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome.

  17. Evidence that Mls-2 antigens which delete V beta 3+ T cells are controlled by multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Pullen, A M; Marrack, P; Kappler, J W

    1989-05-01

    V beta 3+ T cells are eliminated in Mls-2a mice carrying some, but not all, H-2 types. Analysis of AKXD and BXD recombinant inbred strains showed that Mls-2a (formerly Mlsc) was not the product of a single gene and suggested that at least two non-H-2 genes control V beta 3 levels. Studies of the progeny of a B10.BR x (C3H/HeJ x B10.BR)F1 backcross confirmed the existence of two V beta 3+ T cell deleting genes: one unlinked and one linked to Ly-7, which we propose be called Mls-2 and Mls-3, respectively. Mls-2a induces partial deletion of V beta 3+ T cells with a bias toward deleting CD4+ cells. It stimulates V beta 3+ hybrids and may be linked to Mtv-13 on chromosome 4. A third non-H-2 gene is implicated in enhancing the presentation of Mls-2a. Mls-3a causes elimination of all V beta 3+ T cells in H-2k and H-2d mice but poorly stimulates V beta 3+ hybrids.

  18. Establishing a long-term, global stratospheric HNO3 data record combining UARS MLS with Aura MLS data by means of ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, I.; Muscari, G.; Froidevaux, L.; Santee, M. L.; de Zafra, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Nitric Acid (HNO3) is a major player in processes controlling stratospheric ozone depletion. It is a primary reservoir for reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere and has a key role in both the activation and the deactivation of chlorine and bromine species. Since 1993 HNO3 observations have been carried out by means of a Ground-Based Millimeter-wave Spectrometer (GBMS) from a variety of sites in both hemispheres, at polar and mid-latitudes. The GBMS observes a cluster of weak emission lines centered at 269 GHz, with a pass band of 600 MHz and a resolution of 1 MHz. The retrieval of vertical profiles from the pressure-blended multiple line spectra is carried out with an Optimal Estimation Method. The GBMS provides HNO3 profiles from ~15 up to 50 km, with a vertical resolution of 6-8 km and a total uncertainty of ~15%. GBMS HNO3 measurements have been used within GOZCARDS (Global Ozone Chemistry and Related Trace gas Data Records for the Stratosphere), a multi-year MEaSUREs project, aimed at developing a long-term, commonly-formatted Earth system data record (ESDR) of stratospheric constituents relevant to the issues of ozone decline and expected recovery. This data record is based mainly on satellite-derived measurements. Nevertheless, ground-based observations can be critically used for assessing offsets between satellite data sets, as well as to fill gaps in temporal coverage when possible. Since the GBMS has been operated for more than 15 years (with minor instrumental upgrading), the GBMS HNO3 data record is well-suited for the GOZCARDS objectives; it offers a unique opportunity for the cross-calibration of HNO3 measurements from the NASA/JPL Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments (aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) from 1991 to 1999, and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura mission from 2004 to date). In this study we compare Aura MLS observations and GBMS HNO3 measurements obtained from the Italian Alpine station of Plateau Rosa, during

  19. Microphthalmia and linear skin defects (MLS) and focal dermal hypoplasia of Goltz (FDHG); Clinical cytogenetic, and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schnur, R.E.; Wick, P.A.; Louis, A.

    1994-09-01

    MLS and FDHG syndromes have overlapping phenotypes, including linear skin defects or erosions that heal in cribiform patterns of atrophy and pigmentary change and asymmetric ocular defects. It has been postulated that MLS and FDHG phenotypes reflect changes in the same gene(s) as well as variable X-inactivation patterns. In order to explore this, we studied one new MLS and 2 FDHG patients at clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular levels. Phenotype comparison: We observed a greater variety and wider distribution of cutaneous lesions in FDHG. Only the MLS patient had microphthalmia and sclerocornea with other ocular changes. Skeletal lesions were seen in only one FDHG patient who also had additional problems. Cytogenetics: The MLS patient demonstrated a 46,XX,del(X)(p22) karyotype. We excluded a cryptic Y-translocation by FISH using a Y-chromosome paint. Both FDHG patients had 46,XX karyotypes. Molecular studies: For deletion analysis, somatic cell hybrids containing separated X homologues were made from EBV-transformed LBL lines of all 3 patients. Of 20 hybrids obtained from the MLS patient, only one contained the deleted X, but we recognize that a culture artifact may have occurred in LBL cells prior to fusion. There was also a suggestion of partial skewing of X-homologue representation in FDHG hybrids. The breakpoint for the MLS deletion, which arose on the paternally-derived homologue (by RFLPs), was between DXS16 and AMG; DXS70 and DXS85 were also deleted. This is consistent with reported breakpoints in other MLS patients. Neither FDHG patient was deleted at any of these loci. Our study provides a basis for additional testing in FDHG patients via somatic cell hybrids with new markers and candidate genes from the MLS critical region to confirm or negate the proposed mapping of FDHG to Xp22.3.

  20. Enhanced Positive Water Vapor Feedback Associated with Tropical Deep Convection: New Evidence from Aura MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Read, William G.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Waters, Joe W.; Wu, Dong L.; Fetzer, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent simultaneous observations of upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor and cloud ice from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite provide new evidence for tropical convective influence on UT water vapor and its associated greenhouse effect. The observations show that UT water vapor increases as cloud ice water content increases. They also show that, when sea surface temperature (SST) exceeds approx.300 K, UT cloud ice associated with tropical deep convection increases sharply with increasing SST. The moistening of the upper troposphere by deep convection leads to an enhanced positive water vapor feedback, about 3 times that implied solely by thermodynamics. Over tropical oceans when SST greater than approx.300 K, the 'convective UT water vapor feedback' inferred from the MLS observations contributes approximately 65% of the sensitivity of the clear-sky greenhouse parameter to SST.

  1. Science Accomplishments from a Decade of Aura OMI/MLS Tropospheric Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Olsen, Mark A.; Oman, Luke D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Liu, X.; Wargan, K.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone from combined Aura OMI and MLS instruments have yielded a large number of new and important science discoveries over the last decade. These discoveries have generated a much greater understanding of biomass burning, lightning NO, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange sources of tropospheric ozone, ENSO dynamics and photochemistry, intra-seasonal variability-Madden-Julian Oscillation including convective transport, radiative forcing, measuring ozone pollution from space, improvements to ozone retrieval algorithms, and evaluation of chemical-transport and chemistry-climate models. The OMI-MLS measurements have been instrumental in giving us better understanding of the dynamics and chemistry involving tropospheric ozone and the many drivers affecting the troposphere in general. This discussion will provide an overview focusing on our main science results.

  2. Enhanced Positive Water Vapor Feedback Associated with Tropical Deep Convection: New Evidence from Aura MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Read, William G.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Waters, Joe W.; Wu, Dong L.; Fetzer, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent simultaneous observations of upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor and cloud ice from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite provide new evidence for tropical convective influence on UT water vapor and its associated greenhouse effect. The observations show that UT water vapor increases as cloud ice water content increases. They also show that, when sea surface temperature (SST) exceeds approx.300 K, UT cloud ice associated with tropical deep convection increases sharply with increasing SST. The moistening of the upper troposphere by deep convection leads to an enhanced positive water vapor feedback, about 3 times that implied solely by thermodynamics. Over tropical oceans when SST greater than approx.300 K, the 'convective UT water vapor feedback' inferred from the MLS observations contributes approximately 65% of the sensitivity of the clear-sky greenhouse parameter to SST.

  3. EOS MLS Science Data Processing System: A Description of Architecture and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddy, David T.; Echeverri, Mark D.; Wagner, Paul A.; Hanzel, Audrey T.; Fuller, Ryan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and capabilities of the Science Data Processing System (SDPS) for the EOS MLS. The SDPS consists of two major components--the Science Computing Facility and the Science Investigator-led Processing System. The Science Computing Facility provides the facilities for the EOS MLS Science Team to perform the functions of scientific algorithm development, processing software development, quality control of data products, and scientific analyses. The Science Investigator-led Processing System processes and reprocesses the science data for the entire mission and delivers the data products to the Science Computing Facility and to the Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Distributed Active Archive Center, which archives and distributes the standard science products.

  4. Dual effects of MLS antibiotics: transcriptional modulation and interactions on the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Wayne H W; Yim, Grace; Wang, Helena Huimi; McClure, JoAnn E; Surette, Michael G; Davies, Julian

    2004-09-01

    The macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics are an important group of translation inhibitors that act on the 50S ribosome. We show that, at subinhibitory concentrations, members of the MLS group modulate specific groups of bacterial promoters, as detected by screening a library of promoter-luxCDABE reporter clones of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The patterns of transcription permit identification of classes of promoters having differential responses to antibiotics of related structure and mode-of-action; studies of antibiotic synergy or antagonism showed that eukaryotic translation inhibitors may act on the 50S ribosome. The mechanism of transcriptional modulation is not known but may involve bacterial stress responses and/or the disturbance and subsequent compensation of metabolic networks as a result of subtle interference with ribosome function. Transcriptional patterns detected with promoter-lux clones provide a novel approach to antibiotic discovery and mode-of-action studies.

  5. Dermatoscopic aspects of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Rossi, Gabriela; Abreu, Luciana Boff de; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Silva, Alessandra Banaszeski da; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The association of microphthalmia and linear skin defects was named microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) or MIDAS syndrome (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea), an X-chromosomal disorder manifesting mainly in females. We examined a female newborn with facial linear skin defects following the Blaschko lines. Computer tomography and ophthalmological examination confirmed bilateral microphthalmia. An interstitial microdeletion at Xp22.2, encompassing the entire HCCS gene, was identified. Dermatoscopic examination showed erythematous linear areas with telangectasias and absence of sebaceous glands, which appear as brilliant white dots. Vellus hairs were also absent in the red areas. Dermatoscopy could help to establish the diagnosis of MLS/MIDAS syndrome by confirming the aplastic nature of the lesions.

  6. An Approach to Extract Moving Objects from Mls Data Using a Volumetric Background Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrung, J.; Hebel, M.; Arens, M.; Stilla, U.

    2017-05-01

    Data recorded by mobile LiDAR systems (MLS) can be used for the generation and refinement of city models or for the automatic detection of long-term changes in the public road space. Since for this task only static structures are of interest, all mobile objects need to be removed. This work presents a straightforward but powerful approach to remove the subclass of moving objects. A probabilistic volumetric representation is utilized to separate MLS measurements recorded by a Velodyne HDL-64E into mobile objects and static background. The method was subjected to a quantitative and a qualitative examination using multiple datasets recorded by a mobile mapping platform. The results show that depending on the chosen octree resolution 87-95% of the measurements are labeled correctly.

  7. Induction of Neonatal Tolerance to Mls^a Antigens by CD8^+ T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Susan R.; Sprent, Jonathan

    1990-06-01

    Antigen-specific tolerance of T cells to minor lymphocyte stimulatory (Mis) antigens can be induced in mice by neonatal injection of foreign lymphohematopoietic cells. Although immune responses to Mls^a antigens are controlled by B cells, CD8^+ T cells were the most effective cell type for induction of Mls^a tolerance. Tolerance was evident in both thymus and lymph nodes and could be induced by as few as 2 x 10^4 CD8^+ T cells; these cells were 50 to 100 times as potent as CD4^+ cells or B cells in causing functional tolerance and deletion of Vβ6^+ T cells. Thus, intrathymic contact with antigens expressed on CD8^+ T cells may play an important role in controlling the normal development of tolerance.

  8. NASA/FAA Helicopter ATC simulation investigation of RNAV/MLS instrument approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, L. L., Jr.; Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/FAA Helicopter Air Traffic Control (ATC) simulation investigations to determine the feasibility of simultaneous, independent instrument approach procedures for helicopters at major terminal areas, using Area Navigation/Microwave Landing System (RNAV/MLS) guidance, was conducted at several levels of helicopter display sophistication, up to that of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) system. Test objectives included the determination of pilot acceptability and the tracking performance of the RNAV/MLS's noninterfering rotorcraft approach path structure, along with the evaluation of the effect on controller workload of multiroute structures combining conventional and rotorcraft approaches at various arrival rates and traffic separations. The utility of electronic area maps and CDTI displays was also investigated. Participating pilots flew 127 simulated instrument approaches in an ATC simulation laboratory.

  9. Software management and implementation plan for the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) carried on a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, H. Y.; Girard, M. A.; Perun, V. S.; Sherif, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Software Management and Implementation Plan (SIMP) for managing and controlling the development of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument software, and the Instrument Ground Support Equipment (IGSE) software.

  10. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) mapping - Validation, early results and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elson, Lee S.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe

    1992-01-01

    The results of limitation studies performed with the UARS MLS are presented. A consistent set of algorithms allows the extraction of the spectral coefficients in time and longitude from asynoptically sampled satellite data and the subsequent reconstruction of synoptic maps from that spectral information. In addition to providing synoptic maps, the asynoptic technique allows the use of standard spectral analysis tools such as autocorrelation and cross correlation.

  11. MLS Performance Assessment, Task IV. Volume I. Evaluation Procedures and Equipment Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    check procedures and data collection and processing capabilities for cost- effective measurement. This report describes results of a design study relating...minimize flight time while obtaining complete system examination, to maximize cost- effectiveness . The design for an MLS data-collection and recording package...processes involving the real world, compromise must be effected but only in such a way that the fundamental issues of safety and reliability a-e not

  12. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    SciTech Connect

    Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Read, W.G.; Elson, L.S.; Flower, D.A.; Jarnot, R.F.

    1994-10-15

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, with a pattern generally consistent with Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of total column; the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30{degrees}S to 30{degrees}N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. Finally, residual ozone values extracted from TOMS-minus-MLS column data are briefly presented as a preliminary view into the potential usefulness of such studies, with information on tropospheric ozone as an ultimate goal. 99 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Analysis of the Suitability of OMPS LP Ozone Profile Dataset for Extending the Aura MLS Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Stolarski, R. S.; DeLand, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The new Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), launched on 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite, represents the next generation of the US ozone monitoring system. The OMPS Limb Profiler (LP) sensor measures solar radiances scattered from the atmospheric limb in the UV and visible spectral ranges and reconstruct the vertical ozone profiles from the cloud top up to 60 km. The regular LP observations started in early 2012, and now the LP data record exceeds 2.5 years. In this presentation we will demonstrate capability of the new LP sensor to characterize the vertical ozone distribution in different atmospheric regions that are most sensitive to the changes in the stratospheric composition and dynamics. We will consider: a) the seasonal ozone patterns in the lower stratosphere - upper troposphere; b) the vertical ozone distribution inside the Antarctic ozone hole; c) the ozone patterns forced by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillations in the lower tropical stratosphere. The main focus of this study is to perform a comprehensive analysis of ozone patterns obtained from OMPS LP with those observed by Aura MLS to isolate similarities and differences between two sensors in characterizing these processes. We will examine how well LP reproduces the named above natural signals in comparison with MLS in terms of amplitude, phase and vertical structure. One of the key issues is that two instruments measure ozone in different coordinate systems: the LP measures ozone profiles as number density on a regular altitude scale, while Aura MLS retrieves ozone profiles as mixing ratios on pressure vertical grids. The comparison of two measurements requires unit conversion that in turn involves temperature profiles. Thus, the uncertainties related to the unit conversion should be accounted during the analysis. This scientific validation is critical for the further LP algorithm improvement and continuation of the Aura MLS ozone record in the future.

  14. The effect of near-infrared MLS laser radiation on cell membrane structure and radical generation.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Jolanta; Pasternak, Kamila; Zavodnik, Ilya; Irzmański, Robert; Wróbel, Dominika; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation of different wavelengths and light doses are well known, but the biochemical mechanism of the interaction of laser light with living cells is not fully understood. We have investigated the effect of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) laser near-infrared irradiation on cell membrane structure, functional properties, and free radical generation using human red blood cells and breast cancer MCF-4 cells. The cells were irradiated with low-intensity MLS near-infrared (simultaneously 808 nm, continuous emission and 905 nm, pulse emission, pulse-wave frequency, 1,000 or 2,000 Hz) laser light at light doses from 0 to 15 J (average power density 212.5 mW/cm(2), spot size was 3.18 cm(2)) at 22 °C, the activity membrane bound acetylcholinesterase, cell stability, anti-oxidative activity, and free radical generation were the parameters used in characterizing the structural and functional changes of the cell. Near-infrared low-intensity laser radiation changed the acetylcholinesterase activity of the red blood cell membrane in a dose-dependent manner: There was a considerable increase of maximal enzymatic rate and Michaelis constant due to changes in the membrane structure. Integral parameters such as erythrocyte stability, membrane lipid peroxidation, or methemoglobin levels remained unchanged. Anti-oxidative capacity of the red blood cells increased after MLS laser irradiation. This irradiation induced a time-dependent increase in free radical generation in MCF-4 cells. Low-intensity near-infrared MLS laser radiation induces free radical generation and changes enzymatic and anti-oxidative activities of cellular components. Free radical generation may be the mechanism of the biomodulative effect of laser radiation.

  15. Transfer, stable maintenance and expression of the mycolactone polyketide megasynthase mls genes in a recombination-impaired Mycobacterium marinum.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jessica L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Hong, Hui; Tuck, Kellie L; Jenkin, Grant A; Stinear, Timothy P

    2009-06-01

    The human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans produces a polyketide metabolite called mycolactone with potent immunomodulatory activity. M. ulcerans strain Agy99 has a 174 kb plasmid called pMUM001 with three large genes (mlsA1, 51 kb; mlsA2, 7.2 kb; mlsB, 43 kb) that encode type I polyketide synthases (PKS) required for the biosynthesis of mycolactone, as demonstrated by transposon mutagenesis. However, there have been no reports of transfer of the mls locus to another mycobacterium to demonstrate that these genes are sufficient for mycolactone production because in addition to their large size, the mls genes contain a high level of internal sequence repetition, such that the entire 102 kb locus is composed of only 9.5 kb of unique DNA. The combination of their large size and lack of stability during laboratory passage makes them a challenging prospect for transfer to a more rapidly growing and genetically tractable host. Here we describe the construction of two bacterial artificial chromosome Escherichia coli/Mycobacterium shuttle vectors, one based on the pMUM001 origin of replication bearing mlsB, and the other based on the mycobacteriophage L5 integrase, bearing mlsA1 and mlsA2. The combination of these two constructs permitted the two-step transfer of the entire 174 kb pMUM001 plasmid to Mycobacterium marinum, a rapidly growing non-mycolactone-producing mycobacterium that is a close genetic relative of M. ulcerans. To improve the stability of the mls locus in M. marinum, recA was inactivated by insertion of a hygromycin-resistance gene using double-crossover allelic exchange. As expected, the DeltarecA mutant displayed increased susceptibility to UV killing and a decreased frequency of homologous recombination. Southern hybridization and RT-PCR confirmed the stable transfer and expression of the mls genes in both wild-type M. marinum and the recA mutant. However, neither mycolactone nor its predicted precursor metabolites were detected in either strain. These

  16. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent; Jarnot, Robert; Pickett, Herbert; Cofield, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Wagner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program performs level- 1B processing (the term 1B is explained below) of data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which is an instrument aboard the Aura spacecraft. This software accepts, as input, the raw EOS MLS scientific and engineering data and the Aura spacecraft ephemeris and attitude data. Its output consists of calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. [This software is one of several computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing EOS MLS data. Starting from level 0 (representing the aforementioned raw data, the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (e.g., 1B and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing.] At the time of this reporting, this software is at version 2.2 and incorporates improvements over a prior version that make the code more robust, improve calibration, provide more diagnostic outputs, improve the interface with the Level 2 PGE, and effect a 15-percent reduction in file sizes by use of data compression.

  17. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  18. A Global Climatology of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Derived from Aura OMI and MLS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J.R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean! Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern North American and Asian continents extending eastward over the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest ozone abundance lies in the northern hemisphere in the latitude range 70degN-80degN in February-April and in the southern hemisphere around 40degS-50degS during months August-October. The largest stratospheric ozone abundances in the northern hemisphere lie over North America and eastern Asia extending eastward across the Pacific Ocean and in the southern hemisphere south of Australia extending eastward across the dateline. With the advent of many newly developing 3D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  19. Introducing and Validating the New Aura CO Product Derived from Joined TES and MLS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Herman, R. L.; Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, J.; Livesey, N. J.; Bowman, K. W.; Sweeney, C.

    2014-12-01

    The new Aura CO product consists of CO vertical profiles derived from TES and MLS measurements. This product has been released to the public. We describe the algorithms for generating the product and the evaluations of it using in-situ measurements. TES and MLS standalone CO profile retrievals are sensitive respectively to lower-mid troposphere and upper troposphere and above. We pair TES nadir and MLS limb tangent locations within 6-8 min and less than 220 km. The paired radiance measurements of the two instruments per location are optimally combined to retrieve a single CO profile along with other interfering species. This combined CO profile has improved vertical resolution and vertical range over the two standalone products, especially in the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere. For example, the degree of freedom for signal (DOFS) between surface and 50hPa for TES alone is < 2, and for the combined CO profiles is 2-4. We will present the comparison results between the Aura CO and AirCore, HIPPO, and MOZAIC observations. The new Aura CO product provides a unique data set to studies on tropospheric transport of air pollutants and troposphere-stratospheric exchange processes.

  20. B-737 flight test of curved-path and steep-angle approaches using MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J. R.; White, W. F.

    1989-01-01

    A series of flight tests were conducted to collect data for jet transport aircraft flying curved-path and steep-angle approaches using Microwave Landing System (MLS) guidance. During the test, 432 approaches comprising seven different curved-paths and four glidepath angles varying from 3 to 4 degrees were flown in NASA Langley's Boeing 737 aircraft (Transport Systems Research Vehicle) using an MLS ground station at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. Subject pilots from Piedmont Airlines flew the approaches using conventional cockpit instrumentation (flight director and Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI). The data collected will be used by FAA procedures specialists to develop standards and criteria for designing MLS terminal approach procedures (TERPS). The use of flight simulation techniques greatly aided the preliminary stages of approach development work and saved a significant amount of costly flight time. This report is intended to complement a data report to be issued by the FAA Office of Aviation Standards which will contain all detailed data analysis and statistics.

  1. Simulation of Detonation Problems with the MLS Grid-Free Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, J; Gunger, M E; Matuska, D A

    2002-08-27

    The Moving Least Squares (MLS) grid-free method, a simple, flexible finite difference method for solution of general continuum mechanics problems, especially detonation problems, is proposed in this paper. The spatial points that carry time dependent data are distributed in space in such a way that provides nearly uniform spacing of points, accurate presentation of boundaries, easy variation of resolution and arbitrary reorganization of the computational domain. Local finite difference operators are obtained with simple MLS differentiation. There is no specific topological or geometrical restriction of the distribution of data points. Therefore this method avoids many drawbacks of the traditional methods. Because of its flexibility, it can be used to simulate a wide range of mechanics problems. Because of its simplicity, it has the potential to become a preferred method. Most traditional computational continuum mechanics (CCM) methods, from a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) view, can be considered as special cases of grid-free methods of specific kernel functions. Such a generalization allows the development of a unified grid-free method that can represent most finite difference methods by switching the kernel functions. The flexible management and ease of coding make such a unified code attractive for many applications. A simple three-dimensional narrow-band level-set algorithm, which is associated with the MLS grid free data point distribution in three dimensions, is also proposed.

  2. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Morleo, Manuela; Pramparo, Tiziano; Perone, Lucia; Gregato, Giuliana; Le Caignec, Cedric; Mueller, Robert F; Ogata, Tsutomu; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; de Blois, Marie Christine; Wilson, Louise C; Zaidman, Gerald; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Ballabio, Andrea; Franco, Brunella

    2005-08-30

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome (MIM 309801) is a severe and rare developmental disorder, which is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait with male lethality. In the vast majority of patients, this syndrome is associated with terminal deletion of the Xp22.3 region. Thirty-five cases have been described to date in the literature since the first description of the syndrome in the early 1990s. We now report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of 11 patients, 7 of whom have not been described previously. Seven of these patients have chromosomal abnormalities of the short arm of the X-chromosome, which were characterized and defined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Intriguingly, one of the patients displays an interstitial Xp22.3 deletion, which to the best of our knowledge is the first reported for this condition. Finally we report on the identification and molecular characterization of four cases with clinical features of MLS but apparently normal karyotypes, verified by FISH analysis using genomic clones spanning the MLS minimal critical region, and with genome-wide analysis using a 1 Mb resolution BAC microarray. These patients made it possible to undertake mutation screening of candidate genes and may prove critical for the identification of the gene responsible for this challenging and intriguing genetic disease. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. A study on erm(B)-mediated MLS resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Rombini, Silvia; Petrelli, Dezemona; Bolli, Elisabetta; Tran, Chi Nhan; Falconi, Maurizio; Di Luca, Maria Chiara; Prenna, Manuela; Ripa, Sandro; Vitali, Luca Agostino

    2011-07-01

    The constitutive or inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) phenotype of 30 erm(B)-positive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates was determined by different methods and under various growth conditions and correlated to the sequence of the 5'-untranslated regions of erm(B). The MLS phenotype of one-third of the isolates could not be classified. In liquid medium, some of these isolates responded to induction only during the logarithmic phase of growth, while others expressed clindamycin resistance even under noninducing conditions. By increasing the growth rate, we observed a shift from a constitutive towards an inducible pattern of resistance. All data were confirmed by analysis of the 23S rRNA methylation level. The erm(B)-5'-untranslated region was 99% similar in sequence. In erm(B)-positive S. pyogenes, the MLS phenotype is strongly influenced by culture conditions and control of its expression does not depend exclusively on the sequence of the erm(B)-5'-untranslated region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Constraining Middle Atmospheric Moisture in GEOS-5 Using EOS-MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Jianjun; Pawson, Steven; =Wargan, Krzysztof; Livesey, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Middle atmospheric water vapor plays an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. In the middle atmosphere, water vapor, after ozone and carbon dioxide, is an important radiatively active gas that impacts climate forcing and the energy balance. It is also the source of the hydroxyl radical (OH) whose abundances affect ozone and other constituents. The abundance of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is determined by upward transport of dehydrated air through the tropical tropopause layer, by the middle atmospheric circulation, production by the photolysis of methane (CH4), and other physical and chemical processes in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis with GEOS-5 did not assimilate any moisture observations in the middle atmosphere. The plan is to use such observations, available sporadically from research satellites, in future GEOS-5 reanalyses. An overview will be provided of the progress to date with assimilating the EOS-Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) moisture retrievals, alongside ozone and temperature, into GEOS-5. Initial results demonstrate that the MLS observations can significantly improve the middle atmospheric moisture field in GEOS-5, although this result depends on introducing a physically meaningful representation of background error covariances for middle atmospheric moisture into the system. High-resolution features in the new moisture field will be examined, and their relationships with ozone, in a two-year assimilation experiment with GEOS-5. Discussion will focus on how Aura MLS moisture observations benefit the analyses.

  5. Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) resistance in cutaneous propionibacteria: definition of phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Eady, E A; Ross, J I; Cove, J H; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

    1989-04-01

    Erythromycin-resistant propionibacteria isolated from the skin of antibiotic-treated acne patients were found to express four different patterns of resistance to a set of eight MLS antibiotics. The majority of isolates (48/89 strains) were constitutively resistant to 14- and 16-membered ring macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B-type antibiotics. MICs of josamycin (0.5-16 mg/l) and spiramycin (0.5-128 mg/l) were lower than those of erythromycin, oleandomycin and tylosin (64 to less than 512 mg/l). Two strains of Propionibacterium granulosum exhibited inducible MLS resistance. Both 14- and 16-membered ring macrolides and virginiamycin S induced clindamycin resistance in these strains. Fifteen isolates demonstrated a similar phenotype to the inducible strains but were non-inducible by erythromycin. A fourth group of strains demonstrated high level resistance to all five macrolides tested (MIC greater than or equal to 128 mg/l) but were sensitive to virginiamycin S. The phenotype displayed by these strains is not compatible with the expression of methylase genes as currently known, nor with the action of an erythromycin esterase which hydrolyses only 14-membered ring macrolides. The resistance patterns of 12 isolates could not be classified into any of the above phenotypic classes. Therefore, the majority of erythromycin resistant propionibacteria express MLS resistance which is phenotypically similar to that coded for by several well characterized RNA methylase (erm) genes.

  6. An avionics sensitivity study. Volume 2: Evaluation of airborne navigation system performance during RNAV/MLS transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, W.

    1976-01-01

    A computer simulation was modified to generate a suitable data base for performance of an avionics sensitivity study during RNAV/MLS transition. The avionics sensitivity data provides information necessary to establish requirements for additional guidance law design during transition and to establish airspace requirements for maneuvering to null out any residual RNAV errors upon MLS transition. The data base is also beneficial as planning information for subsequent flight testing.

  7. Analysis of DGPS/INS and MLS/INS final approach navigation errors and control performance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1992-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center and Honeywell, Inc., on a B-737 research aircraft to record a data base for evaluating the performance of a differential DGPS/inertial navigation system (INS) which used GPS Course/Acquisition code receivers. Estimates from the DGPS/INS and a Microwave Landing System (MLS)/INS, and various aircraft parameter data were recorded in real time aboard the aircraft while flying along the final approach path to landing. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of the DGPS/INS and MLS/INS navigation position errors computed relative to the laser tracker system and of the difference between the DGPS/INS and MLS/INS velocity estimates. RMS errors are presented for DGPS/INS and MLS/INS guidance errors (localizer and glideslope). The mean navigation position errors and standard deviation of the x position coordinate of the DGPS/INS and MLS/INS systems were found to be of similar magnitude while the standard deviation of the y and z position coordinate errors were significantly larger for DGPS/INS compared to MLS/INS.

  8. Experimental glomerulonephritis is attenuated by CD8+ T cell chimerism and prevented by Mls-1-incompatible thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Sutmuller, M; Baelde, H J; Tysma, O M; de Heer, E; Bruijn, J A

    1998-07-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in mice is a model resembling glomerulonephritis in human systemic lupus erythematosus. In the present study congenic mouse strains were used to investigate the pathogenetic role of (1) donor T cell subset chimerism and (2) donor thymocytes in this model. In GvHD employing minor lymphocyte-stimulating-1 (Mls-1)-compatible donors and recipients, full-blown immune complex glomerulonephritis was associated with a low-donor CD8(+) T cell chimerism. Injection of lymphocytes from Mls-1-negative donors (Mls-1(b)) into Mls-1-positive recipients (Mls-1(a)) induces a type of GvHD characterized by rapid self-limitation accompanied by the immediate inhibition of donor T cell chimerism and the absence of glomerulonephritis. However, omission of thymocytes from the donor inoculate does result in glomerular depositions containing immunoglobulins. These results suggest that donor CD8(+) T cell chimerism is associated with attenuation of immune complex glomerulonephritis, whereas Mls-1-incompatible donor T cell precursors prevent the disease. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Background migration of USPIO/MLs is a major drawback for in situ labeling of endogenous neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Vreys, Ruth; Soenen, Stefaan J H; De Cuyper, Marcel; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2011-01-01

    MR-labeling of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to follow up cellular migration with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very promising tool in the rapidly growing field of cellular imaging. To date, most of the in situ labeling work has been performed using micron-sized iron oxide particles. In this work magnetoliposomes (MLs), i.e. ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide cores (USPIOs), each individually coated by a phospholipid bilayer, were used as the MR contrast agent. One of the main advantages of MLs is that the phospholipid bilayer allows easy modification of the surface, which creates the opportunity to construct a wide range of MLs optimized for specific biomedical applications. We have investigated the ability of MLs to label endogenous NPCs after direct injection into the adult mouse brain. Whereas MRI revealed contrast relocation towards the olfactory bulb, our data strongly imply that this relocation is independent of the migration of endogenous NPCs but represents background migration of MLs along a white matter tract. Our findings suggest that the small size of USPIOs/MLs intrinsically limits their potential for in situ labeling of NPCs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Constitutive and carbon source-responsive promoter elements are involved in the regulated expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae malate synthase gene MLS1.

    PubMed

    Caspary, F; Hartig, A; Schüller, H J

    1997-08-01

    The malate synthase gene, MLS1, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is transcriptionally regulated by the carbon source in the growth medium. A MLS1-lacZ fusion gene, expressed at a basal level in the presence of 2% glucose, is derepressed more than 100-fold under conditions of sugar limitation. No evidence for MLS1 induction by oleic acid was found. By deletion analysis of the MLS1 control region, we identified two sites, UAS1 and UAS2, as important for efficient derepression of the gene. Both sites contain sequences that resemble the previously characterized carbon source-responsive element (CSRE) found in the promoter of the isocitrate lyase gene ICL1. Indeed, UAS1 and UAS2 in the MLS1 upstream region turn out to be functional CSRE sequence variants. This finding allowed us to define a modified version of the CSRE consensus sequence (CCRTYSRNCCG). Protein binding to UAS1MLS1 was observed with extracts from derepressed but not from repressed cells, and could be competed for by an excess of the unlabelled CSRE (ICL1) sequence. No competition was observed with a mutated CSRE variant. Site-directed mutagenesis of both CSREs in the MLS1 promoter reduced gene activation under derepressing conditions to 20% of the wild-type level. The same decrease was observed with the wild-type MLS1 promoter in a cat8 mutant, lacking an activator of CSRE-dependent transcription. The CSRE/Cat8p-independent activation of MLS1 is mediated by constitutive UAS elements. The pleiotropic transcription factor Abf1p, which binds to the MLS1 upstream region, may contribute to constitutive activation. Thus, in order to ensure the severe glucose repression of MLS1 observed, repressor elements that respond to the carbon source must counteract constitutive activation. In summary, ICL1 and MLS1 share common cis-acting elements, although a distinct mechanism of carbon source control also contributes to MLS1 regulation.

  11. Polar Vortex and Temperature Diagnostics for Intercomparisons and MLS Data Inspection: Update on Antarctic 2012 Meteorology in Relation to MLS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Zachary; Manney, Gloria; Minschwaner, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Stratospheric temperature diagnostics are important indicators for evaluating the severity of polar winters and the susceptibility to conditions that lead to ozone loss at the poles. The availability of many meteorological datasets with temperature products that span multiple years allows for direct comparisons between satellite measurements (the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS), operational data assimilation systems, and reanalysis data sets produced by meteorological forecast centers. We focus on two diagnostics: first, the area where temperatures are less than the threshold temperatures for the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), and second, the minimum daily temperatures over the course of the polar winters. Both diagnostics have a long history of use for monitoring the wintertime polar stratosphere, and we will present a comparison of results based on updated data products and analysis techniques, along with an update on meteorological conditions and ozone for the 2012 Antarctic winter.

  12. MLS data segmentation using Point Cloud Library procedures. (Polish Title: Segmentacja danych MLS z użyciem procedur Point Cloud Library)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochocka, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mobile laser scanning is dynamically developing measurement technology, which is becoming increasingly widespread in acquiring three-dimensional spatial information. Continuous technical progress based on the use of new tools, technology development, and thus the use of existing resources in a better way, reveals new horizons of extensive use of MLS technology. Mobile laser scanning system is usually used for mapping linear objects, and in particular the inventory of roads, railways, bridges, shorelines, shafts, tunnels, and even geometrically complex urban spaces. The measurement is done from the perspective of use of the object, however, does not interfere with the possibilities of movement and work. This paper presents the initial results of the segmentation data acquired by the MLS. The data used in this work was obtained as part of an inventory measurement infrastructure railway line. Measurement of point clouds was carried out using a profile scanners installed on the railway platform. To process the data, the tools of 'open source' Point Cloud Library was used. These tools allow to use templates of programming libraries. PCL is an open, independent project, operating on a large scale for processing 2D/3D image and point clouds. Software PCL is released under the terms of the BSD license (Berkeley Software Distribution License), which means it is a free for commercial and research use. The article presents a number of issues related to the use of this software and its capabilities. Segmentation data is based on applying the templates library pcl_ segmentation, which contains the segmentation algorithms to separate clusters. These algorithms are best suited to the processing point clouds, consisting of a number of spatially isolated regions. Template library performs the extraction of the cluster based on the fit of the model by the consensus method samples for various parametric models (planes, cylinders, spheres, lines, etc.). Most of the mathematical

  13. Evaluation of UTLS Carbon Monoxide Simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Models using Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40% at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70% at 100 hPa, 60% at 147 hPa and 40% at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection- CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  14. Evaluation of UTLS carbon monoxide simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem chemical transport models using Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40 % at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70 % at 100 hPa, 60 % at 147 hPa and 40 % at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection-CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  15. Evaluation of UTLS Carbon Monoxide Simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Models using Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40% at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70% at 100 hPa, 60% at 147 hPa and 40% at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection- CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  16. [Investigation of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) and telithromycin resistance in clinical strains of staphylococci].

    PubMed

    Saribaş, Zeynep; Tunçkanat, Ferda; Ozçakir, Olcay; Ercis, Serpil

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) resistance and also to search for telithromycin resistance in staphylococcus strains isolated at Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 381 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 94 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were tested by disc approximation method. Methicillin resistance of these isolates was searched by disc diffusion test using 30 microg cefoxitin discs. Distribution of erm genes was detected by PCR method. Of 381 isolates 112 (29.4%) S. aureus and 58 (61.7%) CNS were found to be resistant to erythromycin. Among these, the inducible MLS(B) (iMLS(B)) resistance was the most prevalent pattern, being 56.2% and 41.4% among S. aureus and CNS isolates, respectively. The frequency of constitutive MLS(B) resistance (cMLS(B)) was 40.2% for S. aureus and 34.5% for CNS. Macrolide-streptogramin B (MS(B)) resistance pattern was detected only in CNS isolates (24.1%). In 4 (3.6%) of S. aureus isolates mixed pattern demonstrating both inducible and constitutive patterns was detected. None of the isolates susceptible to erythromycin showed resistance to telithromycin. As a remarkable finding of this study D-shaped inhibition zones around the telithromycin discs was observed in all of the isolates with iMLS(B) and macrolide-streptogramin B (MS(B)) resistance phenotypes. The isolates showing cMLS(B) pattern were also resistant to telithromycin (no zone of inhibition around the telithromycin discs). A total of 170 erythromycin resistant staphylococcal isolates were tested for the presence of erm and msrA genes. Among the S. aureus isolates with iMLS(B) and cMLS(B) phenoypes, the most common findings were the detection of ermA (44/63) and ermA + ermC (35/45) genes, respectively. All of the four isolates with mixed phenotype harboured ermA gene. With respect to CNS isolates, the most frequently detected gene was ermC (37/58); whereas iMLS(B) and cMLS

  17. Assimilation of Stratospheric and Mesospheric Temperatures from MLS and SABER into a Global NWP Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-22

    MLS, red=SABER in three latitude bands of 50◦–70◦ S (left), ±10◦ (center) and 50◦–70◦ N (right), (a–c): average O- F ; ( d – f ) O- F standard deviation; (g–i...correlation coefficient between observations and forecast. Dotted curves in ( d – f ) plot corresponding O standard deviations only. summer, equatorial...113, D15S18, doi:10.1029/2007JD008807, 2008. Allen, D . R., Coy, L., Eckermann, S. D ., McCormack, J. P., Man- ney, G. L., Hogan, T. F ., and Kim, Y.-J

  18. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based

  19. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based

  20. SABER (TIMED) and MLS (UARS) Temperature Observations of Mesospheric and Stratospheric QBO and Related Tidal Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Reber, Carl A.; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Mengel, John

    2006-01-01

    More than three years of temperature observations from the SABER (TIMED) and MLS WARS) instruments are analyzed to study the annual and inter-annual variations extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. The SABER measurements provide data from a wide altitude range (15 to 95 km) for the years 2002 to 2004, while the MLS data were taken in the 16 to 55 km altitude range a decade earlier. Because of the sampling properties of SABER and MLS, the variations with local solar time must be accounted for when estimating the zonal mean variations. An algorithm is thus applied that delineates with Fourier analysis the year-long variations of the migrating tides and zonal mean component. The amplitude of the diurnal tide near the equator shows a strong semiannual periodicity with maxima near equinox, which vary from year to year to indicate the influence from the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the zonal circulation. The zonal mean QBO temperature variations are analyzed over a range of latitudes and altitudes, and the results are presented for latitudes from 48"s to 48"N. New results are obtained for the QBO, especially in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and at mid-latitudes. At Equatorial latitudes, the QBO amplitudes show local peaks, albeit small, that occur at different altitudes. From about 20 to 40 km, and within about 15" of the Equator, the amplitudes can approach 3S K for the stratospheric QBO or SQBO. For the mesospheric QBO or MQBO, we find peaks near 70 km, with temperature amplitudes reaching 3.5"K, and near 85 km, the amplitudes approach 2.5OK. Morphologically, the amplitude and phase variations derived from the SABER and MLS measurements are in qualitative agreement. The QBO amplitudes tend to peak at the Equator but then increase again pole-ward of about 15" to 20'. The phase progression with altitude varies more gradually at the Equator than at mid-latitudes. A comparison of the observations with results from the Numerical Spectral

  1. Stratospheric effects of 27-day solar ultraviolet variations: An analysis of UARS MLS ozone and temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Zhou, S.

    1998-02-01

    The characteristics of upper stratospheric ozone and temperature responses at low latitudes to short-term solar ultraviolet variations are studied by using 1000 days of UARS microwave limb sounder (MLS) and solar stellar irradiance comparison experiment data. Consistent with previous analyses of Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) data, the high-pass-filtered solar flux in the 200-to 205-nm interval is most strongly correlated with MLS ozone measurements at tropical latitudes near 4 hPa with a sensitivity of about 0.4% for each 1% change in the solar flux. Reproducibility tests, power spectral, and coherency estimates support the reality of the observed ozone response at this level. The MLS solar UV/ozone response is significantly reduced at levels above ~2hPa as compared to earlier results based on SBUV data. This reduction appears to be a consequence of the ozone diurnal cycle at high altitudes combined with the necessary inclusion of nighttime records in calculating the MLS ozone zonal averages. Some evidence is obtained for an MLS solar UV/temperature response near the stratopause, but coherency tests are negative. Future analyses of independent data records having similar local time coverage as that of Nimbus 7 SBUV are needed to establish more definitively whether any significant change in the upper stratospheric UV response has occurred.

  2. Review of operational aspects of initial experiments utilizing the U.S. MLS. [microwave landing system effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, T. M.; Morello, S. A.; Reeder, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    An exercise to support the Federal Aviation Administration in demonstrating the U.S. candidate for an international microwave landing system (MLS) was conducted by NASA. During this demonstration the MLS was utilized to provide the TCV Boeing 737 research airplane with guidance for automatic control during transition from conventional RNAV to MLS RNAV in curved, descending flight; flare; touchdown; and roll-out. Flight profiles, system configuration, displays, and operating procedures used in the demonstration are described, and preliminary results of flight data analysis are discussed. Recent experiences with manually controlled flight in the NAFEC MLS environment are also discussed. The demonstration shows that in automatic three-dimensional flight, the volumetric signal coverage of the MLS can be exploited to enable a commercial carrier class airplane to perform complex curved, descending paths with precision turns into short final approaches terminating in landing and roll-out, even when subjected to strong and gusty tail and cross wind components and severe wind shear.

  3. Evaluation of Microwave Landing System (MLS) effect on the delivery performance of a fixed-path metering and spacing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Davis, C. M.; Capron, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Metering and spacing (M & S) system's algorithms described assume an aircraft two dimensional are navigation capability. The three navigation systems compared were: very high frequency omnidirectional range/distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME) and ILS, VOR/DME and + or - 40 MLS, and VOR/DME and + or - 60 MLS. Other factors studied were M & S tentative schedule point location, route geometry effects, and approach gate location effects. Summarized results are: the MLS offers some improvement over VOR/DME and ILS if all approach routes contain computer assisted turns; pilot reaction to moving the gate closer to the runway threshold may adversely affect M & S performance; and coupling en route metering to terminal scheduling transfers most of the terminal holding to more full efficient, higher altitude en route delay.

  4. On Orbit Commissioning of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) On the Aura Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Richard R.; Lee, Karen A.; Holden, James R.; Oswald, John E.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Stek, Paul C.; Cofield, Richard E., III; Flower, Dennis A.; Schwartz, Michael J.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder instrument was launched aboard NASA's EOS AURA satellite in July, 2004. The overall scientific objectives for MLS are to measure temperature, pressure, and several important chemical species in the upper troposphere and stratosphere relevant to ozone processes and climate change. MLS consists of a suite of radiometers designed to operate from 11 8 GHz to 2.5 THz, with two antennas (one for 2.5 THz, the other for the lower frequencies) that scan vertically through the atmospheric limb, and spectrometers with spectral resolution of 6 MHz at spectral line centers. This paper describes the on-orbit commissioning the MLS instrument which includes activation and engineering functional verifications and calibrations.

  5. On Orbit Commissioning of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) On the Aura Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Richard R.; Lee, Karen A.; Holden, James R.; Oswald, John E.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Stek, Paul C.; Cofield, Richard E., III; Flower, Dennis A.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Shoemaker, Candace M.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder instrument was launched aboard NASA's EOS AURA satellite in July, 2004. The overall scientific objectives for MLS are to measure temperature, pressure, and several important chemical species in the upper troposphere and stratosphere relevant to ozone processes and climate change. MLS consists of a suite of radiometers designed to operate from 11 8 GHz to 2.5 THz, with two antennas (one for 2.5 THz, the other for the lower frequencies) that scan vertically through the atmospheric limb, and spectrometers with spectral resolution of 6 MHz at spectral line centers. This paper describes the on-orbit commissioning the MLS instrument which includes activation and engineering functional verifications and calibrations.

  6. Impacts of Assimilating MLS Temperature on the Upper Stratosphere in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, S.; Jin, S.; Coy, L.; Wargan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Standard configurations of the GEOS-5 data assimilation system use nadir infrared and microwave sounders that provide deep-layer constraints on the thermal structure in the stratosphere. In the upper stratosphere, this information is currently provided by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU-As) on NOAA s polar-orbiting satellites. The highest peaking AMSU-A channel (14) peaks near 2.5hPa. Evaluation of the upper stratosphere reveals substantial biases in the temperature, cased in part by biases in the underlying GCM, and difficulties in representing the stratopause structure under disturbed conditions. This work demonstrates, unsurprisingly, that the assimilation into GEOS-5 of temperature profiles derived from EOS-Aura MLS leads to a substantially better representation of the stratopause structure from a climatological perspective and for disturbed events. Future plans with GEOS-5 include a reanalysis that includes numerous "research" datasets alongside the operational NOAA datasets that were used in MERRA. As preparation for this reanalysis, the present study examines how assimilating the MLS observations impact the error statistics for the AMSU-A instruments. Discussion will address the issue of bias correction for the AMSU-A Channel 14 radiances, which is presently turned off in GEOS-5 because of the absence of accurate temperature observations that can anchor the GEOS-5 analyses. The issue of what can be done in periods when no limb-sounder data are available will also be addressed.

  7. Automatic tree stem detection - a geometric feature based approach for MLS point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetti Arachchige, N.

    2013-10-01

    Recognition of tree stem is a fundamental task for obtaining various geometric attributes of trees such as diameter, height, stem position and so on for diverse of urban application. We propose a novel tree stem segmentation approach using geometric features corresponding to trees for high density MLS point data covering in urban environments. The principal direction and shape of point subsets are used as geometric features. Point orientation exhibits the most variance (shape of point set) of a point neighbourhood, assists to measure similarity, while shape provides the dimensional information of a group of points. Points residing on a stem can be isolated by defining various rules based on these geometric features. The shape characterization step is accomplished by estimating the structure tensor with principal component analysis. These features are assigned to different steps of our segmentation algorithm. Wrong segmentations mainly occur in the area where our rules have failed, such as vertical type objects, road poles and light post. To overcome these problems, global shape is further checked. The experiment is performed to evaluate the method; it shows that more than 90% of tree stems are detected. The overall accuracy of the proposed method is 90.6%. The results show that principal direction and shape analysis are sufficient for the tree stem recognition from MLS point cloud in a relatively complex urban area.

  8. Fabrication and Thermo-Optical Properties of the MLS Composite Primary Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Dyer, Jack; Dummer, Sam

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a limb-sounding radiometer sensing emissions in the millimeter and sub-millimeter range. MLS will contribute to an understanding of atmospheric chemistry by assessing stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion, climate forcings and volcanic effects. The heart of the antenna is the primary reflector, constructed from graphite/cyanate composites in a facesheet/core construction. The reflector has an aperture of one square meter, a mass of 8.7 kilos and final figure accuracy of 4.37 microns rms. The surface is also modified to ensure RF reflectivity, prevent solar concentration and provide thermal balance to the spacecraft The surface is prepared by precision beadblasting, then coated with vapor deposited aluminum (VDA) and finally a layer of silicon suboxide (SiO(x)) to control the infrared emissivity. The resulting surface has a solar absorptance of 0.43 and an absorptance/emittance ratio of 1.3. BRDF analysis shows that 93% of the incident thermal energy is reflected outside a 10 degree angle of cone. For its mass and aperture, we believe this reflector to have the highest figure accuracy yet achieved in a composite antenna construction.

  9. MLS110213:022733+130617: a new eclipsing polar above the period gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, K. M. G.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Oliveira, A. S.; Almeida, L. A.; Cieslinski, D.; Costa, J. E. R.; Jablonski, F. J.

    2015-08-01

    This study confirms MLS110213:022733+130617 as a new eclipsing polar. We performed optical spectroscopic, polarimetric and photometric follow-up of this variable source identified by the Catalina Real Time Transient Survey. Using the mid-eclipse times, we estimated an orbital period of 3.787 h, which is above the orbital period gap of the cataclysmic variables (CVs). There are nine other known polars with longer orbital periods, and only two of them are eclipsing. We identified high- and low-brightness states and high polarization modulated with the orbital period. The spectra are typical of polars, with strong high ionization emission lines and inverted Balmer decrement. The He II 4686 Å line is as strong as H β. We modelled the photometric and polarimetric bright-state light curves using the CYCLOPS code. Our modelling suggests an extended emitting region on the white dwarf (WD) surface, with a mean temperature of 9 keV and B in the range 18-33, although the possibility that it could be a two-pole accretor cannot yet be ruled out. The WD mass estimated from the shock temperature is 0.67 M⊙. The derived parameters are consistent with the eclipse profile. The distance was estimated as 406 ± 54 pc using the period-luminosity-colours method. MLS110213 populates a rare sub-group of polars, near the upper limit of the period distribution, important to understand the evolution of mCVs.

  10. Global Changes in Stratospheric Composition: Aura MLS and Past Measurements versus Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Kinnison, D. E.; Fuller, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, H. J.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P. F.; Livesey, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Aura MLS atmospheric measurements have now been obtained near-globally and continuously on a daily basis for 10 years. We place some of the stratospheric composition measurements in perspective, by using merged datasets that include the Aura MLS data. Global monthly zonal mean stratospheric data records from satellite-based remote measurements were created by NASA's Global Ozone Chemistry and Related Trace gas Data Records for the Stratosphere (GOZCARDS) project. These data records were drawn from high quality satellite-based measurements of stratospheric composition starting in 1979 for ozone and in the early 1990s for other data records. Merged data records were obtained by combining the instrument-specific (source) data records, taking into account the mean biases between them during time periods of overlap. We briefly review the construction of GOZCARDS merged data records and provide observational results for various species (HCl, H2O, O3, N2O, HNO3). We use two model versions of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), a free-running (FR-WACCM) and a "specified dynamics" (SD-WACCM) version, to highlight differences in the level of agreement between the models and the observations.

  11. Comparison of GOME-2/Metop-A ozone profiles with GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttä, A.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tukiainen, S.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of vertical ozone profiles retrieved by the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) measurements on board Metop-A with high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles by Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The comparison, with global coverage, focuses on the stratosphere and the lower mesosphere and covers the period from March 2008 until the end of 2011. The comparison shows an agreement of the GOME-2 ozone profiles with those of GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS within ±15 % in the altitude range from 15 km up to ~ 35-40 km depending on latitude. The GOME-2 ozone profiles from non-degradation corrected radiances have a tendency to a systematic negative bias with respect to the reference data above ~ 30 km. The GOME-2 bias with respect to the high-vertical resolution instruments depends on season, with the strongest dependence observed at high latitudes.

  12. Influence of MLS laser radiation on erythrocyte membrane fluidity and secondary structure of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Kamila; Nowacka, Olga; Wróbel, Dominika; Pieszyński, Ireneusz; Bryszewska, Maria; Kujawa, Jolanta

    2014-03-01

    The biostimulating activity of low level laser radiation of various wavelengths and energy doses is widely documented in the literature, but the mechanisms of the intracellular reactions involved are not precisely known. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of low level laser radiation from an multiwave locked system (MLS) of two wavelengths (wavelength = 808 nm in continuous emission and 905 nm in pulsed emission) on the human erythrocyte membrane and on the secondary structure of human serum albumin (HSA). Human erythrocytes membranes and HSA were irradiated with laser light of low intensity with surface energy density ranging from 0.46 to 4.9 J cm(-2) and surface energy power density 195 mW cm(-2) (1,000 Hz) and 230 mW cm(-2) (2,000 Hz). Structural and functional changes in the erythrocyte membrane were characterized by its fluidity, while changes in the protein were monitored by its secondary structure. Dose-dependent changes in erythrocyte membrane fluidity were induced by near-infrared laser radiation. Slight changes in the secondary structure of HSA were also noted. MLS laser radiation influences the structure and function of the human erythrocyte membrane resulting in a change in fluidity.

  13. ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Funke, Bernd; Raspollini, Piera; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric limb sounders, ACE-FTS on the SCISAT satellite, MIPAS on ESA's Envisat satellite, and MLS on NASA's Aura satellite, take measurements used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of O3, N2O, H2O, HNO3, and CO. Each was taking measurements between February 2004 and April 2012 (ACE-FTS and MLS are currently operational), providing hundreds of profile coincidences in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and during local morning and evening. Focusing on determining diurnal and hemispheric biases in the ACE-FTS data, this study compares ACE-FTS version 3.5 profiles that are collocated with MIPAS and MLS, and analyzes the differences between instrument retrievals for Northern and Southern hemispheres and for local morning and evening data. For O3, ACE-FTS is typically within ±5% of mid-stratospheric MIPAS and MLS data and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere. For H2O, ACE-FTS exhibits an average bias of -5% between 20 and 60 km. For N2O, ACE-FTS agrees with MIPAS and MLS within -20 to +10% up to 45 km and 35 km, respectively. For HNO3, ACE-FTS typically agrees within ±10% below 30 km, and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% above 30 km. With respect to MIPAS CO, ACE-FTS exhibits an average -11% bias between 28 and 50 km, and at higher altitudes a positive bias on the order of 10% (>100%) in the winter (summer). With respect to winter MLS CO, ACE-FTS is typically within ±10% between 25 and 40 km, and has an average bias of -11% above 40 km.

  14. Comparative Study of Automatic Plane Fitting Registration for Mls Sparse Point Clouds with Different Plane Segmentation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. Long; Belton, D.; Helmholz, P.

    2017-09-01

    The least square plane fitting adjustment method has been widely used for registration of the mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds. The inputs for this process are the plane parameters and points of the corresponding planar features. These inputs can be manually and/or automatically extracted from the MLS point clouds. A number of papers have been proposed to automatically extract planar features. They use different criteria to extract planar features and their outputs are slightly different. This will lead to differences in plane parameters values and points of the corresponding features. This research studies and compares the results of the least square plane fitting adjustment process with different inputs obtained by using different segmentation methods (e.g. RANSAC, RDPCA, Cabo, RGPL) and the results from the point to plane approach - an ICP variant. The questions for this research are: (1) which is the more suitable method for registration of MLS sparse point clouds and (2) which is the best segmentation method to obtain the inputs for the plane based MLS point clouds registration? Experiments were conducted with two real MLS point clouds captured by the MDL - Dynascan S250 system. The results show that ICP is less accurate than the least square plane fitting adjustment. It also shows that the accuracy of the plane based registration process is highly correlated with the mean errors of the extracted planar features and the plane parameters. The conclusion is that the RGPL method seems to be the best methods for planar surfaces extraction in MLS sparse point clouds for the registration process.

  15. European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): outpatient macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin (MLS) use in Europe (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Niels; Coenen, Samuel; Versporten, Ann; Muller, Arno; Minalu, Girma; Faes, Christel; Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Aerts, Marc; Hens, Niel; Molenberghs, Geert; Goossens, Herman

    2011-12-01

    Data on more than a decade of outpatient macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin (MLS) use in Europe were collected from 33 countries within the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project, funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), using the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. For the period 1997-2009, data on outpatient use of systemic MLS aggregated at the level of the active substance were collected and expressed in DDD (WHO, version 2011) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). Using a classification based on mean plasma elimination half-life, macrolide use was analysed for trends over time, seasonal variation and composition. Total outpatient MLS use in 2009 varied by a factor of 18 between the countries with highest (11.5 DID in Greece) and lowest (0.6 DID in Sweden) use. MLS use showed high seasonal variation. Short-, intermediate- and long-acting macrolides were the most commonly used agents in 2, 25 and 5 countries, respectively (mainly erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, respectively). In Sweden, mainly lincosamides (clindamycin) were used. Lincosamide use was observed in all countries, while substantial use of a streptogramin was only seen in France (pristinamycin). For Europe, a significant increase in outpatient MLS use was found, as well as a significant seasonal variation, which increased over time from 1997 to 2009. Relative use of long-acting macrolides and lincosamides significantly increased over time with respect to intermediate-acting macrolides, and relative use of the latter increased with respect to short-acting macrolides. The observed differences between European countries in the levels of MLS use and the extreme seasonal variations in their use suggest that this subgroup of antibiotics is still prescribed inappropriately in many countries.

  16. The HMX homeodomain protein MLS-2 regulates cleavage orientation, cell proliferation and cell fate specification in the C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Horner, Vanessa; Liu, Jun

    2005-09-01

    The proper formation of a complex multicellular organism requires the precise coordination of many cellular events, including cell proliferation, cell fate specification and differentiation. The C. elegans postembryonic mesodermal lineage, the M lineage, allows us to study mechanisms coordinating these events at single cell resolution. We have identified an HMX homeodomain protein MLS-2 in a screen for factors required for M lineage patterning. The MLS-2 protein is present in nuclei of undifferentiated cells in the early M lineage and in a subset of head neurons. In the M lineage, MLS-2 activity appears to be tightly regulated at the fourth round of cell division, coincident with the transition from proliferation to differentiation. A predicted null allele of mls-2, cc615, causes reduced cell proliferation in the M lineage, whereas a semi-dominant, gain-of-function allele, tm252, results in increased cell proliferation. Loss or overexpression of mls-2 also affects cleavage orientation and cell fate specification in the M lineage. We show that the increased cell proliferation in mls-2(tm252) mutants requires CYE-1, a G1 cell cycle regulator. Furthermore, the C. elegans Myod homolog HLH-1 acts downstream of mls-2 to specify M-derived coelomocyte cell fates. Thus MLS-2 functions in a cell type-specific manner to regulate both cell proliferation and cell fate specification.

  17. Midlatitude stratosphere - troposphere exchange as diagnosed by MLS O3 and MOPITT CO assimilated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amraoui, L.; Attié, J.-L.; Semane, N.; Claeyman, M.; Peuch, V.-H.; Warner, J.; Ricaud, P.; Cammas, J.-P.; Piacentini, A.; Josse, B.; Cariolle, D.; Massart, S.; Bencherif, H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive characterization of a very deep stratospheric intrusion which occurred over the British Isles on 15 August 2007. The signature of this event is diagnosed using ozonesonde measurements over Lerwick, UK (60.14° N, 1.19° W) and is also well characterized using meteorological analyses from the global operational weather prediction model of Météo-France, ARPEGE. Modelled as well as assimilated fields of both ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been used in order to better document this event. O3 and CO from Aura/MLS and Terra/MOPITT instruments, respectively, are assimilated into the three-dimensional chemical transport model MOCAGE of Météo-France using a variational 3-D-FGAT (First Guess at Appropriate Time) method. The validation of O3 and CO assimilated fields is done using self-consistency diagnostics and by comparison with independent observations such as MOZAIC (O3 and CO), AIRS (CO) and OMI (O3). It particularly shows in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region that the assimilated fields are closer to MOZAIC than the free model run. The O3 bias between MOZAIC and the analyses is -11.5 ppbv with a RMS of 22.4 ppbv and a correlation coefficient of 0.93, whereas between MOZAIC and the free model run, the corresponding values are 33 ppbv, 38.5 ppbv and 0.83, respectively. In the same way, for CO, the bias, RMS and correlation coefficient between MOZAIC and the analyses are -3.16 ppbv, 13 ppbv and 0.79, respectively, whereas between MOZAIC and the free model they are 6.3 ppbv, 16.6 ppbv and 0.71, respectively. The paper also presents a demonstration of the capability of O3 and CO assimilated fields to better describe a stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) event in comparison with the free run modelled O3 and CO fields. Although the assimilation of MLS data improves the distribution of O3 above the tropopause compared to the free model run, it is not sufficient to reproduce the STE event well. Assimilated

  18. Surface plasmon resonance and NMR analyses of anti Tn-antigen MLS128 monoclonal antibody binding to two or three consecutive Tn-antigen clusters.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto-Takasaki, Ayano; Hanashima, Shinya; Aoki, Ami; Yuasa, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Haruhiko; Sato, Reiko; Kawakami, Hiroko; Mizuno, Mamoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    Tn-antigens are tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens that are involved in metastatic processes and are associated with a poor prognosis. MLS128 monoclonal antibody recognizes the structures of two or three consecutive Tn-antigens (Tn2 or Tn3). Since MLS128 treatment inhibits colon and breast cancer cell growth [Morita, N., Yajima, Y., Asanuma, H., Nakada, H., and Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y. (2009) Inhibition of cancer cell growth by anti-Tn monoclonal antibody MLS128. Biosci. Trends 3, 32-37.], understanding the interaction between MLS128 and Tn-clusters may allow us to the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Although MLS128 was previously reported to have specificity for Tn3 rather than Tn2, similar levels of Tn2/Tn3 binding were unexpectedly observed at 37°C. Thus, thermodynamic analyses were performed via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using synthetic Tn2- and Tn3-peptides at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C. SPR results revealed that MLS128's association constants for both antigens were highly temperature dependent. Below 25°C MLS128's association constant for Tn3-peptide was clearly higher than that for Tn2-peptide. At 30°C, however, the association constant for Tn2-peptide was higher than that for Tn3-peptide. This reversal of affinity is due to the sharp increase in K(d) for Tn3. These results were confirmed by NMR, which directly measured MLS128-Tn binding in solution. This study suggested that thermodynamic control plays a critical role in the interaction between MLS128/Tn2 and MLS128/Tn3.

  19. MLS and CALIOP Cloud Ice Measurements in the Upper Troposphere: A Constraint from Microwave on Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Lambert, Alyn; Read, William G.; Eriksson, Patrick; Gong, Jie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the consistency and microphysics assumptions among satellite ice water content (IWC) retrievals in the upper troposphere with collocated A-Train radiances from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and lidar backscatters from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). For the cases in which IWC values are small (less than 10mg m(exp-23)), the cloud ice retrievals are constrained by both MLS 240- and 640- GHz radiances and CALIOP 532-nm backscatter beta(532). From the observed relationships between MLS cloud-induced radiance T(sub cir) and the CALIOP backscatter integrated gamma532 along the MLS line of sight, an empirical linear relation between cloud ice and the lidar backscatter is found: IWC/beta532=0.58+/-0.11. This lidar cloud ice relation is required to satisfy the cloud ice emission signals simultaneously observed at microwave frequencies, in which ice permittivity is relatively well known. This empirical relationship also produces IWC values that agree well with the CALIOP, version 3.0, retrieval at values, less than 10mg m(exp-3). Because the microphysics assumption is critical in satellite cloud ice retrievals, the agreement found in the IWC-beta532 relationships increase fidelity of the assumptions used by the lidar and microwave techniques for upper-tropospheric clouds.

  20. Goltz–Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, May-Britt; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; García González, M Mar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Meinecke, Peter; Müller, Dietmar; Rauch, Anita; Rossier, Eva; Seemanova, Eva; Spaich, Christiane; Steiner, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Zenker, Martin; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with mutations of HCCS in the majority of cases. We performed DNA sequencing of PORCN in 13 female patients with the clinical diagnosis of FDH as well as four female patients with MLS syndrome and no mutation in HCCS. We identified PORCN mutations in all female patients with FDH. Eleven patients seem to have constitutional PORCN alterations in the heterozygous state and two individuals are mosaic for the heterozygous sequence change in PORCN. No PORCN mutation was identified in the MLS-affected patients, providing further evidence that FDH and MLS do not overlap genetically. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed a random or slightly skewed XCI pattern in leukocytes of individuals with intragenic PORCN mutation suggesting that defective PORCN does not lead to selective growth disadvantage, at least in leukocytes. We conclude that the PORCN mutation detection rate is high in individuals with a clear-cut FDH phenotype and somatic mosaicism can be present in a significant proportion of patients with mild or classic FDH. PMID:19277062

  1. Goltz-Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, May-Britt; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; García González, M Mar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Meinecke, Peter; Müller, Dietmar; Rauch, Anita; Rossier, Eva; Seemanova, Eva; Spaich, Christiane; Steiner, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Zenker, Martin; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2009-10-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with mutations of HCCS in the majority of cases. We performed DNA sequencing of PORCN in 13 female patients with the clinical diagnosis of FDH as well as four female patients with MLS syndrome and no mutation in HCCS. We identified PORCN mutations in all female patients with FDH. Eleven patients seem to have constitutional PORCN alterations in the heterozygous state and two individuals are mosaic for the heterozygous sequence change in PORCN. No PORCN mutation was identified in the MLS-affected patients, providing further evidence that FDH and MLS do not overlap genetically. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed a random or slightly skewed XCI pattern in leukocytes of individuals with intragenic PORCN mutation suggesting that defective PORCN does not lead to selective growth disadvantage, at least in leukocytes. We conclude that the PORCN mutation detection rate is high in individuals with a clear-cut FDH phenotype and somatic mosaicism can be present in a significant proportion of patients with mild or classic FDH.

  2. Keeping Pace with Information Literacy Instruction for the Real World: When Will MLS Programs Wake Up and Smell the LILACs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies-Hoffman, Kimberly; Alvarez, Barbara; Costello, Michelle; Emerson, Debby

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, numerous studies have discussed the contradiction between the growing importance of information literacy instruction to the Library's core mission and lack of pedagogical training for new librarians. This article reviews the more recent contributions on the topic, presents a survey of New York State MLS curricula and…

  3. The Tropical Semiannual Oscillation (SAO) in Temperature and Ozone as Observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E.; Holton, J. R.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    The first two years of MLS temperature and ozone data are used to examine the tropical upper stratospheric SAO. Time series analysis revealed the strongest amplitudes of the SAO to occur near the equator at 2 mb for temperature and 5 mb for ozone, consistent with previous observations.

  4. Transport of Air to the Stratosphere: Perspectives From the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.; Manney, G. L.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Lambert, A.; Neu, J. L.; Froidevaux, L.

    2014-12-01

    Transport of air from the troposphere to the stratosphere takes place through a variety of routes, including slow ascent through the Tropical Tropopause Layer, extra-tropical mixing in the "middleworld" and rapid lofting by deep convection (including pyro-convection) in mid and high latitudes. These transport processes determine the entry composition and humidity of the stratosphere, and thus play an important role in ozone layer stability and climate. This paper reviews the insights into these processes obtained through satellite profile measurements of atmospheric composition, humidity and clouds, in particular the measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite launched in 2004. We describe the available satellite observations and review findings from previous studies using these observations to investigate troposphere-to-stratosphere transport. In addition, we discuss the applicability of Lagrangian-based analysis approaches (including the "Match" technique) to quantifying the lofting of tropospheric air into the stratosphere by midlatitude deep convection.

  5. Characterization of Water Vapor in the North American Monsoon with JLH Mark2 and Aura MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R. L.; Troy, R. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Bedka, K. M.; Fu, D.; Christensen, L. E.; Bui, T. V.

    2014-12-01

    Several NASA ER-2 aircraft flights during the recent NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field mission sampled the UTLS region heavily influenced by the North American Monsoon (NAM). Enhanced water vapor was measured in the lower stratosphere between 160 hPa and 80 hPa over the continental United States. Here we present in situ water vapor measurements from the newly improved JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) to characterize the NAM water vapor field during August and September 2013. Regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and overshooting deep convective cloud tops from GOES imagery.

  6. Assimilating EOS-Aura OMI and MLS Data in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Xu, Philippe; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark; Strahan, Susan; Nielsen, J. Eric; McKee, Nicole; Sienkiewicz, Meta; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Data assimilation is a potentially powerful method of extracting the maximum amount of information from observed data by combining their information with models. in this application, we will use stratospheric ozone profiles retrieved from EOS MLS and total column amounts retrieved from OMI' along with the GEOS-5 GCM, that includes a representation of ozone chemistry and transport. The presentation will discuss how well we can derive tropospheric ozone column information in this system, including its sensitivity to model errors and some assumptions made in the assimilation system. We discuss also ozone structures in the tropopause region and their sensitivity to model resolution and other fact=ors. An important issue we examine is how much more information we obtain from ozone assimilation than from model studies using state of the art chemistry models - answering such questions helps determine how useful ozone assimilation really is, given our present capabilities in chemical modeling.

  7. Observations of the Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback in UARS MLS and HALOE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Minschwaner, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    One of the biggest uncertainties in climate science today concerns the water vapor feedback. Most GCMs hold relative humidity fixed as the climate changes, which provides a strong positive feedback to warming due from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Some in the community, on the other hand, have speculated that tropospheric specific humidity will remain fixed as the climate changes. Observational studies have attempted to resolve this disagreement, but the results have been inconclusive, and few of the studies have focused on the upper troposphere (UT). This is a significant oversight: the surface temperature is especially sensitive to changes in water vapor in the UT owing to the cold temperatures found there. We present an analysis of UARS MLS and HALOE water vapor measurements at 21 5 hPa. We find strong evidence that the water vapor feedback in the UT is positive, but not as strong as fixed relative humidity scenarios. This suggests that GCMs are overestimating the sensitivity of the climate.

  8. Guidance and navigation for automatic landing, rollout, and turnoff using MLS and magnetic cable sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the navigation and guidance system developed for the TCV B-737, a Langley Field NASA research aircraft, and presents the results of an evaluation during final approach, landing, rollout and turnoff obtained through a nonlinear digital simulation. A Kalman filter (implemented in square root form) and a third order complementary filter were developed and compared for navigation. The Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) is used for all phases of the flight for navigation and guidance. In addition, for rollout and turnoff, a three coil sensor which detects the magnetic field induced by a buried wire in the runway (magnetic leader cable) is used. The outputs of the sensor are processed into measurements of position and heading deviation from the wire. The results show the concept to be both feasible and practical for commercial type aircraft terminal area control.

  9. Arctic Ozone Depletion Observed by UARS MLS During the 1994-95 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Zurek, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    During the unusually cold 1994-95 Arctic winter, the Microwave Limb Sounder observed enhanced chlorine monoxide (ClO) in late Dec and throughout Feb and early Mar. Late Dec ClO was higher than during any of the previous 3 years, consistent with the colder early winter. Between late Dec 1994 and early Feb 1995, 465 K (about 50 hPa) vortex-averaged ozone (03) decreased by about 15%, with local decreases of about 30%; additional local decreases of about 5% were seen between early Feb and early Mar. Transport calculations indicate that vortex-averaged chemical loss between late Dec and early Feb was about 20% at 465 K, with about 1/4 of that masked by downward transport of O3. This Arctic chemical O3 loss is not readily detectable in MLS column O3 data.

  10. Guidance studies for curved, descending approaches using the Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Results for the Microwave Landing System (MLS) guidance algorithm development conducted under the Advance Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Technology Studies (NAS1-16202) are documented. The study consisted of evaluating guidance law for vertical and lateral path control, as well as speed control, for approaches not possible with the present Instrument Landing System (ILS) equipment. Several specific approaches were simulated using the MD-80 aircraft simulation program, including curved, descending (segmented glide slope), and decelerating paths. Emphasis was placed on development of guidance algorithms specifically for approaches at Burbank, where proposed flight demonstrations are planned. Results of this simulation phase are suitable for use in future fixed base simulator evaluations employing actual hardware (autopilot and a performance management system).

  11. Arctic Ozone Depletion Observed by UARS MLS During the 1994-95 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Zurek, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    During the unusually cold 1994-95 Arctic winter, the Microwave Limb Sounder observed enhanced chlorine monoxide (ClO) in late Dec and throughout Feb and early Mar. Late Dec ClO was higher than during any of the previous 3 years, consistent with the colder early winter. Between late Dec 1994 and early Feb 1995, 465 K (about 50 hPa) vortex-averaged ozone (03) decreased by about 15%, with local decreases of about 30%; additional local decreases of about 5% were seen between early Feb and early Mar. Transport calculations indicate that vortex-averaged chemical loss between late Dec and early Feb was about 20% at 465 K, with about 1/4 of that masked by downward transport of O3. This Arctic chemical O3 loss is not readily detectable in MLS column O3 data.

  12. Guidance and navigation for automatic landing, rollout, and turnoff using MLS and magnetic cable sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the navigation and guidance system developed for the TCV B-737, a Langley Field NASA research aircraft, and presents the results of an evaluation during final approach, landing, rollout and turnoff obtained through a nonlinear digital simulation. A Kalman filter (implemented in square root form) and a third order complementary filter were developed and compared for navigation. The Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) is used for all phases of the flight for navigation and guidance. In addition, for rollout and turnoff, a three coil sensor which detects the magnetic field induced by a buried wire in the runway (magnetic leader cable) is used. The outputs of the sensor are processed into measurements of position and heading deviation from the wire. The results show the concept to be both feasible and practical for commercial type aircraft terminal area control.

  13. Assimilating EOS-Aura OMI and MLS Data in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Xu, Philippe; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark; Strahan, Susan; Nielsen, J. Eric; McKee, Nicole; Sienkiewicz, Meta; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Data assimilation is a potentially powerful method of extracting the maximum amount of information from observed data by combining their information with models. in this application, we will use stratospheric ozone profiles retrieved from EOS MLS and total column amounts retrieved from OMI' along with the GEOS-5 GCM, that includes a representation of ozone chemistry and transport. The presentation will discuss how well we can derive tropospheric ozone column information in this system, including its sensitivity to model errors and some assumptions made in the assimilation system. We discuss also ozone structures in the tropopause region and their sensitivity to model resolution and other fact=ors. An important issue we examine is how much more information we obtain from ozone assimilation than from model studies using state of the art chemistry models - answering such questions helps determine how useful ozone assimilation really is, given our present capabilities in chemical modeling.

  14. The tropical semiannual oscillations in temperature and ozone as observed my the MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric A.; Holton, James R.; Fishbein, Evan F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    The first two years of Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature and ozone data are used to examine the tropical upper-stratospheric semiannual oscillation (SAO). Time series analysis revealed that the strongest amplitudes of the SAO occurred near the equator at 2 mb for temperature and 5 mb for ozone, consistent with previous observations. The first cycle of each calendar year was observed to have a much higher amplitude than the second cycle except for the warm phase in late 1991. Interannual variability in the strength of the SAO, such as the much stronger warm phase of late 1991 as compared to late 1992, was significant and could be partly attributed to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in zonal wind.

  15. Validation of 10 years of SAO OMI Ozone Profiles with Ozonesonde and MLS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and long-term stability of the SAO OMI ozone profile product, we validate ~10 years of ozone profile product (Oct. 2004-Dec. 2014) against collocated ozonesonde and MLS data. Ozone profiles as well stratospheric, tropospheric, lower tropospheric ozone columns are compared with ozonesonde data for different latitude bands, and time periods (e.g., 2004-2008/2009-2014 for without/with row anomaly. The mean biases and their standard deviations are also assessed as a function of time to evaluate the long-term stability and bias trends. In the mid-latitude and tropical regions, OMI generally shows good agreement with ozonesonde observations. The mean ozone profile biases are generally within 6% with up to 30% standard deviations. The biases of stratospheric ozone columns (SOC) and tropospheric ozone columns (TOC) are -0.3%-2.2% and -0.2%-3%, while standard deviations are 3.9%-5.8% and 14.4%-16.0%, respectively. However, the retrievals during 2009-2014 show larger standard deviations and larger temporal variations; the standard deviations increase by ~5% in the troposphere and ~2% in the stratosphere. Retrieval biases at individual levels in the stratosphere and upper troposphere show statistically significant trends and different trends for 2004-2008 and 2009-2014 periods. The trends in integrated ozone partial columns are less significant due to cancellation from various layers, except for significant trend in tropical SOC. These results suggest the need to perform time dependent radiometric calibration to maintain the long-term stability of this product. Similarly, we are comparing the OMI stratospheric ozone profiles and SOC with collocated MLS data, and the results will be reported.

  16. Relationship between PSC types and ozone destruction quantified from CALIPSO and MLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Pitts, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The stratospheric ozone destruction in the Arctic has been smaller than that of Antarctic for years. The main cause of this can be attributed to its higher winter minimum temperature of ~10-20 K than that of Antarctic stratosphere owing to topography. The average winter minimum stratospheric temperature in the Arctic is just around the threshold temperature of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation. This results in the appearance of intermittent PSC formation, which is the key factor of severe ozone depletion. Several types of PSCs are reported. The major ones are nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution (STS), and water ice. However, it still remains unknown whether different types of PSCs have different ability of chlorine activation and ozone destruction efficiency or not. In order to clarify the above question, we made satellite match analysis using CALIPSO and MLS data. Pitts et al. [2009] and [2011] developed a method to categorize the PSC types from 532 nm backscatter ratio and depolarization data from CALIPSO data. They categorized the PSC types into 6 types; i.e., Mix1, Mix2, Mix2-enhanced, Ice, Wave-ice, and STS. Mix denotes the mixture of NAT and STS. We made satellite match analysis from the location of certain type of PSC categorized by CALIPSO. On the forward and backward trajectories, MLS measurement locations were searched within 150 km and +/- 3 hours difference. As a result, ozone destruction rate was estimated in terms of sunlit hours on the trajectory. We analyzed Antarctic winter/spring in 2007, and Arctic winter/spring in 2010 and 2011. Difference in ozone destruction efficiency was found for both Antarctic and Arctic cases. Reference: Pitts, M. C., et al., [2009], Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 7577-7589. Pitts, M. C., et al., [2011], Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2161-2177.

  17. Relationship between PSC types and ozone destruction rate quantified with CALIPSO and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Takeda, M.; Pitts, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The stratospheric ozone destruction in the Arctic has been smaller than that of Antarctic for years. The main cause of this can be attributed to its higher winter minimum temperature of ~10-20 K than that of Antarctic stratosphere owing to topography. The average winter minimum stratospheric temperature in the Arctic is just around the threshold temperature of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation. This results in the appearance of intermittent PSC formation, which is the key factor of severe ozone depletion. Several types of PSCs are reported. The major ones are nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), supercooled ternary solution (STS), and water ice. However, it still remains unknown whether different types of PSCs have different ability of chlorine activation and ozone destruction efficiency or not. In order to clarify the above question, we made satellite match analysis using CALIPSO and MLS data. Pitts et al. [2009] and [2011] developed a method to categorize the PSC types from 532 nm backscatter ratio and depolarization data from CALIPSO data. They categorized the PSC types into 6 types; i.e., Mix1, Mix2, Mix2-enhanced, Ice, Wave-ice, and STS. Mix denotes the mixture of NAT and STS. We made satellite match analysis from the location of certain type of PSC categorized by CALIPSO. On the forward and backward trajectories, MLS measurement locations were searched within 150 km and +/- 3 hours difference. As a result, ozone destruction rate was estimated in terms of sunlit hours on the trajectory. We analyzed Antarctic winter/spring in 2007, and Arctic winter/spring in 2010 and 2011. It was found that the ozone destruction rate was the greatest for Mix, followed by STS and ICE PSCs. Hemispheric difference for ozone destruction rate was found.

  18. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS): Characterization of the critical region and isolation of candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, L.; Wapenaar, M.C.; Grillo, A.

    1994-09-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder characterized by abnormalities in the development of the eye, skin, and brain. We defined the MLS critical region through analysis of hybrid cell lines retaining various deletion breakpoints in Xp22, including cell lines from 17 female patients showing features of MLS. Using a combination of YAC cloning and long-range restriction analysis, the MLS candidate region was estimated to be 450-550 kb. A minimally overlapping cosmid contig comprised of 20 cosmid clones was subsequently developed in this region. These cosmids are currently being used to isolate expressed sequences using cross-species conservation studies and exon-trapping. An evolutionarily conserved sequence isolated from a cosmid within the critical region has been used to isolate several overlapping cDNAs from a human embryonic library. Northern analysis using these cDNA clones identified a 5.2 kb transcript in all tissues examined. Sequence analysis revealed a 777 base pair open reading frame encoding a putative 258 amino acid protein. Using the exon-trapping method, fifty-four putative exons have been isolated from fourteen cosmids within the critical region. The expression patterns of the genes containing these exons are being analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using reverse-transcribed mRNA from several human tissues and primers corresponding to the exon sequences. Using this approach in combination with exon connection, we determined the four of the trapped exons belong to the same cDNA transcript, which is expressed in adult retina, lymphoblast, skeletal muscle, and fetal brain. To date, we have isolated and sequenced 1 kilobase of this gene, all of which appears to be open reading frame. Both of the genes isolated from the critical region are being analyzed as possible candidates for MLS.

  19. [Changes in MLS-BAEP in newborn piglets with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage during selective moderate head cooling therapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Mei; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Cheng, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lai-Shuang; Jiang, Ze-Dong; Shao, Xiao-Mei

    2013-06-01

    To study the effect of selective moderate head cooling therapy on maximum length sequences brainstem auditory evoked potential (MLS-BAEP) in newborn piglets with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Sixteen newborn piglets aged 5-7 day old were randomly divided into three groups: normothermic control (n=4), HI (n=6) and mild hypothermia-treated (n=6). HI was induced through temporary occlusion of both carotid arteries, followed by mechanical ventilation with low concentration of oxygen (FiO2=0.06) for 30 minutes. Mild hypothermia was induced by equipment via circulating water. MLS-BAER was recorded before HI and at 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours, 60 hours, 72 hours, 4 days, 7 days, 10 days, 13 days and 15 days after HI. Compared with the normothermic control group, all latencies and intervals tended to increase significantly at 72 hours in the HI group and reached peak values on day 7. From day 10, all latencies and intervals tended to decrease, but apart from wave I latency, still differed significantly from those of the normothermic control group. MLS-BAER variables did not reach normal values until day 15. Ⅲ latency, Ⅰ-Ⅲ interval and Ⅰ-Ⅴ interval were significantly reduced in the hypothermia-treated group between 60 and 7 days after HI compared with the HI group (P<0.05). V latency and Ⅲ-Ⅴ interval in the hypothermia-treated group were also reduced compared with the HI group between 72 hours and 7 days after HI (P<0.05). Both peripheral and central auditory systems are disturbed by HI, which shows as a significant increase in MLS-BAER variables (all latencies and intervals) in newborn piglets. Involvement in central brainstem auditory system reaches a peak on day 7 after injury. MLS-BAER variables still cannot reach to normal values until day 15. Selective moderate head cooling therapy can significantly reduce brainstem damage induced by HI.

  20. MLS-2384, a new 6-bromoindirubin derivative with dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitory activity, suppresses growth of diverse cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lucy; Gaboriaud, Nicolas; Vougogianopoulou, Konstantina; Tian, Yan; Wu, Jun; Wen, Wei; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Jove, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) and Src kinase are the two major tyrosine kinase families upstream of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Among the seven STAT family proteins, STAT3 is constitutively activated in many diverse cancers. Upon activation, JAK and Src kinases phosphorylate STAT3, and thereby promote cell growth and survival. MLS-2384 is a novel 6-bromoindirubin derivative with a bromo-group at the 6-position on one indole ring and a hydrophilic group at the 3′-position on the other indole ring. In this study, we investigated the kinase inhibitory activity and anticancer activity of MLS-2384. Our data from in vitro kinase assays, cell viability analyses, western blotting analyses, and animal model studies, demonstrate that MLS-2384 is a dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitor, and suppresses growth of various human cancer cells, such as prostate, breast, skin, ovarian, lung, and liver. Consistent with the inactivation of JAK and Src kinases, phosphorylation of STAT3 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the cancer cells treated with MLS-2384. STAT3 downstream proteins involved in cell proliferation and survival, such as c-Myc and Mcl-1, are downregulated by MLS-2384 in prostate cancer cells, whereas survivin is downregulated in A2058 cells. In these two cancer cell lines, PARP is cleaved, indicating that MLS-2384 induces apoptosis in human melanoma and prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MLS-2384 suppresses tumor growth with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. Taken together, MLS-2384 demonstrates dual JAK/Src inhibitory activity and suppresses tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings support further development of MLS-2384 as a potential small-molecule therapeutic agent that targets JAK, Src, and STAT3 signaling in multiple human cancer cells. PMID:24100507

  1. MLS-2384, a new 6-bromoindirubin derivative with dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitory activity, suppresses growth of diverse cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy; Gaboriaud, Nicolas; Vougogianopoulou, Konstantina; Tian, Yan; Wu, Jun; Wen, Wei; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Jove, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) and Src kinase are the two major tyrosine kinase families upstream of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Among the seven STAT family proteins, STAT3 is constitutively activated in many diverse cancers. Upon activation, JAK and Src kinases phosphorylate STAT3, and thereby promote cell growth and survival. MLS-2384 is a novel 6-bromoindirubin derivative with a bromo-group at the 6-position on one indole ring and a hydrophilic group at the 3'-position on the other indole ring. In this study, we investigated the kinase inhibitory activity and anticancer activity of MLS-2384. Our data from in vitro kinase assays, cell viability analyses, western blotting analyses, and animal model studies, demonstrate that MLS-2384 is a dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitor, and suppresses growth of various human cancer cells, such as prostate, breast, skin, ovarian, lung, and liver. Consistent with the inactivation of JAK and Src kinases, phosphorylation of STAT3 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the cancer cells treated with MLS-2384. STAT3 downstream proteins involved in cell proliferation and survival, such as c-Myc and Mcl-1, are downregulated by MLS-2384 in prostate cancer cells, whereas survivin is downregulated in A2058 cells. In these two cancer cell lines, PARP is cleaved, indicating that MLS-2384 induces apoptosis in human melanoma and prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MLS-2384 suppresses tumor growth with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. Taken together, MLS-2384 demonstrates dual JAK/Src inhibitory activity and suppresses tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings support further development of MLS-2384 as a potential small-molecule therapeutic agent that targets JAK, Src, and STAT3 signaling in multiple human cancer cells.

  2. Five-Year (2004-2009)Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Ice from MLS and Comparisons with GEOS-5 Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui; Pawson, Steven; Liu, Hui-Chun; Read, William; Waters, Joe W.; Santee, Michelle; Wu, Dong L.; Schwartz, Michael; Lambert, Alyn; hide

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of August 2004 through July 2009 upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor (H2O) and ice water content (IWC) from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and comparisons with outputs from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. Both MLS and GEOS-5 show that high values of H2O and IWC at 215 to 147 hPa are associated with areas of deep convection. They exhibit good (within approximately 15%) agreement in IWC at these altitudes, but GEOS-5 H2O is approximately 50% (215 hPa) to approximately 30% (147 hPa) larger than MLS, possibility due to its higher temperatures at these altitudes. GOES-5 produces a weaker intertropical convergence zone than MLS, while a seasonally-migrating band of tropical deep convection is clearly evident in both the MLS and GEOS-5 UT H2O and IWC. MLS and GEOS-5 both show spatial anti-correlation between IWC and H2O at 100 hPa, where less H2O is associated with low temperatures in regions of tropical convection. At 100 hPa, GEOS-5 produces 50% less IWC and 15% less H2O in the tropics, and approximately 20% more H2O in the extra-tropics, than does MLS. Behavior of the 100 hPa H2O, which exhibits a quasi-biennial oscillation, appears consistent with it being controlled by temperature. The seasonal cycle in the vertical transport of tropical mean H2O from approximately 147 hPa to approximately 10 hPa appears much stronger in MLS than in GEOS-5. The UT IWC and H2O interannual variations, from both MLS and GEOS-5, show clear imprints of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

  3. Microphysical Simulations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds Compared with Calipso and MLS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Toon, O. B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lambert, A.; Brakebusch, M.

    2014-12-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form in the lower stratosphere during the polar night due to the cold temperature inside the polar vortex. PSCs are important to understand because they are responsible for the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole and the ozone depletion over the Arctic. In this work, we explore the formation and evolution of STS particles (Super-cooled Ternary Solution) and NAT (Nitric-acid Trihydrate) particles using the SD-WACCM/CARMA model. SD-WACCM/CARMA couples the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model using Specific Dynamics with the microphysics model (CARMA). The 2010-2011 Arctic winter has been simulated because the Arctic vortex remained cold enough for PSCs from December until the end of March (Manney et al., 2011). The unusual length of this cold period and the presence of PSCs caused strong ozone depletion. This model simulates the growth and evaporation of the STS particles instead of considering them as being in equilibrium as other models do (Carslaw et al., 1995). This work also explores the homogeneous nucleation of NAT particles and derives a scheme for NAT formation based on the observed denitrification during the winter 2010-2011. The simulated microphysical features (particle volumes, size distributions, etc.) of both STS (Supercooled Ternary Solutions) and NAT particles show a consistent comparison with historical observations. The modeled evolution of PSCs and gas phase ozone related chemicals inside the vortex such as HCl and ClONO2 are compared with the observations from MLS, MIPAS and CALIPSO over this winter. The denitrification history indicate the surface nucleation rate from Tabazadeh et al. (2002) removes too much HNO3 over the winter. With a small modification of the free energy term of the equation, the denitification and the PSC backscattering features are much closer to the observations. H2O, HCl, O3 and ClONO2 are very close to MLS and MIPAS observations inside the vortex. The model underestimates ozone

  4. Midlatitude stratosphere - troposphere exchange as diagnosed by MLS O3 and MOPITT CO assimilated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amraoui, L.; Attié, J.-L.; Semane, N.; Claeyman, M.; Peuch, V.-H.; Warner, J.; Ricaud, P.; Cammas, J.-P.; Piacentini, A.; Cariolle, D.; Massart, S.; Bencherif, H.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a complete characterization of a very deep stratospheric intrusion which occurred over the British Isles on 15 August 2007. The signature of this event is diagnosed using ozonesonde measurements over Lerwick, UK (60.14° N, 1.19° W) and is also well characterized using meteorological analyses from the global operational weather prediction model of Météo-France, ARPEGE. Modelled as well as assimilated fields of both ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been used in order to better document this event. The paper also presents a demonstration of the capability of O3 and CO assimilated fields to better describe a stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) event in comparison with the free run modelled O3 and CO fields. O3 and CO from Aura/MLS and Terra/MOPITT instruments, respectively, are assimilated into the three-dimensional chemical transport model MOCAGE of Météo-France using a variational 3-D-FGAT (First Guess at Appropriate Time) method within the MOCAGE-PALM assimilation system. The usefulness of assimilated MOPITT CO data in a STE study is demonstrated in this novel result. The study shows that the use of the model MOCAGE gives consistent 3-D fields capable of describing the synoptic evolution of the event. However, modelled O3 and CO vertical distributions do not provide a quantitative evaluation of the intrusion. Although the assimilation of MLS data improves the distribution of O3 above the tropopause compared to the free model run, it is not sufficient to reproduce the stratospheric intrusion event well. Conversely, assimilated MOPITT CO allows a better description of the stratospheric intrusion event. Indeed, the horizontal distribution of the CO assimilated field is consistent with meteorological analyses. Moreover, the vertical distribution of the CO assimilated field is in accordance with the potential vorticity distribution and reveals a deeper intrusion from the lower stratosphere downward to the mid-troposphere compared to

  5. Three-dimensional evolution of water vapor distributions in the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere as observed by the MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoz, W. A.; O'Neill, A.; Carr, E. S.; Harwood, R. S.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional evolution of stratospheric water vapor distributions observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) during the period October 1991 - July 1992 is documented. The transport features inferred from the MLS water vapor distributions are corroborated using other dynamical fields, namely, nitrous oxide from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer instrument, analyzed winds from the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO), UKMO-derived potential vorticity, and the diabatic heating field. By taking a vortex-centered view and an along-track view, the authors observe in great detail the vertical and horizontal structure of the northern winter stratosphere. It is demonstrated that the water vapor distributions show clear signatures of the effects of diabatic descent through isentropic surfaces and quasi-horizontal transport along isentropic surfaces, and that the large-scale winter flow is organized by the interaction between the westerly polar vortex and the Aleutian high.

  6. Xp22.3 microdeletion in a 19-year-old girl with clinical features of MLS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enright, F; Campbell, P; Stallings, R L; Hall, K; Green, A J; Sweeney, E; Barnes, L; Watson, R

    2003-01-01

    We describe a 19-year-old girl who has clinical features of microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome caused by a microdeletion of Xp22.3. In addition to the classical ocular abnormalities and linear skin defects she has other features not previously described. She was previously reported in this journal in 1990 as poikiloderma congenitale, but her true diagnosis of an Xp22.3 microdeletion was clarified when fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that one of her X chromosomes had a microdeletion including the KAL gene. We describe this patient with an Xp22.3 microdeletion to heighten awareness among dermatologists of this syndrome and to underscore the difficulties in diagnosing MLS syndrome.

  7. A large X-chromosomal deletion is associated with microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) and amelogenesis imperfecta (XAI).

    PubMed

    Hobson, Grace M; Gibson, Carolyn W; Aragon, Melissa; Yuan, Zhi-an; Davis-Williams, Angelique; Banser, Linda; Kirkham, Jennifer; Brook, Alan H

    2009-08-01

    A female patient is described with clinical symptoms of both microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS or MIDAS) and dental enamel defects, having an appearance compatible with X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta (XAI). Genomic DNA was purified from the patient's blood and semiquantitative multiplex PCR revealed a deletion encompassing the amelogenin gene (AMELX). Because MLS is also localized to Xp22, genomic DNA was subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization, and a large heterozygous deletion was identified. Histopathology of one primary and one permanent molar tooth showed abnormalities in the dental enamel layer, and a third tooth had unusually high microhardness measurements, possibly due to its ultrastructural anomalies as seen by scanning electron microscopy. This is the first report of a patient with both of these rare conditions, and the first description of the phenotype resulting from a deletion encompassing the entire AMELX gene. More than 50 additional genes were monosomic in this patient. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Female infant with oncocytic cardiomyopathy and microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS): A clue to the pathogenesis of oncocytic cardiomyopathy?

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.M.; Krous, H.F.; Eichenfield, L.F.; Swalwell, C.I.; Jones, M.C.

    1994-11-01

    A infant girl had red stellate skin lesions on the cheeks and neck, and mildly short palpebral fissures. Her skin abnormality was typical of microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), a newly recognized syndrome consisting of congenital linear skin defects and ocular abnormalities in females monosomic for Xp22. She died suddenly and unexpectedly at age 4 months; the cause of death was ascribed to oncocytic cardiomyopathy. Oncocytic cardiomyopathy occurs only in young children, who present with refractory arrhythmias leading to cardiac arrest. The coexistence of two rare conditions, one of which is mapped to the X chromosome, and an excess of affected females with oncocytic cardiomyopathy is also X-linked, with Xp22 being a candidate region. Overlapping manifestations in the two conditions (ocular abnormalities in cases of oncocytic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias in MLS) offer additional support for this hypothesis. 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Impact of Time Lapse on ASCP Board of Certification Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS) and Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) Examination Scores.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karen A; Fenn, JoAnn P; Freeman, Vicki S; Fisher, Patrick B; Genzen, Jonathan R; Goodyear, Nancy; Houston, Mary Lunz; O'Brien, Mary Elizabeth; Tanabe, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Research in several professional fields has demonstrated that delays (time lapse) in taking certification examinations may result in poorer performance by examinees. Thirteen states and/or territories require licensure for laboratory personnel. A core component of licensure is passing a certification exam. Also, many facilities in states that do not require licensure require certification for employment or preferentially hire certified individuals. To analyze examinee performance on the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Board of Certification (BOC) Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS) and Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) certification examinations to determine whether delays in taking the examination from the time of program completion are associated with poorer performance. We obtained examination data from April 2013 through December 2014 to look for changes in mean (SD) exam scaled scores and overall pass/fail rates. First-time examinees (MLS: n = 6037; MLT, n = 3920) were divided into 3-month categories based on the interval of time between date of program completion and taking the certification exam. We observed significant decreases in mean (SD) scaled scores and pass rates after the first quarter in MLS and MLT examinations for applicants who delayed taking their examination until the second, third, and fourth quarter after completing their training programs. Those who take the ASCP BOC MLS and MLT examinations are encouraged to do so shortly after completion of their educational training programs. Delays in taking an exam are generally not beneficial to the examinee and result in poorer performance on the exam. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  10. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome evaluated by prenatal karyotyping, FISH and array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Cain, Colyn Cargile; Saul, Daniel; Attanasio, Lisa; Oehler, Erin; Hamosh, Ada; Blakemore, Karin; Stetten, Gail

    2007-04-01

    To explore the utility of comparative genomic hybridization to BAC arrays (array CGH) for prenatal diagnosis of microphthalmia and linear skin defects syndrome. We used karyotype analysis, FISH and array CGH to investigate an X;Y translocation. Replication studies were done on cultured amniocytes and lymphoblasts. We describe a severe case of MLS syndrome that presented prenatally with multiple anomalies including cystic hygroma, microphthalmia, intrauterine growth restriction and a complex congenital heart defect. Cytogenetic analysis of amniocytes revealed an unbalanced de novo translocation between chromosomes X and Y [karyotype 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.3;q11.2).ish der(X)(DXZ1+,DMD+,KAL-,STS-,SRY-),22q11.2 (Tuple1 x 2)]. MLS diagnosis was made at birth and the prenatal karyotype was confirmed. Replication studies showed the derivative X chromosome was the inactive X. Array CGH confirmed the X and Y imbalances seen in the karyotype and also showed twelve BACs in the MLS region were deleted as a result of the translocation. FISH with BAC clones verified the array findings and placed the X breakpoint in Xp22.2, resulting in the amended karyotype, 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.2;q11.2).ish der(X)(DXZ1+,DMD+,KAL-,STS-,SRY-),22q11.2(Tuple1 x 2) arr cgh Xp22.33p22.2(LLNOYCO3M15D10 -->GS1-590J6)x 1,Yq11.222q23(RP11-20H21-->RP11-79J10)x 1. The sensitivity of array CGH was valuable in detecting monosomy of the MLS critical region. Array CGH should be considered for the prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. An Operational Demonstration and Flight Test of the Microwave Landing System (MLS) at the Miami/Tamiami, Florida Airport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States...TRAIS) Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center 1 @, Ge.0Ne. Atlantic City International Airport, N.J. 08405 13...by U.S. Department of Transportation , FAA, and Transport Canada Aviation Group. The Technical Center’s MLS test bed, consisting of a 1.50 beamwidth

  12. Springtime stratospheric water vapour in the Southern Hemisphere as measured by MLS. [Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, R. S.; Carr, E. S.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lahoz, W. A.; Lau, C. L.; Peckham, G. E.; Read, W. G.; Ricaud, P. D.; Suttie, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the break-up of the Antarctic vortex on the water vapor distribution are studied using MLS measurements of water vapor made during September 1991 and November 1991. In early November at 22 hPa a moist area is found within the polar vortex, consistent with an observed descent of order 10 km and strong radiative cooling. As the vortex erodes (beginning of November 1991), parcels of moist air become detached from the edge of the vortex and mix rapidly (within 2-3 days) with drier mid-latitude air. When the vortex breaks up (mid-November), larger parcels of moist air from both the edge and the inner vortex migrate to mid-latitudes. These parcels have a longer lifetime than those produced by vortex erosion, probably because they are correlated with higher potential vorticity gradients. The break-up of the vortex is accompanied by a mean adiabatic equatorward transport resulting in a significant increase in midstratospheric water vapor values at mid-latitudes in late spring.

  13. Investigations of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Derived From MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    Daily high-resolution maps of stratospheric ozone have been constructed using observations by MLS combined with trajectory information. These fields are used to determine the extratropical stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) of ozone for the year 2005 using two diagnostic methods. The resulting two annual estimates compare well with past model- and observational-based estimates. Initial analyses of the seasonal characteristics indicate that significant STE of ozone in the polar regions occurs only during spring and early summer. We also examine evidence that the Antarctic ozone hole is responsible for a rapid decrease in the rate of ozone STE during the SH spring. Subtracting the high-resolution stratospheric ozone fiom OMI total column measurements creates a high-resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) product. The HTOR fields are compared to the spatial distribution of the ozone STE. We show that the mean tropospheric ozone maxima tend to occur near locations of significant ozone STE. This suggests that STE may be responsible for a significant fraction of many mean tropospheric ozone anomalies.

  14. Investigations of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Derived From MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    Daily high-resolution maps of stratospheric ozone have been constructed using observations by MLS combined with trajectory information. These fields are used to determine the extratropical stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) of ozone for the year 2005 using two diagnostic methods. The resulting two annual estimates compare well with past model- and observational-based estimates. Initial analyses of the seasonal characteristics indicate that significant STE of ozone in the polar regions occurs only during spring and early summer. We also examine evidence that the Antarctic ozone hole is responsible for a rapid decrease in the rate of ozone STE during the SH spring. Subtracting the high-resolution stratospheric ozone fiom OMI total column measurements creates a high-resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) product. The HTOR fields are compared to the spatial distribution of the ozone STE. We show that the mean tropospheric ozone maxima tend to occur near locations of significant ozone STE. This suggests that STE may be responsible for a significant fraction of many mean tropospheric ozone anomalies.

  15. Comparison of Aura MLS stratospheric chemical gradients with north polar vortex edges calculated by two methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.; Drummond, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    The edge of the winter polar vortex is thought to isolate chemistry between inside and outside. A way to test how accurately it is estimated is to examine chemical mixing ratios along a path that crosses its edge. Two edge methods are tested, one is the ;Q-edge; (Harvey et al., 2002), which chooses a specific streamline; the other is scaled potential vorticity, ;sPV;, which identifies an inner and outer edge depending on the local value of potential vorticity scaled according to the static stability (Manney et al., 1994). Aura MLS mixing ratios show that, statistically overall, sPV edge area agrees better with the N2O mixing ratio gradient below ∼700 K, albeit with more scatter. Finally direct comparison statistics on a few 10 day winter intervals show that the Q-edge is usually outside the sPV outer edge below potential temperature levels ∼400-500 K, agrees up to ∼700 K, and inside to ∼1200 K. Above that, both methods tend to agree again.

  16. Improved Understanding of the Modeled QBO Using MLS Observations and MERRA Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke David; Douglass, Anne Ritger; Hurwitz, Maggie M.; Garfinkel, Chaim I.

    2013-01-01

    The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) dominates the variability of the tropical stratosphere on interannual time scales. The QBO has been shown to extend its influence into the chemical composition of this region through dynamical mechanisms. We have started our analysis using the realistic QBO internally generated by the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) general circulation model coupled to a comprehensive stratospheric and tropospheric chemical mechanism forced with observed sea surface temperatures over the past 33 years. We will show targeted comparisons with observations from NASAs Aura satellite Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis to provide insight into the simulation of the primary and secondary circulations associated with the QBO. Using frequency spectrum analysis and multiple linear regression we can illuminate the resulting circulations and deduce the strengths and weaknesses in their modeled representation. Inclusion of the QBO in our simulation improves the representation of the subtropical barriers and overall tropical variability. The QBO impact on tropical upwelling is important to quantify when calculating trends in sub-decadal scale datasets.

  17. Characterization of MJO-Related Upper Tropospheric Hydrological Processes using MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Michael J.; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Wu, Dong L.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Read, William G.

    2008-01-01

    This study quantifies Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)- related hydrological variability in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere (UT/LS) using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) cloud ice water content (IWC) and water vapor (H2O). In a composite of six boreal-winter MJO events, the UT/LS IWC anomaly is strongly positively correlated with the convection (TRMM rainfall) anomaly. IWC anomalies range from +/-2 mg/cu m at 215 hPa to +/-0.08 mg/cu m at 100 hPa. The UT/LS H2O anomaly has an eastward-tilting structure similar to the previous-documented temperature structure, but the H2O maximum lags the temperature maximum by about a week. The H2O anomaly is positively correlated with the convection anomaly in the UT (261 hPa) and LS (68 hPa) but negatively correlated with the convection anomaly near the tropopause (100 hPa). This analysis provides a multi-parameter construct useful in validating and improving the parameterization of convection, clouds and cloud microphysics in MJO modeling.

  18. Characterization of MJO-Related Upper Tropospheric Hydrological Processes using MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Michael J.; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Wu, Dong L.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Read, William G.

    2008-01-01

    This study quantifies Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)- related hydrological variability in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere (UT/LS) using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) cloud ice water content (IWC) and water vapor (H2O). In a composite of six boreal-winter MJO events, the UT/LS IWC anomaly is strongly positively correlated with the convection (TRMM rainfall) anomaly. IWC anomalies range from +/-2 mg/cu m at 215 hPa to +/-0.08 mg/cu m at 100 hPa. The UT/LS H2O anomaly has an eastward-tilting structure similar to the previous-documented temperature structure, but the H2O maximum lags the temperature maximum by about a week. The H2O anomaly is positively correlated with the convection anomaly in the UT (261 hPa) and LS (68 hPa) but negatively correlated with the convection anomaly near the tropopause (100 hPa). This analysis provides a multi-parameter construct useful in validating and improving the parameterization of convection, clouds and cloud microphysics in MJO modeling.

  19. Aura CO and Ozone profiles retrieved from combined TES and MLS measurements: algorithm, data and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M.; Read, W. G.; Wagner, P. A.; Field, R. D.; Schwartz, M. J.; Kulawik, S. S.; Herman, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    The co-located TES nadir and MLS limb tangent measurements are optimally combined to retrieved Aura CO and Ozone profiles. Compared to the two standalone retrievals by the instrument teams, these new Aura joint retrievals improve the profile resolution and sensitive ranges in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. For example, the degree of freedom for signal (DOFS) between surface and 50hPa for TES alone is < 2, and for the combined CO profiles is 2-4. The Aura CO version 1 product including the retrieval characteristic data has been released to the public. We briefly describe the algorithm and the data validation using in-situ data for CO. This product has been used to study complex chemical-transport processes related to pollutants emitted from the fires in the tropical region. We will present examples of Aura CO data applications, including evaluations of the key parameters describing the pollutant transport mechanisms in the NASA GISS composition-climate model. The prototyping for Aura O3 profile retrieval is in progress. We will present some preliminary results.

  20. Multiple trajectory analysis of MLS observed stratospheric chemical ozone loss in Arctic winter 1995/96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmen, C.; Riese, R.; Grooss, J.-U.; Mueller, R.

    2003-04-01

    Daily ozone loss rates and total chemical ozone depletion during Arctic winter 1995/96 were evaluated based on ozone measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Employing the 3-dimensional transport scheme of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), trajectories from successive satellite measurements were compared with each other using a variation of the Match technique, such that ozone concentration differences between double sounded (``matched'') air parcels represent chemical ozone loss. The ensemble average of many (typically 30--150) matches yields an average ozone depletion rate for the area covered by the trajectories. Total ozone loss from late December to early March was 1.4 ppmv at the 475 K isentropic level within the vortex core (PV > 45 PVU at 475 K). Ozone loss decreased towards the edge of the vortex, no significant ozone loss could be observed in the outer vortex edge (between ≈ 27 and ≈ 35 PVU). Daily ozone loss was found to average 10 ppbv/day throughout January and throughout the extended vortex area. For the month of February daily ozone loss rates were highly variable and peaked at 40 ppbv/day in the vortex (≈ 35 PVU). In this study, no chemical ozone loss could be observed in the outer vortex edge region during February, which suggests that the dynamically defined vortex boundary separated two different chemical regimes during February, but not in January.

  1. BRAM: a reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observations by the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errera, Quentin; Braathen, Geir; Chabrillat, Simon; Christophe, Yves; Santee, Michelle; Skachko, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    BRAM is a reanalysis of Aura MLS observations produced by the Belgian Assimilation System of Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE). BASCOE is based on a chemistry transport model (CTM) for the stratosphere involving 58 species. All species are advected by the Flux Form Semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) scheme (i.e. Lin and Rood, 1996). The CTM account for gas phase, photolysis and heterogeneous reactions relevant for the stratosphere. Micro-physics of Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) is also taken into account in the model by a simple parameterization. For this study, the model is driven by ERA-Interim dynamical fields. The horizontal resolution is set to 2.5° in latitude and 3.75° in longitude. Vertically, the model has 37 levels from the surface to 0.1 hPa which correspond to the ERA-Interim levels in the stratosphere and a subset of them in the troposphere. BASCOE can be run in 4D-Var or EnKF and for BRAM, the EnKF method has been used. The period of the reanalysis starts in August 2004, at the beginning of the MLS mission, and go up to the present. Assimilated species are MLS retrieved profiles of O3, CO, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO and CH3Cl. This contribution will present the setup of BASCOE, the evaluation of BRAM and the way to get the data.

  2. The role of angiogenesis, vascular maturation, regression and stroma infiltration in dormancy and growth of implanted MLS ovarian carcinoma spheroids.

    PubMed

    Gilead, Assaf; Meir, Gila; Neeman, Michal

    2004-02-10

    MLS ovarian epithelial carcinoma multicellular spheroids xenografted subcutaneously in CD-1 nude mice displayed growth delay, or dormancy, of up to 52 days. In the study reported here, implanted MLS spheroids were used for testing the role of angiogenesis and vascular maturation in triggering the initiation of tumor progression. The kinetics and impact of neovascular maturation and functionality, in dormancy, and growth of MLS spheroid xenografts were studied noninvasively by BOLD contrast MRI. MR data were supported by histologic staining for biotinylated albumin as a blood pool marker and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) as marker for perivascular mural cells. Although the tumor periphery showed higher levels of total and mature vasculature than normal skin, the fraction of mature out of the total vessels as detected by MRI vascular maturation index (VMI(MRI)) was significantly lower in the tumor both before and after tumor exit from dormancy. The neovasculature induced by the implanted spheroid was unstable and showed cycles of vessel growth and regression. Surprisingly, this instability was not restricted to the immature vessels, but rather included also regression of mature vessels. During dormancy, neovasculature was predominantly peripheral with no infiltration into the implanted spheroid. Infiltration of alpha-SMA positive stroma cells into the spheroid was associated with functional vascularization and tumor growth. Thus, stroma infiltration and vascular maturation are an important checkpoint linking the angiogenic switch with initiation of tumor progression. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Prevalence and association of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) resistance with resistance to moxifloxacin in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Grit; Degner, Angelika; Cohen, Stuart H; Silva, Joseph; Rodloff, Arne C

    2003-03-01

    Clostridium difficile remains the leading cause of nosocomially acquired diarrhoea. C. difficile usually exhibits resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics, whereas susceptibility to other drugs may vary. This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile to different antibiotics over a period of time and characterizes molecular mechanisms for resistance. One hundred and seventy-three toxigenic and 19 non-toxigenic C. difficile strains, recovered from patients in two university hospitals in Germany between 1986 and 2001, were investigated for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin and metronidazole employing the Etest. The genetic background for resistance was analysed using PCR and DNA sequencing. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. Resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and moxifloxacin was found in 27%, 36% and 12% of the tested strains, respectively. High-level resistance (MIC > 128 mg/L) against erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 25% of the strains tested. Thirty-four of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-resistant strains carried the erythromycin resistance methylase gene. The results indicate an increase in the prevalence of resistance to MLS(B) and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in C. difficile. Fluoroquinolone resistance is associated with resistance to MLS(B) antimicrobials.

  4. Tropospheric ozone at tropical and middle latitudes derived from TOMS/MLS residual: Comparison with a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Martin, R. V.

    2003-05-01

    The tropospheric ozone residual method is used to derive zonal maps of tropospheric column ozone using concurrent measurements of total column ozone from Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe (EP) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric column ozone from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Our study shows that the zonal variability in TOMS total column ozone at tropical and subtropical latitudes is mostly of tropospheric origin. The seasonal and zonal variability in tropospheric column ozone (TCO), derived from the TOMS/MLS residual, is consistent with that derived from the convective cloud differential method and ozonesonde measurements in regions where these data overlap. A comparison of TCO derived from the TOMS/MLS residual and a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) for 1996-1997 shows good agreement in the tropics south of the equator. Both the model and observations show similar zonal and seasonal characteristics including an enhancement of TCO in the Indonesian region associated with the 1997 El Niño. Both show the decline of the wave-1 pattern from the tropics to the extratropics as lightning activity and the Walker circulation decline. Both show enhanced ozone in the downwelling branches of the Hadley Circulation near ±30o. Model and observational differences increase with latitude during winter and spring.

  5. The influence of Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser therapy on clinical features, microcirculatory abnormalities and selected modulators of angiogenesis in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Kita, Jacek; Dakowicz, Agnieszka; Chwieśko-Minarowska, Sylwia; Moskal, Diana; Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Jabłońska, Ewa; Klimiuk, Piotr Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser therapy on clinical features, microvascular changes in nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) and circulating modulators releasing as a consequence of vascular endothelium injury such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) in patients with primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Seventy-eight RP patients and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. All patients with RP received MLS laser irradiation for 3 weeks. Clinical, NVC and laboratory investigations were performed before and after the MLS laser therapy. The serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After 3 weeks of MLS laser therapy, the clinical improvement manifested by decreasing of the number of RP attacks, mean duration of Raynaud's attack and pain intensity in RP patients was observed. After MLS laser therapy in 65% of patients with primary and in 35% with secondary RP, an increase in the loop number and/or a reduction in avascular areas in NVC were observed. In comparison with a control group, higher serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 in RP patients was demonstrated. After MLS laser therapy, a reduction of Ang-2 in both groups of RP patients was found. Our results suggest that NVC may reflect microvascular changes associated with clinical improvement after MLS laser therapy in patients with primary and secondary RP. Ang-2 serum levels may be a useful marker of microvascular abnormalities in RP patients treated with MLS laser therapy.

  6. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Montreal/Dorval International Airport, Montreal, Canada, using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA terminal configured vehicle B-737 was flown in support of the world wide FAA demonstration of the time reference scanning beam microwave landing system. A summary of the flight performance of the TCV airplane during demonstration automatic approaches and landings while utilizing TRSB/MLS guidance is presented. The TRSB/MLS provided the terminal area guidance necessary for automatically flying curved, noise abatement type approaches and landings with short finals.

  7. An assessment of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2, and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui; Zhai, Chengxing; Wu, Longtao; Minschwaner, Kenneth; Molod, Andrea M.; Tompkins, Adrian M.

    2015-11-01

    Global water vapor (H2O) measurements from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used to evaluate upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) H2O products produced by NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), its newest release MERRA2, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalyses. Focusing on the H2O amount and transport from UT to LS, we show that all reanalyses overestimate annual global mean UT H2O by up to ~150% compared to MLS observations. Substantial differences in H2O transport are also found between the observations and reanalyses. Vertically, H2O transport across the tropical tropopause (16-20 km) in the reanalyses is faster by up to ~86% compared to MLS observations. In the tropical LS (21-25 km), the mean vertical transport from ECMWF is 168% faster than the MLS estimate, while MERRA and MERRA2 have vertical transport velocities within 10% of MLS values. Horizontally at 100 hPa, both observation and reanalyses show faster poleward transport in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Compared to MLS observations, the H2O horizontal transport for both MERRA and MERRA2 is 106% faster in the NH but about 42-45% slower in the SH. ECMWF horizontal transport is 16% faster than MLS observations in both hemispheres. The ratio of northward to southward transport velocities for ECMWF is 1.4, which agrees with MLS observation, while the corresponding ratios for MERRA and MERRA2 are about 3.5 times larger.

  8. [Cutaneous aplasia, non compaction of the left ventricle and severe cardiac arrhythmia: a new case of MLS syndrome (microphtalmia with linear skin defects)].

    PubMed

    Kherbaoui-Redouani, L; Eschard, C; Bednarek, N; Morville, P; Bednare, N

    2003-03-01

    A female neonate presented with cutaneous aplasia located to the face and the neck associated with a non compaction of the left ventricle leading to the diagnosis of MLS syndrome (microphtalmia with linear skin defects). The follow-up was complicated by life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia underlying prevention by an early diagnosis and adequate care. MLS syndrome and non compaction of myocardium are both located on X chromosome.

  9. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) recorded from neonates under 13 hours old using conventional and maximum length sequence (MLS) stimulation.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jessica; Brennan, Siobhan; Lineton, Ben; Stevens, John; Thornton, A Roger D

    2007-11-01

    Maximum length sequence (MLS) stimulation allows click evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) to be averaged at very high stimulation rates. This enables a faster reduction of noise contamination of the response, and has been shown to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of CEOAEs recorded from adult subjects. This study set out to investigate whether MLS averaging can enhance the SNR of CEOAEs recorded in newborns within the first day after birth, and so improve the pass rates for OAE screening in this period, when false alarm rates are very high. CEOAEs were recorded in a neonatal ward from 57 ears in 37 newborns ranging from 6 to 13h old, using both conventional (50/s) and high rate (5000/s) MLS averaging. SNR values and pass rates were compared for responses obtained within equal recording times at both rates. MLS averaging produced an SNR improvement of up to 3.8dB, with the greatest improvement found in higher frequency bands. This SNR advantage resulted in pass rate improvement between 5% and 10%, depending on pass criterion. A significant effect of age was found on both SNR and pass rate, with newborns between 6 and 10h old showing significantly lower values than those tested between 10 and 13h after birth, as well as a much greater improvement due to MLS averaging. The findings show that MLS averaging can reduce false alarm rates by up to 15% in very young neonates in a neonatal ward setting.

  10. Monitoring the distribution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan by using OMI/MLS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noreen, Asma; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Zeb, Naila

    2016-07-01

    Pakistan is a semi-arid, agricultural country located in Indian Sub-continent, Asia. Due to exponential population growth, poor control and regulatory measures and practices in industries, it is facing a major problem of air pollution. The concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols are showing an increasing trend in general. One of these greenhouse gases is tropospheric ozone, one of the criteria pollutant, which has a radiative forcing (RF) of about 0.4 ± 0.2 Wm-2, contributing about 14% of the present total RF. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan during 2004 to 2014 was studied by using combined OMI/MLS product, which was derived by tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method. Results showed an overall increase of 3.2 ± 2.2 DU in tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan since October 2004. The mean spatial distribution showed high concentrations of ozone in the Punjab and southern Sindh where there is high population densities along with rapid urbanization and enhanced anthropogenic activities. The seasonal variations were observed in the provinces of the country and TO3 VCDs were found to be high during summer while minimum during winter. The statistical analysis by using seasonal Mann Kendal test also showed strong positive trends over the four provinces as well as in major cities of Pakistan. These variations were driven by various factors such as seasonality in UV-B fluxes, seasonality in ozone precursor gases such as NOx and VOCs and agricultural fire activities in Pakistan. A strong correlation of 97% was found between fire events and tropospheric ozone concentration over the country. The results also depicted the influence of UV-B radiations on the tropospheric ozone concentration over different regions of Pakistan especially in Baluchistan and Sindh provinces.

  11. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  12. Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Wohltmann, I.; Wegner, T.; Takeda, M.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Lehmann, R.; Santee, M. L.; Rex, M.

    2015-08-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO and of HCl, ClO and HNO3 by MLS along air mass trajectories to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels, and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/10 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed, and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an airmass encountered PSCs. The observed and modelled dependence of the rate of chlorine activation on the PSC composition class was small. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  13. Merging OSIRIS, SAGE II and MLS Vertical Ozone Profiles for the Determination of Long Term Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenstein, D. A.; Lloyd, N.; Bourassa, A. E.; Roth, C.; Rieger, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The OSIRIS instrument has been in operation onboard the Odin spacecraft since the autumn of 2001. Since that time OSIRIS has routinely measured spectrally dispersed limb-scattered sunlight from which vertical ozone profiles have been derived. The length of the OSIRIS ozone data record makes it a valuable resource for the analysis of long term trends. However, on its own it is not of sufficient length to capture all of the relevant signatures required to completely understand important changes in the vertical distribution of ozone. In particular the 1997 turnaround is not captured within the OSIRIS time series. For this reason it is important that the OSIRIS measurements be combined, or merged, with other data records like the SAGE II time series before a full analysis can be performed. This paper is focused on the merged SAGE II - OSIRIS time series and the resulting trends. It has been recently noted that the post 1997 positive trends at around 40 km that have been derived from this time series are higher than those calculated using other merged data sets. In this paper we will detail our efforts to understand why this is so. We will present analyses related to instrument drift, sampling biases and sensitivity to the method used to determine long term trends. Included along with the thorough analysis of the SAGE II - OSIRIS merged time series is an analysis of a SAGE II - MLS time series combined using the exact same method. Similarities and differences in the results derived from the two merged time series will also be discussed.

  14. Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Wohltmann, I.; Wegner, T.; Takeda, M.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Lehmann, R.; Santee, M. L.; Rex, M.

    2016-12-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO and of HCl and ClO by MLS along air mass trajectories to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels, and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/2010 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed, and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an airmass encountered PSCs. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  15. Use of AIRS, OMI, MLS, and TES Data in Assessing Forest Ecosystem Exposure to Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-level ozone at high levels poses health threats to exposed flora and fauna, including negative impacts to human health. While concern is common regarding depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, portions of the urban and rural United States periodically have high ambient levels of tropospheric ozone on the ground. Ozone pollution can cause a variety of impacts to susceptible vegetation (e.g., Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine species in the southwestern United States), such as stunted growth, alteration of growth form, needle or leaf chlorosis, and impaired ability to withstand drought-induced water stress. In addition, Southern Californian forests with high ozone exposures have been recently subject to multiyear droughts that have led to extensive forest overstory mortality from insect outbreaks and increased incidence of wildfires. Residual forests in these impacted areas may be more vulnerable to high ozone exposures and to other forest threats than ever before. NASA sensors collect a wealth of atmospheric data that have been used recently for mapping and monitoring regional tropospheric ozone levels. AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) data could be used to assess forest ecosystem exposure to ozone. Such NASA data hold promise for providing better or at least complementary synoptic information on ground-level ozone levels that Federal agency partners can use to assess forest health trends and to mitigate the threats as needed in compliance with Federal laws and mandates. NASA data products on ozone concentrations may be able to aid applications of DSTs (decision support tools) adopted by the USDA FS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service) and by the NPS (National Park Service), such as the Ozone Calculator, in which ground ozone estimates are employed to assess ozone impacts to forested vegetation.

  16. Polar stratospheric cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modeled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Wohltmann, Ingo; Wegner, Tobias; Takeda, Masanori; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Lehmann, Ralph; Santee, Michelle L.; Rex, Markus

    2016-03-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO, and of HCl and ClO by MLS along air mass trajectories, to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/2010 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an air mass encountered PSCs. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  17. The Contributions of Chemistry and Transport to Low Arctic Ozone in March 2011 Derived from Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, S. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stratospheric and total columns of Arctic O3 (63-90 N) in late March 2011 averaged 320 and 349 DU, respectively. These values are 74 DU lower than averages for the previous 6 years. We use Aura MLS O3 observations to quantify the roles of chemistry and transport and find there are two major reasons for low O3 in March 2011: heterogeneous chemical loss and a late final warming that delayed the resupply of O3 until April. Daily vortex-averaged partial columns in the lowermost stratosphere (p greater than 133 hPa) and middle stratosphere (p less than 29 hPa) are unaffected by local heterogeneous chemistry and show a near total lack of transport into the vortex between late January and late March, contributing to the observed low column. The lower stratospheric (LS) column (133-29 hPa) is affected by both heterogeneous chemistry and transport. Low interannual variability of Aura MLS 0 3 columns and temperature inside the Arctic vortex (2004-2011) shows that the transport contribution to vortex O3 in fall and early winter is nearly the same each year. The descent of MLS N2O vortex profiles in 2011 provides an estimate of O3 transported into the LS column during late winter. By quantifying the role of transport we determine that PSC-driven chemical loss causes 80 (plus or minus 10) DU of vortex-averaged O3 loss by late March 2011. Without heterogeneous chemical loss, March 2011 vortex O3 would have been 40 DU lower than normal due to the late final warming and resupply of O3 which did not occur until April.

  18. A stimulatory Mls-1 superantigen is destroyed by ultraviolet light while other Mtv-7 antigens remain intact

    SciTech Connect

    Dannecker, G.; Mecheri, S.; Clarke, K.; Dudhane, A.; Zhiqin Wang; Hoffmann, M.K. )

    1992-12-01

    Accessory cells present Ag together with costimulatory signals as immunogens and without costimulatory signals as tolerogens. Responsiveness and unresponsiveness are thus alternatives of T cell immune reactions to Ag. Superantigens appear to make an exception; being presented by accessory cells capable of providing costimulatory signals, these Ag induce a strong T cell response but leave T cells unresponsive to a secondary challenge (anergy). The authors show here that T cell anergy is not a mandatory consequence of superantigen-induced activation. Mls-1[sup [minus

  19. The Nkx5/HMX homeodomain protein MLS-2 is required for proper tube cell shape in the C.elegans excretory system

    PubMed Central

    Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Stone, Craig E.; Murray, John I.; Sundaram, Meera V.

    2012-01-01

    Cells perform wide varieties of functions that are facilitated, in part, by adopting unique shapes. Many of the genes and pathways that promote cell fate specification have been elucidated. However, relatively few transcription factors have been identified that promote shape acquisition after fate specification. Here we show that the Nkx5/HMX homeodomain protein MLS-2 is required for cellular elongation and shape maintenance of two tubular epithelial cells in the C.elegans excretory system, the duct and pore cells. The Nkx5/HMX family is highly conserved from sea urchins to humans, with known roles in neuronal and glial development. MLS-2 is expressed in the duct and pore, and defects in mls-2 mutants first arise when the duct and pore normally adopt unique shapes. MLS-2 cooperates with the EGF-Ras-ERK pathway to turn on the LIN-48/Ovo transcription factor in the duct cell during morphogenesis. These results reveal a novel interaction between the Nkx5/HMX family and the EGF-Ras pathway and implicate a transcription factor, MLS-2, as a regulator of cell shape. PMID:22537498

  20. The Nkx5/HMX homeodomain protein MLS-2 is required for proper tube cell shape in the C. elegans excretory system.

    PubMed

    Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Stone, Craig E; Murray, John I; Sundaram, Meera V

    2012-06-15

    Cells perform wide varieties of functions that are facilitated, in part, by adopting unique shapes. Many of the genes and pathways that promote cell fate specification have been elucidated. However, relatively few transcription factors have been identified that promote shape acquisition after fate specification. Here we show that the Nkx5/HMX homeodomain protein MLS-2 is required for cellular elongation and shape maintenance of two tubular epithelial cells in the C. elegans excretory system, the duct and pore cells. The Nkx5/HMX family is highly conserved from sea urchins to humans, with known roles in neuronal and glial development. MLS-2 is expressed in the duct and pore, and defects in mls-2 mutants first arise when the duct and pore normally adopt unique shapes. MLS-2 cooperates with the EGF-Ras-ERK pathway to turn on the LIN-48/Ovo transcription factor in the duct cell during morphogenesis. These results reveal a novel interaction between the Nkx5/HMX family and the EGF-Ras pathway and implicate a transcription factor, MLS-2, as a regulator of cell shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the detection of YF-49-92.MLS in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qin; Huang, Xin; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Liu, Guanlan; Xiao, Yi; Sun, Lixin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Luyong; Xie, Shaofei; Huang, Haiyan

    2013-10-01

    YF-49-92.MLS is a novel candidate for TB treatment. An accurate, precise and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of YF-49-92.MLS in rat plasma using verapamil as an IS is reported in this paper. Proper retention time and excellent peak shape were acquired using an Agilent Zorbax(®) SB-C18 column with the mobile phase of 5 mmol/l ammonium acetate, 0.1% formic acid-methanol (30:70, v/v). The LLOQ was 1 ng/ml. The calibration curves encompassed concentrations from 20 to 5000 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were within 15% by determining low, medium and high concentration samples. Extraction recovery, stability, and matrix effects were also fully validated. This method has been validated to be rapid and sensitive, and successfully applied to the PK study of YF-49-92.MLS in rat plasma.

  2. Navigation and flight director guidance for the NASA/FAA helicopter MLS curved approach flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Lee, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    The navigation and flight director guidance systems implemented in the NASA/FAA helicopter microwave landing system (MLS) curved approach flight test program is described. Flight test were conducted at the U.S. Navy's Crows Landing facility, using the NASA Ames UH-lH helicopter equipped with the V/STOLAND avionics system. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the feasibility of flying complex, curved and descending approaches to a landing using MLS flight director guidance. A description of the navigation aids used, the avionics system, cockpit instrumentation and on-board navigation equipment used for the flight test is provided. Three generic reference flight paths were developed and flown during the test. They were as follows: U-Turn, S-turn and Straight-In flight profiles. These profiles and their geometries are described in detail. A 3-cue flight director was implemented on the helicopter. A description of the formulation and implementation of the flight director laws is also presented. Performance data and analysis is presented for one pilot conducting the flight director approaches.

  3. Presence of plasmid pA15 correlates with prevalence of constitutive MLS(B) resistance in group A streptococcal isolates at a university hospital in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Fang; Wang, Chih-Hung; Janapatla, Rajendra Prasad; Fu, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the role of a plasmid bearing the erm(B) gene on the prevalence of the macrolide, lincosamide and group B streptogramin (MLS(B)) phenotype of group A streptococci (GAS) and to characterize the plasmid and determine the clonal relation between the erythromycin-resistant isolates. Two hundred and five erythromycin-resistant GAS isolates were collected from 1990 to 2006. Colony hybridization, PCR, plasmid curing and PFGE techniques were used to analyse the mechanisms behind the phenotypes. Among the 56 isolates with constitutive MLS(B) (cMLS(B)) resistance, 53 isolates harboured a plasmid, pA15, of 19 kb. erm(B) was on pA15 and it confered a cMLS(B) resistance phenotype. The prevalence rate of the pA15-containing isolates was 36.3% from 1993 to 1995, but the plasmid could not be detected from 2004 to 2006. To link the high-level resistance to pA15, clinical isolate A15 was selected and pA15 was cured by novobiocin. In the plasmid-cured strain SW503, the erythromycin MIC decreased from 256 to 0.032 mg/L. By electroporation, pA15 was re-introduced into the plasmid-cured erythromycin-susceptible strain, and the high-level erythromycin resistance was restored. Plasmid pA15 was also transferred to group B streptococci and group C streptococci by electroporation. In all the pA15-containing isolates, emm1 type was present and pulse type J was predominant (48 of 54 isolates). The plasmid pA15 mediated cMLS(B) resistance in the mid-1990s, but pA15 was not detected in the clinical isolates from 2004 onwards, which correlates with the absence of cMLS(B) resistance in this region.

  4. An Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Moisture Simulations in Analysis and Reanalysis Models Using 10-Year Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2014-12-01

    We use 10-year global water vapor maxing ratio (H2O) measurements from Microwave LimeSounder (MLS) on Aura satellite to evaluate the performance of three analysis/reanalysis models: Goddard Earth Observation System data assimilation system, version 5 (GEOS5); Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for research and Applications (MERRA); and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We focus on H2O variations on both seasonal and decadal time scales. Vertical and horizontal speeds of H2O transport are estimated from the pressure-time and latitude-time series analyses. The differences between the MLS observations and analysis/reanalysis models are quantified.

  5. Semantic Labelling of Ultra Dense Mls Point Clouds in Urban Road Corridors Based on Fusing Crf with Shape Priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Polewski, P.; Krzystek, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a labelling method for the semantic analysis of ultra-high point density MLS data (up to 4000 points/m2) in urban road corridors is developed based on combining a conditional random field (CRF) for the context-based classification of 3D point clouds with shape priors. The CRF uses a Random Forest (RF) for generating the unary potentials of nodes and a variant of the contrastsensitive Potts model for the pair-wise potentials of node edges. The foundations of the classification are various geometric features derived by means of co-variance matrices and local accumulation map of spatial coordinates based on local neighbourhoods. Meanwhile, in order to cope with the ultra-high point density, a plane-based region growing method combined with a rule-based classifier is applied to first fix semantic labels for man-made objects. Once such kind of points that usually account for majority of entire data amount are pre-labeled; the CRF classifier can be solved by optimizing the discriminative probability for nodes within a subgraph structure excluded from pre-labeled nodes. The process can be viewed as an evidence fusion step inferring a degree of belief for point labelling from different sources. The MLS data used for this study were acquired by vehicle-borne Z+F phase-based laser scanner measurement, which permits the generation of a point cloud with an ultra-high sampling rate and accuracy. The test sites are parts of Munich City which is assumed to consist of seven object classes including impervious surfaces, tree, building roof/facade, low vegetation, vehicle and pole. The competitive classification performance can be explained by the diverse factors: e.g. the above ground height highlights the vertical dimension of houses, trees even cars, but also attributed to decision-level fusion of graph-based contextual classification approach with shape priors. The use of context-based classification methods mainly contributed to smoothing of labelling by removing

  6. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, E.; Barret, B.; Massart, S.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Piacentini, A.; El Amraoui, L.; Pannekoucke, O.; Cariolle, D.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate and temporally resolved fields of free-troposphere ozone are of major importance to quantify the intercontinental transport of pollution and the ozone radiative forcing. In this study we examine the impact of assimilating ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) in a global chemical transport model (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle, MOCAGE). The assimilation of the two instruments is performed by means of a variational algorithm (4-D-VAR) and allows to constrain stratospheric and tropospheric ozone simultaneously. The analysis is first computed for the months of August and November 2008 and validated against ozone-sondes measurements to verify the presence of observations and model biases. It is found that the IASI Tropospheric Ozone Column (TOC, 1000-225 hPa) should be bias-corrected prior to assimilation and MLS lowermost level (215 hPa) excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, a longer analysis of 6 months (July-August 2008) showed that the combined assimilation of MLS and IASI is able to globally reduce the uncertainty (Root Mean Square Error, RMSE) of the modeled ozone columns from 30% to 15% in the Upper-Troposphere/Lower-Stratosphere (UTLS, 70-225 hPa) and from 25% to 20% in the free troposphere. The positive effect of assimilating IASI tropospheric observations is very significant at low latitudes (30° S-30° N), whereas it is not demonstrated at higher latitudes. Results are confirmed by a comparison with additional ozone datasets like the Measurements of OZone and wAter vapour by aIrbus in-service airCraft (MOZAIC) data, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total ozone columns and several high-altitude surface measurements. Finally, the analysis is found to be little sensitive to the assimilation parameters and the model chemical scheme, due to the high frequency of satellite observations compared to the average life-time of free

  7. Flight tests of three-dimensional path-redefinition algorithms for transition from Radio Navigation (RNAV) to Microwave Landing System (MLS) navigation when flying an aircraft on autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains results of flight tests for three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first algorithm, called Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track and altitude error at transition by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called Tangent Path, also eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track and altitude errors and chooses a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called Continued Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track, altitude, and track angle errors by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. The flight tests were conducted on the Transportation Systems Research Vehicle, a small twin-jet transport aircraft modified for research under the Advanced Transport Operating Systems program at Langley Research Center. The flight tests showed that the algorithms provided a smooth transition to MLS.

  8. Evaluation of CO Distribution and Variation in the UTLS from GMI and GEOS-Chem Simulations by Using Aura MLS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Jiang, J. H.; Murray, L. T.; Damon, M. R.; Su, H.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have investigated the distribution and transport of carbon monoxide (CO) in the troposphere using both model simulations and satellite observations. However, how model performs in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is still not clear. The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem are two global 3-D chemical transport models (CTMs) driven by assimilated meteorological observations. This study evaluates the simulations of CO during 2004-2012 in the UTLS region from these two models by using the latest version (V4.2) of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data. The spatial distributions, temporal variations and tape recorder of CO in the UTLS region are compared between model simulations and MLS observations. We also investigate the combined impacts of surface emission and deep convection on CO concentration in the UTLS over different regions using both model simulations and satellite observations. Results show that GMI and GEOS-Chem simulations of CO are similar in spatial distribution and magnitude. However, the CO peak values are smaller than MLS observations, with ~50% underestimation at 100 hPa. Besides, the seasonal cycles of CO in the UTLS are not well simulated over most regions where high CO centers are located above. The two models are capable to reproduce the emission-convection-CO relationships as observed by MLS over some regions at 215 hPa and 147 hPa.

  9. The HMX/NKX homeodomain protein MLS-2 specifies the identity of the AWC sensory neuron type via regulation of the ceh-36 Otx gene in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Rinho; Sengupta, Piali

    2010-01-01

    The differentiated features of postmitotic neurons are dictated by the expression of specific transcription factors. The mechanisms by which the precise spatiotemporal expression patterns of these factors are regulated are poorly understood. In C. elegans, the ceh-36 Otx homeobox gene is expressed in the AWC sensory neurons throughout postembryonic development, and regulates terminal differentiation of this neuronal subtype. Here, we show that the HMX/NKX homeodomain protein MLS-2 regulates ceh-36 expression specifically in the AWC neurons. Consequently, the AWC neurons fail to express neuron type-specific characteristics in mls-2 mutants. mls-2 is expressed transiently in postmitotic AWC neurons, and directly initiates ceh-36 expression. CEH-36 subsequently interacts with a distinct site in its cis-regulatory sequences to maintain its own expression, and also directly regulates the expression of AWC-specific terminal differentiation genes. We also show that MLS-2 acts in additional neuron types to regulate their development and differentiation. Our analysis describes a transcription factor cascade that defines the unique postmitotic characteristics of a sensory neuron subtype, and provides insights into the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms that generate functional diversity in the sensory nervous system. PMID:20150279

  10. Bacteria evade immune recognition via TLR13 and binding of their 23S rRNA by MLS antibiotics by the same mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hochrein, Hubertus; Kirschning, Carsten J

    2013-03-01

    The immune system recognizes pathogens and other danger by means of pattern recognition receptors. Recently, we have demonstrated that the orphan Toll-like receptor 13 (TLR13) senses a defined sequence of the bacterial rRNA and that bacteria use specific mechanisms to evade macrolide lincosamide streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics detection via TLR13.

  11. Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects (MLS) associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a patient with Familial 12.9Mb Terminal Xp deletion.

    PubMed

    Margari, Lucia; Colonna, Annalisa; Craig, Francesco; Gentile, Mattia; Giannella, Giustina; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Legrottaglie, Anna Rosi

    2014-09-02

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant male-lethal developmental disorder characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and linear skin defects of the face and neck. Additional features affecting the eyes, heart, brain or genitourinary system can occur, corroborating the intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability. The majority of patients display monosomy of the Xp22.2 region, where the holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS) gene is located. We describe a 15-year-old-female affected by MLS syndrome and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD has not previously been reported as a component of MLS. Our patient shows a large deletion of 12.9 Mb, involving Xp22.32-p22.2, which encompasses both the HCCS gene and autism X-linked genes. Thus, patients with a large deletion at Xp22 might display MLS with ASD, due to the deletion of contiguous genes, although the highly variable phenotype of these patients could be influenced by several genetic mechanisms, including different tissue-specific X-inactivation and somatic mosaicism.

  12. The HMX/NKX homeodomain protein MLS-2 specifies the identity of the AWC sensory neuron type via regulation of the ceh-36 Otx gene in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Rinho; Sengupta, Piali

    2010-03-01

    The differentiated features of postmitotic neurons are dictated by the expression of specific transcription factors. The mechanisms by which the precise spatiotemporal expression patterns of these factors are regulated are poorly understood. In C. elegans, the ceh-36 Otx homeobox gene is expressed in the AWC sensory neurons throughout postembryonic development, and regulates terminal differentiation of this neuronal subtype. Here, we show that the HMX/NKX homeodomain protein MLS-2 regulates ceh-36 expression specifically in the AWC neurons. Consequently, the AWC neurons fail to express neuron type-specific characteristics in mls-2 mutants. mls-2 is expressed transiently in postmitotic AWC neurons, and directly initiates ceh-36 expression. CEH-36 subsequently interacts with a distinct site in its cis-regulatory sequences to maintain its own expression, and also directly regulates the expression of AWC-specific terminal differentiation genes. We also show that MLS-2 acts in additional neuron types to regulate their development and differentiation. Our analysis describes a transcription factor cascade that defines the unique postmitotic characteristics of a sensory neuron subtype, and provides insights into the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms that generate functional diversity in the sensory nervous system.

  13. A search for mountain waves in MLS stratospheric limb radiances fron the winter Northern Hemisphere: data analysis and global mountain wave modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, J. H.; Eckermann, S. D.; Wu, D. L.; Ma, J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite evidence from ground-based data that flow over mountains is a dominant source of gravity waves (GWs) for the Northern Hemisphere winter middle atmosphere, GW-related signals in global limb radiances from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) have shown little direct evidence of mountain waves.

  14. A search for mountain waves in MLS stratospheric limb radiances fron the winter Northern Hemisphere: data analysis and global mountain wave modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, J. H.; Eckermann, S. D.; Wu, D. L.; Ma, J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite evidence from ground-based data that flow over mountains is a dominant source of gravity waves (GWs) for the Northern Hemisphere winter middle atmosphere, GW-related signals in global limb radiances from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) have shown little direct evidence of mountain waves.

  15. Reanalysis of stratospheric chemical composition based on assimilation of EOS Aura MLS and MIPAS data: latest improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errera, Quentin; Botek, Edith; Chabrillat, Simon; Christophe, Yves; Skachko, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    During last year EGU meeting, BIRA-IASB presented early results of a reanalysis of the stratospheric chemical composition based of assimilation of satellites observations using the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE). Presented results were based on an assimilation of MLS (O3, H2O, HCl, HNO3, ClO) and MIPAS (CH4, N2O, NO2, N2O5, ClONO2, CFC-11, CFC-12) for 2008. This year contribution will present the latest improvement achieved including the extended period (May 2007 to Dec 2010). As done last year, the quality of the analyses will be discussed using comparison against ozonesondes and ACEFTS data. We will also discuss the ability of the system to produce useful analyses in the following stratospheric conditions: polar winters (i.e. denitrification, dehydration, chlorine activation and ozone destruction), polar winters perturbed by descent of mesospheric NOx, and the UTLS.

  16. Characterization of MLS(b) resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates carrying different SCCmec types.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, Cristiane R S; Mattos, Cláudio S; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Pereira, Eliezer M; dos Santos, Kátia R N

    2012-09-01

    This work characterizes MLS(b) resistance in 39 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 32 Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates. Of 21 erm(A) gene encoding MRSA isolates, 71.4% carried SCCmecIII, whereas of 12 isolates carrying the erm(C) gene, 83.3% carried SCCmecIV. Among the 25 MRSE isolates positive for the erm(C) gene, 80% had SCCmecIV or nontypeable cassettes. Isolates carrying these genes had MIC(90) ≥ 256 μg/mL to erythromycin and clindamycin. The msr(A) gene was associated with a low MIC(90) to these drugs. The erm(A) gene was associated with SCCmecIII in MRSA isolates, whereas the erm(C) gene was associated with SCCmecIV in both MRSA and MRSE isolates. © 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Validation of Aura MLS retrievals of temperature, water vapour and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower-middle stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaolu; Wright, Jonathon S.; Zheng, Xiangdong; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Vömel, Holger; Zhou, Xiuji

    2016-08-01

    We validate Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 3 (v3) and version 4 (v4) retrievals of summertime temperature, water vapour and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower-middle stratosphere (UTLS; 10-316 hPa) against balloon soundings collected during the Study of Ozone, Aerosols and Radiation over the Tibetan Plateau (SOAR-TP). Mean v3 and v4 profiles of temperature, water vapour and ozone in this region during the measurement campaigns are almost identical through most of the stratosphere (10-68 hPa), but differ in several respects in the upper troposphere and tropopause layer. Differences in v4 relative to v3 include slightly colder mean temperatures from 100 to 316 hPa, smaller mean water vapour mixing ratios in the upper troposphere (215-316 hPa) and a more vertically homogeneous profile of mean ozone mixing ratios below the climatological tropopause (100-316 hPa). These changes substantially improve agreement between ozonesondes and MLS ozone retrievals in the upper troposphere, but slightly worsen existing cold and dry biases at these levels. Aura MLS temperature profiles contain significant cold biases relative to collocated temperature measurements in several layers of the lower-middle stratosphere and in the upper troposphere. MLS retrievals of water vapour volume mixing ratio generally compare well with collocated measurements, excepting a substantial dry bias (-32 ± 11 % in v4) that extends through most of the upper troposphere (121-261 hPa). MLS retrievals of ozone volume mixing ratio are biased high relative to collocated ozonesondes in the stratosphere (18-83 hPa), but are biased low at 100 hPa. The largest relative biases in ozone retrievals (approximately +70 %) are located at 83 hPa. MLS v4 offers substantial benefits relative to v3, particularly with respect to water vapour and ozone. Key improvements include larger data yields, reduced noise in the upper troposphere and smaller fluctuations in the bias profile at pressures larger than 100

  18. Atmospheric inertia-gravity waves retrieved from level-2 data of the satellite microwave limb sounder Aura/MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocke, Klemens; Lainer, Martin; Moreira, Lorena; Hagen, Jonas; Fernandez Vidal, Susana; Schranz, Franziska

    2016-09-01

    The temperature profiles of the satellite experiment Aura/MLS are horizontally spaced by 1.5° or 165 km along the satellite orbit. These level-2 data contain valuable information about horizontal fluctuations in temperature, which are mainly induced by inertia-gravity waves. Wave periods of 2-12 h, horizontal wavelengths of 200-1500 km, and vertical wavelengths of 6-30 km efficiently contribute to the standard deviation of the horizontal temperature fluctuations. The study retrieves and discusses the global distributions of inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere during July 2015 and January 2016. We find many patterns that were previously present in data of TIMED/SABER, Aura/HIRDLS, and ECMWF analysis. However, it seems that Aura/MLS achieves a higher vertical resolution in the gravity wave maps since the maps are derived from the analysis of horizontal fluctuations along the orbit of the sounding volume. The zonal mean of the inertia-gravity wave distribution shows vertical modulations with scales of 10-20 km. Enhanced wave amplitudes occur in regions of increased zonal wind or in the vicinity of strong wind gradients. Further, we find a banana-like shape of enhanced inertia-gravity waves above the Andes in the winter mesosphere. We find areas of enhanced inertia-gravity wave activity above tropical deep convection zones at 100 hPa (z ˜ 13 km). Finally, we study the temporal evolution of inertia-gravity wave activity at 100 hPa in the African longitude sector from December 2015 to February 2016.

  19. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, E.; Barret, B.; Massart, S.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Piacentini, A.; El Amraoui, L.; Pannekoucke, O.; Cariolle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and temporally resolved fields of free-troposphere ozone are of major importance to quantify the intercontinental transport of pollution and the ozone radiative forcing. We consider a global chemical transport model (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle, MOCAGE) in combination with a linear ozone chemistry scheme to examine the impact of assimilating observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The assimilation of the two instruments is performed by means of a variational algorithm (4D-VAR) and allows to constrain stratospheric and tropospheric ozone simultaneously. The analysis is first computed for the months of August and November 2008 and validated against ozonesonde measurements to verify the presence of observations and model biases. Furthermore, a longer analysis of 6 months (July-December 2008) showed that the combined assimilation of MLS and IASI is able to globally reduce the uncertainty (root mean square error, RMSE) of the modeled ozone columns from 30 to 15% in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, 70-225 hPa). The assimilation of IASI tropospheric ozone observations (1000-225 hPa columns, TOC - tropospheric O3 column) decreases the RMSE of the model from 40 to 20% in the tropics (30° S-30° N), whereas it is not effective at higher latitudes. Results are confirmed by a comparison with additional ozone data sets like the Measurements of OZone and wAter vapour by aIrbus in-service airCraft (MOZAIC) data, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total ozone columns and several high-altitude surface measurements. Finally, the analysis is found to be insensitive to the assimilation parameters. We conclude that the combination of a simplified ozone chemistry scheme with frequent satellite observations is a valuable tool for the long-term analysis of stratospheric and free-tropospheric ozone.

  20. Effect of MLS(®) laser therapy with different dose regimes for the treatment of experimentally induced tendinopathy in sheep: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iacopetti, Ilaria; Perazzi, Anna; Maniero, Valentina; Martinello, Tiziana; Patruno, Marco; Glazar, Miljana; Busetto, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of Multiwave Locked System (MLS(®)), a particular model of low-level laser, in the acute phase of collagenase-induced tendon lesions in six adult sheep randomly assigned to two groups. Tendon injuries are common among human athletes and in sport horses, require a long recovery time, and have a high risk of relapse. Many traditional treatments are not able to repair the injured tendon tissue correctly. In recent years, the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) produced interesting results in inflammatory modulation in different musculoskeletal disorders. Group 1 received 10 treatments of MLS laser therapy at a fluence of 5 J/cm(2) on the left hindlimb. Group 2 received 10 treatments of MLS laser therapy at a fluence of 2.5 J/cm(2) on the left hindlimb. In every subject in both groups, the right hindlimb was considered as the control leg. Clinical follow-up and ultrasonography examinations were performed during the postoperative period, and histological examinations were performed at day 30 after the first application of laser therapy. In particular, results from histological examinations indicate that both treatments induced a statistically significant cell number decrease, although only in the second group did the values return to normal. Moreover, the MLS laser therapy dose of 2.5 J/cm(2) (group 2) caused a significant decrease of vessel area. In this study, clinical and histological evaluation demonstrated that a therapeutic dose <5 J/cm(2) furnished an anti-inflammatory effect, and induced a decrease of fibroblasts and vessel area. Overall, our results suggest that MLS laser therapy was effective in improving collagen fiber organization in the deep digital flexor tendon.

  1. An Ozone Profile Climatology based on Ozone-sondes and AURA MLS Data with Added Profiles for Ozone Hole Conditions and Wave One Parameterization for Tropical Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, G. J.; Ziemke, J. R.; Stauffer, R. M.; McPeters, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    An updated ozone profile climatology has been created for use in satellite and/or ground based ozone retrievals. This climatology was formed by combining 12 years of data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) with data from balloon sondes. The MLS instrument on Aura has excellent latitude coverage and measures ozone daily from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at 3.5 km resolution. This climatology consists of monthly average ozone profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering pressure altitudes (Z* pressure altitude coordinates) from 0 to 65 km. Ozone below 8 km (below 13 km at tropical latitudes) is based on ozonesondes, while ozone above 16 km (21 km at tropical latitudes) is based on MLS measurements. Sonde and MLS (V4.2) data are blended in the transition region. This climatology features two distinct profiles for the southern hemisphere (60-90S) from August to December. The profiles labeled "Hole" correspond to measurements taken inside the polar vortex while the profiles in the file labeled "No Hole" are averages taken from measurements outside the vortex. The filtering criteria for determining a profile inside/outside the vortex was done by analyzing the 50hPa ozone values. The 50hPa values are where the chemical depletion process is greatest and thus are a good indicator of the vortex boundary. We also include a representation of the observed zonal wave one tropospheric ozone feature in the tropics. Because ozonesonde stations are sparse in this region, we derive the tropospheric column ozone residual by subtracting the MLS stratospheric column from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total column. We then combine the result with ozonesonde data. A function is fitted to the data in several dimensions to better depict the climatology of both the tropospheric column and vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone in the tropics.

  2. Distinct fates of self-specific T cells developing in irradiation bone marrow chimeras: Clonal deletion, clonal anergy, or in vitro responsiveness to self-Mls-1a controlled by hemopoietic cells in the thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Speiser, D.E.; Chvatchko, Y.; Zinkernagel, R.M.; MacDonald, H.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Elimination of potentially self-reactive T lymphocytes during their maturation in the thymus has been shown to be a major mechanism in accomplishing self-tolerance. Previous reports demonstrated that clonal deletion of self-Mls-1a-specific V beta 6+ T lymphocyte is controlled by a radiosensitive I-E+ thymic component. Irradiation chimeras reconstituted with I-E- bone marrow showed substantial numbers of mature V beta 6+ T cells despite host Mls-1a expression. Analysis of the functional properties of such chimeric T cells revealed a surprising variability in their in vitro reactivity to host Mls-1a, depending on the H-2 haplotype of stem cells used for reconstitution. In chimeras reconstituted with B10.S (H-2s) stem cells, mature V beta 6+ lymphocytes were present but functionally anergic to host-type Mls-1a in vitro. In contrast, in chimeras reconstituted with B10.G (H-2q) bone marrow, nondeleted V beta 6+ cells were highly responsive to Mls-1a in vitro. These findings suggest that clonal anergy of V beta 6+ cells to self-Mls-1a may be controlled by the affinity/avidity of T cell receptor interactions with bone marrow-derived cells in the thymus depending on the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules involved. Furthermore, chimeras bearing host (Mls-1a)-reactive V beta 6+ cells did not differ clinically from those with anergic or deleted V beta 6+ cells and survived more than one year without signs of autoimmune disease. Interestingly, their spleen cells had no Mls-1a stimulatory capacity in vitro. Therefore, regulation at the level of antigen presentation may be an alternative mechanism for maintenance of tolerance to certain self-antigens such as Mls-1a.

  3. Comparison of ER-2 Aircraft and POAM-III, MLS, and SAGE-II Satellite Measurements During SOLVE Using Traditional Correlative Analysis and Trajectory Hunting Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Lyjak, L. V.; Froidevaux, L.; Santee, M. L.; Zawodny, J. M.; Hoppel, K. W.; Richard, E. C.; Spackman, J. R.; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We compared the version 5 Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), version 3 Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement-III (POAM-111) aboard the French satellite SPOT-IV, version 6.0 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE-II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, and NASA ER-2 aircraft measurements made in the northern hemisphere in January-February 2000 during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). This study addresses one of the key scientific objectives of the SOLVE campaign, namely, to validate multi-platform satellite measurements made in the polar stratosphere during winter. This intercomparison was performed using a traditional correlative analysis (TCA) and a trajectory hunting technique (THT). Launching backward and forward trajectories from the points of measurement, the THT identifies air parcels sampled at least twice within a prescribed match criterion during the course of 5 days. We found that the ozone measurements made by these four instruments agree most of the time within 110% in the stratosphere up to 1400 K (approximately 35 km). The water vapor measurements from POAM-III and the ER-2 Harvard Lyman-alpha hygrometer and JPL laser hygrometer agree to within 10.5 ppmv (or about +/-10%) in the lower stratosphere above 380 K. The MLS and ER-2 ClO measurements agree within their error bars for the TCA. The MLS and ER-2 nitric acid measurements near 17-20 km altitude agree within their uncertainties most of the time with a hint of a positive offset by MLS according to the TCA. We also applied the AER box model constrained by the ER-2 measurements for analysis of the ClO and HN03 measurements using the THT. We found that: (1) the model values of ClO are smaller by about 0.3-0.4 (0.2) ppbv below (above) 400 K than those by MLS and (2) the HN03 comparison shows a positive offset of MLS values by approximately 1 and 1-2 ppbv below 400 K and near 450 K, respectively. It is hard to

  4. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Emanuele; Barret, Brice; Massart, Sebastien; Piacentini, Andrea; Pannekoucke, Olivier; Cariolle, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Ozone acts as the main shield against UV radiation in the stratosphere, it contributes to the greenhouse effect in the troposphere and it is a major pollutant in the planetary boundary layer. In the last decades models and satellite observations reached a mature level, providing estimates of ozone with an accuracy of few percents in the stratosphere. On the other hand, tropospheric ozone still represents a challenge, because its signal is less detectable by space-borne sensors, its modelling depends on the knowledge of gaseous emissions at the surface, and stratosphere/troposphere exchanges might rapidly increase its abundance by several times. Moreover there is generally lack of in-situ observations of tropospheric ozone in many regions of the world. For these reasons the assimilation of satellite data into chemical transport models represents a promising technique to overcome limitations of both satellites and models. The objective of this study is to assess the value of vertically resolved observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain both the tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profile in a global model. While ozone total columns and stratospheric profiles from UV and microwave sensors are nowadays routinely assimilated in operational models, still few studies have explored the assimilation of ozone products from IR sensors such as IASI, which provide better sensitivity in the troposphere. We assimilate both MLS ozone profiles and IASI tropospheric (1000-225 hPa) ozone columns in the Météo France chemical transport model MOCAGE for 2008. The model predicts ozone concentrations on a 2x2 degree global grid and for 60 vertical levels, ranging from the surface up to 0.1 hPa. The assimilation is based on a 4D-VAR algorithm, employs a linear chemistry scheme and accounts for the satellite vertical sensitivity via the averaging kernels. The assimilation of the two products is first tested

  5. Interannual variations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud formation and nitric acid observed by CALIOP and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-12-01

    We use satellite-borne measurements collected over the last decade (2006-2015) from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) to investigate the nitric acid distribution and the properties of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the early winter Antarctic vortex. Frequently, at the very start of the winter, we find that synoptic-scale depletion of HNO3 can be detected in the inner vortex before the first lidar detection of geophysically associated PSCs. The generation of "sub-visible" PSCs can be explained as arising from the development of a solid particle population with low number densities and large particle sizes. Assumed to be composed of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the sub-visible PSCs form at ambient temperatures well above the ice frost point, but also above the temperature at which supercooled ternary solution (STS) grows out of the background supercooled binary solution (SBS) distribution. The temperature regime of their formation, inferred from the simultaneous uptake of ambient HNO3 into NAT and their Lagrangian temperature histories, is at a depression of a few kelvin with respect to the NAT existence threshold, TNAT. Therefore, their nucleation requires a considerable supersaturation of HNO3 over NAT, and is consistent with a recently described heterogeneous nucleation process on solid foreign nuclei immersed in liquid aerosol. We make a detailed investigation of the comparative limits of detection of PSCs and the resulting sequestration of HNO3 imposed by lidar, mid-infrared, and microwave techniques. We find that the temperature history of air parcels, in addition to the local ambient temperature, is an important factor in the relative frequency of formation of liquid/solid PSCs. We conclude that the initiation of NAT nucleation and the subsequent development of large NAT particles capable of sedimentation and denitrification in the early winter do not emanate from an ice

  6. Variability of Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade (2004-2013): high resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Lefèvre, F.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2014-11-01

    A detailed analysis of the polar ozone loss processes during ten recent Antarctic winters is presented with high resolution Mimosa-Chim model simulations and high frequency polar vortex observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument. Our model results for the Antarctic winters 2004-2013 show that chemical ozone loss starts in the edge region of the vortex at equivalent latitudes (EqLs) of 65-69° S in mid-June/July. The loss progresses with time at higher EqLs and intensifies during August-September over the range 400-600 K. The loss peaks in late September/early October, where all EqLs (65-83°) show similar loss and the maximum loss (>2 ppmv [parts per million by volume]) is found over a broad vertical range of 475-550 K. In the lower stratosphere, most winters show similar ozone loss and production rates. In general, at 500 K, the loss rates are about 2-3 ppbv sh-1 (parts per billion by volume/sunlit hour) in July and 4-5 ppbv sh-1 in August/mid-September, while they drop rapidly to zero by late September. In the middle stratosphere, the loss rates are about 3-5 ppbv sh-1 in July-August and October at 675 K. It is found that the Antarctic ozone hole (June-September) is controlled by the halogen cycles at about 90-95% (ClO-ClO, BrO-ClO, and ClO-O) and the loss above 700 K is dominated by the NOx cycle at about 70-75%. On average, the Mimosa-Chim simulations show that the very cold winters of 2005 and 2006 exhibit a maximum loss of ~3.5 ppmv around 550 K or about 149-173 DU over 350-850 K and the warmer winters of 2004, 2010, and 2012 show a loss of ~2.6 ppmv around 475-500 K or 131-154 DU over 350-850 K. The winters of 2007, 2008, and 2011 were moderately cold and thus both ozone loss and peak loss altitudes are between these two ranges (3 ppmv around 500 K or 150 ± 10 DU). The modeled ozone loss values are in reasonably good agreement with those estimated from Aura MLS measurements, but the model underestimates the observed ClO, largely due

  7. Bactericidal activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin against strains of Staphylococcus aureus with the MLS(B) phenotype of resistance according to the erm gene type.

    PubMed

    Clarebout, G; Nativelle, E; Bozdogan, B; Villers, C; Leclercq, R

    2004-11-01

    The bactericidal activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin was assessed by time-kill experiments against Staphylococcus aureus strains with characterized phenotypes and genotypes of MLS(B) resistance. A set of laboratory strains composed of isogenic pairs of S. aureus RN4220 derivatives containing or not the erm(A), erm(B) or erm(C) genes constitutively expressed and of 13 clinical isolates containing these genes inducibly or constitutively expressed were studied. Three of the clinical isolates with erm(B) or erm(A) genes had an unusual inducible MLS(B) cross resistance. The early bactericidal activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin was altered against strains expressing constitutive quinupristin resistance regardless of the erm(A), erm(B) or erm(C) type of gene. We conclude that the bactericidal activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin against staphylococci was dependent on the activity of quinupristin rather than on the erm genotype of the strain.

  8. Tropospheric Ozone Determined from Aura OMI and MLS: Evaluation of Measurements and Comparison with the Global Modeling Initiative's Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Duncan, B. N.; Froidevaux, L.; Bhartia, P. K.; Levelt, P. F.; Waters, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone measurements from the OMI and MLS instruments on board the Aura satellite are used for deriving global distributions of tropospheric column ozone (TCO). TCO is determined using the tropospheric ozone residual method which involves subtracting measurements of MLS stratospheric column ozone (SCO) from OMI total column ozone after adjusting for intercalibration differences of the two instruments using the convective-cloud differential method. The derived TCO field, which covers one complete year of mostly continuous daily measurements from late August 2004 through August 2005, is used for studying the regional and global pollution on a timescale of a few days to months. The seasonal and zonal characteristics of the observed TCO fields are also compared with TCO fields derived from the Global Modeling Initiative's Chemical Transport Model. The model and observations show interesting similarities with respect to zonal and seasonal variations. However, there are notable differences, particularly over the vast region of the Saharan desert.

  9. Tropospheric Ozone Determined from Aura OMI and MLS: Evaluation of Measurements and Comparison with the Global Modeling Initiative's Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Duncan, B. N.; Froidevaux, L.; Bhartia, P. K.; Levelt, P. F.; Waters, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone measurements from the OMI and MLS instruments on board the Aura satellite are used for deriving global distributions of tropospheric column ozone (TCO). TCO is determined using the tropospheric ozone residual method which involves subtracting measurements of MLS stratospheric column ozone (SCO) from OMI total column ozone after adjusting for intercalibration differences of the two instruments using the convective-cloud differential method. The derived TCO field, which covers one complete year of mostly continuous daily measurements from late August 2004 through August 2005, is used for studying the regional and global pollution on a timescale of a few days to months. The seasonal and zonal characteristics of the observed TCO fields are also compared with TCO fields derived from the Global Modeling Initiative's Chemical Transport Model. The model and observations show interesting similarities with respect to zonal and seasonal variations. However, there are notable differences, particularly over the vast region of the Saharan desert.

  10. Highlights from the 11-Year Record of Tropospheric Ozone from OMI/MLS and Continuation of that Long Record Using OMPS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Degenstein, D. A.; Deland, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Since October 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard the Aura satellite have provided over 11 years of continuous tropospheric ozone measurements. These OMI/MLS measurements have been used in many studies to evaluate dynamical and photochemical effects caused by ENSO, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescales, as well as long-term trends and the effects of deep convection on tropospheric ozone. Given that the OMI and MLS instruments have now extended well beyond their expected lifetimes, our goal is to continue their long record of tropospheric ozone using recent Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) measurements. The OMPS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership NPP satellite was launched on October 28, 2011 and is comprised of three instruments: the nadir mapper, the nadir profiler, and the limb profiler. Our study combines total column ozone from the OMPS nadir mapper with stratospheric column ozone from the OMPS limb profiler to measure tropospheric ozone residual. The time period for the OMPS measurements is March 2012 present. For the OMPS limb profiler retrievals, the OMPS v2 algorithm from Goddard is tested against the University of Saskatchewan (USask) Algorithm. The retrieved ozone profiles from each of these algorithms are evaluated with ozone profiles from both ozonesondes and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Effects on derived OMPS tropospheric ozone caused by the 2015-2016 El Nino event are highlighted. This recent El Nino produced anomalies in tropospheric ozone throughout the tropical Pacific involving increases of approximately 10 DU over Indonesia and decreases approximately 5-10 DU in the eastern Pacific. These changes in ozone due to El Nino were predominantly dynamically-induced, caused by the eastward shift in sea-surface temperature and convection from the western to the eastern Pacific.

  11. Loss of holocytochrome c-type synthetase causes the male lethality of X-linked dominant microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Siddharth K; Cormier, Trena A; McCall, Alanna E; Garcia, Jesus J; Sierra, Rebecca; Haupt, Bisong; Zoghbi, Huda Y; Van Den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2002-12-01

    Girls with MLS syndrome have microphthalmia with linear skin defects of face and neck, sclerocornea, corpus callosum agenesis and other brain anomalies. This X-linked dominant, male-lethal condition is associated with heterozygous deletions of a critical region in Xp22.31, from the 5' untranslated region of MID1 at the telomeric boundary to the ARHGAP6 gene at the centromeric boundary. HCCS, encoding human holocytochrome c-type synthetase, is the only gene located entirely inside the critical region. Because single gene analysis is not feasible in MLS patients (all have deletions), we generated a deletion of the equivalent region in the mouse to study the molecular basis of this syndrome. This deletion inactivates mouse Hccs, whose homologs in lower organisms (cytochrome c or c1 heme lyases) are essential for function of cytochrome c or c1 in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Ubiquitous deletions generated in vivo lead to lethality of hemizygous, homozygous and heterozygous embryos early in development. This lethality is rescued by expression of the human HCCS gene from a transgenic BAC, resulting in viable homozygous, heterozygous and hemizygous deleted mice with no apparent phenotype. In the presence of the HCCS transgene, the deletion is easily transmitted to subsequent generations. We did obtain a single heterozygous deleted female that does not express human HCCS, which is analogous to the low prevalence of the heterozygous MLS deletion in humans. Through the study of these genetically engineered mice we demonstrate that loss of HCCS causes the male lethality of MLS syndrome.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a putative human holocytochrome c-type synthetase gene (HCCS) isolated from the critical region for microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, L.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y.

    1996-06-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder associated with X chromosomal rearrangements resulting in monosomy from Xpter to Xp22. Features include microphthalmia, sclerocornea, linear skin defects, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Using a cross-species conservation strategy, an expressed sequence from the 450- to the 550-kb MLS critical region on Xp22 was identified by screening a human embryo cDNA library. Northern analysis revealed a transcript of {approx}2.6 kb in all tissues examined, with weaker expression of {approx}1.2- and {approx}5.2-kb transcripts. The strongest expression was observed in heart and skeletal muscle. Sequence analysis of a 3-kb cDNA contig revealed an 807-bp open reading frame encoding a putative 268-amino-acid-protein. Comparison of the sequence with sequences in the databases revealed homology with holocytochrome c-type synthetases, which catalyze the covalent addition of a heme group onto c-type cytochromes in the mitochondria. The c-type cytochromes are required for proper functioning of the electron transport pathway. The human gene (HGMW-approved symbol HCCS) and the corresponding murine gene characterized in this paper are the first mammalian holocytochrome c-type synthetases to be described in the literature. Because of the lack of a neuromuscular phenotype in MLS, it is uncertain whether the deletion of a mitochondrial holocytochrome synthetase would contribute to the phenotype seen in MLS. The expression pattern of this gene and knowledge about the function of holocytochrome synthetases, however, suggest that it is a good candidate for X-linked encephalomyopathies typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements: Assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud differential techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1998-09-01

    This study introduces two new approaches for determining tropospheric column ozone from satellite data. In the first method, stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) and microwave limb sounder (MLS) ozone measurements. Tropospheric column ozone is then obtained by subtracting these stratospheric amounts from the total column. Total column ozone in this study include retrievals from Nimbus 7 (November 1978 to May 1993) and Earth probe (July 1996 to present) total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS). Data from HALOE are used in this first method to extend the vertical span of MLS (highest pressure level 46 hPa) using simple regression. This assimilation enables high-resolution daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone which is not possible from solar occultation measurements alone, such as from HALOE or Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment (SAGE). We also examine another new and promising technique that yields tropospheric column ozone directly from TOMS high-density footprint measurements in regions of high convective clouds. We define this method as the convective cloud differential (CCD) technique. The CCD method is shown to provide long time series (essentially late 1978 to the present) of tropospheric ozone in regions dominated by persistent high tropopause-level clouds, such as the maritime tropical Pacific and within or near midlatitude continental landmasses. In this our first study of the CCD and MLS/HALOE methods we limit analyses to tropical latitudes. Separation of stratospheric from tropospheric column ozone in the eastern Pacific tropics for January 1979 to December 1997 shows that the dominant interannual variability of stratospheric ozone is the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), whereas for tropospheric ozone it is driven by El Niño events. For validation purposes, both the CCD and assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE results are compared with ozonesonde

  14. Highlights from the 11-year record of tropospheric ozone from OMI/MLS and continuation of that long record using OMPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, Jerry; Kramarova, Natalya; Bhartia, Pawan; Degenstein, Doug; Deland, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Since October 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard the Aura satellite have provided over 11 years of continuous tropospheric ozone measurements. These OMI/MLS measurements have been used in many studies to evaluate dynamical and photochemical effects caused by ENSO, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescales, as well as long-term trends and the effects of deep convection on tropospheric ozone. Given that the OMI and MLS instruments have now extended well beyond their expected lifetimes, our goal is to continue their long record of tropospheric ozone using recent Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) measurements. The OMPS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership NPP satellite was launched on October 28, 2011 and is comprised of three instruments: the nadir mapper, the nadir profiler, and the limb profiler. Our study combines total column ozone from the OMPS nadir mapper with stratospheric column ozone from the OMPS limb profiler to measure tropospheric ozone residual. The time period for the OMPS measurements is March 2012 - present. For the OMPS limb profiler retrievals, the OMPS v2 algorithm from Goddard is tested against the SASKatchewan radiative TRANsfer (SASKTRAN) algorithm. The retrieved ozone profiles from each of these algorithms are evaluated with ozone profiles from both ozonesondes and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Effects on derived OMPS tropospheric ozone caused by the 2015-2016 El Nino event are highlighted. This recent El Nino produced anomalies in tropospheric ozone throughout the tropical Pacific involving increases of ~10 DU over Indonesia and decreases ~5-10 DU in the eastern Pacific. These changes in ozone due to El Nino were predominantly dynamically-induced, caused by the eastward shift in sea-surface temperature and convection from the western to the eastern Pacific.

  15. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  16. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  17. Identification of Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 maltose phosphorylase possessing synthetic ability for branched α-D-glucosyl trisaccharides.

    PubMed

    Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Otsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    We discovered an inverting maltose phosphorylase (Bsel2056) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 65 from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10, which possesses synthetic ability for α-D-glucosyl disaccharides and trisaccharides through the reverse phosphorolysis with β-D-glucose 1-phosphate as the donor. Bsel2056 showed the flexibility for monosaccharide acceptors with alternative C2 substituent (2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-mannose), resulting in production of 1,4-α-D-glucosyl disaccharides with strict regioselectivity. In addition, Bsel2056 synthesized two maltose derivatives possessing additional D-glucosyl residue bound to C2 position of the D-glucose residue at the reducing end, 1,4-α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,2-α-D-glucopyranosyl]-D-glucose and 1,4-α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-D-glucose, from 1,2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose (kojibiose) and 1,2-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose (sophorose), respectively, as the acceptors. These results suggested that Bsel2056 possessed a binding space to accommodate the bulky C2 substituent of D-glucose.

  18. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 4: Transition path reconstruction along a straight line path containing a glideslope change waypoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The necessary algorithms to reconstruct the glideslope change waypoint along a straight line in the event the aircraft encounters a valid MLS update and transition in the terminal approach area are presented. Results of a simulation of the Langley B737 aircraft utilizing these algorithms are presented. The method is shown to reconstruct the necessary flight path during MLS transition resulting in zero cross track error, zero track angle error, and zero altitude error, thus requiring minimal aircraft response.

  19. Mobile elements and chromosomal changes associated with MLS resistance phenotypes of invasive pneumococci recovered in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Paulina A; Chochua, Sopio; Jackson, Delois; Beall, Bernard; McGee, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    Pneumococcal macrolide resistance is usually expressed as one of two phenotypes: the M phenotype conferred by the mef gene or the MLSB phenotype caused by modification of ribosomal targets, most commonly mediated by an erm methylase. Target-site modification leading to antibiotic resistance can also occur due to sequence mutations within the 23S rRNA or the L4 and L22 riboproteins. We screened 4,535 invasive isolates resistant to erythromycin and 18 invasive isolates nonsusceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) to deduce the potential mechanisms involved. Of 4,535 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 66.2% were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for mef alone, 17.8% for ermB alone, and 15.1% for both mef and ermB. Thirty-seven isolates (0.9%) were PCR negative for both determinants. Of these, 3 were positive for ermA (subclass ermTR) and 25 had chromosomal mutations. No chromosomal mutations (in 23S rRNA, rplD, or rplV) nor any of the macrolides/lincosamides/streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes screened for (ermT, ermA, cfr, lsaC, and vgaA) were found in the remaining nine isolates. Of 18 Q-D nonsusceptible isolates, 14 had chromosomal mutations and one carried both mef and ermB; no chromosomal mutations or other resistance genes were found in 3 isolates. Overall, we found 28 mutations, 13 of which have not been previously described in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The role of these mutations remains to be confirmed by transformation assays.

  20. Clinical spectrum of females with HCCS mutation: from no clinical signs to a neonatal lethal form of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Rahden, Vanessa A; Rau, Isabella; Fuchs, Sigrid; Kosyna, Friederike K; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Fryssira, Helen; Isidor, Bertrand; Jauch, Anna; Joubert, Madeleine; Lachmeijer, Augusta M A; Zweier, Christiane; Moog, Ute; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2014-04-15

    Segmental Xp22.2 monosomy or a heterozygous HCCS mutation is associated with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome, an X-linked disorder with male lethality. HCCS encodes the holocytochrome c-type synthase involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and programmed cell death. We characterized the X-chromosomal abnormality encompassing HCCS or an intragenic mutation in this gene in six new female patients with an MLS phenotype by cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR. The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern was determined and clinical data of the patients were reviewed. Two terminal Xp deletions of ≥ 11.2 Mb, two submicroscopic copy number losses, one of ~850 kb and one of ≥ 3 Mb, all covering HCCS, 1 nonsense, and one mosaic 2-bp deletion in HCCS are reported. All females had a completely (>98:2) or slightly skewed (82:18) XCI pattern. The most consistent clinical features were microphthalmia/anophthalmia and sclerocornea/corneal opacity in all patients and congenital linear skin defects in 4/6. Additional manifestations included various ocular anomalies, cardiac defects, brain imaging abnormalities, microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and facial dysmorphism. However, no obvious clinical sign was observed in three female carriers who were relatives of one patient. Our findings showed a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from asymptomatic females with an HCCS mutation to patients with a neonatal lethal MLS form. Somatic mosaicism and the different ability of embryonic cells to cope with an OXPHOS defect and/or enhanced cell death upon HCCS deficiency likely underlie the great variability in phenotypes.

  1. Failure to remove autoreactive Vβ6+ T cells in Mls-1a newborn mice attributed to the delayed development of B cells in the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Touma, M; Mori, K J; Hosono, M

    2000-01-01

    Clonal deletion of autoreactive T cells in the thymus is one of the major mechanisms for establishing tolerance to self-antigens, and self-reactive T cells bearing Vβ6 T-cell receptors are usually deleted before their maturation in Mls-1a mice. However, these T cells develop transiently in the neonatal thymus, and migrate to the periphery. In order to understand the mechanisms which permit these potentially auto-toxic T cells to generate, we investigated in vivo the physiological or functional properties of the elements involved, such as neonatal T cells, antigens and antigen-presenting cells (APC). Confirming the previous findings that each of these elements per se is already completed in function in neonates, we investigated the possibility of the absence or immaturity of particular APC with Mls antigens of their own products in the neonatal thymus. In the search for the cellular and histological changes occurring in the newborn thymus, we found that the elimination of Vβ6+ T cells progressed in parallel with the development of thymic B cells. Involvement of B cells in purging the autoreactive T cells from the newborn thymus was shown by prevention of the deletion of Vβ6+ T cells after the removal of B cells by the treatment of neonates with anti-immunoglobulin M antibodies. The restricted and stable expression of CD5 on the thymic B cells, but not on the splenic cells, suggests that these B cells are not postnatal immigrants from the periphery. Finally, it is concluded that the deficiency in the deletion of self-reactive T cells in the thymus of Mls-1a neonates is due to the delayed development of B cells. PMID:10929068

  2. Clinical spectrum of females with HCCS mutation: from no clinical signs to a neonatal lethal form of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Segmental Xp22.2 monosomy or a heterozygous HCCS mutation is associated with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome, an X-linked disorder with male lethality. HCCS encodes the holocytochrome c-type synthase involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and programmed cell death. Methods We characterized the X-chromosomal abnormality encompassing HCCS or an intragenic mutation in this gene in six new female patients with an MLS phenotype by cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR. The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern was determined and clinical data of the patients were reviewed. Results Two terminal Xp deletions of ≥11.2 Mb, two submicroscopic copy number losses, one of ~850 kb and one of ≥3 Mb, all covering HCCS, 1 nonsense, and one mosaic 2-bp deletion in HCCS are reported. All females had a completely (>98:2) or slightly skewed (82:18) XCI pattern. The most consistent clinical features were microphthalmia/anophthalmia and sclerocornea/corneal opacity in all patients and congenital linear skin defects in 4/6. Additional manifestations included various ocular anomalies, cardiac defects, brain imaging abnormalities, microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and facial dysmorphism. However, no obvious clinical sign was observed in three female carriers who were relatives of one patient. Conclusion Our findings showed a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from asymptomatic females with an HCCS mutation to patients with a neonatal lethal MLS form. Somatic mosaicism and the different ability of embryonic cells to cope with an OXPHOS defect and/or enhanced cell death upon HCCS deficiency likely underlie the great variability in phenotypes. PMID:24735900

  3. Prevalence of erm genes encoding macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in a Turkish university hospital.

    PubMed

    Saribas, Z; Tunckanat, F; Pinar, A

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of the erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C) genes among 122 MLS-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from a Turkish university hospital. Of these isolates, 44 were inducibly resistant and 78 were constitutively resistant. The presence of one or more erm genes was demonstrated in 114 isolates; the erm(C) gene was detected in 97 isolates, and the erm(A) gene was detected in 96 isolates. Seventy-eight isolates harboured both erm(A) and erm(C). The combination of erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C) genes was detected in only one isolate.

  4. Intercomparisons of Aura MLS, ACE, and HALOE Observations of Long-Lived Trace Species Using the Langley Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Natarajan, Murali; Fairlie, T. D.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen S.; Bernath, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We use the LaRC Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model (LCTM) [Considine et al., 2007; Pierce et al., 2003] to intercompare ACE, Aura, and HALOE observations of long-lived trace species. The LCTM calculates the transport, mixing, and photochemical evolution of an ensemble of parcels that have been initialized from ACE-FTS measurements. Here we focus on late November, 2004 comparisons, due to the previous 3-week period of continuous HALOE observations and MLS v2.2 data on November 29, 2004.

  5. UARS MLS Observations of Lower Stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic Winter Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) measurements of lower stratospheric ClO during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winters are presented. Enhanced ClO in the 1992-93 winter was first observed in early December, and extensively during February when temperatures were continually low enough for PSCs. Sporadic episodes of enhanced ClO were observed for most of the 1993-94 winter as minimum temperatures hovered near the PSC threshold, with largest ClO amounts occurring in early March after a sudden deep cooling in late February.

  6. UARS MLS observations of lower stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winter vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric ClO during 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winters are presented. Enhanced ClO in the 1992-93 winter was first observed in early December, and extensively during February when temperatures were continually low enough for polar stratospheric cloud (PSCs). Sporadic episodes of enhanced ClO were observed for most of the 1993-94 winter as minimum temperatures hovered near the PSC threshold, with largest ClO amounts occurring in early March after a sudden deep cooling in late February.

  7. UARS MLS Observations of Lower Stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic Winter Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) measurements of lower stratospheric ClO during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winters are presented. Enhanced ClO in the 1992-93 winter was first observed in early December, and extensively during February when temperatures were continually low enough for PSCs. Sporadic episodes of enhanced ClO were observed for most of the 1993-94 winter as minimum temperatures hovered near the PSC threshold, with largest ClO amounts occurring in early March after a sudden deep cooling in late February.

  8. UARS MLS observations of lower stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winter vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric ClO during 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic winters are presented. Enhanced ClO in the 1992-93 winter was first observed in early December, and extensively during February when temperatures were continually low enough for polar stratospheric cloud (PSCs). Sporadic episodes of enhanced ClO were observed for most of the 1993-94 winter as minimum temperatures hovered near the PSC threshold, with largest ClO amounts occurring in early March after a sudden deep cooling in late February.

  9. MLS: Hire Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    While some professions maintain strong professional boundaries, public librarianship remains a field in which a significant number of those delivering service do not have library degrees. In this article, the author discusses the results of a new hiring practices survey from "Library Journal" ("LJ"). The survey, coupled with…

  10. MLS: Hire Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    While some professions maintain strong professional boundaries, public librarianship remains a field in which a significant number of those delivering service do not have library degrees. In this article, the author discusses the results of a new hiring practices survey from "Library Journal" ("LJ"). The survey, coupled with…

  11. Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI-MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both onboard the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based upon an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM). We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and inter-annual timescales to day-to-day case studies. Zonally averaged inter-annual changes in tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson Units while changes (increases) over the 8-year Aura record investigated http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd-category/49 vary approximately 2-4 Dobson Units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous inter-annual events including stratospheric warming split events in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  12. Assessment and applications of NASA ozone data products derived from Aura OMI/MLS satellite measurements in context of the GMI chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; Pawson, S.; Duncan, B. N.; Newman, P. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Heney, M. K.

    2014-05-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both on board the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based on an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model. We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and interannual time scales to day-to-day case studies. Interannual changes in zonal mean tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson units while changes (increases) over the 8 year Aura record investigated vary by 2-4 Dobson units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous interannual events including split stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  13. Comparison between two ground-based millimeter wave radiometers at IRF Kiruna and Aura/MLS for the winter/spring season 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffalski, Uwe; Ryan, Niall J.; Walker, Kaley A.; Gross, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Kiruna (67.8N/20.4E) operates two millimeter wave radiometers for atmospheric remote sensing of strato-mesospheric ozone, the Swedish KIruna Millimeter wave RAdiometer and, since November 2012, the German MIllimeter wave RAdiometer 2, installed by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT. In this study we compare ozone measurements by KIMRA and MIRA2 at 230 GHz and 273 GHz, respectively. Additionally data from Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) is used to compare the ground-based data set with the satellite data. The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, covering an altitude range of ~16 - 56 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. From this comparison it can be seen that KIMRA has a rather strong +/- 1ppmv bias in the altitude range of ~20-35 km, most likely due to standing wave features. However, both data sets compare quite well with the Aura/MLS data. This shows that even in the future ground-based remote sensing radiometry is a powerful tool for longterm ozone monitoring covering several solar cycles over many decades.

  14. Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI/MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both onboard the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based on an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM). We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and inter-annual timescales to day-to-day case studies. Inter-annual changes in zonal mean tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson Units while changes (increases) over the 8-year Aura record investigated vary by 2-4 Dobson Units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous inter-annual events including split stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  15. mls-2 and vab-3 Control glia development, hlh-17/Olig expression and glia-dependent neurite extension in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Satoshi; Murray, John I; Lu, Yun; Waterston, Robert H; Shaham, Shai

    2008-07-01

    Glia are essential components of nervous systems. However, genetic programs promoting glia development and regulating glia-neuron interactions have not been extensively explored. Here we describe transcriptional programs required for development and function of the C. elegans cephalic sheath (CEPsh) glia. We demonstrate ventral- and dorsal-restricted roles for the mls-2/Nkx/Hmx and vab-3/Pax6/Pax7 genes, respectively, in CEPsh glia differentiation and expression of the genes hlh-17/Olig and ptr-10/Patched-related. Using mls-2 and vab-3 mutants, as well as CEPsh glia-ablated animals, we show that CEPsh glia are important for sensory dendrite extension, axon guidance/branching within the nerve ring, and nerve ring assembly. We demonstrate that UNC-6/Netrin, expressed in ventral CEPsh glia, mediates glia-dependent axon guidance. Our results suggest possible similarities between CEPsh glia development and oligodendrocyte development in vertebrates, and demonstrate that C. elegans provides a unique environment for studying glial functions in vivo.

  16. The impairment of HCCS leads to MLS syndrome by activating a non-canonical cell death pathway in the brain and eyes

    PubMed Central

    Indrieri, Alessia; Conte, Ivan; Chesi, Giancarlo; Romano, Alessia; Quartararo, Jade; Tatè, Rosarita; Ghezzi, Daniele; Zeviani, Massimo; Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Ileana; Bovolenta, Paola; Franco, Brunella

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial-dependent (intrinsic) programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential homoeostatic mechanism that selects bioenergetically proficient cells suitable for tissue/organ development. However, the link between mitochondrial dysfunction, intrinsic apoptosis and developmental anomalies has not been demonstrated to date. Now we provide the evidence that non-canonical mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis explains the phenotype of microphthalmia with linear skin lesions (MLS), an X-linked developmental disorder caused by mutations in the holo-cytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS) gene. By taking advantage of a medaka model that recapitulates the MLS phenotype we demonstrate that downregulation of hccs, an essential player of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC), causes increased cell death via an apoptosome-independent caspase-9 activation in brain and eyes. We also show that the unconventional activation of caspase-9 occurs in the mitochondria and is triggered by MRC impairment and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We thus propose that HCCS plays a key role in central nervous system (CNS) development by modulating a novel non-canonical start-up of cell death and provide the first experimental evidence for a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction, intrinsic apoptosis and developmental disorders. PMID:23239471

  17. The impairment of HCCS leads to MLS syndrome by activating a non-canonical cell death pathway in the brain and eyes.

    PubMed

    Indrieri, Alessia; Conte, Ivan; Chesi, Giancarlo; Romano, Alessia; Quartararo, Jade; Tatè, Rosarita; Ghezzi, Daniele; Zeviani, Massimo; Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Ileana; Bovolenta, Paola; Franco, Brunella

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondrial-dependent (intrinsic) programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential homoeostatic mechanism that selects bioenergetically proficient cells suitable for tissue/organ development. However, the link between mitochondrial dysfunction, intrinsic apoptosis and developmental anomalies has not been demonstrated to date. Now we provide the evidence that non-canonical mitochondrial dependent apoptosis explains the phenotype of microphthalmia with linear skin lesions (MLS), an X-linked developmental disorder caused by mutations in the holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS)gene [corrected]. By taking advantage of a medaka model that recapitulates the MLS phenotype we demonstrate that downregulation of hccs, an essential player of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC), causes increased cell death via an apoptosome-independent caspase-9 activation in brain and eyes. We also show that the unconventional activation of caspase-9 occurs in the mitochondria and is triggered by MRC impairment and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We thus propose that HCCS plays a key role in central nervous system (CNS) development by modulating a novel non-canonical start-up of cell death and provide the first experimental evidence for a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction, intrinsic apoptosis and developmental disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  18. Mother and daughter with a terminal Xp deletion: implication of chromosomal mosaicism and X-inactivation in the high clinical variability of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wimplinger, Isabella; Rauch, Anita; Orth, Ulrike; Schwarzer, Ulrich; Trautmann, Udo; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS or MIDAS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant inherited disorder with male lethality, associated with segmental aneuploidy of the Xp22.2 region in most of the cases. However, we recently described heterozygous sequence alterations in a single gene, HCCS, in females with MLS. Beside the classical MLS phenotype, occasional features such as sclerocornea, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and congenital heart defects can occur. Although the majority of cases are sporadic, mother-to-daughter transmission has been observed and a high intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability exists. We describe an asymptomatic mother and her daughter presenting with the typical features of MLS syndrome. By cytogenetic analysis both females were found to have a terminal Xp deletion with the breakpoint in Xp22.2, mapping near to or within the MSL3L1 gene which is located centromeric to HCCS. FISH analysis revealed that the mother is a mosaic with 45,X(11)/46,X,del(X)(p22.2)(89), while in all cells of the MLS-affected daughter a hybridization pattern consistent with a 46,X,del(X)(p22.2) karyotype was detected. By haplotype analysis we identified the paternal X chromosome of the mother to carry the terminal Xp deletion. X-inactivation studies showed a completely skewed pattern in mother and daughter with the deleted X chromosome to be preferentially inactivated in their peripheral blood cells. We suggest that both chromosomal mosaicism as well as functional X chromosome mosaicism could contribute to the lack of any typical MLS feature in individuals with a heterozygous MLS-associated mutation. The 45,X cell population, that most likely is also present in other tissues of the mother, might have protected her from developing MLS. Nonetheless, a non-random X-inactivation pattern in favor of activity of the wild-type X chromosome in the early blastocyte could also account for the apparent lack of any disease sign in this female.

  19. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Czech Cystic Fibrosis Patients: High Rate of Ribosomal Mutation Conferring Resistance to MLS(B) Antibiotics as a Result of Long-Term and Low-Dose Azithromycin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tkadlec, Jan; Vařeková, Eva; Pantůček, Roman; Doškař, Jiří; Růžičková, Vladislava; Botka, Tibor; Fila, Libor; Melter, Oto

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens infecting the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study was the first to examine S. aureus isolates from CF patients in the Czech Republic. Among 100 S. aureus isolates from 92 of 107 observed patients, we found a high prevalence of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) antibiotics (56%). More than half of the resistant strains (29 of 56) carried a mutation in the MLS(B) target site. The emergence of MLS(B) resistance and mutations conferring resistance to MLS(B) antibiotics was associated with azithromycin treatment (p=0.000000184 and p=0.000681, respectively). Methicillin resistance was only detected in 3% of isolates and the rate of resistance to other antibiotics did not exceed 12%. The prevalence of small-colony variant (SCV) strains was relatively low (9%) and eight of nine isolates with the SCV phenotype were thymidine dependent. The study population of S. aureus was heterogeneous in structure and both the most prevalent community-associated and hospital-acquired clonal lineages were represented. Of the virulence genes, enterotoxin genes seg (n=52), sei (n=49), and sec (n=16) were the most frequently detected among the isolates. The PVL genes (lukS-PV and lukF-PV) have not been revealed in any of the isolates.

  20. Speech-on-speech masking in a front-back dimension and analysis of binaural parameters in rooms using MLS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaronson, Neil L.

    This dissertation deals with questions important to the problem of human sound source localization in rooms, starting with perceptual studies and moving on to physical measurements made in rooms. In Chapter 1, a perceptual study is performed relevant to a specific phenomenon the effect of speech reflections occurring in the front-back dimension and the ability of humans to segregate that from unreflected speech. Distracters were presented from the same source as the target speech, a loudspeaker directly in front of the listener, and also from a loudspeaker directly behind the listener, delayed relative to the front loudspeaker. Steps were taken to minimize the contributions of binaural difference cues. For all delays within +/-32 ms, a release from informational masking of about 2 dB occurred. This suggested that human listeners are able to segregate speech sources based on spatial cues, even with minimal binaural cues. In moving on to physical measurements in rooms, a method was sought for simultaneous measurement of room characteristics such as impulse response (IR) and reverberation time (RT60), and binaural parameters such as interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), and the interaural cross-correlation function and coherence. Chapter 2 involves investigations into the usefulness of maximum length sequences (MLS) for these purposes. Comparisons to random telegraph noise (RTN) show that MLS performs better in the measurement of stationary and room transfer functions, IR, and RT60 by an order of magnitude in RMS percent error, even after Wiener filtering and exponential time-domain filtering have improved the accuracy of RTN measurements. Measurements were taken in real rooms in an effort to understand how the reverberant characteristics of rooms affect binaural parameters important to sound source localization. Chapter 3 deals with interaural coherence, a parameter important for localization and perception of auditory source width. MLS

  1. Effects of two large solar energetic particle events on middle atmosphere nighttime odd hydrogen and ozone content: Aura/MLS and TIMED/SABER measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Wang, S.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    is well established that large solar energetic particle (SEP) events affect ozone in the middle atmosphere through chemical reactions involving odd hydrogen (HOx) species. We analyze global middle atmospheric effects at local nighttime for two large SEP events during the intervals of 7-17 November 2004 and 20-30 August 2005. Properties of the SEP events and concomitant geomagnetic storms are discussed using in situ measurements. Temporal dynamics and latitudinal distribution of HOx and ozone densities inferred from measurements by the Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) instrument are analyzed. We show statistically significant increases of nighttime hydroxyl (OH) density in the middle atmosphere up to 5°106 cm-3 in the latitude range from 70° down to 50° latitude in northern and to -40° latitude in southern hemispheres in connection with peaks in proton fluxes of >10 MeV energy range measured by GOES spacecraft. During the storm main phases, the nighttime OH density increases were observed around ±50° in southern and northern hemispheres in the altitude range of 65-80 km. There is a correspondence between averaged nighttime OH partial column density (in 0.005 to 0.1 hPa pressure range) in the polar latitudes and energetic proton (>10 MeV) fluxes. Corresponding statistically significant nighttime ozone destructions up to 45% are observed from 70° down to 60° latitude in the northern and southern hemispheres. The SEP impulsive phases correspond to onsets of ozone density depletions. Larger relative ozone destructions are observed in the northern hemisphere in November and in the southern hemisphere in August. Simultaneous measurements of ozone density by the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (TIMED/SABER) instrument independently confirm the MLS results.

  2. An Assessment of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor in the MERRA-2 Reanalysis: Comparisons with MLS and In Situ Water Vapor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Molod, A.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Voemel, H.; Hurst, D. F.; Jiang, J. H.; Read, W. G.; Schwartz, M. J.; Manyin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The recently released MERRA-2 reanalysis represents a significant evolution of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system since the original MERRA project, and it is expected that MERRA-2 will be widely used in climate change studies as has its predecessor. A number of studies have demonstrated critical sensitivities of the climate system to the water vapor content of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) and it is therefore important to assess how well the MERRA-2 reanalysis represents the mean structure and variability of water vapor in this part of the atmosphere. Recent comparisons with MLS water vapor indicate that the ECMWF and original MERRA reanalyses overestimate water vapor throughout the global upper troposphere by 50-80%. These overestimates are particularly acute at 147 hPa and 215 hPa and occur in all seasons. In this presentation, we analyze differences between the MLS v.4.2 water vapor data and the new MERRA-2 reanalysis to assess improvements in the treatment of water vapor in the GEOS-5 system since MERRA. We also include in our analysis a comparison of MERRA-2 profiles with water vapor and relative humidity profiles from frostpoint hygrometers at five sites with long-term records and a sixth with an intensive campaign of one month. Three of the long-term sites, Boulder, Colorado, Lindenburg, Germany and Lauder, New Zealand, lie in middle latitudes, and two sites, San José, Costa Rica and Hilo, Hawaii, are in the tropics and subtropics, respectively. The campaign-only database is from the NASA SEAC4RS mission at Ellington Field, Houston, TX in 2013.

  3. Distribution and transport of water vapor in the UTLS over the Tibetan Plateau as inferred from the MLS satellite data and WRF model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Kar, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water vapor is an important minor constituent in the lower stratosphere as it influences the stratospheric chemistry and total radiation budget. The spatial distribution of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) obtained from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite at 100 hPa level shows prominent maxima over the Tibetan Plateau during August 2015. The Asian monsoon upper level anticyclone is also known to occur over this region during this period. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre of Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) observed daily gridded rainfall data shows moderate to heavy rainfall over the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting active convection from 26 July to 10 August 2015. The atmospheric conditions are simulated over the Asian region for the 15-day period using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulations are carried out using two nested domains with resolution of 12 km and 4 km. The initial and boundary conditions are taken from the NGFS (up-graded version of the NCEP GFS) data. The WRF WVMR profiles are observed to be comparatively moist than the MLS profiles in the UTLS region over the Tibetan Plateau. This may be due to the relatively higher temperatures (1-2 K) simulated in the WRF model near 100 hPa level. It is noted that the WRF model has a drying tendency at all the levels. The UTLS WVMR and temperatures show poor sensitivity to the convective schemes. The parent domain and the explicit convective scheme simulate almost same moisture over time in the inner domain. The cloud micro-physics is observed to play a rather important role in controlling the UTLS water vapor content. The WSM-6 convective scheme is observed to simulate the UTLS moisture comparatively well and therefore the processes associated with the formation of ice, snow and graupel formation may be of much more importance in controlling the UTLS WVMR in the WRF model. The 24 hr, 48 hr and 72 hr forecast averaged for the 15-day period shows that

  4. Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade (2004-2013): high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Lefèvre, F.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2015-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the polar ozone loss processes during 10 recent Antarctic winters is presented with high-resolution MIMOSA-CHIM (Modèle Isentrope du transport Méso-échelle de l'Ozone Stratosphérique par Advection avec CHIMie) model simulations and high-frequency polar vortex observations from the Aura microwave limb sounder (MLS) instrument. The high-frequency measurements and simulations help to characterize the winters and assist the interpretation of interannual variability better than either data or simulations alone. Our model results for the Antarctic winters of 2004-2013 show that chemical ozone loss starts in the edge region of the vortex at equivalent latitudes (EqLs) of 65-67° S in mid-June-July. The loss progresses with time at higher EqLs and intensifies during August-September over the range 400-600 K. The loss peaks in late September-early October, when all EqLs (65-83° S) show a similar loss and the maximum loss (> 2 ppmv - parts per million by volume) is found over a broad vertical range of 475-550 K. In the lower stratosphere, most winters show similar ozone loss and production rates. In general, at 500 K, the loss rates are about 2-3 ppbv sh-1 (parts per billion by volume per sunlit hour) in July and 4-5 ppbv sh-1 in August-mid-September, while they drop rapidly to 0 by mid-October. In the middle stratosphere, the loss rates are about 3-5 ppbv sh-1 in July-August and October at 675 K. On average, the MIMOSA-CHIM simulations show that the very cold winters of 2005 and 2006 exhibit a maximum loss of ~ 3.5 ppmv around 550 K or about 149-173 DU over 350-850 K, and the warmer winters of 2004, 2010, and 2012 show a loss of ~ 2.6 ppmv around 475-500 K or 131-154 DU over 350-850 K. The winters of 2007, 2008, and 2011 were moderately cold, and thus both ozone loss and peak loss altitudes are between these two ranges (3 ppmv around 500 K or 150 ± 10 DU). The modeled ozone loss values are in reasonably good agreement with those estimated from

  5. Collocated approximations on unstructured grids: a comparison between General Finite Differences (GFD), Moving Least Squares (MLS), and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Yaroslav; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    In the meshfree family of methods, partial differential equations are solved on unstructured grids where a search radius establishes an implicit nodal connectivity used to determine whether to include or exclude neighboring nodes in the constructed approximation. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is widely attributed to be the eldest of the meshfree methods dating back to an astrophysics paper published in 1977 by Gingold and Monaghan. However, beating them by five years was Jensen when he published Finite Differences for Arbitrary Grids (FIDAG) in 1972. Ultimately this work and others were generalized by Liszka and Orkisz in 1979 as a weighted least squares formulation solving for the Taylor coefficients and is now commonly known as General Finite Differences (GFD). Shortly after in 1981, Lancaster and Salkauskas introduced the Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation for surface reconstruction using a weighted least squares formulation where the unknown coefficients are treated as functions varying from node to node in the support domain. Here we examine important differences, similarities and limitations of each method by solving the 2D Poisson equation on unstructured grids. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1148903.

  6. A climatological perspective of water vapor at the UTLS region over different global monsoon regions: observations inferred from the Aura-MLS and reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, K. N.; Das, Subrata Kumar; Das, Siddarth Shankar

    2014-07-01

    The Aura-MLS observations of eight years from 2004 to 2011 have been utilized to understand the hydration and the dehydration mechanism over the northern and the southern hemispheric monsoon (NH and SH) regions. The monsoon regions considered are the Asian Summer Monsoon, East Asian Summer Monsoon, Arizona Monsoon (AM), North African Monsoon, South American Monsoon and the Australian Monsoon. The annual cycle of water vapor as expected shows maxima over the NH during June-August and during December-February over the SH. The time taken by the air parcels over the NH monsoon regions is found to be different compared to that over the SH monsoon regions. The analysis shows the concentration of water vapor in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere (UTLS) has not changed over these eight years in both the hemispheres during their respective monsoon seasons. The present analysis show different processes viz., direct overshooting convection, horizontal advection, temperature and cirrus clouds in influencing the distribution of water vapor to the UTLS over these different monsoon regions. Analysis of the UTLS water vapor with temperature and ice water content shows that the AM is hydrating the stratosphere compared to all the other monsoon regions where the water vapor is getting dehydrated. Thus it is envisaged that the present results will have important implications in understanding the exchange processes across the tropopause over the different monsoon regions and its role in stratosphere chemistry.

  7. Ticosonde CFH at Costa Rica: A Seasonal Climatology of Tropical UT-LS Water Vapor and Inter-Comparisons with MLS and CALIPSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Voemel, Holger; Avery, Melody; Rosenlof, Karen; Davis, Sean; Hurst, Dale; Schoeberl, Mark; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Morris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Balloon sonde measurements of tropical water vapor using the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer were initiated in Costa Rica in July 2005 and have continued to the present day. Over the nine years through July 2014, the Ticosonde program has launched 174 CFH payloads, representing the longest-running and most extensive single-site balloon dataset for tropical water vapor. In this presentation we present a seasonal climatology for water vapor and ozone at Costa Rica and examine the frequency of upper tropospheric supersaturation with comparisons to cloud fraction and cloud ice water content observations from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the CALIPSO mission. We then make a critical comparison of these data to water vapor measurements from the MLS instrument on board Aura in light of recently published work for other sites. Finally, we examine time series of 2-km altitude averages in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere at Costa Rica in light of anomalies and trends seen in various large-scale indices of tropical water vapor.

  8. 2-O-α-D-Glucosylglycerol Phosphorylase from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 Possessing Hydrolytic Activity on β-D-Glucose 1-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Ohtsubo, Ken’ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2014-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 65 is a family of inverting phosphorylases that act on α-glucosides. A GH65 protein (Bsel_2816) from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 exhibited inorganic phosphate (Pi)-dependent hydrolysis of kojibiose at the rate of 0.43 s−1. No carbohydrate acted as acceptor for the reverse phosphorolysis using β-d-glucose 1-phosphate (βGlc1P) as donor. During the search for a suitable acceptor, we found that Bsel_2816 possessed hydrolytic activity on βGlc1P with a kcat of 2.8 s−1; moreover, such significant hydrolytic activity on sugar 1-phosphate had not been reported for any inverting phosphorylase. The H218O incorporation experiment and the anomeric analysis during the hydrolysis of βGlc1P revealed that the hydrolysis was due to the glucosyl-transferring reaction to a water molecule and not a phosphatase-type reaction. Glycerol was found to be the best acceptor to generate 2-O-α-d-glucosylglycerol (GG) at the rate of 180 s−1. Bsel_2816 phosphorolyzed GG through sequential Bi-Bi mechanism with a kcat of 95 s−1. We propose 2-O-α-d-glucopyranosylglycerol: phosphate β-d-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and 2-O-α-d-glucosylglycerol phosphorylase as the short name for Bsel_2816. This is the first report describing a phosphorylase that utilizes polyols, and not carbohydrates, as suitable acceptor substrates. PMID:24466148

  9. 4D-var assimilation of CRISTA-NF H2O and MLS retrievals with the high resolution SACADA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasradze, Ketevan; Elbern, Hendrik; Schwinger, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    SACADA is a 4-dimensional variational assimilation system for trace gas observations. A novel global chemistry transport model with its adjoint version is the kernel of this system. Since the German Weather Service global forecast model (GME) is used as an online meteorological driver, the icosahedral grid structure and the horizontal transport are adopted from GME. Recently the horizontal and vertical scheme resolution of the model grid was refined: The distance of the horizontal grid points was reduced to about 150 km and vertical separation between grid levels is now less then 1 km below 22 km altitude. In order to better describe chemical processes in the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the chemistry module was extended and revised. All this modifications were done in order to draw full advantage from high resolution limb sounding instruments, like CRISTA-NF (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers). As a case study, assimilation of MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) data with diagnosis of observation and background error statistics in observation space for H2O was performed. Relative humidity is used to filter observations and the background field. It is shown that the H2O analysis significantly improves compared to the ECMWF operational analisys. Additionally, data from the CRISTA-NF instrument, which has been operated on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica, was assimilated. These CRISTA-NF observations have been taken during the AMMA (African Mansoon Measurements Analysis) Campaign in summer 2006 by ICG I (Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Research Centre Jülich). A basic finding is that the H2O-analysis based on the additional CRISTA data in the UT/LS region improves with the SACADA high resolution configuration.

  10. A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005-2012 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, K.; Eskes, H. J.; Sudo, K.

    2015-07-01

    We present the results from an 8-year tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the period 2005-2012 obtained by assimilating multiple data sets from the OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite instruments. The reanalysis calculation was conducted using a global chemical transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter technique that simultaneously optimises the chemical concentrations of various species and emissions of several precursors. The optimisation of both the concentration and the emission fields is an efficient method to correct the entire tropospheric profile and its year-to-year variations, and to adjust various tracers chemically linked to the species assimilated. Comparisons against independent aircraft, satellite, and ozonesonde observations demonstrate the quality of the analysed O3, NO2, and CO concentrations on regional and global scales and for both seasonal and year-to-year variations from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The data assimilation statistics imply persistent reduction of model error and improved representation of emission variability, but they also show that discontinuities in the availability of the measurements lead to a degradation of the reanalysis. The decrease in the number of assimilated measurements increased the ozonesonde-minus-analysis difference after 2010 and caused spurious variations in the estimated emissions. The Northern/Southern Hemisphere OH ratio was modified considerably due to the multiple-species assimilation and became closer to an observational estimate, which played an important role in propagating observational information among various chemical fields and affected the emission estimates. The consistent concentration and emission products provide unique information on year-to-year variations in the atmospheric environment.

  11. A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005-2012 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES and MOPITT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, K.; Eskes, H. J.; Sudo, K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results from an eight-year tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the period 2005-2012 obtained by assimilating multiple retrieval data sets from the OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite instruments. The reanalysis calculation was conducted using a global chemical transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter technique that simultaneously optimises the chemical concentrations of various species and emissions of several precursors. The optimisation of both the concentration and the emission fields is an efficient method to correct the entire tropospheric profile and its year-to-year variations, and to adjust various tracers chemically linked to the species assimilated. Comparisons against independent aircraft, satellite, and ozonesonde observations demonstrate the quality of the analysed O3, NO2, and CO concentrations on regional and global scales and for both seasonal and year-to-year variations from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The data assimilation statistics imply persistent reduction of model error and improved representation of emission variability, but also show that discontinuities in the availability of the measurements lead to a degradation of the reanalysis. The decrease in the number of assimilated measurements increased the ozonesonde minus analysis difference after 2010 and caused spurious variations in the estimated emissions. The Northern/Southern Hemisphere OH ratio was modified considerably due to the multiple species assimilation and became closer to an observational estimate, which played an important role in propagating observational information among various chemical fields and affected the emission estimates. The consistent concentration and emission products provide unique information on year-to-year variations of the atmospheric environment.

  12. ClO Observations from Space by JEM/SMILES: First results of SMILES L2 research product and comparison with MLS and Odin/SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Ochiai, Satoshi; Kanamori, Hideto; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Takeshi; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Smiles Mission Team

    Submillimetre-wave receiving Systems based on sensitive SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) detector Technology provide new opportunities for Accurate Observation of ClO in the at-mosphere. The Superconducting Submillimetre-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was launched and installed onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. The SMILES project is a collaboration of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The aims of THE SMILES project are: i) Space demonstration of super-conductive SIS mixer for submillimetre-wave limb emission sounding cooled down to 4K using a mechanical cooler. ii) Global measurements of atmospheric molecules and radicals. SMILES observes atmospheric species and isotopologues such as Osub3/sub, Hsup35/supCl, Hsup37/supCl, ClO, Upper tro-pospheric humidity, BrO, HOBr, HOCl, HOsub2/sub, Hsub2/subOsub2/sub, HNOsub3/sub, CHsub3/subCN, SOsub2/sub, and ozone isotope species in the altitude region from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere with a precision of a few percent. SMILES observes day and night profiles of ClO in the altitude range 20-65km between 65N and 38S. We have been analyzing the ClO observations. We will present the recent status of the analysis with respect to the NICT research level-2 data product, give an error estimation, and provide early comparison/validation results from comparisons with global measurements from Odin/SMR and MLS.

  13. Photobiomodulation for the management of radiation dermatitis: the DERMIS trial, a pilot study of MLS(®) laser therapy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Censabella, Sandrine; Claes, Stefan; Robijns, Jolien; Bulens, Paul; Mebis, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of photobiomodulation using MLS(®) laser therapy (LT) in the management of acute radiation dermatitis (RD). We compared two successive groups of breast cancer patients undergoing identical radiotherapy regimens post-lumpectomy. Both groups received our standard skin care but the second group received six additional LT sessions (beam area 19.635 cm(2), 0.168 W/cm(2), 4 J/cm(2)), starting at fraction 20 of radiotherapy (control and LT group, N = 41 and 38, respectively). The clinical outcomes were the severity of RD (using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] criteria and the Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale [RISRAS]) and dermatology-specific quality of life (Skindex-16) before the start of LT and at the end of radiotherapy. Secondary outcomes were patients' ratings of skin care or LT (pleasantness, soothing effect, and global satisfaction). Skin toxicity was equivalent between the groups before the start of LT but significantly differed at the end of radiotherapy, with an aggravation in the control but not in the LT group (e.g., 29 versus 3 % of RTOG grade 2 RD, respectively, P < 0.005). We found no significant group differences with respect to quality of life. However, the RISRAS subjective score decreased in the LT group only, implying a decreased impact of RD on patients' quality of life. Finally, patients' ratings were significantly higher for LT than for standard care. These findings suggest that LT might be effective to manage acute RD and warrant further research. NCT01932073. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01932073 .

  14. A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005-2014 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES and MOPITT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, K.; Eskes, H.; Sudo, K.

    2015-12-01

    I will present the results from a ten-year tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the period 2005-2014 obtained by assimilating multiple data sets from the OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite instruments. The reanalysis calculation was conducted using a global CTM and an EnKF data assimilation approach that simultaneously optimises the chemical concentrations of various species and emissions of several precursors. The optimisation of both the multiple species concentration and the emission fields is an efficient method to correct the entire tropospheric profile and its year-to-year variations, and to adjust various tracers chemically linked to the species assimilated, while taking their feedbacks into account. Comparisons against independent aircraft, satellite, and ozonesonde observations demonstrate the quality of the analysed O3, NO2, and CO concentrations on regional and global scales and for both seasonal and year-to-year variations from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The northern/southern hemisphere OH ratio was modified considerably due to the multiple species assimilation and became closer to an observational estimate, which played an important role in propagating observational information among various chemical fields and affected the emission estimates. In comparison to the a priori emissions based on bottom-up inventories, the optimized surface NOx emissions were higher over eastern China, the eastern United States, southern Africa, and central-western Europe, suggesting that the anthropogenic emissions are mostly underestimated in the inventories. In addition, the seasonality and year-to-year variability of the estimated emissions differed from that of the a priori emission over both industrial and biomass burning areas. The assimilation of multiple chemical data sets with different vertical sensitivity profiles also provides comprehensive constraints on the global lightning NOx source while improving the representations of the entire

  15. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  16. A 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.3;q11.2) karyotype found in a newborn with microcornea and sclerocornea: An example of the MLS/Goltz/Aicardi contiguous gene syndrome?

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Becker, T.; Kaufman, A.

    1994-09-01

    There have been 15 reports in the literature of patients with microphthalmia and linear skin defects (MLS) who have deletions of the distal region of the short arm of the X chromosome, Xp22.3-pter. Since there appears to be some overlap of features between MLS, Goltz and Aicardi syndromes, it has been suggested that these syndromes represent a contiguous gene syndrome. At least three individuals have been reported with t(X;Y) and some common clinical features. We have seen a female infant with several anterior chamber anomalies including microcornea and sclerocornea, who also has an unbalanced translocation between the X and Y chromosomes, 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y) (p22.3;q11.2). Q-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a Y chromosome cocktail (Oncor) confirmed the identity of this derivative chromosome. X-inactivation studies done by RBG-banding showed that the der(X) is preferentially inactivated in all 50 metaphase cells examined from PHA-stimulated lymphocytes. It is likely some gene(s) on the distal Xp do not escape inactivation and when deleted result in anterior chamber abnormalities. X-inactivation patterns may be different in different tissues or at different times during development. Molecular studies will be helpful in determining what gene(s) are actually deleted in this case. This case is important because the clinical findings are limited to the development of the eyes and may help to define the critical regions and/or minimum region of overlap among MLS, Goltz and Aicardi syndromes.

  17. Long-term (2004-2015) tendencies and variabilities of tropical UTLS water vapor mixing ratio and temperature observed by AURA/MLS using multivariate regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, S.; Sandhya, M.

    2016-09-01

    Long-term variabilities and tendencies in the tropical (30°N-30°S)monthly averaged zonal mean water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and temperature in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument onboard Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite for the period October 2004-September 2015, are studied using multivariate regression analysis. It is found that the WVMR shows a decreasing trend of 0.02-0.1 ppmv/year in WVMR below 100 hPa while the trend is positive (0.02-0.035 ppmv/year) above 100 hPa. There is no significant trend at 121 hPa. The WVMR response to solar cycle (SC) is negative below 21 hPa. However, the magnitude decreases with height from 0.13 ppmv/100 sfu(solar flux unit) at 178 hPa to 0.07 ppmv/100sfuat 26 hPa. The response of WVMR to multivariate El Niño index (MEI), which is a proxy for El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is positive at and below 100 hPa and negative above 100 hPa. It is negative at 56-46 hPa with maximum value of 0.1 ppmv/MEI at 56 hPa. Large positive (negative) quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in WVMR at 56-68 hPa reconstructed from the regression analysis coincide with eastward (westward) to westward (eastward) transition of QBO winds at that level. The trend in zonal mean tropical temperature is negative above 56 hPa with magnitude increasing with height. The maximum negative trend of 0.05 K/year is observed at 21-17 hPa and the trend insignificant around tropopause. The response of temperature to SC is negative in the UTLS region and to ENSO is positive below 100 hPa and mostly negative above 100 hPa. The negative response of WVMR to MEI in the stratosphere is suggested to be due to the extended cold trap of tropopause temperature during El Niño years that might have controlled the water vapor entry into the stratosphere. The WVMR response to residual vertical velocity at 70 hPa is positive in the stratosphere, whereas the temperature response is positive in the

  18. Change in Deep Convective Ice Water Content and Rainrate as Cbserved from AURA MLS, CloudSat, Aqua MODIS, and ISCCP Datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Fu, R.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of aerosols on ice water content (IWC) and rainrate has been suggested by some numerical simulations and observational studies. This is often complicated by a lack of contextual information regarding the dynamic structure and life cycle of the cloud systems. We investigate IWC and rainrate from deep convections (DC) using datasets from AURA Microwave Limb Sounder, CloudSat, Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project over the Congo, the Amazon, and South Asia during three different stages of lifecycle. We use measurements from AURA MLS to investigate the change in water content associated with the smaller sized ice crystals at anvil level and CloudSat to derive the relation between the amounts of larger sized ice crystals and rainrate with ambient aerosol loadings. We integrate reflectivity above freezing level (IZ) to calculate the amount of ice and differentiate reflectivity (DZ) with respect to altitude below the freeing level to estimate the attenuated rainfall under the cloud. Our analysis using the reflectivity data shows that IZ and DZ don't change with aerosols loadings during the growing stage. However, IZ increases and DZ decreases, suggesting a delayed precipitation and increase of ice formation, during the matured stage. During the decaying stage, DZ increases, leading to a loss in larger ice particles or as shown by a decrease of the IZ above freezing level. IWC within the anvils of the DCs during their growing stage shows no significant relations with the ambient aerosol concentration over the Congo and South Asia. However, anvil IWC decreases during the matured stage over the South Asia and increase over the Congo as aerosol optical depth surrounding the DCs increases. Aerosol's concentration plays an important role during the decaying stage and is significantly and positively correlated with the IWC of the anvils, suggesting an increase of smaller ice particles in convective

  19. 13 years time series of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone profiles measured by the NDACC microwave radiometer SOMORA over Switzerland: comparison to radiosonde and MLS/AURA satellite ozone profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard Barras, Eliane; Haefele, Alexander; Ruffieux, Dominique; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2014-05-01

    The microwave radiometer SOMORA measures ozone volume mixing ratio in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere since January 2000 with a time resolution of 30 min. The ozone vertical distribution is calculated from the measurement of the rotational emission line of ozone at 142.17 GHz. Ozone profiles are retrieved using ARTS/Qpack, a general environment for radiative transfer simulation and retrieval of ozone profiles based on the optimal estimation method (OEM) of Rodgers. SOMORA is an instrument of the NDACC.The measurement time series has been influenced by the upgrade from an acousto optical spectrometer (AOS) setup to a digital FFT spectrometer setup in 2010. The ozone profiles dataset measured by the AOS (2000-2010) and FFT spectrometer (since 2010) is then homogenized using one year parallel measurements by adding an altitude dependent offset to the AOS ozone profiles. The ozone profiles measured by AOS show a slightly better vertical resolution above 55 km than the ozone profiles measured by FFT due to the higher spectral resolution.The homogenized 13 years SOMORA time series has been validated against Payerne radiosonde (RS) ozone profiles, GROMOS microwave radiometer ozone profiles of Bern, another NDACC instrument, and MLS/AURA satellite simultaneous ozones profiles, and the results will be shown. For the whole period of respective common measurements, SOMORA ozone profiles are within 5% of Payerne RS, 15% of GROMOS and 10% of MLS ozone profiles.

  20. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  1. Dehydration, denitrification and ozone loss during the Arctic winter 2015/2016: Simulations with the Chemistry-Climate Model EMAC and comparison to Aura/MLS and GLORIA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosrawi, Farahnaz; Kirner, Oliver; Sinnhuber, Bjoern-Martin; Johansson, Sören; Höpfner, Michael; Santee, Michelle L.; Manney, Gloria; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ungermann, Jörn; Preusse, Peter; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Ruhnke, Roland; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Oelhaf, Hermann; Braesicke, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic winter 2015/2016 has been one of the coldest stratospheric winters in recent years. A stable vortex formed already in early December and the early winter has been exceptionally cold. Cold pool temperatures dropped below the Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT) existence temperature, thus allowing Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) to form. The low temperatures in the polar stratosphere persisted until early March allowing chlorine activation and catalytic ozone destruction. Satellite observations indicate that sedimentation of PSC particles have led to denitrification as well as dehydration of stratospheric layers. Nudged model simulations of the Arctic winter 2015/2016 were performed with the atmospheric chemistry-climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) for the POLSTRACC (Polar Stratosphere in a Changing Climate) campaign. POLSTRACC was a HALO mission (High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft) aiming on the investigation of the structure, composition and evolution of the Arctic Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS). The chemical and physical processes involved in Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion, transport and mixing processes in the UTLS at high latitudes, polar stratospheric clouds as well as cirrus clouds were investigated. In this presentation, an overview of the chemistry and dynamics of the Arctic winter 2015/2016 as simulated with EMAC will be given. Chemical-dynamical processes such as denitrification, dehydration and ozone loss will be investigated. Comparisons to satellite observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS) as well as to airborne measurements with the Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) performed onboard of HALO during the POLSTRACC campaign show that the EMAC simulations are in good agreement with observations (differences generally within ±20%). However, larger differences between model and simulations are found e.g. in the areas of denitrification. Both

  2. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. J.; Hindley, N. P.; Moss, A. C.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely-used gravity wave resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (MLS-Aura, HIRDLS and SABER), the COSMIC GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the AIRS infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere. Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor-radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other datasets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Except in spring, we see little dissipation of GWPE throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal cycle. GWPE and λz exhibit strong correlations with the stratospheric winds, but not with local surface winds. Our results provide guidance for interpretation and intercomparison of such datasets in their full

  3. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-03-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, SABER), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal

  4. Equatorial Kelvin Waves: A UARS MLS View.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Holton, James R.; Fishbein, Evan; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.

    1994-10-01

    Data from the Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to compare two periods of Kelvin wave activity during different stages of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation. The analysis is carried out using an asynoptic mapping technique. A wide bandpass filter is used to isolate the frequency bands where Kelvin waves have been identified in previous studies. Time-height and time-latitude plots of the bandpassed data are used to identify Kelvin wave activity in the temperature and ozone fields. Frequency spectra of temperature and ozone amplitudes are constructed to further analyze the latitudinal and meridional distribution of Kelvin wave activity in zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. The characteristics identified in these plots agree well with theoretical predictions and previous observations of middle atmosphere Kelvin waves.The time-height and time-latitude plots support the existence of Kelvin waves in discrete frequency bands; the slow, fast, and ultrafast Kelvin modes are all identified in the data. The characteristics of these modes do not vary much despite different mean flow conditions in the two periods examined.For the Kelvin wave-induced perturbations in ozone, the change from a transport-dominated regime below 10 hPa to a photochemically controlled regime above 10 hPa is clearly apparent in the height dependence of the phase difference between temperature and ozone. The ratios of the ozone perturbation amplitude to the temperature perturbation amplitude for the various observed Kelvin wave modes are in agreement with model estimates and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observations in the lower half of the region sampled but appear to be too large in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere.

  5. Optimization of MLS receivers for multipath environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalpine, G. A.; Highfill, J. H., III

    1979-01-01

    The angle tracking problems in microwave landing system receivers along with a receiver design capable of optimal performance in the multipath environments found in air terminal areas were studied. Included were various theoretical and evaluative studies like: (1) signal model development; (2) derivation of optimal receiver structures; and (3) development and use of computer simulations for receiver algorithm evaluation. The development of an experimental receiver for flight testing is presented. An overview of the work and summary of principal results and conclusions are reported.

  6. Improving the MLS through enhanced cockpit displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    A simulator investigation of various prediction and quickening algorithms in computer-generated forward-looking displays is presented; the algorithms are used to improve manual aircraft control on curved microwave landing system approaches. The experimental facility consisted of a Link GAT-2 simulator, a PDP 11/40 minicomputer, a high-speed graphic display, a TV camera, and a CRT monitor. Results indicate that second- and third-order predictor displays provide the best lateral performance and that intermediate levels of prediction and quickening provide the best vertical control. Prediction/quickening algorithms of increasing computational order were found to significantly reduce aileron, rudder, and elevator control responses. The conventional crosspointer displays yielded an average 2-sigma lateral error of + or - 200 over all wind conditions at 500 m from touchdown, and was therefore unable to meet FAA requirements (+ or - 22.9 m); the pictorial-preview display yielded much better results: an average 2-sigma lateral error of + or - 27 m. Neither display was able to approach the FAA specified accuracy requirement in the vertical dimension (+ or - 3.7 m).

  7. MLS Multipath Studies. Phase 3. Volume 3. Application of Models to MLS Assessment Issues. Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-08

    time evidently were such as to suggest a suboptimum ap- proach based on the small signal suppression properties of a multiple baseline * ,interferometer...features of the proposed implementation signifi- cantly degraded the azimuth multipath performance. The proposed acquisition algorithm utilizing multiple ... baseline interfer- ometry could fail with out of beam multipath at lower levels than those re- quired for failure with DMLS or TRSB. These problems

  8. MLS Performance Assessment. Task IV. Volume 2. Literature Search Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    a .0* 0- L M W C IA c > 0 OW6 &L. .- 464 0 a 4-r >3IS4-l- __ I ma0L CVV( L000)- - I) L) EO (0 0 0. E ML c ’ E t -(0 - (V (Vi DDD.. C -c .0 0 -f L...L - :U)0 - EO j 0)I 1 I0-0 C0)V C)) C : LP M C _ cc > L O0 L I -a, 0 0 Go ( 7rCI ,0) -a.10 >-, in0 CE L .~O )0~ - ) ) CC Go ) C Co m) 0 0 Du Ca GO...C IC_- *o a0 a-~ E )0) C - m *D cc 0 EO WI E0)0 . C L E C 0 M LC 0) C I M 7- ~ f UI~4 ;- 1) cZ) 00 00 0wN .04 ) 0)CL- -0) V-- L- a 02 0-- 00- -.0E)f

  9. Segmentation and classification of road markings using MLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, Mario; Riveiro, Belén; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Traffic signs are one of the most important safety elements in a road network. Particularly, road markings provide information about the limits and direction of each road lane, or warn the drivers about potential danger. The optimal condition of road markings contributes to a better road safety. Mobile Laser Scanning technology can be used for infrastructure inspection and specifically for traffic sign detection and inventory. This paper presents a methodology for the detection and semantic characterization of the most common road markings, namely pedestrian crossings and arrows. The 3D point cloud data acquired by a LYNX Mobile Mapper system is filtered in order to isolate reflective points in the road, and each single element is hierarchically classified using Neural Networks. State of the art results are obtained for the extraction and classification of the markings, with F-scores of 94% and 96% respectively. Finally, data from classified markings are exported to a GIS layer and maintenance criteria based on the aforementioned data are proposed.

  10. Numerical solutions of the GEW equation using MLS collocation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Ayşe Gül; Dereli, Yılmaz

    In this paper, the generalized equal width wave (GEW) equation is solved by using moving least squares collocation (MLSC) method. To test the accuracy of the method some numerical experiments are presented. The motion of single solitary waves, the interaction of two solitary waves and the Maxwellian initial condition problems are chosen as test problems. For the single solitary wave motion whose analytical solution was known L2, L∞ error norms and pointwise rates of convergence were calculated. Also mass, energy and momentum invariants were calculated for every test problems. Obtained numerical results are compared with some earlier works. It is seen that the method is very efficient and reliable due to obtained numerical results are very satisfactorily. Stability analysis of difference equation was done by applying the moving least squares collocation method for GEW equation.

  11. Siting Criteria for the Microwave Landing System (MLS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. JM *8 % Technical Report Documentation Page / 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3...computer models. In many cases, the selection of antenna beamwidth and scan control can alleviate potential multipath problems by avoiding the illuminati ...Slope Threshold Crossing Height Requirements) governs the selection of the height of the approach reference datum. Factors that will be considered in

  12. Graduate and Post-MLS Study in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blummer, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    As librarians confront the Information Age, it is imperative that they remain aware of the issues that affect the profession. Traditional library skills are no longer adequate for maintaining a competitive edge in the field. Post-graduate education in digital libraries offers information professionals an opportunity to broaden their knowledge of…

  13. Nano-organocatalyst: Magnetically retrievable ferrite-anchored glutathione for microwave-assisted Paal-Knorr reaction, Aza-Michael addition and pyrazole synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Postsynthetic surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles by glutathione imparts desirable chemical functionality and enables the generation of catalytic sites on the surfaces of ensuing organocatalysts. In this article, we discuss the developments, unique activity and high s...

  14. Nano-organocatalyst: Magnetically retrievable ferrite-anchored glutathione for microwave-assisted Paal-Knorr reaction, Aza-Michael addition and pyrazole synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Postsynthetic surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles by glutathione imparts desirable chemical functionality and enables the generation of catalytic sites on the surfaces of ensuing organocatalysts. In this article, we discuss the developments, unique activity and high s...

  15. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  16. MLS (Microwave Landing System) Multipath Studies, Phase 3. Volume 3. Application of Models to MLS Assessment Issues. Part 1. Chapters 1 through 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-08

    These include: (1) the effects of angle data outlier tests and filtering in the TRSB receivers, (2) the effects on the DMLS system due to receiver AGC...data outlier tests and filtering in the TRSB receivers (2) the effects on the DtLS system due to the receiver AGC, receiver motion-induced Doppler...scenario 1. 2-60 Dynamic and single scan elevation errors for 2-83 scenario 1. 2-61 Elevation path following filter output for 2-84 scenario I 2-62 Elevation

  17. Deprotonation or protonation: The coordination properties, crystal structures and spectra of cobalt (II) complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Liang; Sun, Hong-Wen; Yin, Dong-Hong; Li, Yan-Ling; Tuo, Su-Xing; Xu, Ya-Hui; Yan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The reaction of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol (PAAL) with cobalt acetate in CHCl3 gave the complex of Co(PAAL-H)2 (1), and (PAAL + H)2[CoCl4]·2H2O (2) was isolated in the same system with ultraviolet light irradiation. Structures of both compounds were determined by X-Ray diffraction. The PAAL ligand was deprotonated in 1, but it further protonated on N position at pyridine group in 2 and form cations. The spectra of these two compounds were also studied, as well as the fluorescence properties. Also, the redox property of 1 was preliminary investigated by cyclic voltammogram.

  18. Does C-C bonding proceed during exposure of adequate metal surfaces to CH{sub 4}? Reply to {open_quotes}Comment by Z. Hlavathy, Z. Paal, and P. Tetenyi{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Amaraiglio, A.; Pareja, P.; Amariglio, H.

    1997-02-01

    The comments, results, and reflections presented by Hlavathy and co-workers in their Letter aim at demonstrating that C-C bonding between CH{sub x} adspecies, formed upon exposure of Pt to CH{sub 4}, can proceed as well during the exposure itself as during further exposure to H{sub 2}. This possibility was implicitly put forward because they thought that a tight parallelism exists between the interactions of CH{sub 4} and CO with a metal surface, provided that the exposure to CH{sub 4} is carried out at a high enough temperature (450{degrees}C). In both cases these authors assumed that three kinds of carbon, C{sub {alpha}}, C{sub {beta}}, and C{sub {gamma}}, can be formed, C{sub {alpha}} being the main species responsible for the production of CH{sub 4} and of the C{sub 2}, alkanes obtained when the metal was further contacted with H{sub 2} at 100{degrees}C. As they argued that C{sub {alpha}} (also named carbidic carbon) has only metal atoms in its first coordination shell, they were implicitly led it that C-C bonding must take place during the hydrogenation step. The authors have not denied this possibility, but they have suggested that different situations can result from exposures to CH{sub 4} conducted at temperatures much lower than those used by Koerts et al.. 13 refs.

  19. Signal Coverage and Characteristics of the Atlantic City Heliport MLS (Microwave Landing System).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Sponsring Agency N..m end Address Department of Traqsportation Technical Note Federal Aviation Administration Seprember 1QR6 Program Engineering and...Elevation Course Width Results 21 6 Elevation CMN Results Run I, Flight 6 22 7 Elevation CMN Results Run 2, Flight 6 23 8 Elevation CMn Results Run 3...Results Run 2, Flight 7 38 23 Azimuth CMN Results Run 3, Flight 7 39 24 Azimuth CMN Results Run 4, Flight 7 40 25 Azimuth CMn Results Run 5, Flight 7 41 v

  20. Microwave Landing System (MLS). Phase III (Basic Narrow and Small Community Configurations). Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    How many inputs should be simultaneously excited to generate a beam? (c) With that amplitudes and phases should the inputs be excited? IIn addition to...probes would be orthogonal. Beams generated by simultaneously exciting several probes with different amplitudes would be the superposition of several...orthogonal sinc (x) beams of different amplitudes . A set of weiqhts was also derived which would fine scan the beam in tenth beamwidth £ncrements

  1. An Application for Normal and Critical Operations in a Tactical MLS System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Mark Gondree THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB no. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this...TABLE OF CONTENTS I . INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 A...28 4. Disk I /O Layer ....................................................................................29 5. Handling Invalid

  2. MLS and DME/P Multipath Simulation Model User’s Manual. Volume 1. Operating Instructions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    parameters and creation of the input file; instructions for operating each program of the model; discussion of the various options available for a given...simulation; and descriptions of the output tables, plots, and files produced by each program. A sample input file and a set of the resulting output plots...the input file; instructions for operating each program of the model; discussion of the various options available for a given simulation; and

  3. Maintaining Multilevel Transaction Atomicity in MLS Database Systems with Kernelized Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    necessary to avoid confusion. This multiple write capability has led us to choose a multiversion approach to concurrency control. Multiversion systems...When a set of transactions is executed by a multiversion DBMS, an operation in a transaction must be translated into the equivalent operation on some...w[xi] is the n th Write operation on x in Ti. The concept of a multiversion data history is needed to represent the actions of the translated

  4. MLS Multipath Studies. Phase 3. Volume I. Overview and Propagation Model Validation/Refinement Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-25

    future landing guidance system . Thus, to aid in the system selection, optimization, and standardization process, there was need for realistic multipath...sponding system can be plotted. Plots of the means, standard deviations, and peak errors can be obtained if perturbation smoothing was used. The...Landing System , DLS," as proposed by the Federal Republic of Germany developed by Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG. and Siemens, AG. (Sept. 1975). 7

  5. Simulation, guidance and navigation of the B-737 for rollout and turnoff using MLS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.; Schmidt, S. F.; Mann, F.

    1975-01-01

    A simulation program is described for the B-737 aircraft in landing approach, a touchdown, rollout and turnoff for normal and CAT III weather conditions. Preliminary results indicate that microwave landing systems can be used in place of instrument landing systems landing aids and that a single magnetic cable can be used for automated rollout and turnoff. Recommendations are made for further refinement of the model and additional testing to finalize a set of guidance laws for rollout and turnoff.

  6. The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Joe W.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Harwood, Robert S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Read, William G.; Siegel, Peter H.; Cofield, Richard E.; Filipiak, Mark J.; Flower, Dennis A.; Holden, James R.; Lau, Gary K.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Manney, Gloria L; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Santee, Michelle L.; Wu, Dong L.; Cuddy, David T.; Lay, Richard R.; Loo, Mario S.; Perun, Vincent S.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stek, Paul C.; Thurstans, Robert P.; Boyles, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder measures several atmospheric chemical species (OH, HO2, H2O, O3, HCl, ClO, HOCl, BrO, HNO3, N2O, CO, HCN, CH3CN, volcanic SO2), cloud ice, temperature, and geopotential height to improve our understanding of stratospheric ozone chemistry, the interaction of composition and climate, and pollution in the upper troposphere. All measurements are made simultaneously and continuously, during both day and night. The instrument uses heterodyne radiometers that observe thermal emission from the atmospheric limb in broad spectral regions centered near 118, 190, 240, and 640 GHz, and 2.5 THz. It was launched July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aura satellite and started full-up science operations on August 13, 2004. An atmospheric limb scan and radiometric calibration for all bands are performed routinely every 25 s. Vertical profiles are retrieved every 165 km along the suborbital track, covering 82 S to 82 N latitudes on each orbit. Instrument performance to date has been excellent; data have been made publicly available; and initial science results have been obtained.

  7. Simulator evaluation of manually flown curved MLS approaches. [Microwave Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, D.

    1974-01-01

    Pilot performance in flying horizontally curved instrument approaches was analyzed by having nine test subjects fly curved approaches in a fixed-base simulator. Approaches were flown without an autopilot and without a flight director. Evaluations were based on deviation measurements made at a number of points along the curved approach path and on subject questionnaires. Results indicate that pilots can fly curved approaches, though less accurately than streight-in approaches; that a moderate wind does not seriously affect curve flying performance; and that there is no major performance difference between 60 and 90 deg turns.

  8. Intra-seasonal Oscillations Inferred from SABER (TIMED) and MLS (UARS) Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, F. T.; Mayr, H. G.; Russell, J.; Mlynczak, M.; Reber, C. A.; Mengel, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    In the zonal mean meridional winds of the upper mesosphere, intra-seasonal oscillations with periods between 1 and 4 months have been inferred from UARS measurements and independently predicted with the Numerical Spectral Model WSM). The wind oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and appear to be driven, at least in part, by small-scale gravity waves propagating in the meridional direction. Winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. Investigating this phenomenon, we have analyzed SABER temperatures from TIMED in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to delineate with an empirical model, the year-long variability of the migrating tides and zonal mean components. The inferred seasonal variations of the diurnal tide, characterized by amplitude maxima near equinox, are in substantial agreement with UARS observations and results from the NSM. For the zonal mean, the dominant seasonal variations in the SABER temperatures, with annual (12 months) and semiannual (6 months) periodicities, agree well with those derived from UARS measurements. The intra-seasonal variations with periods between 2 and 4 months have amplitudes close to 2 K, almost half as large as those for the dominant seasonal variations. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with the corresponding values inferred from UARS during different years. The SABER and UARS temperature variations reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, consistent with meridional wind oscillations across the equator. The phase of the semi-annual temperature oscillations from the NSM agrees with the observations from UARS and SABER. But the amplitudes are systematically smaller, which may indicate that planetary waves are more important than is allowed for in the model. For the shorter-period intra-seasonal variations, which can be generated by gravity wave drag, the model results are generally in better agreement with the observations.

  9. Traffic sign detection in MLS acquired point clouds for geometric and image-based semantic inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, Mario; Riveiro, Belén; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, mobile laser scanning has become a valid technology for infrastructure inspection. This technology permits collecting accurate 3D point clouds of urban and road environments and the geometric and semantic analysis of data became an active research topic in the last years. This paper focuses on the detection of vertical traffic signs in 3D point clouds acquired by a LYNX Mobile Mapper system, comprised of laser scanning and RGB cameras. Each traffic sign is automatically detected in the LiDAR point cloud, and its main geometric parameters can be automatically extracted, therefore aiding the inventory process. Furthermore, the 3D position of traffic signs are reprojected on the 2D images, which are spatially and temporally synced with the point cloud. Image analysis allows for recognizing the traffic sign semantics using machine learning approaches. The presented method was tested in road and urban scenarios in Galicia (Spain). The recall results for traffic sign detection are close to 98%, and existing false positives can be easily filtered after point cloud projection. Finally, the lack of a large, publicly available Spanish traffic sign database is pointed out.

  10. The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Joe W.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Harwood, Robert S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Read, William G.; Siegel, Peter H.; Cofield, Richard E.; Filipiak, Mark J.; Flower, Dennis A.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder measures several atmospheric chemical species (OH, HO2, H2O, O3, HCl, ClO, HOCl, BrO, HNO3, N2O, CO, HCN, CH3CN, volcanic SO2), cloud ice, temperature, and geopotential height to improve our understanding of stratospheric ozone chemistry, the interaction of composition and climate, and pollution in the upper troposphere. All measurements are made simultaneously and continuously, during both day and night. The instrument uses heterodyne radiometers that observe thermal emission from the atmospheric limb in broad spectral regions centered near 118, 190, 240, and 640 GHz, and 2.5 THz. It was launched July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aura satellite and started full-up science operations on August 13, 2004. An atmospheric limb scan and radiometric calibration for all bands are performed routinely every 25 s. Vertical profiles are retrieved every 165 km along the suborbital track, covering 82 S to 82 N latitudes on each orbit. Instrument performance to date has been excellent; data have been made publicly available; and initial science results have been obtained.

  11. Stress Analysis Report for the Microwave Landing System (MLS) Class V modification C-130 Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    SIEGLER. INC INSTRUMENT DVISION S AVENUj I GRANO RAS MI 4950e IS1 41.6-186 1/86 ’ Report No. 6216-039 Revision______ Complex Section Area Moment of Inertia...AP40S K* AOS Am*& Csco. a-NITJ( Ol ’aF 7=4 8. .- 7 10.1; AA z . qA l’B LEA SIME.IC 4141EAST[ONVENIJE SE GRANO .4AP’S MI49SW I LSI 41.5-183 1/36 IL PX...Z._1-F4- 7_ V~ a. .cC’ %-A __ I___ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _’ LEARe~ SIGER W FAS1TPN AVENUE S E GRANO RAPIDS Ml 49"U A LSI 41.5-188 1/66 % % % ’U * b ’. U

  12. Computer Competencies for MLS Graduates: A Study of the UH Graduate School of Library Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Denise M.

    This study is designed to identify the computer competencies that should be required of library/information studies (LIS) graduates of the Graduate School of Library Studies (GSLS) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The long term objective of the study is to provide information for the policy and planning of GSLS. The study examines how certain…

  13. Physical Mechanisms Controlling Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor as Revealed by MLS Data from UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.

    1998-01-01

    The seasonal changes of the upper tropospheric humidity are studied with the water vapor data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, and the winds and vertical velocity data obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Using the same algorithm for vertical transport as that used for horizontal transport (Zhu and Newell, 1998), we find that the moisture in the tropical upper troposphere may be increased mainly by intensified local convection in a small portion, less than 10%, of the whole area between 40 deg S to 40 deg N. The contribution of large scale background circulations and divergence of horizontal transport is relatively small in these regions. These dynamic processes cannot be revealed by the traditional analyses of moisture fluxes. The negative feedback suggested by Lindzen (1990) also exists, if enhanced convection is concentrated in the tropics, but is apparently not the dominant process in the moisture budget.

  14. Seasonal Behavior of Tropical to Mid-Latitude Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from UARS MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, B.; Read, W.; Waters, J.; Rosenlof, K.

    1998-01-01

    Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is a fundamental importance in understanding earth's atmosphere and climate. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas and it is in the upper troposphere that water vapor most strongly influences radiative forcing.

  15. Low-Level Tie Feature Extraction of Mobile Mapping Data (mls/images) and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jende, P.; Hussnain, Z.; Peter, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-03-01

    Mobile Mapping (MM) is a technique to obtain geo-information using sensors mounted on a mobile platform or vehicle. The mobile platform's position is provided by the integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, especially in urban areas, building structures can obstruct a direct line-of-sight between the GNSS receiver and navigation satellites resulting in an erroneous position estimation. Therefore, derived MM data products, such as laser point clouds or images, lack the expected positioning reliability and accuracy. This issue has been addressed by many researchers, whose aim to mitigate these effects mainly concentrates on utilising tertiary reference data. However, current approaches do not consider errors in height, cannot achieve sub-decimetre accuracy and are often not designed to work in a fully automatic fashion. We propose an automatic pipeline to rectify MM data products by employing high resolution aerial nadir and oblique imagery as horizontal and vertical reference, respectively. By exploiting the MM platform's defective, and therefore imprecise but approximate orientation parameters, accurate feature matching techniques can be realised as a pre-processing step to minimise the MM platform's three-dimensional positioning error. Subsequently, identified correspondences serve as constraints for an orientation update, which is conducted by an estimation or adjustment technique. Since not all MM systems employ laser scanners and imaging sensors simultaneously, and each system and data demands different approaches, two independent workflows are developed in parallel. Still under development, both workflows will be presented and preliminary results will be shown. The workflows comprise of three steps; feature extraction, feature matching and the orientation update. In this paper, initial results of low-level image and point cloud feature extraction methods will be discussed as well as an outline of the project and its framework will be given.

  16. MLS antenna locations for the deHaviland DASH 7 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.; Earl, H. S., Jr.; Langford, B. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several proposed aircraft antenna locations were investigated to determine their potential for satisfying the microwave landing system antenna coverage requirements. The results of this investigation are presented and antenna locations are recommended for the deHavilland DASH 7 aircraft.

  17. Two Separate Mechanisms of T Cell Clonal Anergy to Mls -1a1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    publication Fe19uary 4, 1ŗ. Accepted for publication versity of Pennsylvania, Room 276, John Morgan Building. 36th & Harnihto I d eSeptember 9, 1"a3...hybridoma cell lines or its supernatant. We also thank 17. Gardner, P. 1989. Calcium and T lymphocyte activation. Cell Linda Gill-Morse and Carlyn

  18. Geographical Distribution and Interseasonal Variability of Tropical Deep Convection: UARS MLS Observations and Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    measurements of small-scale humidity fea- tures associated with overshooting convection as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of these...mechanisms that could cause this anticorrelation of temperature and cloudiness during this time scale were discussed in their report (e.g., Pinatubo eruption ... Mount Pinatubo H2SO4/H2O aero- sol on ice nucleation in the upper troposphere using a global chemistry and transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D12

  19. Microwave Landing System (MLS). Phase III. (Basic Narrow & Small Community Configurations). Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    Type N Female Power - AMP 201298-3 Female The TWT amplifier will output a fault signal when the TWT is over temperature, when the helix current is...Control Section 3-24 3.2.1.5.2 Monitor Section 3-26 3.2.1.6 TWT Amplifier 3-28 3.2.1.7 RF Unit 3-29 3.2.1.7.1 C-Band Exciter 3-29 3.2.1.7.2 Bi-Phase...3-60 3.2.2.5.1 Control Section 3-66 3.2.2.5.2 Monitor Section 3-66 3.2.2.6 TWT Amplifier 3-66 3.2.2.7 RF Unit 3-66 3.2.2.8 Local Control/Status 3-66

  20. 76 FR 47226 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-2)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ..., extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call 202-708-4594 (TTY). These are not toll-free... before June 30, 2011; Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and... HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all...

  1. MLS observations of stratospheric waves in temperature and O3 during the 1992 southern winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, E. F.; Elson, L. S.; Froidevaux, L.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Zurek, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder observed waves in stratospheric temperature and O3 during the 1992 southern winter. Wave 1 intensifies three times from mid August through mid September, when a 9 day eastward traveling wave becomes in phase with the stationary wave 1. During the periods of wave intensification, minor sudden warmings and increased zonal mean O3 are observed. The waves have a westward phase tilt which results in an intensified baroclinic zone when the waves are in phase. Waves in T and O3 are positively correlated near 5 - 10 hPa, implying transport by planetary waves; this is supported by larger O3 wave amplitudes than expected from photochemistry alone.

  2. The evolution of ozone observed by UARS MLS in the 1992 late winter southern polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Elson, L. S.; Fishbein, E. F.; Zurek, R. W.; Harwood, R. S.; Lahoz, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of ozone (O3) observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is described for 14 Aug through 20 Sep 1992, in relation to the polar vortex. The development of an ozone hole is observed in column O3, and a corresponding decrease is seen in O3 mixing ratio in the polar lower stratosphere, consistent with chemical destruction. The observations also suggest that poleward transport associated with episodes of strong planetary wave activity is important in increasing O3 in the mid-stratosphere.

  3. Excitation and Evolution of the Quasi-2-Day Wave Observed UARS/MLS Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Fishbein, E. F.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    The quasi-2-day wave is known as a strong and transient perturbation in the middle and upper atmosphere that often occurs shortly after solstice. The excitation mechanisms of this transient wave have been discussed for years, but no clear answer has yet been attained. In this paper, propagating characteristics of the 2-day wave are studied based on 8-mon temperature measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The studies are focused on the wave events that happened in January 1993 and in July-August 1993. The observations suggest that winter planetary waves could be responsible for triggering the summer 2-day wave through long penetration into the summer stratosphere. A connection is evident in the evolution of the wave amplitude between the summer 2-day wave generation and winter wave penetration. The data also suggest that the enhancement of the wave amplitude is a manifestation of both a local unstable wave and a global normal-mode Rossby wave.

  4. ATC simulation of helicopter IFR approaches into major terminal areas using RNAV, MLS, and CDTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.; Peach, L. L.; Willett, F. M., Jr.; Obrien, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of independent helicopter IFR routes at hub airports was investigated in a real time air traffic control system simulation involving a piloted helicopter simulator, computer generated air traffic, and air traffic controllers. The helicopter simulator was equipped to fly area navigation (RNAV) routes and microwave landing system approaches. Problems studied included: (1) pilot acceptance of the approach procedure and tracking accuracy; (2) ATC procedures for handling a mix of helicopter and fixed wing traffic; and (3) utility of the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) for the helicopter in the hub airport environment. Results indicate that the helicopter routes were acceptable to the subject pilots and were noninterfering with fixed wing traffic. Merging and spacing maneuvers using CDTI were successfully carried out by the pilots, but controllers had some reservations concerning the acceptability of the CDTI procedures.

  5. Simple Approaches to Improve the Automatic Inventory of ZEBRA Crossing from Mls Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, P.; Riveiro, B.; Soilán, M.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2015-08-01

    The city management is increasingly supported by information technologies, leading to paradigms such as smart cities, where decision-makers, companies and citizens are continuously interconnected. 3D modelling turns of great relevance when the city has to be managed making use of geospatial databases or Geographic Information Systems. On the other hand, laser scanning technology has experienced a significant growth in the last years, and particularly, terrestrial mobile laser scanning platforms are being more and more used with inventory purposes in both cities and road environments. Consequently, large datasets are available to produce the geometric basis for the city model; however, this data is not directly exploitable by management systems constraining the implementation of the technology for such applications. This paper presents a new algorithm for the automatic detection of zebra crossing. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: road segmentation (based on a PCA analysis of the points contained in each cycle of collected by a mobile laser system), rasterization (conversion of the point cloud to a raster image coloured as a function of intensity data), and zebra crossing detection (using the Hough Transform and logical constrains for line classification). After evaluating different datasets collected in three cities located in Northwest Spain (comprising 25 strips with 30 visible zebra crossings) a completeness of 83% was achieved.

  6. Formula for Deterrence: The Challenges of Deterring Contemporary Threats to United States National Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    36. 26 Douglas Paal and Dr. Nancy Bernkopf Tucker, interview by Andrea Koppel , “China and Taiwan: An American Tightrope,” Transcript of Great...Armed Regional Adversaries. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp, 2008. Paal, Douglas and Tucker, Dr. Nancy Bernkopf. Interview by Andrea Koppel . “China

  7. Use of GTE, Mozaic, Sonex, and UARS-MLS Data in Understanding Tropospheric Processes Critical to Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    During the first year we focused on the analysis of data collected on over 7600 commercial aircraft flights (the MOZAIC program). The aim was to further our understanding of the fundamental dynamical processes that drive mesoscale phenomena in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and their effects on the advection of passive scalars. Through these studies we made the following findings. 2001]: We derived the Kolmogorov equation for the third-order velocity structure function on an f-plane. We showed how the sign of the function yields the direction of the energy cascade. The remarkable linearity of the measured off diagonal third-order structure function was studied. We suggested that the Coriolis term, which appears explicitly in this equation, may be crucial in understanding the observed kinetic energy spectra at scales larger than 100 km, instead of the nonlinear advection term as previously assumed. Also, we showed that decreases with latitude for mid- to high-latitudes, and tabulated the values. Ozone concentration structure functions were calculated by restricting the data points to approximately isentropic pairings. In this way we were able to make comparisons with scalar advection theories. We found that, at even the largest scales, there was no evidence for the simple scaling predicted for smooth advection/diffusion.

  8. An Analysis of the Requirements for and the Costs and Benefits of the National Microwave Landing System (MLS). Volume I,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Q60% QO P. a It94-( Q U64 4 ,44tt 4A 0 c C5IN N 11- N~. 04 .4 fŘ F - Y0 N1 d0 .* LA 4 N 0 04P44 I A tN4 (P 0#f C’w1 ; 0 0 666 C.-a : * 66066 61 cc 4...N *U j 0 Mo.* it * 4A 9 3 * ~OO~ tN4 a N 0-0.~ N Ni C; q; 4 0 C; 9; N; C Ne.In N-2 -m . U I * ca...o 1 . .o a. .o..o oN .0

  9. Multilingual and Native English-Speaking Student Writers in Medical Laboratory Sciences (MLS): A Comparative Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice M.; Thompson, Julie M.; Eliason, Patricia A.; Collins, Molly Rojas; Murie, Robin; Spannaus-Martin, Donna J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical laboratory scientists are health care practitioners who perform testing on blood and other body fluids providing vital information to physicians for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients in health and disease. Miscommunications between laboratory personnel and other health care practitioners can result in unwarranted delays…

  10. Use of Maps, GTE and UARS-MLS Data in Understanding Tropospheric Processes Critical to Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.

    2000-01-01

    Two of the major problems in using meteorological models to explain observed tropospheric trace constituent distributions and thereby to understand the global budgets of the tracers are to properly define the vertical layered structure in the free atmosphere, and to understand the contribution of advection processes in generating horizontal inhomogeneities at all scales. We proposed to tackle these problems through the examination of an extensive collection of trace constituent data from research and commercial aircraft in conjunction with meteorological data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The physical mechanisms responsible for these advection and layering processes were explored and their implications for theories and models assessed. In addition, we calculated examples of how thin layers (not currently resolved by models) affect the radiative heating/cooling rates. We developed an improved algorithm for trace constituent layer detection, and used it to analyze over 100,000 km of ozone and humidity vertical profiles collected by instruments piggybacked on commercial aircraft. We have also performed radiative heating/cooling calculations on some observed layer structures, and have demonstrated that the sharp edges on humidity layers can have strong local effects of self-stabilization (dry layers) or destabilization (wet layers), and have suggested that clear-air turbulence might result from the latter case through convective instability. We also systematically analyzed the mesoscale variabilities, not only of the trace constituents, but also of the aircraft-measured dynamical variables.

  11. An Analysis of the Requirements for, and the Benefits and Costs of the National Microwave Landing System (MLS). Executive Summary,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    special or individual programs. These an- alyses are necessarily devoted to the consideration of averages. For example, in estimating the value of time saved...income for the air tra- veler population and estimate the average value of time as equal to the income earning ability of this average traveler. This...12.50 per hour, as the dollar value of time saved in avoiding aircraft delays or disruptions. It is reasonably certain, however, that there are no

  12. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a constellation of microsatellites carrying ATOMMS to provide radiosonde-like profiles for weather prediction, an unprecedented characterization of present climate, a continuous global field campaign to constrain critical processes to improve models, and a long term record quantifying trends in climatic behavior.

  13. An Analysis of the Requirements for, and the Benefits and Costs of the National Microwave Landing System (MLS). Volume II,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    43 704 54 Salisbury Wicomico County 38:20 75:30 60 55 MASSACHUSETTS Bedford Ranscom 42:28 71:17 143 55 Boston Logan 42:22 71:02 29 56 Nantucket...M’ Ui 4r r- r4 P-4 -4 41 -4 Lf) co) 𔃻 c 0 , -4 Lr m " m cy’ ’D0 - ’o0 -4 ccc r’- 0) %0 C% %0 0 r-4 0> M% %D0 u) T U) CD 00 co %D0 IT -4 0% 00 cc ON...Let. Long. (W) Elev. (Ft._) P MONTANA Billings Logan Field 45:48 108:32 3570 69 Great Falls International 47:29 111:22 3657 69 Helena Municipal 46:36

  14. Real-time simulation of helicopter IFR approaches into major terminal areas using RNAV, MLS, and CDTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.; Peach, L. L.; Willett, F. M., Jr.; Obrien, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Helicopter IFR routes at hub airports have been investigated in an air-traffic-control system simulation involving a piloted helicopter simulator, computer-generated air traffic, and air traffic controllers. Problems studied included: (1) pilot acceptance of the approach procedure and tracking accuracy; (2) ATC procedures for handling a mix of helicopter and fixed-wing traffic; and (3) utility of the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) for the helicopter. Results indicate that the helicopter routes were pilot acceptable and were noninterfering with fixed-wing traffic. Merging and spacing maneuvers using CDTI were successfully carried out by the pilots, but controllers had some reservations concerning CDTI.

  15. Use of GTE, Mozaic, Sonex, and UARS-MLS Data in Understanding Tropospheric Processes Critical to Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    During the first year we focused on the analysis of data collected on over 7600 commercial aircraft flights (the MOZAIC program). The aim was to further our understanding of the fundamental dynamical processes that drive mesoscale phenomena in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and their effects on the advection of passive scalars. Through these studies we made the following findings. 2001]: We derived the Kolmogorov equation for the third-order velocity structure function on an f-plane. We showed how the sign of the function yields the direction of the energy cascade. The remarkable linearity of the measured off diagonal third-order structure function was studied. We suggested that the Coriolis term, which appears explicitly in this equation, may be crucial in understanding the observed kinetic energy spectra at scales larger than 100 km, instead of the nonlinear advection term as previously assumed. Also, we showed that decreases with latitude for mid- to high-latitudes, and tabulated the values. Ozone concentration structure functions were calculated by restricting the data points to approximately isentropic pairings. In this way we were able to make comparisons with scalar advection theories. We found that, at even the largest scales, there was no evidence for the simple scaling predicted for smooth advection/diffusion.

  16. Cessna 172 MLS (Microwave Landing System) Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) Approach Data Collection and Processing Data Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    T. 3175 𔃿 -.. . • " " " , " " ’, ’ I " - - - - " 5- . . " " - . . . *S "=’ ’ ’ " .74 57- ~~ 7a 1.~- - - - - - - C1 3 MEE LS APPP:AC4 -- ~~ r COP3 ~T

  17. Magnetic nanoparticle-supported glutathione: a conceptually sustainable organocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptually novel nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable organocatalyst has been developed, which is readily prepared from inexpensive starting materials in a truly sustainable manner; which catalyzes Paal-Knorr reaction with high yield in pure aqueous medium that...

  18. Comparison of GPS/SAC-C and MIPAS/ENVISAT temperature profiles and its implementation for EOS AURA-MLS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Romans, Larry J.; Ao, Chi O.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; Gil-Lopez, Sergio; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Hopfner, Michael; Kellmann, Sylvia; Kiefer, Michael; Linden, Andrea; Tsidu, Glzaw Mengitsu; Milz, Mathias; Steck, Tilman; Fischer, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    A new generation GPS flight receiver was launched on the Argentinian satellite SAC-C in 2001. It has demonstrated the potential applicability for the continuous monitoring of the earth's atmosphere with radio occultation technology, and providing high vertical resolution profiles of temperature and water vapour data complementary to other sounding techniques.

  19. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  20. Sensitivity of tropical stratospheric ozone to rotational UV variations estimated from UARS and Aura MLS observations during the declining phases of solar cycles 22 and 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossay, Sébastien; Bekki, Slimane; Marchand, Marion; Poulain, Virginie; Toumi, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    The correlation between tropical stratospheric ozone and UV radiation on solar rotational time scales is investigated using daily satellite ozone observations and reconstructed solar spectra. We consider two 3-year periods falling within the descending phases of two 11-year solar cycles 22 (1991-1994) and 23 (2004-2007). The UV rotational cycle is highly irregular and even disappears for half a year during cycle 23. For the 1991-1994 period, ozone and 205 nm UV flux are found to be correlated between about 10 and 1 hPa with a maximum of 0.29 at ~5 hPa; ozone sensitivity (percentage change in ozone for 1% change in UV) peaks at ~0.4. Correlation during cycle 23 is weaker with a peak ozone sensitivity of 0.2. The correlation is found to vary widely, not only with altitude, but also from one year to the next with a rotational signal in ozone appearing almost intermittent. Unexpectedly, the correlation is not found to bear any relation with the solar rotational forcing. For instance, solar rotational fluctuations are by far the strongest during 1991-1992 whereas the correlation peaks at the end of 1993, a rotationally quiescent period. When calculated over sliding intervals of 1-year, the sensitivity is found to vary very strongly within both 3-year periods; it is almost negligible over the entire vertical profile during some 1-year intervals or reaches close to 1 around 2-5 mb for other intervals. Other sources of variability, presumably of dynamical origin, operate on the rotational spectral range and determine to a large extent the estimated solar rotational signal. Even considering 3 years of observations (corresponding to about 40 solar cycles), the extraction of the rotational solar signal does not appear to be robust during declining phases of 11-year solar cycles. As observational studies cover at best three 11-year solar cycles, it must be challenging to produce a reliable estimation of the 11-year solar cycle signal in stratospheric ozone, especially in the presence of decadal climate variability.

  1. Comparison of GPS/SAC-C and MIPAS/ENVISAT temperature profiles and its implementation for EOS AURA-MLS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Romans, Larry J.; Ao, Chi O.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; Gil-Lopez, Sergio; hide

    2003-01-01

    A new generation GPS flight receiver was launched on the Argentinian satellite SAC-C in 2001. It has demonstrated the potential applicability for the continuous monitoring of the earth's atmosphere with radio occultation technology, and providing high vertical resolution profiles of temperature and water vapour data complementary to other sounding techniques.

  2. Atmospheric Dynamics Deduced from UARS Using Middle Atmosphere ISAMS Carbon Monoxide and Upper-Tropospheric MLS Water Vapor and Ice Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standford, John L.

    2002-01-01

    This project involved analyses of atmospheric constituent data fields, carbon monoxide in the upper stratospheric/lower mesosphere, and water vapor in the upper troposphere. The observational data analyses were compared with atmospheric models.

  3. Extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions by means of supported liquid membrane (MLS) containing tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO).

    PubMed

    Zidi, Chiraz; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2011-10-30

    This paper deals with the liquid-liquid extraction and the facilitated transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system of aqueous phenol using tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in an appropriate organic solvent. Phenol has been quantitatively extracted from aqueous acidic solutions using TOPO dissolved in kerosene as organic phase. The effect of TOPO concentration dissolved in kerosene on the extraction efficiency reveals that TOPO combined with phenol in the ratio of 1:1. Using a flat-sheet SLM (FSSLM) system, more than 65% of the initial phenol content in the feed phase was extracted and stripped in a NaOH aqueous receiving phase. The important operational variables affecting the facilitated transport of phenol through the FSSLM system studied are concentration of TOPO, membrane viscosity, feed phase pH, initial phenol concentration, polymeric support type and membrane stability. Regardless of its comparatively low extraction efficiency of phenol, the SLM based on TOPO exhibits higher long-term stability as compared to tributyl phosphate (TBP). Elaborated SLM system retained its stability and initial performance during the 5 days long experiment contrary to the TBP-SLM system where a time dependent negative tendency (transport efficiency decline) was observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Infrastructure for Multi-Level Secure Service-Oriented Architecture (MLS-SOA) Using the Multiple Single-Level Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-17

    incoming registry data from other domains before they are put into the registry, filter the outgoing query responses, moderate the query process as...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send...classified domain often acquire data from civilian sources and need to directly interface with those systems. Access to operational level systems in

  5. American Telephone and Telegraph System V/MLS Release 1.1.2 Running on Unix System V Release 3.1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-18

    Cartridge bss NOT USED Available Expansion RAM Card 800000 NVRAM FEE001 FIGURE 2. THE 630 MTG MEMORY LAYOUT 19 October 18, 1989 Final Evaluation...that the firmware can be modified and thus grow in size. The Non-Volatile Read-Access Memory ( NVRAM ) is battery backed and holds terminal setup data...two cases: either the root or firmware password is lost, or the system battery is weak and parts of the system Non-Volatile RAM ( NVRAM ) become

  6. The ultrafast tunable saturable absorption of metal complexes containing redox-active 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Wang, Yingwei; Li, Xiaohong; Lyu, Bosai; Xu, Yahui; Zhou, Jianliang; Yan, Jun; Li, Jianbo; Xiao, Si; He, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The extraordinary ultrafast tunable saturable absorption properties of metal complexes M(PAAL)2 (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) containing redox-active 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol ligands (PAAL) were investigated by Z-scan and pump-probe system. The obtained third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption and refraction coefficient of each metal complex reach ∼10-2 cm/GW and ∼10-6 cm2/GW at 510 nm wavelength, respectively. Meanwhile, an ultrafast carrier relaxation process of approximately (200 ± 50) fs is observed for all of them. Furthermore, we found that the third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient of M(PAAL)2 is proportional to the central metal proton number. All the NLO properties indicate that those metal complexes posses potential applications for fabricating photonic devices.

  7. 14 CFR 171.303 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.303 Definitions. As used in.... Microwave Landing System (MLS) means the MLS selected by ICAO for international standardization. Minimum...

  8. Developing the Best Methods of Internal Contracting Support for Deployed Marine Expeditionary Units (MEU)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Pueyo Izquierdo , Francisco laspalmas@mls.com.mt tenerife@mls.com.mt +351-91-9153416 +351-91-9772814 +34-619-219937 CROATIA DUBROVNIK, PLOCE...ALL PORTS Tzanakos, George Tzanakos, Maria athens@mls.com.mt corfu@mls.com.mt +30-944-308-020 +30-944-332-398 ISRAEL ASHDOD, EILAT, HAIFA

  9. Extant and Extinct Lunar Regolith Simulants: Modal Analyses of NU-LHT-1M and -2m, OB-1, JSC-1, JSC-1A and -1AF,FJS-1, and MLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian; Rickman, Doug; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John; Wilson, Stephen; Stoeser, Doug; Butcher, Alan; Botha, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This work is part of a larger effort to compile an internally consistent database on lunar regolith (Apollo samples) and lunar regolith simulants. Characterize existing lunar regolith and simulants in terms of: a) Particle type; b) Particle size distribution; c) Particle shape distribution; d) Bulk density; and e) Other compositional characteristics. Evaluate regolith simulants (Figure of Merit) by above properties by comparison to lunar regolith (Apollo sample) This presentation covers new data on lunar simulants.

  10. Final Evaluation Report American Telephone and Telegraph Company, System V/MLS Release 1.2.0 Running on UNIX System V, Release 3.1.1 Rating Maintenance Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-28

    The pad area exists so that the firmware can be modified and thus grow in size. The Non-Volatile Read-Access Memory ( NVRAM ) is battery backed and... NVRAM ) become unreadable and must be restored. The Floppy Key may be used to reset the system NVRAM to its default values, and to gain access to the...pointers for the PFkeys which are located in 630 MTG Non-Volatile RAM ( NVRAM ) storage, causing them to be made inaccessible; these NVRAM -located items are

  11. Carbon-Coated Current Collectors for High-Power Li-ion Secondary Batteries III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    process called roll- calcination . The same positive effects seen on small samples have been reproduced. Introduction: The basic principle for... calcination . The same positive effects seen on small samples have been reproduced. 15. SUBJECT TERMS lithium ion secondary battery, Carbon-Coated Current...foils after clip- calcination . Table 2. Fitted parameters form Raman spectrum. Raman Center Area Width(FWHM) Height PA-Al G 1582.1 6723.6

  12. Carbon-Coated Current Collectors for High-Power Lithium Ion Secondary Batteries III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-11

    special batch thermal process called roll- calcination . The same positive effects seen on small samples have been reproduced. 15. SUBJECT...called roll- calcination . The same positive effects seen on small samples have been reproduced. Introduction: The basic principle for...plasma sample after 550oC 2hrs Raman Figure 2. Raman spectrum of plasma carbon coated Al foil PA-Al, PB-Al, PC-Al and the foils after clip- calcination

  13. 14 CFR 171.301 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.301 Scope. This subpart...-Federal Microwave Landing System (MLS) facilities that provide the basis for instrument flight rules (IFR...

  14. 14 CFR 171.301 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.301 Scope. This subpart...-Federal Microwave Landing System (MLS) facilities that provide the basis for instrument flight rules (IFR...

  15. 14 CFR 171.301 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.301 Scope. This subpart...-Federal Microwave Landing System (MLS) facilities that provide the basis for instrument flight rules (IFR...

  16. 14 CFR 171.301 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.301 Scope. This subpart...-Federal Microwave Landing System (MLS) facilities that provide the basis for instrument flight rules (IFR...

  17. 14 CFR 171.301 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.301 Scope. This subpart...-Federal Microwave Landing System (MLS) facilities that provide the basis for instrument flight rules (IFR...

  18. 75 FR 42168 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... companies, and any person eligible under the Atomic Energy Act to apply for ESPs, SDCs, COLs, or MLs. 7. An... site permits, DCs, COLs, and MLs for NPPs. A copy of the final supporting statement may be viewed...

  19. 14 CFR 171.317 - Approach elevation performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Approval of MLS.) (3) Be located such that the MLS Approach Reference Datum and ILS Reference Datum heights are coincident within a tolerance of 3 feet when MLS is installed on a runway already served by an ILS. This requirement applies only if the ILS glide slope is sited such that the height of the...

  20. 76 FR 37263 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  1. 76 FR 52237 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  2. 78 FR 5132 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  3. 76 FR 55235 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  4. 78 FR 5130 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  5. 77 FR 18679 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  6. 75 FR 21981 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  7. 78 FR 28133 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  8. 76 FR 16686 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    .... 97.23 Vor, Vor/DME, Vor or TACAN, and Vor/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  9. 76 FR 43578 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  10. 77 FR 33085 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    .... 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...

  11. Tumour-associated macrophages correlate with poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma and promote cell motility and invasion via the HB-EGF-EGFR-PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, A; Matsumoto, Y; Fukushi, J; Iura, K; Matsunobu, T; Endo, M; Fujiwara, T; Iida, K; Fujiwara, Y; Hatano, M; Yokoyama, N; Fukushima, S; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y

    2015-02-03

    Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma, and metastasis occurs in up to one-third of cases. However, the mechanisms of invasion and metastasis remain unclear. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in tumour invasion, metastasis, and/or poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TAMs and MLS. Using 78 primary MLS samples, the association between clinical prognosis and macrophage infiltration was evaluated by immunochemistry. The effects of macrophages on cell growth, cell motility, and invasion of MLS cell lines were investigated in vitro. In addition, clinicopathological factors were analysed to assess their prognostic implications in MLS. Higher levels of CD68-positive macrophages were associated with poorer overall survival in MLS samples. Macrophage-conditioned medium enhanced MLS cell motility and invasion by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with the key ligand suggested to be heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was mostly involved in HB-EGF-induced cell motility and invasion of MLS. The expression of phosphorylated EGFR in MLS clinical samples was associated with macrophage infiltration. In addition, more significant macrophage infiltration was associated with poor prognosis even in multivariate analysis. Macrophage infiltration in MLS predicts poor prognosis, and the relationship between TAMs and MLS may be a new candidate for therapeutic targets of MLS.

  12. Investigating How and What Prospective Teachers Learn through Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria Lorelei

    2010-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] combines elements of Japanese lesson study and microteaching. A case study of MLS was conducted with 18 prospective teachers in an initial course on learning to teach. Various data sources (i.e., pre- and post-lesson plans, MLS lesson plans, videotaped lessons, transcripts of group discussions, observation field…

  13. Tumour-associated macrophages correlate with poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma and promote cell motility and invasion via the HB-EGF-EGFR-PI3K/Akt pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, A; Matsumoto, Y; Fukushi, J; Iura, K; Matsunobu, T; Endo, M; Fujiwara, T; Iida, K; Fujiwara, Y; Hatano, M; Yokoyama, N; Fukushima, S; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma, and metastasis occurs in up to one-third of cases. However, the mechanisms of invasion and metastasis remain unclear. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in tumour invasion, metastasis, and/or poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TAMs and MLS. Methods: Using 78 primary MLS samples, the association between clinical prognosis and macrophage infiltration was evaluated by immunochemistry. The effects of macrophages on cell growth, cell motility, and invasion of MLS cell lines were investigated in vitro. In addition, clinicopathological factors were analysed to assess their prognostic implications in MLS. Results: Higher levels of CD68-positive macrophages were associated with poorer overall survival in MLS samples. Macrophage-conditioned medium enhanced MLS cell motility and invasion by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with the key ligand suggested to be heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was mostly involved in HB-EGF-induced cell motility and invasion of MLS. The expression of phosphorylated EGFR in MLS clinical samples was associated with macrophage infiltration. In addition, more significant macrophage infiltration was associated with poor prognosis even in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Macrophage infiltration in MLS predicts poor prognosis, and the relationship between TAMs and MLS may be a new candidate for therapeutic targets of MLS. PMID:25562433

  14. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  15. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance. [terminal configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics and performance of MLS equipment utilized by the TCV B-737. Several classes of MLS service and approach procedures are discussed in light of TCV experience. Since the early uses of MLS involves procedures identical to ILS, most of the discussion is concerned with exploitation of MLS capabilities not possessed by ILS. Examples are given of how this could be done by using MLS to enhance the safety and utility of procedures presently in use for noise abatement. Some areas which require definition of new procedures and conventions are indicated.

  16. Protective effects of molsidomine against doxorubicin-induced renal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Fatih; Beytur, Ali; Sarihan, Ediz; Oguz, Hilal K; Bentli, Recep; Samdanci, Emine; Kose, Evren; Polat, Alaaddin; Duran, Zeynep R; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ekinci, Nihat

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic and protective effects of molsidomine (MLS) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced renal damage in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups (control, MLS, DOX, DOX+MLS and MLS+DOX groups). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were determined from kidney tissues and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and albumin (Alb) levels also determined. DOX treatment caused a significant increase in TBARS levels and a significant decrease in the GSH and CAT levels compared with the control group. In comparison, MLS administration before DOX injection caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels and also increases in GSH and CAT levels, whereas treatment of MLS after DOX injection did not show any beneficial effect on these parameters. All groups showed a significant increase in NO levels compared to the control group. There were no significant differences among the all groups for BUN and Cr levels. Serum level of Alb decreased in the DOX-treated groups when compared with control and MLS groups. The histopathological findings were in accordance with the biochemical results. MLS treatment reversed the DOX-induced kidney damage in group 4. MLS treatment before DOX injection exerted a protective effect against DOX-induced kidney damage. MLS shows promise as a possible therapeutic intervention for the prevention of kidney injury associated with DOX treatment. Additional studies are warranted.

  17. Does lymphocytic colitis always present with normal endoscopic findings?

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Ro, Young Ouk; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo Sang

    2015-03-01

    Although normal endoscopic findings are, as a rule, part of the diagnosis of microscopic colitis, sev-eral cases of macroscopic lesions (MLs) have been reported in collagenous colitis, but hardly in lymphocytic colitis (LC). The aim of this study was to investigate the endoscopic, clini-cal, and histopathologic features of LC with MLs. A total of 14 patients with LC who were diagnosed between 2005 and 2010 were enrolled in the study. Endoscopic, clini-cal, and histopathologic findings were compared retrospec-tively according to the presence or absence of MLs. MLs were observed in seven of the 14 LC cases. Six of the MLs exhibited hypervascularity, three exhibited exudative bleeding and one exhibited edema. The patients with MLs had more severe diarrhea and were taking aspirin or pro-ton pump inhibitors. More intraepithelial lymphocytes were observed during histologic examination in the patients with MLs compared to the patients without MLs, although this difference was not significant. The numbers of mononuclear cells and neutrophils in the lamina propria were independent of the presence or absence of MLs. LC does not always present with normal endoscopic findings. Hyper-vascularity and exudative bleeding are frequent endoscopic findings in patients with MLs. (Gut Liver, 2015;9197-201).

  18. National INFOSEC technical baseline: multi-level secure systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J P

    1998-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline description of the state of multilevel processor/processing to the INFOSEC Research Council and at their discretion to the R&D community at large. From the information in the report, it is hoped that the members of the IRC will be aware of gaps in MLS research. A primary purpose is to bring IRC and the research community members up to date on what is happening in the MLS arena. The review will attempt to cover what MLS products are still available, and to identify companies who still offer MLS products. We have also attempted to identify requirements for MLS by interviewing senior officers of the Intelligence community as well as those elements of DoD and DOE who are or may be interested in procuring MLS products for various applications. The balance of the report consists of the following sections; a background review of the highlights of the developments of MLS, a quick summary of where we are today in terms of products, installations, and companies who are still in the business of supplying MLS systems [or who are developing MLS system], the requirements as expressed by senior members of the Intelligence community and DoD and DOE, issues and unmet R&D challenges surrounding MLS, and finally a set of recommended research topics.

  19. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Jiang, Y. B.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Fuller, R. A.; Marcy, T. P.; Popp, P. J.; Gao, R. S.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite has provided daily global HCl profiles since August 2004. We provide a characterization of the resolution, random and systematic uncertainties, and known issues for the version 2.2 MLS HCl data. The MLS sampling allows for comparisons with many (1500 to more than 3000) closely matched profiles from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). These data sets provide HCl latitudinal distributions that are, overall, very similar to those from (coincident) MLS profiles, although there are some discrepancies in the upper stratosphere between the MLS and HALOE gradients. As found in previous work, MLS and ACE HCl profiles agree very well (within approximately 5%, on average), but the MLS HCl abundances are generally larger (by 10-20%) than HALOE HCl. The bias versus HALOE is unlikely to arise mostly from MLS, as a similar systematic bias (of order 15%) is not observed between average MLS and balloon-borne measurements of HCl, obtained over Fort Sumner, New Mexico, in 2004 and 2005. At the largest pressure (147 hPa) for MLS HCl, a high bias (approximately 0.2 ppbv) is apparent in analyses of low to midlatitude data versus in situ aircraft chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) HCl measurements from the Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) campaigns in 2004, 2005, and 2006; this bias is also observed in comparisons of MLS and aircraftHCl/O3 correlations. Good agreement between MLS and CIMS HCl is obtained at 100 to 68 hPa. The recommended pressure range for MLS HCl is from 100 to 0.15 hPa.

  20. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Jiang, Y. B.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Fuller, R. A.; Marcy, T. P.; Popp, P. J.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Jucks, K. W.; Stachnik, R. A.; Toon, G. C.; Christensen, L. E.; Webster, C. R.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Walker, K. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Harwood, R. S.; Manney, G. L.; Schwartz, M. J.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite has provided daily global HCl profiles since August 2004. We provide a characterization of the resolution, random and systematic uncertainties, and known issues for the version 2.2 MLS HCl data. The MLS sampling allows for comparisons with many (1500 to more than 3000) closely matched profiles from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). These data sets provide HCl latitudinal distributions that are, overall, very similar to those from (coincident) MLS profiles, although there are some discrepancies in the upper stratosphere between the MLS and HALOE gradients. As found in previous work, MLS and ACE HCl profiles agree very well (within approximately 5%, on average), but the MLS HCl abundances are generally larger (by 10-20%) than HALOE HCl. The bias versus HALOE is unlikely to arise mostly from MLS, as a similar systematic bias (of order 15%) is not observed between average MLS and balloon-borne measurements of HCl, obtained over Fort Sumner, New Mexico, in 2004 and 2005. At the largest pressure (147 hPa) for MLS HCl, a high bias (approximately 0.2 ppbv) is apparent in analyses of low to midlatitude data versus in situ aircraft chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) HCl measurements from the Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) campaigns in 2004, 2005, and 2006; this bias is also observed in comparisons of MLS and aircraftHCl/O3 correlations. Good agreement between MLS and CIMS HCl is obtained at 100 to 68 hPa. The recommended pressure range for MLS HCl is from 100 to 0.15 hPa.

  1. Factors associated with completion of a behavioral intervention for caregivers of urban children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Butz, Arlene M; Halterman, Jill S; Bellin, Melissa; Kub, Joan; Frick, Kevin D; Lewis-Land, Cassia; Walker, Jennifer; Donithan, Michele; Tsoukleris, Mona; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    Rates of preventive follow-up asthma care after an acute emergency department (ED) visit are low among inner-city children. We implemented a novel behavioral asthma intervention, Pediatric Asthma Alert (PAAL) intervention, to improve outpatient follow-up and preventive care for urban children with a recent ED visit for asthma. The objective of this article is to describe the PAAL intervention and examine factors associated with intervention completers and noncompleters. Children with persistent asthma and recurrent ED visits (N = 300) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the PAAL intervention that included two home visits and a facilitated follow-up visit with the child's primary care provider (PCP). Children were categorized as intervention completers, that is, completed home and PCP visits compared with noncompleters, who completed at least one home visit but did not complete the PCP visit. Using chi-square test of independence, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression, the intervention completion status was examined by several sociodemographic, health, and caregiver psychological variables. Children were African-American (95%), Medicaid insured (91%), and young (aged 3-5 years, 56%). Overall, 71% of children randomized to the intervention successfully completed all home and PCP visits (completers). Factors significantly associated with completing the intervention included younger age (age 3-5 years: completers, 65.4%; noncompleters, 34.1%; p < .001) and having an asthma action plan in the home at baseline (completers: 40%; noncompleters: 21%; p = .02). In a logistic regression model, younger child age, having an asthma action plan, and lower caregiver daily asthma stress were significantly associated with successful completion of the intervention. The majority of caregivers of high-risk children with asthma were successfully engaged in this home and PCP-based intervention. Caregivers of older children with asthma and those with high

  2. Fiber bundle design for an integrated wearable artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Madhani, Shalv P; Frankowski, Brian J; Federspiel, William J

    2017-02-07

    Mechanical ventilation and ECMO are the only viable treatment options for lung failure patients at the end stage, including ARDS and COPD. These treatments however are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to long wait times for lung transplant. Contemporary clinical literature has shown ambulation improves post-transplant outcomes in lung failure patients. Given this, we are developing the PAAL, a truly wearable artificial lung that allows for ambulation. In this study, we targeted 180 ml/min oxygenation and determined the form factor for a hollow fiber membrane (HFM) bundle for the PAAL.Based on a previously published mass transfer correlation we modeled oxygenation efficiency as a function of fiber bundle diameter. Three benchmark fiber bundles were fabricated to validate the model through in-vitro blood gas exchange at blood flow rates from 1 to 4 L/min according to ASTM standards. We used the model to determine a final design, which was characterized in-vitro through a gas exchange as well as a hemolysis study at 3.5 L/minThe percent difference between model predictions and experiment for the benchmark bundles ranged from 3% to 17.5% at the flowrates tested. Using the model, we predicted a 1.75 inch diameter bundle with 0.65 m surface area would produce 180 ml/min at 3.5 L/min blood flow rate. The oxygenation efficiency was 278 ml/min/m and the Normalized Index of Hemolysis (NIH) was less than 0.05g/100L. Future work involves integrating this bundle into the PAAL for which an experimental prototype is under development in our laboratory.

  3. An overview of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements and key results in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livesey, Nathaniel; Froidevaux, Lucien; Santee, Michelle; Read, William; Lambert, Alyn; Wu, Dong; Jiang, Jonathan; Manney, Gloria; Schwartz, Michael; Su, Hui

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's Aura spacecraft, launched in 2004, globally measures vertical profiles of atmospheric composition, humidity, temperature and cloud ice from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere. We present a review of the MLS measurements and selected scientific findings, with particular emphasis on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). MLS observations of phenomena such as the lower stratospheric 'tape recorder' have given new insights into convective transport of air into the upper troposphere and subsequent transport into the lower stratosphere. MLS observations of enhanced CO in the upper troposphere over Asia indicate trapping of pollution in the monsoon anti-cyclone. MLS upper tropospheric cloud ice and water vapor data have given new insights into the previously-reported 'supergreenhouse' effect. In addition, global MLS observations of cloud ice water content have been used to constrain climate and weather forecasting models, leading to improvements in model skill.

  4. Phenotypes and genotypes of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains in Italy and heterogeneity of inducibly resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Giovanetti, E; Montanari, M P; Mingoia, M; Varaldo, P E

    1999-08-01

    A total of 387 clinical strains of erythromycin-resistant (MIC, >/=1 microg/ml) Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated in Italian laboratories from 1995 to 1998, were examined. By the erythromycin-clindamycin double-disk test, 203 (52.5%) strains were assigned to the recently described M phenotype, 120 (31.0%) were assigned to the inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance (iMLS) phenotype, and 64 (16.5%) were assigned to the constitutive MLS resistance (cMLS) phenotype. The inducible character of the resistance of the iMLS strains was confirmed by comparing the clindamycin MICs determined under normal testing conditions and those determined after induction by pregrowth in 0.05 microg of erythromycin per ml. The MICs of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, spiramycin, and the ketolide HMR3004 were then determined and compared. Homogeneous susceptibility patterns were observed for the isolates of the cMLS phenotype (for all but one of the strains, HMR3004 MICs were 0.5 to 8 microg/ml and the MICs of the other drugs were >128 microg/ml) and those of the M phenotype (resistance only to the 14- and 15-membered macrolides was recorded, with MICs of 2 to 32 microg/ml). Conversely, heterogeneous susceptibility patterns were observed in the isolates of the iMLS phenotype, which were subdivided into three distinct subtypes designated iMLS-A, iMLS-B, and iMLS-C. The iMLS-A strains (n = 84) were highly resistant to the 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides and demonstrated reduced susceptibility to low-level resistance to HMR3004. The iMLS-B strains (n = 12) were highly resistant to the 14- and 15-membered macrolides, susceptible to the 16-membered macrolides (but highly resistant to josamycin after induction), and susceptible to HMR3004 (but intermediate or resistant after induction). The iMLS-C strains (n = 24) had lower levels of resistance to the 14- and 15-membered macrolides (with erythromycin MICs increasing two to four times after

  5. 77 FR 37799 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... Part 97 is amended to read as follows: By amending: Sec. 97.23 VOR, VOR/DME, VOR or TACAN, and VOR/DME or TACAN; Sec. 97.25 LOC, LOC/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec....

  6. 76 FR 78810 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec. 97.35....... 1/3411 12/1/11 ILS OR LOC RWY 24, ILS RWY 24 (SA CAT I), ILS RWY 24 (SA CAT II), Amdt 12. 12-Jan-12......... TN Memphis......... Memphis Intl.... 1/4441 12/1/11 ILS OR LOC RWY 36L, ILS RWY 36L (CAT II), ILS...

  7. 75 FR 22217 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR.../1214 3/26/10 ILS Rwy 27, Amdt 3 3-Jun-10 OK Muskogee Davis Field........ 0/1302 3/19/10 RNAV (GPS) Rwy... Monroe Monroe Rgnl........ 0/1696 3/23/10 ILS Rwy 22, Amdt 3B 3-Jun-10 AL Anniston Anniston 0/1704...

  8. 77 FR 45925 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    .../DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs... 1. Continent. 23-Aug-12 NE North Platte........ North Platte Rgnl 2/0484 7/11/12 ILS OR LOC RWY 30... RWY 35, Amdt 18A. Airport Lee Bird Field. 23-Aug-12 TX Dallas Dallas Love Field... 2/0613 7/11/12...

  9. 76 FR 8288 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and... RADAR-1, Amdt 17 10-Mar-11 AR Little Rock......... Adams Field......... 0/2078 1/26/11 ILS OR LOC RWY...-11 AR Little Rock......... Adams Field......... 0/2080 1/26/11 ILS OR LOC RWY 4R, Amdt 2 10-Mar-11...

  10. 78 FR 59810 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec. 97.35......... 3/1006 8/29/13 ILS OR LOC RWY 29, Amdt 1A 10/17/13 CA Half Moon Bay....... Half Moon Bay....... 3..., Amdt 4A 10/17/13 WA Bellingham Bellingham Intl..... 3/2757 9/10/13 ILS OR LOC RWY 16, ILS RWY 16...

  11. 78 FR 25386 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec. 97.35... 5/30/13 CA San Francisco....... San Francisco Intl.. 3/2324 4/1/13 ILS or LOC Rwy 28L, Amdt 23 5/30/13 CA San Francisco....... San Francisco Intl.. 3/2391 4/1/13 ILS or LOC Rwy 28R, ILS Rwy 28R (CAT...

  12. 77 FR 22477 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec. 97.35...) RWY Intl. 34R, Amdt 1 3-May-12 MS Jackson......... Jackson-Evers 2/2513 3/19/12 ILS OR LOC RWY Intl.../4557 3/19/12 ILS OR LOC RWY Intl--Carl T 18R, ILS RWY Jones Field. 18R (CAT II), Amdt 24B 3-May-12...

  13. 75 FR 25759 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR... County-- 0/1674 4/19/10 ILS Rwy 24, Amdt 14. Reynolds Field. 3-Jun-10...... FL Destin......... Destin.../3828 4/16/10 ILS OR LOC Rwy 35, Creek Intl. Amdt 22A. 3-Jun-10...... PA Zelienople..... Zelienople...

  14. 76 FR 4064 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ..., SDF, SDF/DME; Sec. 97.27 NDB, NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31...-Feb-11 NM Farmington......... Four Corners Rgnl.. 0/1316 12/13/10 ILS OR LOC RWY 25, Amdt 7C. 10-Feb... Charles....... Chennault Intl..... 0/1731 12/13/10 ILS OR LOC RWY 15, Amdt 5. 10-Feb-11 LA...

  15. 76 FR 11944 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    .... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec... (GPS) RWY 3, Orig 7-Apr-11 IL Chicago Chicago-O'Hare Intl. 0/7506 2/7/11 ILS OR LOC RWY 9L, ILS RWY 9L (CAT II), ILS RWY 9L (CAT III), Orig-B 7-Apr-11 NE Nebraska City....... Nebraska City Muni.. 0/8316...

  16. 78 FR 16608 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec. 97.35...-St Louis 3/6831 2/21/2013 ILS PRM RWY 30R (CAT III) (SIMULTANEOUS CLOSE Intl. PARALLEL), Amdt 1B 4-Apr-13 MO St Louis Lambert-St Louis 3/6832 2/21/2013 ILS PRM RWY 30R (SIMULTANEOUS CLOSE...

  17. 75 FR 69332 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    .... 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec.... 16-Dec-10 TX Houston George Bush 0/0678 10/15/10 ILS or LOC Rwy 8R, Amdt 23. Intercontinental/ Houston. 16-Dec-10 TX Houston George Bush 0/0679 10/15/10 ILS OR LOC Rwy 9, Amdt 8....

  18. 75 FR 76628 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ...; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and... County.. 0/5984 11/12/10 ILS OR LOC RWY 34, Amdt 4. 13-Jan-11 NY White Plains........ Westchester County... Las Vegas..... 0/6416 11/12/10 ILS OR LOC RWY 12L, Orig-B. 13-Jan-11 NV Elko Elko Rgnl 0/6417...

  19. 78 FR 7652 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV SIAPs; and Sec. 97.35...- 3/1520 01/11/13 ILS OR LOC RWY 5, Amdt 22F Hulman Field. 7-Mar-13 TX Mineral Wells....... Mineral Wells....... 3/1523 01/11/13 ILS OR LOC/DME RWY 31, Orig 7-Mar-13 IL Chicago Chicago Midway Intl....

  20. Adherence to Hypertension Management Recommendations for Patient Follow-Up Care and Lifestyle Modifications Made by Military Healthcare Providers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Exclusion Hypertension 28 criteria included pregnant women with hypertension, those less than 40 years of age, and non-beneficiaries of military...mls) of ethanol? (This equals 24 ounces of beer or 2 ounces (60 mls) of 100 proof whiskey per day or 0.5 ounces (15 mls) of ethanol per day for women ...deployment of military personnel is inevitable. Healthy Airmen will therefore deploy physically able, fit men and women Hypertension 13 prepared to

  1. In vivo hepatocyte MR imaging using lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Ketkar-Atre, Ashwini; Struys, Tom; Dresselaers, Tom; Hodenius, Michael; Mannaerts, Inge; Ni, Yicheng; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Grunsven, Leo A; De Cuyper, Marcel; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel lactose functionalized magnetoliposomes (MLs) as an MR contrast agent to target hepatocytes as well as to evaluate the targeting ability of MLs for in vivo applications. In the present work, 17 nm sized iron oxide cores functionalized with anionic MLs bearing lactose moieties were used for targeting the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-r), which is highly expressed in hepatocytes. Non-functionalized anionic MLs were tested as negative controls. The size distribution of lactose and anionic MLs was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). After intravenous administration of both MLs, contrast enhancement in the liver was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Label retention was monitored non-invasively by MRI and validated with Prussian blue staining and TEM for up to eight days post MLs administration. Although the MRI signal intensity did not show significant differences between functionalized and non-functionalized particles, iron-specific Prussian blue staining and TEM analysis confirmed the uptake of lactose MLs mainly in hepatocytes. In contrast, non-functionalized anionic MLs were mainly taken up by Kupffer and sinusoidal cells. Target specificity was further confirmed by high-resolution MR imaging of phantoms containing isolated hepatocytes, Kupffer cell (KCs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) fractions. Hypointense signal was observed for hepatocytes isolated from animals which received lactose MLs but not from animals which received anionic MLs. These data demonstrate that galactose-functionalized MLs can be used as a hepatocyte targeting MR contrast agent to potentially aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases if the non-specific uptake by KCs is taken into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BRAF inhibitor therapy-associated melanocytic lesions lack the BRAF V600E mutation and show increased levels of cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Mudaliar, Kumaran; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Duvic, Madeleine; Ciurea, Ana; Hymes, Sharon; Milton, Denái R; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Prieto, Victor G; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Curry, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    Newly appearing or changing melanocytic lesions (MLs) are a recently reported toxicity of BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) therapy. Morphologically, MLs associated with BRAFi therapy (BRAFi-MLs) may demonstrate alarming features of melanoma with an epithelioid cell phenotype with notable cytologic atypia. We sought to characterize the clinicopathological and molecular features of BRAFi-MLs. A retrospective review over a 4-year period revealed 20 patients in which 44 MLs (including 11 control nevi) were characterized by histopathology, review of clinical medical records, and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies (with anti-BRAF V600E, anti-BAP1, anti-cyclin D1, and anti-p16); the percentage of IHC+ cells was scored. Of the 20 patients, 3 (15%) whose BRAFi-MLs were biopsied had a second primary cutaneous melanoma. Of the 44 BRAFi-MLs tested, 37 (100%) of 37 MLs available for BRAF V600E testing lacked expression in contrast to 1 (9%) of 11 control nevi (lesions not associated with targeted therapy). A significantly higher level of cyclin D1 expression (>50% IHC+ cells) was more commonly seen in BRAFi-MLs (44%) than in control nevi (9%). No difference in p16 expression in melanocytes was seen between the 2 groups. BRAF mutation status distinctly differs between BRAFi-MLs from melanomas and nevi biopsied in patients who do not receive BRAFi therapy. Morphologically, BRAFi-MLs demonstrate a greater degree of atypia than do control nevi. Furthermore, BRAFi-MLs with coexisting cutaneous keratinocyte toxicity developed during fewer days of targeted therapy. Paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway in BRAF(WT) melanocytes may account for ~15% to 21% of patients developing a second new primary melanoma within a year of starting BRAFi therapy; thus, close clinical surveillance is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Summary statistics of neonatal intensive care unit network neurobehavioral scale scores from the maternal lifestyle study: a quasinormative sample.

    PubMed

    Lester, Barry M; Tronick, Edward Z; LaGasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Bauer, Charles R; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Wright, Linda L; Smeriglio, Vincent L; Lu, Jing

    2004-03-01

    Descriptive statistics for the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale summary scores are provided based on data from 1388 1-month-old infants in the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) of prenatal drug exposure and child outcome. The multisite MLS is described, followed by tables with descriptive statistics and percentile for the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale summary scores. The tables include data for the entire MLS sample as well as tables by drug exposure status, gestational age, poverty status, sex, race and ethnicity, and MLS study site. These tables can be used as quasinorms for comparison with other infants of this age.

  4. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Ozone by Ozonesonde and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Y. B.; Froidevaux, L.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Bojkov, B.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present validation studies of MLS version 2.2 upper tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles using ozonesonde and lidar data as well as climatological data. Ozone measurements from over 60 ozonesonde stations worldwide and three lidar stations are compared with coincident MLS data. The MLS ozone stratospheric data between 150 and 3 hPa agree well with ozonesonde measurements, within 8% for the global average. MLS values at 215 hPa are biased high compared to ozonesondes by approximately 20% at middle to high latitude, although there is a lot of variability in this altitude region.

  5. Crew procedures and workload of retrofit concepts for microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.; Jonsson, Jon E.

    1989-01-01

    Crew procedures and workload for Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) that could be retrofitted into existing transport aircraft were evaluated. Two MLS receiver concepts were developed. One is capable of capturing a runway centerline and the other is capable of capturing a segmented approach path. Crew procedures were identified and crew task analyses were performed using each concept. Crew workload comparisons were made between the MLS concepts and an ILS baseline using a task-timeline workload model. Workload indexes were obtained for each scenario. The results showed that workload was comparable to the ILS baseline for the MLS centerline capture concept, but significantly higher for the segmented path capture concept.

  6. Microwave landing system requirements for STOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C. N.; Brown, S. C.; Goka, T.; Park, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    The operational/functional requirements for the new Microwave Landing System (MLS) are examined for STOL operations. The study utilizes a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom simulation of a De Havilland Buffalo C-8A aircraft and automatic flight control system to assess the MLS/STOL accuracy, coverage, and data rate requirements for the azimuth, DME, primary elevation, and flare elevation functions. The aircraft performance is statistically determined for representative curved flight paths through touchdown. A range of MLS errors and coverages, environmental disturbances, and navigation filtering are investigated. The study indicates that STOL applications do not place any unique requirements on the MLS.

  7. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of microwave landing system (MLS) equipment are reviewed and the flight performance of the terminal configured vehicle B-737 airplane during nearly five years of flight experience with MLS is summarized. Most of these flights involved curved, descending flight paths with automatic landings and final approaches as short as 0.44 n. mi. Possible uses to solve noise abatement problems with MLS equipment of varying degrees of complexity are discussed. It is concluded that altitude derived from MLS is superior to other sources near the airport traffic pattern.

  8. MOKE Study of Fe/Co/Al Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Snehal; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.; Rajput, Parasmani; Zajaoc, M.; Rueffer, R.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay

    2011-07-15

    The multilayer system (MLS)-[{sup 57}Fe{sub 25}A/Co{sub 11}A/Al{sub 17}A]x20 has been deposited by Ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique. The MLS has been annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 h. Overall composition of as deposited and annealed MLS have been characterized by EDX and magnetic properties have been studied through angular dependent magneto optic Kerr effect (MOKE) hysteresis curves. The study shows that the as-deposited MLS has excellent soft magnetic properties coupled with perpendicular magnetic isotropy which is destroyed on annealing.

  9. Theranostic magnetoliposomes coated by carboxymethyl dextran with controlled release by low-frequency alternating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Chen, Wansong; Sun, Xiaoyi; Liu, You-Nian; Li, Juan; Wang, Jianxiu

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this work was to construct carboxymethyl dextran (CMD)-coated magnetoliposomes (MLs), another stealth MLs alternative to PEGylated MLs, for theranostic application. Particularly, the on-demand release of CMD-MLs under low-frequency alternating magnetic field (LF-AMF) was studied. We found that as-prepared MLs exhibited good stability and high drug loading ability for doxorubicin (DOX). Cytotoxicity assay against human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells showed that the DOX-loaded CMD-MLs were less toxic than free DOX due to the sustained release of DOX. However, the release of DOX-loaded CMD-MLs was enhanced by low-frequency alternating magnetic field without hyperthermia generation. The MLs also acted as an efficient T2-weighted contrast agent during in vitro MRI measurements. The above results provide useful information on in vivo diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of DOX-loaded CMD-MLs for some cancers, such as brain cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. T cell tolerance to non-H-2-encoded stimulatory alloantigens is induced intrathymically but not prethymically

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, P.J.; Bradley, D.; Sharrow, S.O.; Singer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The present report has evaluated the differentiation compartment in which T cells are tolerized to non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded minor lymphocyte-stimulating locus (MLS) alloantigens. It was observed that T cell precursors are not tolerized prethymically to MLS alloantigens but are tolerized intrathymically and postthymically to MLS alloantigens. The failure of prethymic T cells to be tolerized indicates either that T cell precursors are unable to be tolerized to MLS alloantigens or that cells in the prethymic compartment are unable to induce MLS-specific tolerance. In either case, these results demonstrate that the thymus is the initial site in which T cell tolerance to MLS alloantigen is induced. The present results also demonstrate a striking disparity in the reactivity of thymocytes to MHC and MLS alloantigens expressed in the extrathymic host through which their precursors had migrated. In the experimental mice constructed for these studies, intrathymic T cells were tolerant to the MHC alloantigens but were reactive to the MLS alloantigens expressed by the extrathymic host. This observation is consistent with the concept that T cell precursors may be tolerized to MHC alloantigens at an earlier point in their differentiation than they are tolerized to non-MHC-encoded MLS alloantigens.

  11. The macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotypes characterized by using a specifically deleted, antibiotic-sensitive strain of Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Pernodet, J L; Fish, S; Blondelet-Rouault, M H; Cundliffe, E

    1996-01-01

    Genes conferring resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics via ribosomal modification are widespread in bacteria, including clinical isolates and MLS-producing actinomycetes. Such erm-type genes encode enzymes that mono- or dimethylate residue A-2058 of 23S rRNA. The different phenotypes resulting from monomethylation (MLS-I phenotype, conferred by erm type I genes) or dimethylation (MLS-II phenotype due to erm type II genes) have been characterized by introducing tlrD or ermE, respectively, into an MLS-sensitive derivative of Streptomyces lividans TK21. This strain (designated OS456) was generated by specific replacement of the endogenous resistance genes lrm and mgt. The MLS-I phenotype is characterized by high-level resistance to lincomycin with only marginal resistance to macrolides such as chalcomycin or tylosin, whereas the MLS-II phenotype involves high-level resistance to all MLS drugs. Mono- and dimethylated ribosomes were introduced into a cell-free protein-synthesizing system prepared from S. lividans and compared with unmodified particles in their response to antibiotics. There was no simple correlation between the relative potencies of MLS drugs at the level of the target site (i.e., the ribosome) and their antibacterial activities expressed as MICs. PMID:8851574

  12. The macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotypes characterized by using a specifically deleted, antibiotic-sensitive strain of Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Pernodet, J L; Fish, S; Blondelet-Rouault, M H; Cundliffe, E

    1996-03-01

    Genes conferring resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics via ribosomal modification are widespread in bacteria, including clinical isolates and MLS-producing actinomycetes. Such erm-type genes encode enzymes that mono- or dimethylate residue A-2058 of 23S rRNA. The different phenotypes resulting from monomethylation (MLS-I phenotype, conferred by erm type I genes) or dimethylation (MLS-II phenotype due to erm type II genes) have been characterized by introducing tlrD or ermE, respectively, into an MLS-sensitive derivative of Streptomyces lividans TK21. This strain (designated OS456) was generated by specific replacement of the endogenous resistance genes lrm and mgt. The MLS-I phenotype is characterized by high-level resistance to lincomycin with only marginal resistance to macrolides such as chalcomycin or tylosin, whereas the MLS-II phenotype involves high-level resistance to all MLS drugs. Mono- and dimethylated ribosomes were introduced into a cell-free protein-synthesizing system prepared from S. lividans and compared with unmodified particles in their response to antibiotics. There was no simple correlation between the relative potencies of MLS drugs at the level of the target site (i.e., the ribosome) and their antibacterial activities expressed as MICs.

  13. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Ozone by Ozonesonde and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Y. B.; Froidevaux, L.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Bojkov, B.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Filipiak, M. J.; Harwood, R. S.; Fuller, R. A.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Cofield, R. E.; Cuddy, D. T.; Jarnot, R. F.; Knosp, B. W.; Perun, V. S.; Schwartz, W. V.; Snyder, P. C.; Stek, R. P.; Thurstans, P. A.; Wagner, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present validation studies of MLS version 2.2 upper tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles using ozonesonde and lidar data as well as climatological data. Ozone measurements from over 60 ozonesonde stations worldwide and three lidar stations are compared with coincident MLS data. The MLS ozone stratospheric data between 150 and 3 hPa agree well with ozonesonde measurements, within 8% for the global average. MLS values at 215 hPa are biased high compared to ozonesondes by approximately 20% at middle to high latitude, although there is a lot of variability in this altitude region.

  14. Importance of clinical microbiologists for U.S. healthcare infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, John

    2011-01-01

    Clinical microbiologists are highly skilled scientists within national hospitals and reference laboratories who diagnose patients with infections by emerging pathogens. Most advanced training for clinical microbiologists occurs at universities, where an individual can receive certification as a "Medical Laboratory Scientist" (MLS). Unfortunately, many MLS programs have closed in the United States and this has caused a shortage of clinical microbiologists at U.S. hospitals and reference laboratories. This paper explores the present crisis in MLS training and its ramifications for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the economics of hospitals, and the overall health of the nation, and provides resolutions for better public health policy with respect to MLS education.

  15. Macrocyclic lactones and cellular transport-related drug interactions: a perspective from in vitro assays to nematode control in the field.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, A; Ballent, M; Lanusse, C

    2012-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are antiparasitic drugs used against endo-ectoparasites. Regarding the wide use of MLs in different species, it is likely that drug-drug interactions may occur after their co-administration with other compounds. A new paradigm was introduced in the study of the pharmacology of MLs during the last years since the interactions of MLs with ATP-binding cassete (ABC) transporters have been described. The current review article gives an update on the available information concerning drug-drug interactions involving the MLs. The basis of the methodological approaches used to evaluate transport interactions, and the impact of the pharmacology-based modulation of drug transport on the MLs disposition kinetics and clinical efficacy, are discussed in an integrated manner. A different number of in vitro and ex vivo methods have been reported to study the characterization of the interactions between MLs and ABC transporters. The production of the ABC transporters knockout mice has provided valuable in vivo tools to study this type of drug-drug interaction. In vivo trials performed in different species corroborated the effects of ABC transporter modulators on the pharmacokinetics behaviour of MLs. Important pharmacokinetic changes on plasma disposition of MLs have been observed when these compounds are co-administered with P-glycoprotein modulators. The modulation of the activity of P-glycoprotein was evaluated as a strategy not only to increase the systemic availability of MLs but also to improve their clinical efficacy. The understanding of the MLs interactions may supply relevant information to optimize their use in veterinary and human therapeutics.

  16. Universal and particular in morphological processing: Evidence from Hebrew.

    PubMed

    Farhy, Yael; Veríssimo, João; Clahsen, Harald

    2017-05-08

    Do properties of individual languages shape the mechanisms by which they are processed? By virtue of their non-concatenative morphological structure, the recognition of complex words in Semitic languages has been argued to rely strongly on morphological information and on decomposition into root and pattern constituents. Here, we report results from a masked priming experiment in Hebrew in which we contrasted verb forms belonging to two morphological classes, Paal and Piel, which display similar properties, but crucially differ on whether they are extended to novel verbs. Verbs from the open-class Piel elicited familiar root priming effects, but verbs from the closed-class Paal did not. Our findings indicate that, similarly to other (e.g., Indo-European) languages, down-to-the-root decomposition in Hebrew does not apply to stems of non-productive verbal classes. We conclude that the Semitic word processor is less unique than previously thought: Although it operates on morphological units that are combined in a non-linear way, it engages the same universal mechanisms of storage and computation as those seen in other languages.

  17. The Return on the Investment in Library Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.

    1985-01-01

    Measures change in social and private net present value of expected lifetime earnings attributable to M.L.S. degree under current market conditions and calculates effect of changes in placement rates and of two-year MLS degrees. Implications for profession's ability to attract capable individuals and for its sex composition are discussed. (33…

  18. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  19. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  20. Machine learning of fault characteristics from rocket engine simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Min; Ali, Moonis

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of data into knowledge through conceptual induction has been the focus of our research described in this paper. We have developed a Machine Learning System (MLS) to analyze the rocket engine simulation data. MLS can provide to its users fault analysis, characteristics, and conceptual descriptions of faults, and the relationships of attributes and sensors. All the results are critically important in identifying faults.

  1. Virtual and Traditional Slides for Teaching Cellular Morphology to Medical Laboratory Science Undergraduates: A Comparative Study of Performance Outcomes, Retention, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Brooke L.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of massive retirement and educational program expense and closure, the field of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is facing a critical workforce shortage. Combatting this issue by increasing undergraduate class size is a difficult proposition due to the intense psychomotor curricular requirements of MLS programs. Technological advances…

  2. 14 CFR 171.303 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 171.303 Section 171.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL.... Microwave Landing System (MLS) means the MLS selected by ICAO for international standardization....

  3. SHADOZ in the Aura Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Schmidlin, F.; Calpini, B.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present comparisons of observed tropical and sub-tropical ozone from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project with satellite measurements using Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments. Satellite products of total and derived tropospheric column ozone from OMI and profiles of ozone in the UT/LS region from MLS are used.

  4. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  5. HSP90 inhibition blocks ERBB3 and RET phosphorylation in myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and causes massive cell death in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Setareh; Järnum, Sofia; Vannas, Christoffer; Udhane, Sameer; Jonasson, Emma; Tomic, Tajana Tesan; Grundevik, Pernilla; Fagman, Henrik; Hansson, Magnus; Kalender, Zeynep; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Dolatabadi, Soheila; Stratford, Eva Wessel; Myklebost, Ola; Eriksson, Mikael; Stenman, Göran; Stock, Regine Schneider; Ståhlberg, Anders; Åman, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid sarcoma (MLS) is one of the most common types of malignant soft tissue tumors. MLS is characterized by the FUS-DDIT3 or EWSR1-DDIT3 fusion oncogenes that encode abnormal transcription factors. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) encoding RET was previously identified as a putative downstream target gene to FUS-DDIT3 and here we show that cultured MLS cells expressed phosphorylated RET together with its ligand Persephin. Treatment with RET specific kinase inhibitor Vandetanib failed to reduce RET phosphorylation and inhibit cell growth, suggesting that other RTKs may phosphorylate RET. A screening pointed out EGFR and ERBB3 as the strongest expressed phosphorylated RTKs in MLS cells. We show that ERBB3 formed nuclear and cytoplasmic complexes with RET and both RTKs were previously reported to form complexes with EGFR. The formation of RTK hetero complexes could explain the observed Vandetanib resistence in MLS. EGFR and ERBB3 are clients of HSP90 that help complex formation and RTK activation. Treatment of cultured MLS cells with HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG, caused loss of RET and ERBB3 phosphorylation and lead to rapid cell death. Treatment of MLS xenograft carrying Nude mice resulted in massive necrosis, rupture of capillaries and hemorrhages in tumor tissues. We conclude that complex formation between RET and other RTKs may cause RTK inhibitor resistance. HSP90 inhibitors can overcome this resistance and are thus promising drugs for treatment of MLS/RCLS. PMID:26595521

  6. Microteaching Lesson Study: Mentor Interaction Structure and Its Relation to Elementary Preservice Mathematics Teacher Knowledge Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Roxanne V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) and three possible MLS mentor interaction structures during the debriefing sessions in relation to elementary preservice teacher development of knowledge for teaching. One hundred three elementary preservice teachers enrolled in five different sections of a mathematics methods course at a…

  7. Misleading EEG Lateralization Associated With Midline Shift.

    PubMed

    Ghearing, Gena R; Abramovici, Sergiu; Popescu, Alexandra; Baldwin, Maria E

    2017-07-04

    Midline discharges, lateralized periodic discharges, and seizures have been described with ipsilateral lesions that result in midline shift (MLS). Periodic discharges and seizures arising contralateral to a known lesion have not previously been described as a sign of MLS. We present four patients with focal brain lesions, resulting in MLS and epileptiform discharges arising from the contralateral hemisphere. Patient 1 underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy. On postoperative day 2, computed tomography demonstrated a right to left MLS of 12 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 2 experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was more prominent on the left. Computed tomography after craniotomy demonstrated left to right MLS of 6 mm, and EEG was remarkable for right lateralized periodic discharges. Patient 3 had a right subdural hematoma and underwent craniotomy for evacuation. On postoperative day 3, computed tomography demonstrated a right MLS of 7 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 4 had traumatic brain hemorrhages with maximal left frontotemporal involvement. Six days after the trauma, computed tomography was significant for left to right MLS of 9 mm, and EEG showed right lateralized periodic discharges. Epileptiform discharges and seizures occurring contralateral to a known lesion may be an indicator of MLS.

  8. HSP90 inhibition blocks ERBB3 and RET phosphorylation in myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and causes massive cell death in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Setareh; Järnum, Sofia; Vannas, Christoffer; Udhane, Sameer; Jonasson, Emma; Tomic, Tajana Tesan; Grundevik, Pernilla; Fagman, Henrik; Hansson, Magnus; Kalender, Zeynep; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Dolatabadi, Soheila; Stratford, Eva Wessel; Myklebost, Ola; Eriksson, Mikael; Stenman, Göran; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Ståhlberg, Anders; Åman, Pierre

    2016-01-05

    Myxoid sarcoma (MLS) is one of the most common types of malignant soft tissue tumors. MLS is characterized by the FUS-DDIT3 or EWSR1-DDIT3 fusion oncogenes that encode abnormal transcription factors. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) encoding RET was previously identified as a putative downstream target gene to FUS-DDIT3 and here we show that cultured MLS cells expressed phosphorylated RET together with its ligand Persephin. Treatment with RET specific kinase inhibitor Vandetanib failed to reduce RET phosphorylation and inhibit cell growth, suggesting that other RTKs may phosphorylate RET. A screening pointed out EGFR and ERBB3 as the strongest expressed phosphorylated RTKs in MLS cells. We show that ERBB3 formed nuclear and cytoplasmic complexes with RET and both RTKs were previously reported to form complexes with EGFR. The formation of RTK hetero complexes could explain the observed Vandetanib resistence in MLS. EGFR and ERBB3 are clients of HSP90 that help complex formation and RTK activation. Treatment of cultured MLS cells with HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG, caused loss of RET and ERBB3 phosphorylation and lead to rapid cell death. Treatment of MLS xenograft carrying Nude mice resulted in massive necrosis, rupture of capillaries and hemorrhages in tumor tissues. We conclude that complex formation between RET and other RTKs may cause RTK inhibitor resistance. HSP90 inhibitors can overcome this resistance and are thus promising drugs for treatment of MLS/RCLS.

  9. Practitioners' & LIS Students' Perceptions on Preparedness in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Stacy L.; Pollicino, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study that focused on the perceived preparedness of recent graduates. Fifty-five St. John's University MLS students surveyed 348 practitioners in public libraries (181) and school libraries (167) concerning perceived preparedness of recent MLS graduates for the realities of working in libraries. The overriding…

  10. 7 CFR 764.255 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... loan must be secured: (a) In accordance with §§ 764.103 through 764.106. (b) Except for MLs, by a: (1... position of that held by the creditor being refinanced with loan funds. (c) For MLs: (1) For annual...

  11. Fine-scale mapping of type I allergy candidate loci suggests central susceptibility genes on chromosomes 3q, 4q and Xp.

    PubMed

    Haagerup, A; Børglum, A D; Binderup, H G; Kruse, T A

    2004-01-01

    Type I allergy globally affects an increasing number of individuals with the consequence of considerable personal morbidity and socio-economic costs. Identification of disease susceptibility genes would render enormous medical perspectives in terms of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Like for other complex disorders, achievement of the knowledge necessary depends on confirmation of reported genomic candidate regions. We performed a two-stage fine-scale linkage analysis in 11 selected candidate regions on chromosome 3p, 3q, 4p, 4q, 5q, 6p, 9p, 12q, 12qter, 18q and Xp. We analysed 97 polymorphic markers in 424 individuals from 100 sib-pair families and evaluated the data for five phenotypes: Allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and total and specific immunoglobulin E. The highest maximum likelihood scores (MLS) were obtained on chromosomes 3q (MLS = 2.69), 4p (MLS = 2.34), 4q (MLS = 2.75), 6p (MLS = 2.22), 12qter (MLS = 2.15) and Xp (MLS = 2.23). All five phenotypes showed MLS >/= 2 in one or more of the candidate regions. Susceptibility genes in the 3q, 4q and Xp regions may play a central role in the inheritance of allergic disease, as positive results were obtained for all five phenotypes in these three regions.

  12. Differential thermal analysis of lunar soil simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D.; Setzer, A.

    1991-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis of a lunar soil simulant, 'Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1' (MLS-1) was performed. The MLS-1 was tested in as-received form (in glass form) and with another silica. The silica addition was seen to depress nucleation events which lead to a better glass former.

  13. 14 CFR 171.303 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... height located vertically above the intersection of the runway centerline and the threshold. MLS back azimuth reference datum means a point 15 meters (50 feet) above the runway centerline at the runway midpoint. MLS datum point means a point defined by the intersection of the runway centerline with a...

  14. 14 CFR 171.303 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... height located vertically above the intersection of the runway centerline and the threshold. MLS back azimuth reference datum means a point 15 meters (50 feet) above the runway centerline at the runway midpoint. MLS datum point means a point defined by the intersection of the runway centerline with a...

  15. 14 CFR 171.303 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... height located vertically above the intersection of the runway centerline and the threshold. MLS back azimuth reference datum means a point 15 meters (50 feet) above the runway centerline at the runway midpoint. MLS datum point means a point defined by the intersection of the runway centerline with a...

  16. Virtual and Traditional Slides for Teaching Cellular Morphology to Medical Laboratory Science Undergraduates: A Comparative Study of Performance Outcomes, Retention, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Brooke L.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of massive retirement and educational program expense and closure, the field of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is facing a critical workforce shortage. Combatting this issue by increasing undergraduate class size is a difficult proposition due to the intense psychomotor curricular requirements of MLS programs. Technological advances…

  17. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance requirements...

  18. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance requirements...

  19. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  20. Abstract of Lectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien

    1993-01-01

    Three lectures will be given. The first one will draw from the general literature on microwave sounding from space. The next two will focus on a description of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and results obtained from its measurements relating to atmospheric chemistry and dynamics; this will draw from material recently published (or soon-to-be published) by the MLS team.

  1. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  2. SHADOZ in the Aura Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Schmidlin, F.; Calpini, B.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Posny, F.; Vomel, H.; Chow, K. K.; Coetzee, G. R.; Kelder, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present comparisons of observed tropical and sub-tropical ozone from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project with satellite measurements using Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments. Satellite products of total and derived tropospheric column ozone from OMI and profiles of ozone in the UT/LS region from MLS are used.

  3. Practitioners' & LIS Students' Perceptions on Preparedness in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Stacy L.; Pollicino, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study that focused on the perceived preparedness of recent graduates. Fifty-five St. John's University MLS students surveyed 348 practitioners in public libraries (181) and school libraries (167) concerning perceived preparedness of recent MLS graduates for the realities of working in libraries. The overriding…

  4. Optical and structural characterization of CeO2/B4C multilayers near boron K-edge energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertsu, M. G.; Giglia, A.; Brose, S.; Comisso, A.; Wang, Z. S.; Juschkin, L.; Nicolosi, P.

    2015-05-01

    A search for novel materials for making multilayers of high reflectivity has been driven by the vigorous demand towards miniaturizing photonics. A typical consumer of high performance multilayers (MLs) is the extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) based on the 13.5 nm laser produced plasma (LPP) source. To sustain "Moore's law" and print fine features below 10 nm on integrated circuits (IC), source of radiation for the EUVL has to shift towards even shorter wavelengths where 6.x nm wavelength seems to be immediate successor. However, the 6.x nm EUV lithography needs MLs of reflectivity performance above 70 % to support high volume manufacturing (HVM). It is clear that more work is required particularly on the development of MLs with high reflectance, stable to thermal heat and sufficient lifetime. In this work new MLs of B4C/CeO2 are deposited, analyzed and characterized for the first time. Combinations of X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and EUV reflectance measurements near resonance edge of boron are analyzed to derive structural and optical parameters of MLs. ML coatings of B4C/CeO2 MLs have shown similar reflectance performance with the leading candidate MLs around 6.x nm wavelength. Analysis shows that interlayer diffusion is a major reason for low reflectivity performance. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the MLs have proved formation of interlayer diffusion.

  5. Nuclear expression of FLT1 and its ligand PGF in FUS-DDIT3 carrying myxoid liposarcomas suggests the existence of an intracrine signaling loop.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mattias K; Göransson, Melker; Olofsson, Anita; Andersson, Carola; Aman, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The FUS-DDIT3 fusion oncogene encodes an abnormal transcription factor that has a causative role in the development of myxoid/round-cell liposarcomas (MLS/RCLS). We have previously identified FLT1 (VEGFR1) as a candidate downstream target gene of FUS-DDIT3. The aim of this study was to investigate expression of FLT1 and its ligands in MLS cells. HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells were transiently transfected with FUS-DDIT3-GFP variant constructs and FLT1 expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, FLT1, PGF, VEGFA and VEGFB expression was measured in MLS/RCLS cell lines, MLS/RCLS tumors and in normal adiopocytes. We analyzed nine cases of MLS/RCLS and one cell line xenografted in mice for FLT1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry. MLS/RCLS cell lines were also analyzed for FLT1 by immunofluorescence and western blot. MLS/RCLS cell lines were additionally treated with FLT1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors and assayed for alterations in proliferation rate. FLT1 expression was dramatically increased in transfected cells stably expressing FUS-DDIT3 and present at high levels in cell lines derived from MLS. The FLT1 protein showed a strong nuclear expression in cells of MLS tissue as well as in cultured MLS cells, which was confirmed by cellular fractionation. Tissue array analysis showed a nuclear expression of the FLT1 protein also in several other tumor and normal cell types including normal adipocytes. The FLT1 ligand coding gene PGF was highly expressed in cultured MLS cells compared to normal adipocytes while the other ligand genes VEGFA and VEGFB were expressed to lower levels. A more heterogeneous expression pattern of these genes were observed in tumor samples. No changes in proliferation rate of MLS cells were detected at concentrations for which the kinase inhibitors have shown specific inhibition of FLT1. Our results imply that FLT1 is induced as an indirect downstream effect of FUS-DDIT3 expression in MLS. This could be a consequence

  6. Automatic flight performance of a transport airplane on complex microwave landing system paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, T. M.; Weener, E. F.

    1977-01-01

    Essential characteristics of the U.S. microwave landing system (MLS) and the TCV B-737 aircraft used in flight demonstrations are described, with special emphasis on the analysis of the approach paths. MLS is used to provide the aircraft with guidance for automatic control on complex, curved descending paths with precision turns into short final approaches terminating in landing and rollout, even when subjected to strong and gusty tail- and cross-wind components and severe wind shear. The tracking performance achieved on these paths under MLS guidance is examined in detail, and the wind environment where the flights are conducted are quantified. The flights demonstrate the utility of the wide-area coverage of MLS for curved, descending paths commencing with a standard RNAV approach into a terminal area and continuation of this approach throughout the MLS coverage and onto the runway.

  7. Simulation of an automatically-controlled STOL aircraft in a microwave landing system multipath environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, M.; Brown, S. C.; Burrous, C. N.

    1976-01-01

    The simulated response is described of a STOL aircraft to Microwave Landing System (MLS) multipath errors during final approach and touchdown. The MLS azimuth, elevation, and DME multipath errors were computed for a relatively severe multipath environment at Crissy Field California, utilizing an MLS multipath simulation at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. A NASA/Ames six-degree-of-freedom simulation of an automatically-controlled deHavilland C-8A STOL aircraft was used to determine the response to these errors. The results show that the aircraft response to all of the Crissy Field MLS multipath errors was small. The small MLS azimuth and elevation multipath errors did not result in any discernible aircraft motion, and the aircraft response to the relatively large (200-ft (61-m) peak) DME multipath was noticeable but small.

  8. Simulation of automatic precision departures and missed approaches using the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Results of simulated precision departures and missed approaches using MLS guidance concepts are presented. The study was conducted under the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Program, and is an extension of previous work by DAC under the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Technology Studies Program. The study model included simulation of an MD-80 aircraft, an autopilot, and a MLS guidance computer that provided lateral and vertical steering commands. Precision departures were evaluated using a noise abatement procedure. Several curved path departures were simulated with MLS noise and under various environmental conditions. Missed approaches were considered for the same runway, where lateral MLS guidance maintained the aircraft along the extended runway centerline. In both the departures and the missed approach cases, pitch autopilot takeoff and go-around modes of operation were used in conjunction with MLS lateral guidance.

  9. A new gene encoding the ligand for deletion of T cells bearing Tcrb-V6 and V8.1 (Mtv-50)

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, N.; Tomida, S.; Ueda, M.; Ando, Y.; Yoshikai, Y.; Wajjwalku, W.

    1994-12-31

    The minor lymphocyte-stimulating antigen (Mls), which is defined by the demonstration of a strong primary T-cell proliferative response in a mixed lymphocyte culture between major histocompatibility complex-identical strains, is a representative of self superantigens (Sags) which bind to certain Tcrb-V elements, and delete T cells bearing these elements. Mls-1 antigen encoded by Mtv-7 stimulates T cells bearing Tcrb-V6, V7, V8.1, or V9 in vitro, and delete these T cells in vivo. Recently, Mtv-43, Mtv-44, and exogenous MMTV (SW) have also been found to encode Mls-1-like antigens, which delete Tcrb-V6, V7 (except Mtv-44), V8.1- and/or V9-bearing T cells. In sharp contrast to Mls-1, Mls-1-like antigens encoded by Mtv-43 and MMTV(SW) show only a limited in vitro stimulatory capacity. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Distribution of erm genes and low prevalence of inducible resistance to clindamycin among staphylococci isolates.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Vivian de Lima Spode; Paiva, Rodrigo Minuto; Reiter, Keli Cristine; de-Paris, Fernanda; Barth, Afonso Luis; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins B (MLS(B) antibiotics) in staphylococci may be due to modification in ribosomal target methylase encoded by erm genes. The expression of MLS(B) resistance lead to three phenotypes, namely constitutive resistance (cMLS(B)), inducible resistance (iMLS(B)), and resistance only to macrolides and streptogramins B (MS(B)). The iMLS(B) resistance is the most difficult to detect in the clinical laboratory. This study investigated the expression of MLS(B) resistance and the prevalence of the erm genes among 152 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Primary MLS(B) resistance was detected by the disk diffusion method. Isolates with iMLS(B) phenotype were tested by double-disk induction method. All isolates were tested by a genotypic assay, PCR with specific primers. A total of 46.7% of staphylococci were positive for cMLS(B); 3.3% for iMLS(B) and 3.3% for MS(B). One or more erm genes were present in 50.1% of isolates. The gene ermA was detected in 49 isolates, ermC in 29 and ermB in 3. The prevalence of the ermA, ermB and ermC genes were 29.6%, 17.1% and 0.66% respectively, and constitutive resistance was the most frequent as compared to the other two phenotypes.

  11. Prevalence and mechanisms of erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae from healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Sandra; Radhouani, Hajer; Coelho, Céline; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Carvalho, Eulália; Carvalho, José António; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine the resistance phenotypes for erythromycin and clindamycin and the mechanisms implicated in 93 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from healthy pregnant women. Susceptibility testing for erythromycin, clindamycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, choramphenicol, ofloxacin, and meropenen was carried out by disc-diffusion test, and the E-test was also applied for erythromycin and clindamycin. The constitutive MLS(B) resistance (cMLS(B)) and inducible MLS(B) resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotypes, respectively, as well as the M resistance phenotype were determined by the erythromycin-clindamycin double-disc test. The presence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, and mef(A/E) macrolide resistance genes was studied by PCR. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 15% and 9.6% of the isolates, respectively. The resistance phenotypes detected among the 14 erythromycin-resistant isolates were as follows (number of isolates): cMLS(B) (9), iMLS(B) (3), and M (2). The MICs for erythromycin and clindamycin were as follows: cMLS(B) isolates (128-256 and >or=32 mg/L, respectively), iMLS(B) isolates (16-256 and 1 mg/L), and M isolates (2-8 and 1 mg/L). The following combination of genes were detected among isolates with cMLS(B) or iMLS(B) phenotypes: erm(B) (6 isolates), ermA + ermTR (3), ermA + ermB + ermTR (1), and none of these genes (2). The two isolates with M phenotype harbored the mef(A/E), and msrA gene was also found in one of them.

  12. Intermolecular interactions of the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides spp is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a pulmonary mycosis acquired by the inhalation of fungal propagules. Paracoccidioides malate synthase (PbMLS) is important in the infectious process of Paracoccidioides spp because the transcript is up-regulated during the transition from mycelium to yeast and in yeast cells during phagocytosis by murine macrophages. In addition, PbMLS acts as an adhesin in Paracoccidioides spp. The evidence for the multifunctionality of PbMLS indicates that it could interact with other proteins from the fungus and host. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze proteins that possibly bind to PbMLS (PbMLS-interacting proteins) because protein interactions are intrinsic to cell processes, and it might be possible to infer the function of a protein through the identification of its ligands. Results The search for interactions was performed using an in vivo assay with a two-hybrid library constructed in S. cerevisiae; the transcripts were sequenced and identified. In addition, an in vitro assay using pull-down GST methodology with different protein extracts (yeast, mycelium, yeast-secreted proteins and macrophage) was performed, and the resulting interactions were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the protein interactions were confirmed by Far-Western blotting using specific antibodies, and the interaction of PbMLS with macrophages was validated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. In silico analysis using molecular modeling, dynamics and docking identified the amino acids that were involved in the interactions between PbMLS and PbMLS-interacting proteins. Finally, the interactions were visualized graphically using Osprey software. Conclusion These observations indicate that PbMLS interacts with proteins that are in different functional categories, such as cellular transport, protein biosynthesis, modification and degradation of proteins and signal

  13. Magnetoliposomes as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stefaan J; Vande Velde, Greetje; Ketkar-Atre, Ashwini; Himmelreich, Uwe; De Cuyper, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Among the wide variety in iron oxide nanoparticles which are routinely used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, magnetoliposomes (MLs) take up a special place. In the present work, the two main types (large and small MLs) are defined and their specific features are commented. For both types of MLs, the flexibility of the lipid coating allows for efficient functionalization, enabling bimodal imaging (e.g., MRI and fluorescence) or the use of MLs as theranostics. These features are especially true for large MLs, where several magnetite cores are encapsulated within a single large liposome, which were found to be highly efficient theranostic agents. By carefully fine-tuning the number of magnetite cores and attaching Gd(3+) -complexes onto the liposomal surface, the large MLs can be efficiently optimized for dynamic MRI. A special type of MLs, biogenic MLs, can also be efficiently used in this regard, with potential applications in cancer treatment and imaging. Small MLs, where the lipid bilayer is immediately attached onto a solid magnetite core, give a very high r2 /r1 ratio. The flexibility of the lipid bilayer allows the incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid conjugates to increase blood circulation times and be used as bone marrow contrast agents. Cationic lipids can also be incorporated, leading to high cell uptake and associated strong contrast generation in MRI of implanted cells. Unique for these small MLs is the high resistance the particles exhibit against intracellular degradation compared with dextran- or citrate-coated particles. Additionally, intracellular clustering of the iron oxide cores enhances negative contrast generation and enables longer tracking of labeled cells in time. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Clinical features of mesenteric lymphatic malformation in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Lee, Cheol; Min, Hye Sook; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-04-01

    Mesenteric lymphatic malformations (MLs) are a heterogeneous group of benign diseases of the lymphatic system that present with cystic dilated lymphatics of the mesentery. MLs are rare and represent less than 5% of all lymphatic malformations. The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of MLs in children and to suggest a modified classification. We investigated 25 patients who underwent ML surgery. The clinical data and pathological findings were reviewed retrospectively. We divided the patients into 4 groups according to the operative findings. Group 1 included patients with MLs involving the intestinal walls. Group 2 included patients with pedicle-type MLs with no relationship to the mesenteric vessels. Group 3 patients presented with MLs located in the mesenteric boundaries near the mesenteric vessels. Group 4 patients had multicentric and diffusely infiltrated MLs. The male-to-female ratio was 11:14, and the median age at diagnosis was 5years of age. The most common symptom was abdominal pain. The jejunal mesentery was the most frequently involved site in this study. Five patients showed the macrocystic type and 20 patients showed the mixed cystic type. With the exception of one patient with a large mixed cystic-type ML who underwent incomplete mass excision, 24 patients underwent complete mass excision. The group 1 patients (n=14) underwent mass excision performed with segmental resection of the bowel. The group 2 patients (n=3) only underwent mass excision surgery. The patients in group 3 (n=7) underwent mass excision with segmental resection of the intestine because ML excision altered the blood supply of the adjacent intestines. The group 4 patients (n=1) presented with MLs involving the entire mesentery and underwent incomplete excision. The relationships between MLs and the neighboring organs determine the surgical strategy, and the size and location of MLs affect the operative methods. The modified classification based on these findings

  15. 3D Xplane Echocardiographic Technique for Validation of Mitral Leaflet Separation to Assess Severity of Mitral Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gokhroo, Rajendra K; Ranwa, Bhanwar L; Kishor, Kamal; Priti, Kumari; Avinash, Ananthraj; Gupta, Sajal; Bisht, Devendra

    2016-06-01

    Determining the severity of mitral stenosis (MS) is important for both prognostic and therapeutic implications. Mitral valve area (MVA) calculation techniques have more limitations. Mitral leaflet separation (MLS) is a precise and operator friendly alternative to planimetry. In contrast to previous researchers, we have used a novel 3D Xplane technique to validate MLS for assessing the severity of MS. 3D Xplane is superior for validation of MLS due to simultaneous real time acquisition of MLS in parasternal long-axis view and corresponding MVA by planimetry in parsternal short-axis view. It was a prospective observational single center study. A total of 174 patients with MS were evaluated for MVA estimation by various echocardiographic modalities. Maximum leaflet separation and corresponding planimetered MVA were measured using novel 3D Xplane technique. With 3D Xplane technique, there was strong positive correlation between planimetered MVA and MLS (R = 0.925, P < 0.001), irrespective of coexisting MR (R = 0.886, P < 0.001) or AF (R = 0.912, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves of MLS demonstrated AUC for mild and severe MS to be 0.966 and 0.995, respectively. MLS less than 8.62 mm predicted severe MS with 95.5% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity and MLS more than 12.23 mm predicted mild MS with 93.2% sensitivity and 91.4% specificity. In our study, a strong correlation between planimetered MVA and MLS was found using 3D Xplane technique. 3D Xplane thus validates and standardizes MLS by excluding errors due to temporal and spatial variations which are important limitations of 2D echocardiography. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Promoting Therapists' Use of Motor Learning Strategies within Virtual Reality-Based Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levac, Danielle E; Glegg, Stephanie M N; Sveistrup, Heidi; Colquhoun, Heather; Miller, Patricia; Finestone, Hillel; DePaul, Vincent; Harris, Jocelyn E; Velikonja, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Therapists use motor learning strategies (MLSs) to structure practice conditions within stroke rehabilitation. Virtual reality (VR)-based rehabilitation is an MLS-oriented stroke intervention, yet little support exists to assist therapists in integrating MLSs with VR system use. A pre-post design evaluated a knowledge translation (KT) intervention incorporating interactive e-learning and practice, in which 11 therapists learned how to integrate MLSs within VR-based therapy. Self-report and observer-rated outcome measures evaluated therapists' confidence, clinical reasoning and behaviour with respect to MLS use. A focus group captured therapists' perspectives on MLS use during VR-based therapy provision. The intervention improved self-reported confidence about MLS use as measured by confidence ratings (p <0.001). Chart-Stimulated Recall indicated a moderate level of competency in therapists' clinical reasoning about MLSs following the intervention, with no changes following additional opportunities to use VR (p = .944). On the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument, no behaviour change with respect to MLS use was noted (p = 0.092). Therapists favoured the strategy of transferring skills from VR to real-life tasks over employing a more comprehensive MLS approach. The KT intervention improved therapists' confidence but did not have an effect on clinical reasoning or behaviour with regard to MLS use during VR-based therapy.

  17. Ultralow thermal conductivity of multilayers with highly dissimilar Debye temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dechaumphai, Edward; Lu, Dylan; Kan, Jimmy J; Moon, Jaeyun; Fullerton, Eric E; Liu, Zhaowei; Chen, Renkun

    2014-05-14

    Thermal transport in multilayers (MLs) has attracted significant interest and shows promising applications. Unlike their single-component counterparts, MLs exhibit a thermal conductivity that can be effectively engineered by both the number density of the layers and the interfacial thermal resistance between layers, with the latter being highly tunable via the contrast of acoustic properties of each layer. In this work, we experimentally demonstrated an ultralow thermal conductivity of 0.33 ± 0.04 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature in MLs made of Au and Si with a high interfacial density of ∼0.2 interface nm(-1). The measured thermal conductivity is significantly lower than the amorphous limit of either Si or Au and is also much lower than previously measured MLs with a similar interfacial density. With a Debye temperature ratio of ∼3.9 for Au and Si, the Au/Si MLs represent the highest mismatched system in inorganic MLs measured to date. In addition, we explore the prior theoretical prediction that full phonon dispersion could better model the interfacial thermal resistance involving materials with low Debye temperatures. Our results demonstrate that MLs with highly dissimilar Debye temperatures represent a rational approach to achieve ultralow thermal conductivity in inorganic materials and can also serve as a platform for investigating interfacial thermal transport.

  18. Promoting Therapists’ Use of Motor Learning Strategies within Virtual Reality-Based Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Levac, Danielle E.; Glegg, Stephanie M. N.; Sveistrup, Heidi; Colquhoun, Heather; Miller, Patricia; Finestone, Hillel; DePaul, Vincent; Harris, Jocelyn E.; Velikonja, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Therapists use motor learning strategies (MLSs) to structure practice conditions within stroke rehabilitation. Virtual reality (VR)-based rehabilitation is an MLS-oriented stroke intervention, yet little support exists to assist therapists in integrating MLSs with VR system use. Method A pre-post design evaluated a knowledge translation (KT) intervention incorporating interactive e-learning and practice, in which 11 therapists learned how to integrate MLSs within VR-based therapy. Self-report and observer-rated outcome measures evaluated therapists’ confidence, clinical reasoning and behaviour with respect to MLS use. A focus group captured therapists’ perspectives on MLS use during VR-based therapy provision. Results The intervention improved self-reported confidence about MLS use as measured by confidence ratings (p <0.001). Chart-Stimulated Recall indicated a moderate level of competency in therapists’ clinical reasoning about MLSs following the intervention, with no changes following additional opportunities to use VR (p = .944). On the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument, no behaviour change with respect to MLS use was noted (p = 0.092). Therapists favoured the strategy of transferring skills from VR to real-life tasks over employing a more comprehensive MLS approach. Conclusion The KT intervention improved therapists’ confidence but did not have an effect on clinical reasoning or behaviour with regard to MLS use during VR-based therapy. PMID:27992492

  19. Effects of ion irradiation on structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Si multilayers prepared by helicon plasma sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Setyo; Sakamoto, I.; Koike, M.; Tanoue, H.; Honda, S.

    2003-05-01

    Helicon plasma sputtering has been used to prepare Fe/Si MLs with an Fe layer thickness around tFe=2-5 nm for a Si spacer fixed at the thickness of tSi=1 and 1.5 nm. Present study found that the Fe/Si MLs of the Si spacer thickness at tSi=1 nm exhibit antiferromagnetic nature, but the other Fe/Si MLs are ferromagnetic. The maximum value of magnetoresistance (MR) ratio in Fe/Si MLs appears at tFe=3 nm, tSi=1 nm and is about 0.22%. We performed 400 keV Ar ion irradiation to investigate the behavior of magnetic properties in Fe/Si MLs. The magnetization measurements of Fe/Si MLs after 400 keV Ar ion irradiation show the degradation of antiferromagnetic behavior and the values of MR ratio after ion irradiation decrease. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the peak intensity of a satellite peak originated in superlattice structure does not change within the range of ion dose used. These results imply that the interface structures after ion irradiation become rough although the superlattice structures remain. Therefore, we consider that the change of MR properties in Fe/Si MLs by 400 keV Ar ion irradiation is due to the thickness dependence of Si layers like metallic superlattice structures.

  20. Improving Self-Management Skills Through Patient-Centered Communication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kiana R; McMorris, Barbara J; MapelLentz, Sarah; Scal, Peter

    2015-12-01

    We tested relationships between patient-centered communication (PCC), relatedness to health care providers, and autonomy around health care management among youth with and without mobility limitations (MLs) and examined whether the relationship between PCC and autonomy was mediated by how connected youth feel to their health care providers. Stratified multiple regression models were used to examine predicted associations for youth with and without MLs. PCC was significantly associated with relatedness to health care providers and autonomy for managing health care among youth with and without MLs. After controlling for covariates, evidence of mediation was observed among youth without MLs but not for youth with MLs. For youth without MLs, mediation suggests that youth's connection to their health care provider contributes to higher levels of health-related autonomy. For youth with MLs, independent of feeling connected to health care providers, more frequent PCC resulted in higher levels of health-related autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.