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Sample records for mn fe ni

  1. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Biondo, A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2008-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  2. Longitudinal and perpendicular exchange bias in FeMn/(FeNi/FeMn)n multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Zhou, S. M.; Searson, P. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2003-05-01

    Exchange bias in ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AF) bilayers is usually investigated in the longitudinal configuration with the exchange coupling established in the film plane. In this work, we report on the perpendicular exchange bias in FeMn(8 nm)/[FeNi(2 nm)/FeMn(8 nm)]n multilayers induced by perpendicular field cooling. The thin FeNi layers give rise to large values of the exchange field and coercivity, and n=15 allows a sufficiently large magnetization for the measurements. Even though the soft FeNi layers have an intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, perpendicular exchange bias has been observed after cooling in a perpendicular external field. The exchange field in the perpendicular configuration is about 0.85 that of the longitudinal case. In both the longitudinal and perpendicular configurations, the exchange field decreases quasilinearly with temperature. The squareness of perpendicular hysteresis loops decreases with increasing temperature.

  3. Exchange anisotropy in NiFe layers coupled with multilayered MnFe/MnFeCr (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Kenneth T.-Y.; Campbell, Richard T.

    1991-11-01

    The exchange anisotropy in a ferromagnetic NiFe layer coupled with an antiferromagnetic MnFe layer can be used to stabilize the single domain state of a magnetoresistive sensor,1 but this technology may be limited by the high corrosion sensitivity of MnFe. It is possible to improve the corrosion resistance of MnFe through impurity doping, e.g., MnFeCr with Cr concentrations of 3-12 at. %,2 but this technique will at the same time degrade the exchange anisotropy. In this work, we have investigated the exchange anisotropy in NiFe layers coupled with multilayered MnFe/MnFeCr. The samples had a configuration of glass substrates, followed by a NiFe (300 Å) layer, followed by a MnFe(x Å)/MnFeCr(y Å) multilayer, where the antiferromagnetic multilayer had either MnFe or MnFeCr interfacing with the NiFe and had a fixed total thickness of 240 Å. They were prepared by rf diode sputtering and, after a Ta (200 Å) protective layer deposition, were thermally cycled to a maximum temperature of 250 °C. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) The anisotropy energy, EUA, near the room temperature ranged from 0.03 to 0.10 erg/cm2; it was determined mostly by the antiferromagnetic layer (MnFe or MnFeCr) at the NiFe interface and was essentially independent of the rest of antiferromagnetic structure. (2) The critical temperature, TC, range from 90 to 160 °C; it was determined mostly by the relative amounts of MnFe and MnFeCr in the entire antiferromagnetic structure and not just at the NiFe interface. These results implied that, while one could improve the anisotropy energy at lower temperatures simply by improving the antiferromagnetic layer near the NiFe interface, to improve the anisotropy energy at higher temperatures one must improve the entire antiferromagnetic layer.

  4. Ni spin switching induced by magnetic frustration in FeMn/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2009-03-08

    Epitaxially grown FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) films are investigated by Photoemission Electron Microscopy and Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect. We find that as the FeMn overlayer changes from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic state, it could switch the ferromagnetic Ni spin direction from out-of-plane to in-plane direction of the film. This phenomenon reveals a new mechanism of creating magnetic anisotropy and is attributed to the out-of-plane spin frustration at the FeMn-Ni interface.

  5. Magnetic and conventional shape memory behavior of Mn-Ni-Sn and Mn-Ni-Sn(Fe) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turabi, A. S.; Lázpita, P.; Sasmaz, M.; Karaca, H. E.; Chernenko, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic and conventional shape memory properties of Mn49Ni42Sn9(at.%) and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3(at.%) polycrystalline alloys exhibiting martensitic transformation from ferromagnetic austenite into weakly magnetic martensite are characterized under compressive stress and magnetic field. Magnetization difference between transforming phases drastically increases, while transformation temperature decreases with the addition of Fe. Both Mn49Ni42Sn9 and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 alloys show remarkable superelastic and shape memory properties with recoverable strain of 4% and 3.5% under compression at room temperature, respectively. These characteristics can be counted as extraordinary among the polycrystalline NiMn-based magnetic shape memory alloys. Critical stress for phase transformation was increased by 34 MPa in Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 and 21 MPa in Mn49Ni42Sn9 at 9 T, which can be qualitatively understood in terms of thermodynamic Clausius-Clapeyron relationships and in the framework of the suggested physical concept of a volume magnetostress.

  6. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  7. Influence of He-ion irradiation on thin NiMn/FeNi exchange bias films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantelli, V.; von Borany, J.; Grenzer, J.; Fassbender, J.; Kaltofen, R.; Schumann, J.

    2006-04-01

    Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and reflectivity, we studied the transition from the paramagnetic NiMn phase to the chemically ordered, antiferromagnetic L10 phase of NiMn/Fe19Ni81 thin films deposited on a Si/SiO2 substrate as a function of the annealing temperature. The transformation to a dominating L10-ordered NiMn film takes place between 300 and 400 °C irrespective of the irradiation. This is also consistent with magnetization reversal measurements of the corresponding permalloy layers. The benefit of the ion irradiation is a reduction of the mosaicity for both the NiMn and the permalloy film, and a smoothening of internal interfaces.

  8. Influence of He-ion irradiation on thin NiMn/FeNi exchange bias films

    SciTech Connect

    Cantelli, V.; Borany, J. von; Grenzer, J.; Fassbender, J.; Kaltofen, R.; Schumann, J.

    2006-04-15

    Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and reflectivity, we studied the transition from the paramagnetic NiMn phase to the chemically ordered, antiferromagnetic L1{sub 0} phase of NiMn/Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} thin films deposited on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate as a function of the annealing temperature. The transformation to a dominating L1{sub 0}-ordered NiMn film takes place between 300 and 400 deg. C irrespective of the irradiation. This is also consistent with magnetization reversal measurements of the corresponding permalloy layers. The benefit of the ion irradiation is a reduction of the mosaicity for both the NiMn and the permalloy film, and a smoothening of internal interfaces.

  9. Properties of the roughness in NiFe/FeMn exchange-biased system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Biondo, A.; Nunes, V. B.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2007-05-01

    X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (5 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering. Layer-by-layer analyses were done in order to have interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. X-ray reflectivity results indicate that the successive layer deposition gives rise to a cumulative roughness. In addition, the atomic force microscopic images analyses have revealed that the roughness enhancement caused by the successive layer deposition can be associated with an appearance of a longer wavelength roughness induced by the NiFe layer deposition.

  10. The effect of Mn on the activities of Fe, Ni, and Cr in an Fe-Ni-Cr base alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.C.Y. . Div. of Mineral Commodities)

    1993-11-01

    A combination Knudsen cell-mass spectrometer apparatus developed by the Bureau of Mines is accurate enough to permit the activity of many alloy components to be measured directly as the ratio of the ion currents of an appropriate isotope evaporated from the alloy and from the pure component. This apparatus has been used to determine the activities of Fe, Ni, and Cr as functions of temperature in 71Fe-20Ni-6Cr-3Mn (at. pct). A comparison of the data with data obtained earlier from other Fe-Ni-Cr base alloys indicates that partial substitution of Mn for Cr causes the activity coefficient of Fe to decrease and to deviate negatively above 1,550 K. The activity coefficient of Ni is markedly increased by the substitution decreases both the activity coefficient of Cr and the temperature dependence of this coefficient. The oxidation behavior of Fe-Ni-Cr base alloys, the stability of the austenitic phase in such alloys, and the Ni equivalent of Mn are discussed in light of these changes in activity coefficient.

  11. Deep Drawing Behavior of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jae Wung; Moon, Jongun; Jang, Min Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jaimyun; Yim, Dami; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2017-07-01

    Herein, the deep drawability and deep drawing behavior of an equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA and its microstructure and texture evolution are first studied for future applications. The CoCrFeMnNi HEA is successfully drawn to a limit drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.14, while the planar anisotropy of the drawn cup specimen is negligible. The moderate combination of strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity and the formation of deformation twins in the edge region play important roles in successful deep drawing. In the meanwhile, the texture evolution of CoCrFeMnNi HEA has similarities with conventional fcc metals.

  12. Deep Drawing Behavior of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jae Wung; Moon, Jongun; Jang, Min Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jaimyun; Yim, Dami; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2017-09-01

    Herein, the deep drawability and deep drawing behavior of an equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA and its microstructure and texture evolution are first studied for future applications. The CoCrFeMnNi HEA is successfully drawn to a limit drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.14, while the planar anisotropy of the drawn cup specimen is negligible. The moderate combination of strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity and the formation of deformation twins in the edge region play important roles in successful deep drawing. In the meanwhile, the texture evolution of CoCrFeMnNi HEA has similarities with conventional fcc metals.

  13. 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer spin valve component investigated by polarized neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Callori, S. J. Bertinshaw, J.; Cortie, D. L.; Cai, J. W. Zhu, T.; Le Brun, A. P.; Klose, F.

    2014-07-21

    We have observed 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer system using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetometry results show magnetic switching for both the biased and free NiFe layers, the latter of which reverses at low applied fields. As these measurements are only capable of providing information about the total magnetization within a sample, polarized neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the reversal behavior of the NiFe layers individually. Both the non-spin-flip and spin-flip neutron reflectometry signals were tracked around the free NiFe layer hysteresis loop and were used to detail the evolution of the magnetization during reversal. At low magnetic fields near the free NiFe coercive field, a large spin-flip signal was observed, indicating magnetization aligned perpendicular to both the applied field and pinned layer.

  14. NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr spin valves studied by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timopheev, A. A.; Sobolev, N. A.; Pogorelov, Y. G.; Bunyaev, S. A.; Teixeira, J. M.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Kakazei, G. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ion-beam deposited (Glass/Ta/NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr/Ta) spin valves (SVs) with a Cu-spacer thickness (tCu) varying from 14 to 28 Å have been studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. With respect to the interlayer coupling strength between the free and fixed ferromagnetic layers, the samples have been divided in those with a weak coupling (for tCu > 16 Å) and a strong coupling regimes (for tCu ≤ 16 Å). The FMR behavior in these two regimes is quite different. For the weakly coupled series, there are two well-defined FMR peaks stemming from the free and fixed layers. Their in-plane angular dependences exhibit 180° and 360° symmetries, respectively. For the strongly coupled SVs, the resonance modes are hybridized and possess features of both layers simultaneously. The main coupling mechanism between the two layers, as concluded from the FMR and MR measurements, is the Néel "orange-peel" magnetostatic interaction, accompanied by a direct exchange due to pinholes in the Cu spacer for tCu < 17 Å.

  15. Investigation of nanostructures based on Ni80Fe20/(Ni80Fe20)20Mn80 bilayers with a unidirectional exchange anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, I. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Krinitsina, T. P.; Matveev, S. A.; Milyaev, M. A.; Popov, V. V.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    The magnetic properties of nanostructures based on Ni80Fe20/(Ni80Fe20)20Mn80 bilayers have been investigated depending on the thickness of the antiferromagnetic layer and the material of the substrate. The possibility of using the antiferromagnetic alloy (Ni80Fe20)20Mn80 as the material for the pinning layer in spin valves has been considered.

  16. Interfacial exchange interactions and magnetism of Ni2MnAl /Fe bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, R.; Simon, E.; Keller, S.; Nagyfalusi, B.; Khmelevsky, S.; Szunyogh, L.; Nowak, U.

    2017-08-01

    Based on multiscale calculations combining ab initio methods with spin dynamics simulations, we perform a detailed study of the magnetic behavior of Ni2MnAl /Fe bilayers. Our simulations show that such a bilayer exhibits a small exchange bias effect when the Ni2MnAl Heusler alloy is in a disordered B2 phase. Additionally, we present an effective way to control the magnetic structure of the Ni2MnAl antiferromagnet, in the pseudo-ordered B2-I as well as the disordered B2 phases, via a spin-flop coupling to the Fe layer.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 and modified Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanling

    A novel alloy with nominal composition Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 has been found to show good room-temperature strength and significant ductility. The current project is to study the wear properties of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn35Al 15 and discuss the possibility of further improving the mechanical properties of this alloy. The dry sliding wear of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 was studied in in four different environments, i.e. air, dry oxygen, dry argon and a 4% hydrogen/nitrogen mixture. Two-body and three-body abrasive wear mechanism was found for tests in oxygen-containing environments, while plastic flow mechanisms dominated the wear behavior for tests in argon. Hydrogen embrittlement led to 1000% increase of wear loss by causing more rapid crack nucleation of the asperities. The effects of different additions of chromium (≤ 8 at. %) on both microstructure and fracture behavior of Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 were investigated. All alloys consisted of (Ni, Al)-rich B2 and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases with most of the Cr residing in the f.c.c. phase. The addition of 6 at. % Cr not only increased the room temperature ductility, but also completely suppressed the environmental embrittlement observed in the Cr-free alloy at low strain rates. The effects of varying the Al concentration on the microstructures and tensile properties of six two-phase FeNiMnAl alloys with a composition close to Fe30Ni20Mn35Al15 were studied. The increase in f.c.c. volume fraction and f.c.c. lamellar width led to an increase in ductility and a decrease in yield strength. The correlation between the yield stress and f.c.c. lamellar spacing lambda obeyed a Hall-Petch-type relationship, i.e. sigmay=252+0.00027lambda-1, where the units for sigmay and lambda are MPa and meter, respectively. FeNiMnAl alloy with B2 and f.c.c. phases aligned along was reported to show high strength at room temperature. The mechanical properties of Fe 28Ni18Mn33Al21, consisting of (Ni, Al)-enriched B2 and (Fe, Mn)-enriched f.c.c. phases with

  18. Magnetic properties and martensitic transformation in quaternary Heusler alloy of NiMnFeGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, M.; Wang, W. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Meng, F. B.; Liu, H. Y.; Liu, B. D.; Qu, J. P.

    2002-11-01

    Quaternary Heusler alloy Ni2)(Mn,FeGa has been studied systematically for the structure, martensitic transformation, and magnetic properties in two systems of Ni50.5Mn25-xFexGa24.5 and Ni50.4Mn28-xFexGa21.6. Substituting Fe for Mn up to about 70%, the pure L21 phase and the thermoelastic martensitic transformation still can be observed in these quaternary systems. Iron doping dropped the martensitic transformation temperature from 220 to 140 K, increased the Curie temperature from 351 to 429 K, and broadened the thermal hysteresis from about 7 to 18 K. Magnetic analysis revealed that Fe atoms contribute to the net magnetization of the material with a moment lower than that of Mn. The temperature dependence of magnetic-field-induced strains has been improved by this doping method.

  19. Exchange bias in sputtered FeNi/FeMn systems: Effect of short low-temperature heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Peter; Guzmán, Jorge; Lepalovskij, Vladimir; Svalov, Andrey; Kurlyandskaya, Galina; Asenjo, Agustina; Vas'kovskiy, Vladimir; Vazquez, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Short (5 min) post-deposition thermal treatments under magnetic field at low temperature (up to 200 °C) performed in exchange-coupled FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm) bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are shown to be effective to significantly modify their exchange field (from around 40 Oe down to 27 Oe) between FeNi and FeMn layers. A similar exchange field decrease was observed for the first deposited FeNi layer of the FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm)/FeNi(40 nm) trilayer films after the same thermal treatments. The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates that such a heat treatment has no effect on the grain size and crystalline texture of the films, while atomic force microscope studies reveal an increase of the surface roughness after the treatment which is more noticeable in the case of the trilayer film. Analysis of the experimental results leads us to conclude that the variations of the exchange field after heat treatment are likely caused by a modification of interfacial roughness and/or interfacial magnetic structure, but unlikely by the changes in the microstructure and/or changes of composition of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer.

  20. Discontinuous coarsening behavior of Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic compound during isothermal aging treatment of Fe-Mn-Ni-Al alloys.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Takeguchi, Masaki; Furuya, Kazuo; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2010-08-01

    The discontinuous reaction of the Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic phase was investigated during the aging of a solution-treated Fe-8.3Mn-8.2Ni-4.2Al alloy. During aging, Ni(2)MnAl lamellae formed at the prior austenite grain boundaries and twin boundaries and grew into the neighboring grains. The presence of continuously precipitated fine Ni(2)MnAl particles before the growth of the discontinuously precipitated lamellae was confirmed by dark-field transmission electron microscopy, and it was concluded that the present reaction is a type of discontinuous coarsening process, alpha' + Ni(2)MnAl (continuous precipitation) --> alpha + Ni(2)MnAl (discontinuous coarsening). The chemical driving force and the reduction of the total coherent strain energy were suggested to be the driving force for the discontinuous coarsening reaction.

  1. Magnetostructural transition behavior in Fe-doped Heusler Mn-Ni-In ribbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Fang, Yue; Feng, Shutong; Zhai, Qijie; Luo, Zhiping; Zheng, Hongxing

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, we investigated magnetostructural transition behavior in Mn-rich Heusler Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2, 3 at%) ribbon materials. Microstructural observations showed that substituting Mn with Fe in Mn50Ni41In9 led to striking grain refinement from ∼50 μm to 5-10 μm, and formation of a secondary phase when Fe content was increased up to 2 at%. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermomagnetic measurements indicated that a paramagnetic→ferromagnetic transition in austenite occurred first, followed with a weak-magnetic martensitic transition upon cooling for the Mn50-xFexNi41In9 (x=0, 1, 2). In case of Mn47Fe3Ni41In9, the martensitic transformation happened between paramagnetic austenite and weak-magnetic martensite, without the presence of the magnetic transition in austenite. The effective refrigeration capacity of Mn49Fe1Ni41In9 reached 137.1 J kg-1 under a magnetic field change of 30 kOe.

  2. Oxidation of CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Carney, Casey

    2015-06-01

    Eight model high entropy alloys (HEAs) in the CoCrFeMnNi family (including one alloy each in the CoCrFeNi and CoFeMnNi subfamilies) were made, prepared, and exposed to laboratory air for 1100 h at 650°C and 750°C. Two commercial alloys, nickel-base superalloy 230 (N06230) and austenitic stainless steel 304H (S30409), were simultaneously exposed for comparison. Mass change oxidation kinetics were measured and cross-sections of exposed samples were observed. Seven of these HEAs contained much more Mn (12-24 wt.%) than is found in commercial heat-resistant stainless steels and superalloys. The oxidation resistance of CoCrFeNi was excellent and comparable to 304H at 650°C and only slightly worse at 750°C. The thin oxide scale on CoCrFeNi was primarily Cr oxide (presumably Cr2O3) with some Mn oxide at the outer part of the scale. The CoCrFeMnNi HEAs all experienced more rapid oxidation than CoCrFeNi and, especially at 750°C, experienced oxide scale spallation. The addition of Y in the alloy to lower S improved the oxidation resistance of these HEAs. Alloy CoFeMnNi, without Cr, experienced much higher oxidation rates and scale spallation than the Cr-containing alloys. A linear regression analysis of the log of the parabolic rate constant, log(kp), as functions of wt.% Cr and Mn found a good correlation for the compositional dependence of the oxidation rate constant, especially at 650°C. Mn was found to be more detrimental increasing log(k p) than Cr was helpful reducing log(k p). If CoCrFeMnNi HEAs are to be used in high temperature oxidizing environments, then examining lower levels of Mn, while maintaining Cr levels, should be pursued.

  3. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel by Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R. A.; Miller, M. K.; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 °C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe)3Ti and (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for ~60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  4. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R A; Miller, Michael K; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti and (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for {approx}60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  5. Simultaneous enhancement of magnetic and mechanical properties in Ni-Mn-Sn alloy by Fe doping

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Changlong; Tai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiaohua; Cai, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Both magnetic-field-induced reverse martensitic transformation (MFIRMT) and mechanical properties are crucial for application of Ni-Mn-Sn magnetic shape memory alloys. Here, we demonstrate that substitution of Fe for Ni can simultaneously enhance the MFIRMT and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Sn, which are advantageous for its applications. The austenite in Ni44Fe6Mn39Sn11 shows the typical ferromagnetic magnetization with the highest saturation magnetization of 69 emu/g at 223 K. The result shows that an appropriate amount of Fe substitution can really enhance the ferromagnetism of Ni50Mn39Sn11 alloy in austenite, which directly leads to the enhancement of MFIRMT. Meanwhile, the mechanical property significantly improves with Fe doping. When there is 4 at.% Fe added, the compressive and maximum strain reach the maximum value (approximately 725.4 MPa and 9.3%). Furthermore, using first-principles calculations, we clarify the origin of Fe doping on martensitic transformation and magnetic properties. PMID:28230152

  6. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  7. Electrical measurement of antiferromagnetic moments in exchange-coupled IrMn/NiFe stacks.

    PubMed

    Martí, X; Park, B G; Wunderlich, J; Reichlová, H; Kurosaki, Y; Yamada, M; Yamamoto, H; Nishide, A; Hayakawa, J; Takahashi, H; Jungwirth, T

    2012-01-06

    We employ antiferromagnetic tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance to study the behavior of antiferromagnetically ordered moments in IrMn exchange coupled to NiFe. Experiments performed by common laboratory tools for magnetization and electrical transport measurements allow us to directly link the broadening of the NiFe hysteresis loop and its shift (exchange bias) to the rotation and pinning of antiferromagnetic moments in IrMn. At higher temperatures, the broadened loops show zero shift, which correlates with the observation of fully rotating antiferromagnetic moments inside the IrMn film. The onset of exchange bias at lower temperatures is linked to a partial rotation between distinct metastable states and pinning of the IrMn antiferromagnetic moments in these states. The observation complements common pictures of exchange bias and reveals an electrically measurable memory effect in an antiferromagnet.

  8. Dislocations in nanostructured two-phase Fe30Ni20Mn20Al30.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Baker, I

    2013-03-01

    In a previous study, the dislocations in Fe(30)Ni(20)Mn(25)Al(25) (at. %), which consist of 50 nm wide alternating b.c.c. and B2 phases, were shown to have a/2<111> Burgers vectors after room temperature deformation. The dislocations were found to glide in pairs on both {110} and {112} slip planes and were relatively widely separated in the b.c.c. phase, where the dislocations were uncoupled, and closely spaced in the B2 phase, where the dislocations were connected by an anti-phase boundary. In this article, we analyze the dislocations in the two ~5 nm-wide B2 phases in a related two-phase alloy Fe(30)Ni(20)Mn(20)Al(30), with compositions Fe-23Ni-21Mn-24Al and Fe-39Ni-12Mn-34Al, compressed to ~3% strain at a strain rate 5 × 10(-4) s(-1) at 873 K (the lowest temperature at which substantial plastic flow was observed). It is shown that slip occursby the glide of a<100> dislocations. A review of the literature suggests that the differences in the observed slip vector between these B2 phases could be due to the differences in composition, differences in deformation temperature, or possibly both.

  9. Spin polarization of Ni2MnIn and Ni80Fe20 determined by point-contact Andreev spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocklage, Lars; Scholtyssek, Jan M.; Merkt, Ulrich; Meier, Guido

    2007-05-01

    We present point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy on Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) and on the half-metallic Heusler alloy Ni2MnIn. The thin Permalloy films are deposited on Si, the Ni2MnIn films on Si as well as on in situ cleaved (110) surfaces of InAs. A highly conductive layer under the ferromagnetic film almost eliminates a series resistance and thus facilitates the determination of the spin polarization from the differential conductance curves. We obtain a spin polarization of Permalloy of 35%. The spin polarization of Ni2MnIn depends on the substrate, presumably due to the growth of different crystal structures. It is shown that the surface sensitive PCAR spectroscopy cannot determine the spin polarization of the bulk material of half-metals where the degree of spin polarization strongly depends on the crystal structure.

  10. Magnetic properties of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Friák, Martin; Dudová, Marie; ...

    2017-07-28

    In this paper, we present experimental data showing that the equiatomic CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy undergoes two magnetic transformations at temperatures below 100 K while maintaining its fcc structure down to 3 K. The first transition, paramagnetic to spin glass, was detected at 93 K and the second transition of the ferromagnetic type occurred at 38 K. Field-assisted cooling below 38 K resulted in a systematic vertical shift of the hysteresis curves. Strength and direction of the associated magnetization bias was proportional to the strength and direction of the cooling field and shows a linear dependence with a slope of 0.006more » ± 0.001 emu T. The local magnetic moments of individual atoms in the CrMnFeCoNi quinary fcc random solid solution were investigated by ab initio (electronic density functional theory) calculations. Results of the numerical analysis suggest that, irrespective of the initial configuration of local magnetic moments, the magnetic moments associated with Cr atoms align antiferromagnetically with respect to a cumulative magnetic moment of their first coordination shell. The ab initio calculations further showed that the magnetic moments of Fe and Mn atoms remain strong (between 1.5 and 2 μB), while the local moments of Ni atoms effectively vanish. Finally, these results indicate that interactions of Mn- and/or Fe-located moments with the surrounding magnetic structure account for the observed macroscopic magnetization bias.« less

  11. Construction of the Magnetic Phase Diagram of FeMn/Ni/Cu(001) Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Hwang, C.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-01-04

    Single crystalline FeMn/Ni bilayer was epitaxially grown on Cu(001) substrate and investigated by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). The FeMn and Ni films were grown into two cross wedges to facilitate an independent control of the FeMn (0-20 ML) and Ni (0-20 ML) film thicknesses. The Ni magnetic phases were determined by Ni domain images as a function of the Ni thickness (d{sub Ni}) and the FeMn thickness (d{sub FeMn}). The result shows that as the Ni thickness increases, the Ni film undergoes a paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic state transition at a critical thickness of d{sub FM} and an in-plane to out-of-plane spin reorientation transition at a thicker thickness d{sub SRT}. The phase diagram shows that both d{sub FM} and d{sub SRT} increase as the FeMn film establishes its antiferromagnetic order.

  12. Connection between orbital moment enhancement and exchange bias in a [Ni80Fe20/Mn]3 multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.-C.; Huang, M.-J.; Lin, H.-J.; Lee, C.-H.; Chen, C.-T.; Liu, C.-H.; Hsu, H.-F.; Lin, K.-W.; van Lierop, J.

    2013-01-01

    The overall and element specific magnetism in an exchange biased [Ni80Fe20/Mn]3 film system, with film layers 3.5 nm thick, has been studied to examine the magnetism between interfacial Mn, Ni, and Fe spins. Field-cooling the film results in large exchange bias loop shifts at temperatures from 2 to 30 K, and an enhanced coercivity remains until 75 K. The elemental magnetism ascertained from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements shows that Mn appears to be a fully compensated antiferromagnet down to 20 K, and there is clear evidence of an enhanced orbital moment for both Fe and Ni from 20 to 300 K. This magnetism is likely due to overlapping d orbitals between Fe-Mn and Ni-Mn, with this coupling increasing the local anisotropy resulting in the enhanced coercivity and enabling exchange bias.

  13. Plasma-Sprayed High Entropy Alloys: Microstructure and Properties of AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Berndt, Christopher C.; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Anupam, Ameey; S, Praveen; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Murty, B. S.

    2015-02-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) represent a new class of materials that present novel phase structures and properties. Apart from bulk material consolidation methods such as casting and sintering, HEAs can also be deposited as a surface coating. In this work, thermal sprayed HEA coatings are investigated that may be used as an alternative bond coat material for a thermal barrier coating system. Nanostructured HEAs that were based on AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi were prepared by ball milling and then plasma sprayed. Splat studies were assessed to optimise the appropriate thermal spray parameters and spray deposits were prepared. After mechanical alloying, aluminum-based and manganese-based HEA powders revealed contrary prominences of BCC and FCC phases in their X-ray diffraction patterns. However, FCC phase was observed as the major phase present in both of the plasma-sprayed AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings. There were also minor oxide peaks detected, which can be attributed to the high temperature processing. The measured porosity levels for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings were 9.5 ± 2.3 and 7.4 ± 1.3 pct, respectively. Three distinct phase contrasts, dark gray, light gray and white, were observed in the SEM images, with the white regions corresponding to retained multicomponent HEAs. The Vickers hardness (HV0.3kgf) was 4.13 ± 0.43 and 4.42 ± 0.60 GPa for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi, respectively. Both type of HEAs coatings exhibited anisotropic mechanical behavior due to their lamellar, composite-type microstructure.

  14. Exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline FeNi/FeMn films with hysteresis loop assymmetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Merenkov, D. N.; Bludov, A. N.; Gnatchenko, S. L.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, R.; Novosad, V. A.; Materials Science Division; National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Polish Academy of Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The process of magnetization reversal of a FeNi(50 {angstrom})/FeMn(50 {angstrom}) polycrystalline film prepared in a magnetic field has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 K. The external field was oriented in the film plane along the easy or difficult axis of the ferromagnetic layer. In the process of magnetization reversal of the film along the easy axis, strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is observed together with an exchange shift. As temperature decreases, the asymmetry becomes more pronounced and the shift increases. The field dependences of the magnetization of the film are symmetric and are not shifted when the external field is applied along the difficult axis. The magnetization reversal process is examined on the basis of a model that takes account of the appearance of high-order exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline films. It is shown that the observed strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is associated with the formation of a canted phase and the existence of a metastable state. As the film temperature decreases, the interval of fields where the canted phase can exist becomes wider as a result of an increase of the exchange anisotropy constants.

  15. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. W.; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.; Stamps, R. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  16. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, G. W. Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; Stamps, R. L.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.

    2015-11-28

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  17. Exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline FeNi /FeMn films with hysteresis loop asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenkov, D. N.; Bludov, A. N.; Gnatchenko, S. L.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, R.; Novosad, V. A.

    2007-11-01

    The process of magnetization reversal of a FeNi(50Å )/FeMn(50Å) polycrystalline film prepared in a magnetic field has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 25to300K. The external field was oriented in the film plane along the easy or difficult axis of the ferromagnetic layer. In the process of magnetization reversal of the film along the easy axis, strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is observed together with an exchange shift. As temperature decreases, the asymmetry becomes more pronounced and the shift increases. The field dependences of the magnetization of the film are symmetric and are not shifted when the external field is applied along the difficult axis. The magnetization reversal process is examined on the basis of a model that takes account of the appearance of high-order exchange anisotropy in polycrystalline films. It is shown that the observed strong asymmetry of the hysteresis loop is associated with the formation of a canted phase and the existence of a metastable state. As the film temperature decreases, the interval of fields where the canted phase can exist becomes wider as a result of an increase of the exchange anisotropy constants.

  18. Thermal stability of exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn multilayered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-09-01

    A systematic study of the effect of ferromagnetic thickness on magnetic and microwave properties of exchange-biased NiFe/FeMn multilayered thin films was carried out with regards to thermal stability. The temperature-dependent microwave characteristics of the films were obtained from the near-field microwave microscopy technique and analysed based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The complex microwave permeability spectra of the magnetic thin films up to 5 GHz in the temperature range from room temperature to 420 K were measured. It was found that thicker ferromagnetic layers helped to reduce the dependence of the magnetic properties on temperature, leading to better thermal stability. The saturation magnetization MS, dynamic magnetic anisotropy field HKdyn, and ferromagnetic resonance frequency fFMR were found to decrease with temperature, while the effective damping coefficient αeff was increased with temperature. We also investigate the rotational magnetic anisotropy field HKrot with temperature which gives a measure of the rotatable magnetization of the antiferromagnetic layers and its thermal stability.

  19. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Tamisari, M.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.

    2015-05-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  20. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbiotti, G. Tacchi, S.; Del Bianco, L.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R.; Tamisari, M.

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  1. Microstructure and corrosion properties of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qingfeng; Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo; Lu, Fenggui; Li, Ruifeng; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong

    2017-02-01

    Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA) is one of the most notable single phase multi-component alloys up-to-date with promising mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. However, the study on the corrosion behavior of CrMnFeCoNi HEA coating has still been lacking. In this paper, HEA coating with a nominal composition of CrMnFeCoNi is fabricated by laser surface alloying and studied in detail. Microstructure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to investigate the corrosion behavior. The coating forms a simple FCC phase with an identical dendritic structure composed of Fe/Co/Ni-rich dendrites and Mn/Ni-rich interdendrites. Both in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and 0.5 M sulfuric acid the coating exhibits nobler corrosion resistance than A36 steel substrate and even lower icorr than 304 stainless steel (304SS). EIS plots coupled with fitted parameters reveal that a spontaneous protective film is formed and developed during immersion in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The fitted Rt value reaches its maximum at 24 h during a 48 h' immersion test, indicating the passive film starts to break down after that. EDS analysis conducted on a corroded surface immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4 reveals that corrosion starts from Cr-depleted interdendrites.

  2. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga/Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chang-Long; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A ferromagnetic shape memory composite of Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Ga was fabricated by using spark plasma sintering method. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Compared to the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy, the threshold field for magnetic-field-induced strain in the composite is clearly reduced owing to the assistance of internal stress generated from Fe-Ga. Meanwhile, the ductility has been significantly improved in the composite. A fracture strain of 26% and a compressive strength of 1600 MPa were achieved. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51271065 and 51301054), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1253-NCET-009), the Youth Academic Backbone in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1251G022), the Projects of Heilongjiang, China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  3. Galvanomagnetic properties of Heusler alloy Co2 YAl ( Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Co2 YAl, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni have been studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. Normal R 0 and anomalous R S Hall coefficients are shown to be maximal in magnitudes in the middle of the 3 d period of the periodic table of elements. Coefficient R 0 changes the negative sign to positive sign in going from weak ( Y = Ti, V) to strong ( Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni) ferromagnetic alloys. Constant R S is positive and proportional to ρ2.9 in all the alloys. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is not higher than several percent and its magnitude is changed fairly significantly in the dependence on the number of valence electrons z; the magnetoresistance signs vary arbitrarily.

  4. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Under High Strain Rate Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingfeng; Fu, Ao; Huang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong; Li, Zezhou; Zan, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique. Dynamic compressive tests of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy were deformed at varying strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic yield strength of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy increases with increasing strain rate. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) plastic model was applied to model the dynamic flow behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy, and the constitutive relationship was obtained. Serration behavior during plastic deformation was observed in the stress-strain curves. The mechanism for serration behavior of the alloy deformed at high strain rate is proposed.

  5. Enhancement of electrochemical performance by simultaneous substitution of Ni and Mn with Fe in Ni-Mn spinel cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Yavuz, Murat; Indris, Sylvio; Bramnik, Natalia N.; Knapp, Michael; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Das, Bijoy; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Bhaskar, Aiswarya

    2016-09-01

    LiNi0.5-xFe2xMn1.5-xO4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) spinel cathode materials are synthesized using citric acid-assisted sol-gel method with final calcination temperature of 1000 °C. The structure and morphology of the materials are characterized by using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction as well as scanning electron microscopy. Different from the parent LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) material, the Fe-doped spinels do not contain a rock-salt type impurity phase. However, they contain additional layered (C2/m) and spinel Fe3O4 (Fd 3 bar m) phases in small amounts. The substitution of Fe into the spinel structure has been confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Fe-doped spinels exhibit improved cycling stability (with a C/2 charge-discharge rate) and rate capability compared to the parent LNMO at room temperature in a voltage range 3.5-5.0 V. Among all these samples, the composition LiNi0.4Fe0.2Mn1.4O4 shows the best room temperature cycling stability (capacity retention of 92% after 300 cycles) as well as the highest initial discharge capacity (134 mAh g-1). The delivered capacities at high C-rates (especially at 10C and 20C) with respect to the capacity delivered at C/2 are higher for all Fe-doped samples compared to the parent LNMO. Furthermore, Fe-doping improves the thermal stability of the Ni-Mn spinels in the delithiated state.

  6. Compressive deformation behavior of CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Min Ji; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Tsai, Che-Wei; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-11-01

    The compressive deformation behavior of a single phase CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) is investigated using experimental and theoretical approaches. The equiaxed microstructures are observed using optical microscope, electron backscattered diffraction, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Compressive results reveal that the CrMnFeCoNi HEA has a high strain-hardening exponent in spite of its large grain size due to increased dislocation density and severe lattice distortion. The compressive texture of the HEA resembles those of typical FCC metals. The phenomenological dislocation-based constitutive model well describes the compressive deformation behavior. The predicted dislocation density is in good quantitative agreement with the experimental value measured using whole-profile fitting of synchrotron XRD peaks. It can be confirmed from the experimental and theoretical findings that the deformation mechanism of the CrMnFeCoNi HEA is the conventional dislocation glide and mechanical twinning is negligible contrary to general belief.

  7. Interaction between solute atoms and radiation defects in Fe-Ni-Si and Fe-Mn-Si alloys under irradiation with proton ions at low-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kenta; Iwai, Takeo; Abe, Hiroaki; Sekimura, Naoto

    2016-12-01

    Isochronal annealing followed by residual resistivity measurements at 12 K was performed in Fe-0.6Ni-0.6Si and Fe-1.5Mn-0.6Si alloys irradiated with 1 MeV proton ions below 70 K, and recovery stages were compared with those of Fe-0.6Ni and Fe-1.5Mn. The effects of silicon addition in the Fe-Ni alloy was observed as the appearance of a new recovery stage at 282-372 K, presumably corresponding to clustering of solute atoms in matrix, and as a change in mixed dumbbell migration at 122-142 K. Silicon addition mitigated the manganese effect in Fe-Mn alloy that is obstructing the recovery of radiation defects. Reduction of resistivity in Fe-Mn-Si alloy also suggested formation of small solute atom clusters.

  8. Further Observations of Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 Isotopic Systems in Sulfides from Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guan, Y.; Huss, G. R.; Leshin, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that short-lived Fe-60 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma) was present in some components of ordinary and enstatite chondrites when they formed. Here we report additional data on Fe-60 from sulfides in enstatite chondrites and on the potential relationship between the Fe-60-Ni-60 and Mn-53-Cr-53 systems.

  9. Analysis of the weak coupling of the IrMn/Co/Ru/NiFe structures by ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Alayo, W.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.

    2011-04-15

    The Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80}/Co/Ru/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} spin valve structures have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two well resolved modes are identified in the FMR spectra as the resonance of the Co and NiFe layers. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance peaks for the NiFe layer present a small asymmetry, which is attributed to the interlayer exchange interaction between ferromagnetic layers across the nonmagnetic spacer. The data were analyzed considering the exchange bias at the IrMn/Co interface and the indirect coupling between Co and NiFe. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance fields of both Co and NiFe layers present an upward (downward) shift for antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling with respect to a system with no interlayer coupling.

  10. Analysis of the weak coupling of the IrMn/Co/Ru/NiFe structures by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayo, W.; Sousa, M. A.; Pelegrini, F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2011-04-01

    The Ir20Mn80/Co/Ru/Ni81Fe19 spin valve structures have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two well resolved modes are identified in the FMR spectra as the resonance of the Co and NiFe layers. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance peaks for the NiFe layer present a small asymmetry, which is attributed to the interlayer exchange interaction between ferromagnetic layers across the nonmagnetic spacer. The data were analyzed considering the exchange bias at the IrMn/Co interface and the indirect coupling between Co and NiFe. The in-plane angular dependence of the resonance fields of both Co and NiFe layers present an upward (downward) shift for antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling with respect to a system with no interlayer coupling.

  11. Quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and activity towards ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammam, Malika; Easton, E. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    In this account, two series of quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts have been synthesized and characterized by ICP, XRD, XPS, TEM and cyclic voltammetry. XRD spectra of each series illustrated that PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co and Ni) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) alloys have been formed without significant free Mn, Cu, Mo or X co-catalysts. For PtMnCuSn/C and PtMnMoSn/C, in addition to alloy formation, significant free Sn-oxides are present in each catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry revealed that all quaternary showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation compared to the ternary precursor. Also, shift of the onset potential of ethanol oxidation towards less positive values were also recorded with the quaternary alloys, demonstrating a facilitated oxidation with the quaternary alloys compared to ternary alloy precursor. The magnitude of the gain in potential depend on the alloy composition and PtMnMoSn/C was found to be the best of all synthetized quaternary alloys with an onset potential of ethanol oxidation of only 0.059 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  12. Azimuthal angular dependent hysteresis loops of Fe50Mn50/Ni81Fe19 bilayers grown under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; You, Chun-Yeol; Kim, Ki-Yeon

    2016-11-01

    The azimuthal angular dependence of the vectorial hysteresis loops in the Fe50Mn50(AF)/Ni81Fe19(F) bilayer grown under a magnetic field was investigated using a combination of vectorial magneto-optic Kerr effect and model calculation. From a comparison of the experimental and calculation results, it is found that the AF easy axis is not parallel with but rotated by about 20° away from the applied magnetic field during the sample growth. Moreover, the transverse loop at the AF easy axis does not vanish but displays an open full circle (i.e., magnetization changes sign between decreasing and increasing field branches for the full hysteresis measurement). Our model calculation reveals that they are reminiscent of the non-collinear uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies. Specifically, the angular dependence of the transverse hysteresis is well reproduced with our model calculation taking non-collinear magnetic anisotropies into account. Coercivity determined from the longitudinal loops, on the other hand, is found to be nonzero and comparatively large at all azimuthal angles. This is in stark contrast with previous results regarding FeMn/NiFe bilayers field-cooled after sample growth. Neither domain wall nor incoherent magnetic rotation in the F layer is likely to be responsible for this coercivity discrepancy between theory and experiments. Apart from the uniaxial F and unidirectional AF-F anisotropies, we suggest that the F rotatable anisotropy equivalent of 40% to 60% of the interfacial coupling energy should be taken into account to properly address the coercivity enhancement in the FeMn/NiFe bilayer grown under a magnetic field.

  13. Effect of Fe substitution by Co on off-stoichiometric Ni-Fe-Co-Mn-Sn Heusler alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. S.; Mukhopadhyay, Semanti; Yadav, T. P.; Yadav, R. M.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Singh, H. K.; Srivastava, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    We have synthesized Ni45Fe5-X Co X Mn40Sn10 Heusler alloy with different Co doping and studied the effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni45Fe5-X Co X Mn40Sn10 (at. X  =  0, 2.5, 5) ribbons. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopic characterization reveal the structural/microstructural features in melt-spun ribbons of different compositions. A significant transformation in the crystal structure has been observed in Fe substituted ribbons. The crystal structure changes from cubic L21 phase to bi-phasic 4O  +  L21 and 10M  +  L21 modulated phases for the partial and complete substitution of Fe by Co specimens respectively. Williamson-Hall analysis of x-ray diffraction data was used to compute the crystallite size and residual elastic strain. Magnetic properties and magnetic field-induced structural transformation of melt-spun alloy ribbons over a large temperature range of 10 K  ⩽  T  ⩽  500 K were examined. Our results revealed that Fe substitution by Co causes a change in the magnetic behavior which could be ascribed to the increase in the lattice strain as well as a magnetic strain due to high antiferromagnetic fraction.

  14. The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Hongzhi; Meng Fanbin; Feng Zhongqiu; Li Yangxian; Zhu Wei; Wu Guangheng; Zhu Xiaoxi; Jiang Chengbao; Xu Huibin

    2010-01-15

    The effect of Fe substitution on the phase transformation and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}NiGa has been studied. A single bcc phase was obtained in Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa (x=0-0.6). With the substitution of Fe for Mn, the lattice constant decreases gradually. The martensitic transformation can be observed when x=0-0.3. Both the martensitic transformation and austenitic transformation temperatures decrease monotonically with increasing Fe content, which is different from common electron concentration dependence in Ni-Mn-Ga system. The saturation magnetizations M{sub s} of Mn{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}NiGa in both austenitic and martensitic phases increase obviously with the doping of Fe, while the variation of T{sub C} shows an opposite tendency. Theoretical calculations indicate that both austenitic and martensitic phases are ferrimagnets. The Fe moment varies from positive to negative after the tetragonal distortion, which leads to the decrease of the saturation magnetization.

  15. Synthesis of Waste Form in the Gd-Fe-Al-Ni-Mn-Cr-O System

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, S.C.; Jang, Y.N.; Bae, I.K.; Ryu, K.W.

    2006-07-01

    Poly-phase waste form which was the mixture of Gd{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 3}O{sub 12} and (Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x})(Fe{sub y}Cr{sub 1-y}){sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized. Also, we are intended to examine phase relation and physicochemical properties of coexisted phases in the compositions and to confirm accommodation relation of elements and phases. Two types of phase series were observed: Garnet-perovskite-spinel and Garnet-spinel. The compositions of garnets and spinels were nonstoichiometric, and especially, this poly-phase ceramics may be in a good waste form. The excessive Gd in garnets indicated the immobilization of higher content of actinides. The nonstoichiometric compositions of garnet and spinel were attributed to the formation of perovskite in that perovskite contained Gd, Fe and Al from garnet and Cr from spinel. (authors)

  16. The microstructure of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Rama Rao, V. V.

    2003-05-01

    The microstructure and phase stability of the Fe-15Mn-7Si-9Cr-5Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy in the temperature range of 600 °C to 1200 °C was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and chemical analysis techniques. The microstructural studies show that an austenite single-phase field exists in the temperature range of 1000 °C to 1100 °C, above 1100 °C, there exists a three-phase field consisting of austenite, δ-ferrite, and the (Fe,Mn)3Si intermetallic phase; within the temperature range of 700 °C to 1000 °C, a two-phase field consisting of austenite and the Fe5Ni3Si2 type intermetallic phase exists; and below 700 °C, there exists a single austenite phase field. Apart from these equilibrium phases, the austenite grains show the presence of athermal ɛ martensite. The athermal α' martensite has also been observed for the first time in these stainless steel shape memory alloys and is produced through the γ-ɛ-α' transformation sequence.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Satoru; Shimakura, Hironori; Tahara, Shuta; Okada, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys on the TM-rich side have relatively small and negative temperature coefficients of the magnetic susceptibility χ, which become large and negative with increasing Gd content. The large and negative temperature coefficient of χ for liquid Co gradually weakens at up to 70 at. % Co with the addition of Gd. Liquid Gd and GdcCo1-c alloys with c ≥ 0.5 also have a relatively large and negative temperature coefficient of χ. Liquid Gd-TM alloys on the Gd-rich side obey the Curie law. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Gd-Fe and Gd-Co alloys exhibit Curie-Weiss behavior on the TM-rich side. The dependence of χ on the composition for liquid Gd-TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys gradually increases with the Gd content, and that for liquid Gd-Co alloys has a minimum at the composition of 20 at. % Gd. The dependences of χ3d and χ4f on the composition due to the 3d- and 4f-electrons were analyzed by subtracting the corresponding data for liquid La-TM alloys from χ for the liquid Gd-TM alloys.

  18. Aspects of thermal martensite in a FeNiMnCo alloy.

    PubMed

    Güler, M; Güler, E; Kahveci, N

    2010-07-01

    Thermal martensite characteristics in Fe-29%Ni-2%Mn-2%Co alloy were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization techniques. SEM observations obviously revealed the lath martensite morphology in the prior austenite phase of examined alloy. As well, the martensitic transformation kinetics was found to be as athermal type. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy offered the paramagnetic austenite phase and ferromagnetic martensite phase with their volume fractions. Also, the internal magnetic field of the martensite was measured as 32.9T from the Mössbauer spectrometer.

  19. Acoustic characteristics of high damping Mn73Cu20Ni5Fe2 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, M.; Yin, F.; Kawahara, K.

    2004-02-01

    The acoustic characteristics for high damping Mn73Cu20Ni5Fe2 (M2052) alloy were investigated in terms of frequency-dependent complex dynamics, using an ultrasonic pulse method. The longitudinal and transverse waves show maximum decrements of about 2 and 1.8 at around 1.8 and 0.8 MHz, respectively, derived from a single relaxation process. Frequency dispersion leads to increase in dynamic modulus and delay in phase, suggesting growth (microkinking) of microtwin phases analogous to the stretching by micro-Brownian rotation in rubbers.

  20. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    DOE PAGES

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; ...

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  1. Weldability of a high entropy CrMnFeCoNi alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenggang; David, Stan A.; Feng, Zhili; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-07-19

    We present the high-entropy alloys are unique alloys in which five or more elements are all in high concentrations. In order to determine its potential as a structural alloy, a model face-centered-cubic CrMnFeCoNi alloy was selected to investigate its weldability. Welds produced by electron beam welding show no cracking. The grain structures within the fusion zone (FZ) are controlled by the solidification behavior of the weld pool. The weldment possesses mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal (BM) at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, compared with the BM, deformation twinning was more pronounced in the FZ of the tested alloy.

  2. Weldability of a high entropy CrMnFeCoNi alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenggang; David, Stan A.; Feng, Zhili; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-07-19

    We present the high-entropy alloys are unique alloys in which five or more elements are all in high concentrations. In order to determine its potential as a structural alloy, a model face-centered-cubic CrMnFeCoNi alloy was selected to investigate its weldability. Welds produced by electron beam welding show no cracking. The grain structures within the fusion zone (FZ) are controlled by the solidification behavior of the weld pool. The weldment possesses mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal (BM) at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, compared with the BM, deformation twinning was more pronounced in the FZ of the tested alloy.

  3. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; Shen, Guoyin; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  4. Calculations of structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and phonon properties of FeNiMnAl by the first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Uğur, Şule; İyigör, Ahmet

    2014-10-06

    The electronic, elastic and dynamical properties of the quaternary alloy FeNiMnAl have been investigated using a pseudopotential plane wave method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We determined the lattice parameters and the bulk modulus B. In addition, the elastic properties such as elastic constans (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}), the shear modulus G, the young modulus E, the poisson's ratio σ and the B/G ratio are also given. The FeNiMnAl Heusler alloy exhibit a ferromagnetic half-metallic behavior with the total magnetic moment of 4.02 μ{sub B}. The phonon dispersion of FeNiMnAl has been performed using the density functional theory and the direct method with 2×2×2 supercell.

  5. Trace metal (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) accumulation in Scleractinian corals: a record for Sabah, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Yong, Ow Cher; Lim, Ai Phing

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed as the first to assess the trace metal (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in coral skeleton in relation to metal availabilities and sampling locations in Sabah. The study also aims to determine the differential abilities of Scleractinian coral species as a bioindicator of environmental conditions. Skeletons of Scleractinian coral (Hydnophora microconos, Favia speciosa and Porites lobata) showed concentrations of Fe, Mn and Ni relatively higher than Cd and Zn in the skeletons. Statistical analyses outputs showed significant relationships between trace metal concentrations in coral species and those in seawater and sediment. The highest bioaccumulation factors among three Scleractinian coral species investigated was for Zn followed by Mn, Ni, Fe, Cd and Cu can provide a sign about pollution levels. However, metal tolerance, coral structure and morphology as well as multispecies monitoring are factors that need to be a focus in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of the mechanical properties of FeNiCrMnSi high entropy alloy wear resistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buluc, G.; Florea, I.; Chelariu, R.; Popescu, G.; Carcea, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we investigated microstructure, hardness and wear resistance for FeNiCrMnAl, high entropy alloy. The FeNiCrMnSi, high entropy alloy was elaborated in a medium induction furnace, by choosing the silicon, as an alliance element within the equi- atomic high entropy alloy, we managed to obtain a dendritic structure, the formation of intermetallic compounds or separated silicon. The medium hardness value of the investigated alloy was 948.33 HV and the medium value of the friction coefficient was 0.6655 in the first 20 seconds and 0.5425 for 1667 seconds. The volume loss of the high entropy alloy FeNiCrMnSi was 0.0557 mm3.

  7. Magnetoelasticity in ACr2O4 spinel oxides (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, V.; Bordács, S.; Varjas, D.; Penc, K.; Abouelsayed, A.; Kuntscher, C. A.; Ohgushi, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kézsmárki, I.

    2013-02-01

    Dynamical properties of the lattice structure were studied by optical spectroscopy in ACr2O4 chromium spinel oxide magnetic semiconductors over a broad temperature region of T=10-335 K. The systematic change of the A-site ions (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) showed that the occupancy of 3d orbitals on the A site has strong impact on the lattice dynamics. For compounds with orbital degeneracy (FeCr2O4, NiCr2O4, and CuCr2O4), clear splitting of infrared-active phonon modes and/or activation of silent vibrational modes have been observed upon the Jahn-Teller transition and at the onset of the subsequent long-range magnetic order. Although MnCr2O4 and CoCr2O4 show multiferroic and magnetoelectric character, no considerable magnetoelasticity was found in spinel compounds without orbital degeneracy as they closely preserve the high-temperature cubic spinel structure even in their magnetic ground state. Aside from lattice vibrations, intra-atomic 3d-3d transitions of the A2+ ions were also investigated to determine the crystal field and Racah parameters and the strength of the spin-orbit coupling.

  8. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kourov, N. I. Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-15

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit (H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal (R{sub 0}) and anomalous (R{sub s}) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R{sub s} in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio (R{sub s} ∝ ρ{sub 0}{sup 3.1}), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  9. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe2YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe2YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3 d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit ( H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal ( R 0) and anomalous ( R s ) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R s in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio ( R s ∝ ρ 0 3.1 ), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  11. Using granular C0-AI2O3 spacer for optimization of functional parameters of the FeMn/Fe20Ni80 magnetoresistive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkovenko, A. N.; Lepalovskij, V. N.; Adanakova, O. A.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we studied the possibility of tailoring the functional properties of the multilayer magnetoresistive medium with unidirectional anisotropy and the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR). Objects of the research were composite Co-Al2O3 films and Ta/Fe20Ni80/Fe50Mn50/Fe20Ni80/Co-Al2O3/Fe20Ni80/Ta multilayers structures obtained by magnetron sputtering and selectively subjected vacuum annealing. Structure, magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the films in the temperature range 77÷440 K were investigated.

  12. Reduction of tritiated methane over Zr-Fe-Mn, Fe and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniazzi, A.B.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Tritiated waste and glovebox cleanup systems contain significant levels of trititated methane impurities which require reducing and processing to recover the tritium. A viable approach to the recovery of tritium is the conversion of tritiated methane into elemental tritium and carbon by thermal cracking on a heated metal matrix. Through the conversion reaction of HTO/H{sub 2}O with hot Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} powder, tritiated methane concentrations in the 0.4 to 0.9 mCi/m{sup 3} range are achievable. The HTO/H{sub 2}O ratio is approx.10{sup -7}. Conversion efficiencies for the decomposition of methane are measured for Zr-Fe-Mn alloy, iron oxide and supported nickel catalyst. HT and HTO are created by decomposing methane. Zr-Fe-Mn alloy achieved a maximum conversion efficiency of approx.70% at 700{degree}C. Iron oxide thermally cracked methane at 36% at a temperature of 700{degree}C. Supported nickel operating at 450{degree}C achieved conversion efficiencies ranging from 65 to 100%. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Structural transitions, magnetic properties, and electronic structures of Co(Fe)-doped MnNiSi compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, E. K. Wang, S. G.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, G. D.

    2015-05-07

    The structural transitions, magnetic properties, and electronic structures of Co(Fe)-doped MnNiSi compounds are investigated by x-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic measurements, and first-principles calculations. Results indicate that all samples undergo a martensitic transition from the Ni{sub 2}In-type parent phase to TiNiSi-type orthorhombic phase at high temperatures. The substitution of Co(Fe) for Mn in Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}NiSi (x = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) and Mn{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}NiSi (y = 0.26, 0.30, 0.36, 0.46, and 0.55) samples decreases the structural transition temperature and Curie temperature of martensite. The martensite phases show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with saturation field being basically unchanged with increasing Co(Fe) content, while the saturation magnetization shows a decreasing tendency. The theoretically calculated moments are in good agreement with the experimentally measured results. The orbital hybridizations between different 3d elements are analyzed from the distribution of density of states.

  14. Rotatable anisotropy of Ni81Fe19/Ir20Mn80 films: A study using broadband ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R.; Gonzalez-Chavez, D. E.; Marcondes, T. L.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Geshev, J.; Sommer, R. L.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the broadband ferromagnetic resonance dispersion relation of NiFe/IrMn multilayers using the vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) method. Multilayered films with structure [NiFe(20 nm)/IrMn (tIrMn)/Ta(3 nm)]×10 (with tIrMn=4 and 15 nm) were produced onto Si(100) substrates using magnetron sputtering. The dispersion relations of the samples were extracted from the resonance spectra in the range of 0.1-7 GHz under magnetic fields of up to±300 Oe. Static magnetization curves were also obtained in the same field range. The experimental data were compared with numerical calculations performed using the granular exchange-bias model which takes into account both, the unidirectional and rotatable anisotropy present in the samples. A good agreement between numerical and experimental results was achieved without the need of any frequency or field-dependent parameter.

  15. NiO and Fe/Mn in Fo-rich olivines from OIB, MORB, and mantle peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Baker, M.; Hofmann, A. E.; Clague, D.; Stolper, E.

    2006-12-01

    Olivines from mantle peridotites have a narrow range of NiO (0.36±0.03 [1σ] wt%), but NiO of olivines in basalts suggest NiO in mantle olivines is actually more variable: e.g., Hawaiian phenocrysts (Fo>90) have NiO >0.55%, and olivines from continental flood basalts can have >0.5% NiO. At the other end of the spectrum, some basaltic suites (e.g., Iceland, MORBs) have Fo>90 olivines with NiO >0.2%. Partial melting calculations on peridotites show it is difficult to generate liquids that crystallize Fo>90 olivines with >0.4% NiO without resorting to complex processes. Hypotheses to explain the variability of NiO in mantle-derived olivines include (1) reaction of peridotite with silica-rich melts of eclogite results in decreasing modal abundance of olivine and increasing NiO in olivine [1,2]; (2) magmas with NiO-rich olivines come from sources enriched in NiO due to a core-derived component [3]. [4] proposed that high Fe/Mn of Hawaiian vs. Icelandic and MORB lavas reflect a core-derived component in their sources. Possible core incorporation is poorly constrained but FeO and NiO are expected to increase by such processes, leading to correlations between NiO and Fe/Mn in mantle rocks with significant core-derived components. We present high-precision analyses of Fo-rich olivines from OIBs, MORBs, komatiites, and mantle peridotites, focusing on NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios. Our goal is to test hypotheses to explain elevated NiO of Fo-rich olivines in basalts. Olivines are Fo85.1-93.4; more were analyzed, but we focused on this range to avoid complications due to decreasing NiO in olivine with crystallization. Errors (1σ) are 0.01 wt% in NiO and 1.5 in Fe/Mn (wt). Our data show several features: (1) NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios of Fo>88 olivines are positively correlated, with the low end of the trend (NiO ~0.23%, Fe/Mn ~61) defined by MORB and Iceland and the high end of the trend (NiO ~0.55%, Fe/Mn ~80) by Reunion and Hawaii. Between these end points, there is a

  16. Observation of new neutron-rich Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu isotopes in the vicinity of 78Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikama, T.; Nishimura, S.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Franchoo, S.; Gey, G.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; John, P. R.; Jung, H. S.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Li, Z.; Lorusso, G.; Matea, I.; Matsui, K.; Morfouace, P.; Mengoni, D.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Sahin, E.; Sakurai, H.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefan, G. I.; Suzuki, D.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Werner, V.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2017-05-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of 78Ni were produced using a 238U beam at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The particle-identification plot for the in-flight fission fragments highlights the first observation of eight new isotopes: 73Mn, 76Fe, Co,7877, 80,81,82Ni, and 83Cu. Although the β -decay half-lives of 77Co and 80Ni were recently reported by Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 032505 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.032505 using data from the same experiment, the current work provides the first direct, quantitative evidence for the existence of these isotopes. The experimental production cross sections are reproduced in a satisfactory manner by theoretical predictions. An odd-even staggering of the cross sections was observed, and the effect appears to become more pronounced for the most exotic nuclei that were investigated. The staggering effect was interpreted as an increase of the neutron-evaporation probability for odd-N isotopes, owing to the decrease of the neutron-separation energy, Sn. The predicted cross section for 80Ni is significantly overestimated, which may be related to a weak binding of the neutron pair above the N =50 shell closure.

  17. Ab initio prediction of the mechanical properties of alloys: The case of Ni/Mn-doped ferromagnetic Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guisheng; Schönecker, Stephan; Hertzman, Staffan; Hu, Qing-Miao; Johansson, Börje; Kwon, Se Kyun; Vitos, Levente

    2015-06-01

    First-principles alloy theory, formulated within the exact muffin-tin orbital method in combination with the coherent-potential approximation, is used to study the mechanical properties of ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe1 -xMx alloys (M = Mn or Ni, 0 ≤x ≤0.1 ). We consider several physical parameters accessible from ab initio calculations and their combinations in various phenomenological models to compare the effect of Mn and Ni on the properties of Fe. Alloying is found to slightly alter the lattice parameters and produce noticeable influence on elastic moduli. Both Mn and Ni decrease the surface energy and the unstable stacking fault energy associated with the {110 } surface facet and the {110 }<111 > slip system, respectively. Nickel is found to produce larger effect on the planar fault energies than Mn. The semiempirical ductility criteria by Rice and Pugh consistently predict that Ni enhances the ductility of Fe but give contradictory results in the case of Mn doping. The origin of the discrepancy between the two criteria is discussed and an alternative measure of the ductile-brittle behavior based on the theoretical cleavage strength and single-crystal shear modulus G {110 }<111 > is proposed.

  18. The Effect of Interface Texture on Exchange Biasing in Ni(80)Fe(20)/Ir(20)Mn(80) System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung

    2009-01-01

    Exchange-biasing phenomenon can induce an evident unidirectional hysteresis loop shift by spin coupling effect in the ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) interface which can be applied in magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM) and recording-head applications. However, magnetic properties are the most important to AFM texturing. In this work, top-configuration exchange-biasing NiFe/IrMn(x A) systems have been investigated with three different conditions. From the high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR X-TEM) and X-ray diffraction results, we conclude that the IrMn (111) texture plays an important role in exchange-biasing field (H(ex)) and interfacial exchange energy (J(k)). H(ex) and J(k) tend to saturate when the IrMn thickness increases. Moreover, the coercivity (H(c)) dependence on IrMn thickness is explained based on the coupling or decoupling effect between the spins of the NiFe and IrMn layers near the NiFe/IrMn interface. In this work, the optimal values for H(ex) and J(k) are 115 Oe and 0.062 erg/cm(2), respectively.

  19. The Effect of Interface Texture on Exchange Biasing in Ni80Fe20/Ir20Mn80System

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Exchange-biasing phenomenon can induce an evident unidirectional hysteresis loop shift by spin coupling effect in the ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) interface which can be applied in magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM) and recording-head applications. However, magnetic properties are the most important to AFM texturing. In this work, top-configuration exchange-biasing NiFe/IrMn(x Å) systems have been investigated with three different conditions. From the high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR X-TEM) and X-ray diffraction results, we conclude that the IrMn (111) texture plays an important role in exchange-biasing field (Hex) and interfacial exchange energy (Jk).HexandJktend to saturate when the IrMn thickness increases. Moreover, the coercivity (Hc) dependence on IrMn thickness is explained based on the coupling or decoupling effect between the spins of the NiFe and IrMn layers near the NiFe/IrMn interface. In this work, the optimal values forHexandJkare 115 Oe and 0.062 erg/cm2, respectively. PMID:20596365

  20. High-field magnetization of band ferromagnets Co2 YAl ( Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Korolev, A. V.; Weber, H. W.

    2016-12-01

    The temperature dependences of the magnetization of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Co2 YAl, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni have been studied at H = 50 kOe in the range 2 K < T < 1100 K. It is shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  1. Cyclic Degradation Behavior of < 001 \\rangle -Oriented Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Single Crystals in Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Kriegel, M. J.; Krooß, P.; Martin, S.; Klemm, V.; Weidner, A.; Chumlyakov, Y.; Biermann, H.; Rafaja, D.; Niendorf, T.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, functional fatigue behavior of a near 〈001〉-oriented Fe-Mn-Al-Ni single crystal was investigated under tensile load. An incremental strain test up to 3.5% strain and cyclic tests up to 25 cycles revealed rapid pseudoelastic degradation. Progressive microstructural degradation was studied by in situ scanning electron microscopy. The results show a partially inhibited reactivation of previously formed martensite and proceeding activation of untransformed areas in subsequent cycles. The preferentially formed martensite variants were identified by means of Schmid factor calculation and the Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. Post mortem transmission electron microscopy investigations shed light on the prevailing degradation mechanisms. Different types of dislocations were found promoting the progressive degradation during cyclic loading.

  2. Weldability of a high entropy CrMnFeCoNi alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Zhenggang; David, Stan A.; Feng, Zhili; ...

    2016-07-19

    We present the high-entropy alloys are unique alloys in which five or more elements are all in high concentrations. In order to determine its potential as a structural alloy, a model face-centered-cubic CrMnFeCoNi alloy was selected to investigate its weldability. Welds produced by electron beam welding show no cracking. The grain structures within the fusion zone (FZ) are controlled by the solidification behavior of the weld pool. The weldment possesses mechanical properties comparable to those of the base metal (BM) at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, compared with the BM, deformation twinning was more pronounced in the FZ ofmore » the tested alloy.« less

  3. Antiparallel interface coupling evidenced by negative rotatable anisotropy in IrMn/NiFe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D.; Grande, P. L.; Pereira, L. G.; Azevedo, G. M.; Harres, A.; Geshev, J.; Sousa, M. A. de; Pelegrini, F.

    2015-06-07

    Negative rotatable anisotropy is estimated via ferromagnetic resonance measurements in as-made, annealed, and ion-irradiated IrMn{sub 3}/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers. Opposite to previous observations, inverse correlation between rotatable anisotropy and coercivity is observed. The exchange-bias field, determined from hysteresis loop measurements, is higher than that obtained from ferromagnetic resonance for all samples. The results are discussed in terms of majority antiparallel coupling and magnetic-field-induced transitions from antiparallel to parallel states of uncompensated spins at ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface. We affirm that an observation of negative rotatable anisotropy evidences antiparallel coupling even in systems presenting conventional exchange bias.

  4. Nanomechanical Behavior of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridha, Sanghita; Das, Santanu; Aouadi, Samir; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Mishra, Rajiv S.

    2015-08-01

    The nanomechanical behavior of the Co20Cr20Fe20Mn20Ni20 high-entropy alloy was investigated in as-cast, rolled, annealed, and thin-film forms. Dislocation nucleation was studied by repeated indents at a low load for each of the different processing conditions. Distinct displacement bursts (pop in) were observed in the loading curve marked by incipient plasticity for all the samples. The as-cast and annealed samples showed pop ins for 100% of the indents, whereas the rolled and thin-film samples showed a much lower fraction of displacement bursts. This was explained by the high density of dislocations for the cold-worked and thin-film conditions. The strong depth dependence of hardness was explained by geometrically necessary dislocations. The nanomechanical behavior and twinned microstructure indicate low stacking-fault energy for this high-entropy alloy.

  5. Microstructures and mechanical properties of compositionally complex Co-free FeNiMnCr18 FCC solid solution alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Z.; Bei, H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a structurally-simple but compositionally-complex FeNiCoMnCr high entropy alloy was found to have excellent mechanical properties (e.g., high strength and ductility). To understand the potential of using high entropy alloys as structural materials for advanced nuclear reactor and power plants, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of their structural stability and mechanical properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Furthermore, this requires us to develop a similar model alloy without Co because material with Co will make post-neutron-irradiation testing difficult due to the production of the 60Co radioisotope. In order to achieve this goal, a FCC-structured single-phase alloy with amore » composition of FeNiMnCr18 was successfully developed. This near-equiatomic FeNiMnCr18 alloy has good malleability and its microstructure can be controlled by thermomechanical processing. By rolling and annealing, the as-cast elongated-grained-microstructure is replaced by homogeneous equiaxed grains. The mechanical properties (e.g., strength and ductility) of the FeNiMnCr18 alloy are comparable to those of the equiatomic FeNiCoMnCr high entropy alloy. Both strength and ductility increase with decreasing deformation temperature, with the largest difference occurring between 293 and 77 K. Extensive twin-bands which are bundles of numerous individual twins are observed when it is tensile-fractured at 77 K. No twin bands are detected by EBSD for materials deformed at 293 K and higher. Ultimately the unusual temperature-dependencies of UTS and uniform elongation could be caused by the development of the dense twin substructure, twin-dislocation interactions and the interactions between primary and secondary twinning systems which result in a microstructure refinement and hence cause enhanced strain hardening and postponed necking.« less

  6. Atomic displacement in the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy - A scaling factor to predict solid solution strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Norihiko L.; Yuge, Koretaka; Tanaka, Katsushi; Inui, Haruyuki; George, Easo P.

    2016-12-01

    Although metals strengthened by alloying have been used for millennia, models to quantify solid solution strengthening (SSS) were first proposed scarcely seventy years ago. Early models could predict the strengths of only simple alloys such as dilute binaries and not those of compositionally complex alloys because of the difficulty of calculating dislocation-solute interaction energies. Recently, models and theories of SSS have been proposed to tackle complex high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Here we show that the strength at 0 K of a prototypical HEA, CrMnFeCoNi, can be scaled and predicted using the root-mean-square atomic displacement, which can be deduced from X-ray diffraction and first-principles calculations as the isotropic atomic displacement parameter, that is, the average displacements of the constituent atoms from regular lattice positions. We show that our approach can be applied successfully to rationalize SSS in FeCoNi, MnFeCoNi, MnCoNi, MnFeNi, CrCoNi, CrFeCoNi, and CrMnCoNi, which are all medium-entropy subsets of the CrMnFeCoNi HEA.

  7. Structure, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects of Fe50Mn15- x Co x Ni35 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, XiChun; Tian, HuaCun; Tang, PengFei; Liu, ZhongWu; Zheng, ZhiGang; Zeng, DeChang

    2014-03-01

    Fe50Mn15- x Co x Ni35 ( x=0, 1, 3, 5, 7) alloys were prepared by arc melting under purified argon atmosphere. The ingots were homogenized at 930°C for 90 h followed by water quenching. The crystal structure, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects of the alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and MPMS-7-type SQUID. The results show that all samples still maintained a single γ-(Fe, Ni)-type phase structure. With the increase of the content of Co, the Curie temperatures of these alloys increased and exhibited a second-order magnetic transition from ferromagnetic (FM) to paramagnetic (PM) state near Curie temperature. The maximum magnetic entropy change and the relative cooling power of Fe50Mn10Co5Ni35 alloy was 2.55 J/kg·K and 181 J/kg, respectively, for an external field change of 5 T. Compared with rare earth metal Gd, Fe50Mn15- x Co x Ni35 series of alloys have obvious advantage in resource price; their Curie temperatures can be tuned to near room temperature, maintain a relatively large magnetic entropy change at the same time and they are a type of potential magnetic refrigeration materials near room temperature.

  8. The effects of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Fanling; Qiu, Jingwen; Baker, Ian; ...

    2015-08-20

    In this paper, As-cast Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21, which consists of aligned, 50 nm, (Ni, Al)-rich B2, and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases, was annealed at a variety of temperatures up to 1423 K and the microstructure and mechanical properties were examined. It was shown that the as-cast microstructure arises from a eutectoid transformation at ~1300 K. Annealing at temperatures ≤1073 K produces β-Mn-structured precipitates and hardness values up to 816 HV, while annealing at temperatures >1073 K leads to dramatic coarsening of the two-phase B2/f.c.c. microstructure (up to 5.5 µm after 50 h at 1273 K), but does not lead to β-Mn precipitation.more » Interestingly, annealing at temperatures >1073 K delays the onset of β-Mn precipitation during subsequent anneals at lower temperatures. Coarsening the B2/f.c.c. lamellar structure by annealing at higher temperatures softens it and leads to increases in ductility from fracture before yield to ~8 % elongation. Finally, the presence of β-Mn precipitates makes the very fine, brittle B2/f.c.c. microstructures even more brittle, but significant ductility (8.4 % elongation) is possible even with β-Mn precipitates present if the B2/f.c.c. matrix is coarse and, hence, more ductile.« less

  9. First principles investigation of domain walls and exchange stiffness in ferromagnetic Fe and antiferromagnetic NiMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Freeman, A. J.; Zhong, Lieping; Fernandez-de-Castro, Juan

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the domain walls in ferromagnetic Fe and antiferromagnetic NiMn with the first principles full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method including intra-atomic noncollinear magnetism. In both cases, the self-consistent results demonstrate that the magnetization changes continuously from one orientation to another as seen in a Bloch wall. The formation energy of the domain wall (ΔEDW) significantly decreases when the wall thickness increases, which leads to an exchange stiffness of 1.13×10-11 J/m for Fe and 1.43×10-11 J/m for NiMn. The predictions agree with those determined separately for Fe from a phenomenological calculation.

  10. Non-collinear magnetism and exchange bias at the FM NiFe/AFM NiMn interface: local spin density FLAPW study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Freeman, A. J.; Wang, D.-S.; Zhong, L.; Fernandez-de-Castro, J.

    2001-03-01

    Magnetism at interfaces, such as the exchange bias between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials, has attracted great attention because of technological applications. In order to investigate magnetic structures at the FM/AFM interface, we have implemented the FLAPW (E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A.J. Freeman, PRB 24, 864(1981)) methodologies including non-collinear magnetism, in which the magnetic moment direction as well as the magnitude can vary continuously all over space. We first demonstrate this approach to determine the structure of a magnetic structure at an interface between FM NiFe and AFM NiMn. Although both bulk systems each show collinear FM and AFM structures, we found that a perpendicular magnetic orientation at their interface is energetically favorable, where the magnetic moments of the FM NiFe tend to lie perpendicular to those of AFM NiMn.

  11. The effect of substitution of Mn by Fe and Cr on the martensitic transition in the Ni50Mn34In16 alloy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Chattopadhyay, M K; Nath, S K; Sokhey, K J S; Kumar, R; Tiwari, P; Roy, S B

    2010-12-08

    The potential shape memory alloy Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) is studied with partial substitution of Mn with Fe and Cr to investigate the effect of such substitution on the martensitic transition in the Ni-Mn-In alloy system. The results of ac susceptibility, magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements show that while the substitution with Cr increases the martensitic transition temperature, the substitution with Fe decreases it. Possible reasons for this shift in martensitic transition are discussed. Evidence of kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the Fe substituted alloys is also presented. Unlike the kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the parent Ni(50)Mn(34)In(16) alloy which takes place in the presence of high external magnetic field, the kinetic arrest of the austenite to martensite phase transition in the Fe doped alloy occurs even in zero magnetic field. The Cr substituted alloys, on the other hand, show no signature of kinetic arrest of this phase transition.

  12. Crystallographic, magnetic, and electronic structures of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni2XGa (X=Mn,Fe,Co) from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Raulot, J. M.; Zhang, Y. D.; Esling, C.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallographic, magnetic and electronic structures of the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni2XGa (X=Mn, Fe, and Co), are systematically investigated by means of the first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the VIENNA AB INITIO SOFTWARE PACKAGE. The lattice parameters of both austenitic and martensitic phases in Ni2MnGa have been calculated. The formation energies of the cubic phase of Ni2XGa are estimated, and show a destabilization tendency if Mn atom is substituted by Fe or Co. From Ni2MnGa to Ni2CoGa, the down spin total density of states (DOS) at Fermi level is gradually increasing, whereas that of the up spin part remains almost unchanged. This is the main origin of the difference of the magnetic moment in these alloys. The partial DOS is dominated by the Ni and Mn 3d states in the bonding region below EF. There are two bond types existing in Ni2XGa: one is between neighboring Ni atoms in Ni2MnGa; the other is between Ni and X atoms in Ni2FeGa and Ni2CoGa alloys.

  13. Crystallographic, magnetic, and electronic structures of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni{sub 2}XGa (X=Mn,Fe,Co) from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.; Raulot, J. M.; Zhang, Y. D.; Esling, C.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallographic, magnetic and electronic structures of the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni{sub 2}XGa (X=Mn, Fe, and Co), are systematically investigated by means of the first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the VIENNA AB INITIO SOFTWARE PACKAGE. The lattice parameters of both austenitic and martensitic phases in Ni{sub 2}MnGa have been calculated. The formation energies of the cubic phase of Ni{sub 2}XGa are estimated, and show a destabilization tendency if Mn atom is substituted by Fe or Co. From Ni{sub 2}MnGa to Ni{sub 2}CoGa, the down spin total density of states (DOS) at Fermi level is gradually increasing, whereas that of the up spin part remains almost unchanged. This is the main origin of the difference of the magnetic moment in these alloys. The partial DOS is dominated by the Ni and Mn 3d states in the bonding region below E{sub F}. There are two bond types existing in Ni{sub 2}XGa: one is between neighboring Ni atoms in Ni{sub 2}MnGa; the other is between Ni and X atoms in Ni{sub 2}FeGa and Ni{sub 2}CoGa alloys.

  14. NaxMV(PO4)3 (M = Mn, Fe, Ni) Structure and Properties for Sodium Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weidong; Xue, Leigang; Lü, Xujie; Gao, Hongcai; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Fu, Gengtao; Cui, Zhiming; Zhu, Ye; Goodenough, John B

    2016-12-14

    NASICON (Na(+) super ionic conductor) structures of NaxMV(PO4)3 (M = Mn, Fe, Ni) were prepared, characterized by aberration-corrected STEM and synchrotron radiation, and demonstrated to be durable cathode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. In Na4MnV(PO4)3, two redox couples of Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) and V(4+)/V(3+) are accessed with two voltage plateaus located at 3.6 and 3.3 V and a capacity of 101 mAh g(-1) at 1 C. Furthermore, the Na4MnV(PO4)3 cathode delivers a high initial efficiency of 97%, long durability over 1000 cycles, and good rate performance to 10 C. The robust framework structure and stable electrochemical performance makes it a reliable cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  15. Detection of the dynamic magnetic behavior of the antiferromagnet in exchange-coupled NiFe/IrMn bilayers.

    PubMed

    Spizzo, F; Tamisari, M; Bonfiglioli, E; Del Bianco, L

    2013-09-25

    The magnetothermal behavior of antiferromagnetic IrMn layers of different thickness (3, 6, 10 nm) has been studied by exploiting the exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic 5 nm-thick NiFe layer. A procedure has been devised for the measurement of the magnetization of the NiFe/IrMn bilayers as a function of temperature and time at different values of an external magnetic field, Hinv, antiparallel to the unidirectional exchange anisotropy. This analysis allows one to probe the effective distribution of anisotropy energy barriers of the antiferromagnetic phase, as sensed by the ferromagnetic layer. Two magnetic regimes have been distinguished. At temperature T < 100 K, the interfacial IrMn spins are frozen in a glassy state and are collectively involved in the exchange coupling with the NiFe spins. At T ∼ 100 K the collective state breaks up; thus, above this temperature, only the interfacial IrMn spins which are tightly polarized by the IrMn nanograins, forming the bulk of the layer, are effectively involved in the exchange coupling mechanism. Due to that, for T > 100 K the exchange coupling is ruled by the anisotropy energy barriers of the bulk IrMn nanograins, namely by the layer thickness. The thermal evolution of the exchange field and of the coercivity in the three samples is coherently explained in the framework of this description of the dynamic magnetic behavior of the IrMn phase.

  16. Fluctuations of chemical composition of austenite and their consequence on shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-(Si, Cr, Ni, C, N) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bliznuk, V.V.; Gavriljuk, V.G. . E-mail: gavr@imp.kiev.ua; Kopitsa, G.P.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Runov, V.V.

    2004-09-20

    Polycrystalline samples of shape memory iron-based alloys containing 17, and 30 mass% Mn and alloyed with Si, Cr, Ni, C, N were studied by means of small angle scattering of polarized neutrons (SAPNS). A direct correlation between chemical homogeneity of the Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni solid solutions and the values of reversible strain caused by the {gamma} {yields} {epsilon} {yields} {gamma} martensitic transformation was found. The addition of silicon to the Fe-Mn alloys significantly improves chemical homogeneity of the fcc solid solution on the scale of larger than several nm, which correlates with the essential increase of reversible strain. A similar to silicon but weaker effect was observed in the case of nitrogen addition to the Fe-Mn-Si-Cr, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys. Based on the obtained experimental data and in consistency with the previously expressed idea by Sade et al., the positive effect of silicon and nitrogen on chemical homogeneity and SME in Fe-Mn alloys is attributed to the short-range atomic ordering induced by these elements.

  17. Magnetic ordering in the rutile molecular magnets MII[N(CN)2]2 (M=Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni0.5Co0.5, and Ni0.5Fe0.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappas, Alexandros; Wills, Andrew S.; Green, Mark A.; Prassides, Kosmas; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2003-04-01

    Rietveld refinement of powder neutron diffraction data, combined with group theory considerations, is used to determine the magnetic structures of the binary metal dicyanamide, MII[N(CN)2]2 where M=Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni0.5Co0.5, and Ni0.5Fe0.5. Compounds with M=Mn or Fe show a canted antiferromagnetic arrangement of spin oriented in the ab crystallographic plane, with antiparallel components of the two sublattices along the a axis and parallel along the b axis. Symmetry considerations forbid an additional moment, whether compensated or not, to be present along the c axis. The compounds with fewer unpaired electrons (Co and Ni) are ferromagnets, with all moments oriented along the c axis. The mixed composition of Ni0.5Co0.5 displays the same collinear ferromagnetic structure as its parent compounds. However, the composition with M=Ni0.5Fe0.5, whose parent compounds show different magnetic behavior, does not exhibit long-range magnetic ordering down to 1.7 K. Magnetostriction was observed for the ferromagnets for which we investigated the variable temperature powder neutron diffraction. The cobalt-rich compounds show more pronounced effects, consistent with their increasing magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  18. The effects of Ni, Mo, Ti and Si on the mechanical properties of Cr free Mn steel (Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The FeMnAlC alloys may hold potential as Cr-free replacements for high strategic material iron base superalloys, but little is known about their intermediate temperature (650 C to 870 C) mechanical properties. The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical properties of model FeMnAlC alloys were studied. Results showed that modified FeMnAlC alloys had promising short term, intermediate temperature properties but had relatively poor stress rupture lives at 172 MPa and 788 C. Room temperature and 788 C tensile strength of FeMnAlC alloys were better than common cast stainless steels. Changes in room temperature tensile and 788 C tensile strength and ductility, and 788 C stress rupture life were correlated with changes in Ni, Mo, Ti, and Si levels due to alloying effects on interstitial carbon levels and carbide morphology. Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C had a very poor stress rupture life at 172 MPa and 788 C. Addition of carbide-forming elements improved the stress rupture life.

  19. High-field magnetization of heusler alloys Fe2 XY ( X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; Y = Al, Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    The magnetization curves of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Fe2 XY (where X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni are transition 3 d elements and Y = Al, Si are the s and p elements of the third period of the Periodic Table) have been measured at T = 4.2 K in the field range H ≤ 70 kOe. It has been shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  20. Resistance Memory Switching behavior in MnOx, FeOx, CoOx, and NiOx thin films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ranju; Seo, Sunae; Kim, Doungchirl; Lee, Chang-Won; Yoo, Inkyung; Kim, Sanghoon; Park, Baeho

    2007-03-01

    We have fabricated the ReRAM(Resistance change Random Access Memory) with some ferromagnetic transition metal(Co, Fe, Mn) oxides materials. Antiferromagnetic NiOx film is well known to show non-volatile resistance switching property. Here, we have studied the relationship between magnetic property and resistance switching properties. We have deposited the MnOx, FeOx, CoOx, and NiOx thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (111) by using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), and then analyzed the structural properties of these oxides thin films by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), surface properties using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and electrical properties using probe station. Every thin film shows poly-crystalline behaviors and reproducible resistance switching behaviors. We have performed the temperature-dependent electrical property measurement across the Neel temperature.

  1. Effects of interfacial roughness on the planar Hall effect in NiFe/Cu/IrMn multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu-Jing; Feng, Chun; Chen, Xi; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yi-Wei; Li, Ming-Hua; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports that the planar Hall effect in NiFe/Cu/IrMn multilayers was strongly influenced by the Cu spacer thickness ( t Cu), which was due to the variation of interfacial roughness. With t Cu increasing, a peculiar change of planar Hall voltage was observed. The reason for the voltage behaviors was that the interfacial roughness influenced the spin-asymmetry of spin-polarized electrons in ferromagnetic metals. The diffuse scattering to the electrons turned to specular scattering when the interface became flat, leading to the variation of resistivity change (Δ ρ). As the increase in t Cu, the extremum field was reduced because of the weaken exchange coupling between NiFe and IrMn layers.

  2. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li2(Li1–xTx)N (T = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni)

    DOE PAGES

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; ...

    2015-05-11

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li2(Li1–xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane→easy axis→easy plane→easy axis when progressing from T = MnFe → Co → Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model.more » As a result, the calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.« less

  3. Exchange bias in (FeNi/IrMn)n multilayer films evaluated by static and dynamic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Shankar; Diaconu, Andrei; Vargas, Jose M.; Lenormand, Denny R.; Garcia, Carlos; Ross, C. A.; Spinu, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Exchange bias properties of [FeNi/IrMn]n multilayer films with variable thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and different repetitions n were determined by using static and dynamic measurement techniques. The static magnetic properties were revealed through magnetometry measurements at room temperature following major hysteresis loops and first-order reversal curves protocols. Room temperature x-band ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vector network analyser (VNA)-FMR experiments were used to determine dynamically the exchange anisotropy in the FeNi/IrMn multilayers. From the static measurements the exchange anisotropy was determined while dynamic measurements allowed the determination of additional parameters including anisotropy field, saturation magnetization and rotatable anisotropy. The differences between the values of the exchange biased obtained from each technique are discussed.

  4. Facile synthesis of magnetic metal (Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) oxides nanocrystals via a cation-exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jiajia; Xiao, Guanjun; Wang, Li; Zou, Bo; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian

    2011-02-01

    Magnetic metal (Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) oxides nanocrystals with small size and uniform size distribution are synthesized via a cation-exchange reaction. Two experimental stages are included in the synthesis of metal oxides nanocrystals. Firstly, Cu(OH)2 decomposes to CuO nanocrystals, induced by free metal cations. Compared to CuO nanocrystals produced without any free metal cation, the free metal cation has an important influence on the shape and size of CuO. Secondly, free metal cations exchange with the Cu2+ cation in the CuO nanocrystals to get Mn3O4, Fe2O3, CoO and NiO nanocrystals by cation-exchange reactions. The magnetic properties of these metal oxides nanocrystals have been investigated, all the nanocrystals are superparamagnetic at room temperature.

  5. [Analysis of the contents of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Co and Ni in thymopeptide and transfer factor biological injections].

    PubMed

    Leng, Hong-xia; Liu, Wei-ming; Zhu, Zhi-guo; Han, Li-qin

    2004-05-01

    Thymopeptide and transfer factor are two common clinic biological preparations, which are used to cure immunodeficiency, low immunofunction or infectious disease caused by virus or fungi owing to their functions of increasing body immunity. In order to discuss the relationship between trace elements and those related diseases, to coordinate sound clinic use of the preparations and to provide productive data on them, atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to detect the contents of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Co and Ni in thymopeptide and transfer factor biological preparations. Respective contents of detected elements were compared in a statistical way. Results show that Zn and Co contents in thymopeptide were lower than in transfer factor; the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni, in thymopeptide were higher than in transfer factor. For Zn, Cu, Mn and Co, there was a significant difference between the two biologicam preparations (P<0.01). For Fe and Ni there was a great difference (Q<0.05). The results can provide useful data for sound clinic biological injection to promote immune function, and for increasing or decreasing certain trace elements in preparation.

  6. In-Situ Fracture Observation and Fracture Toughness Analysis of Ni-Mn-Ga-Fe Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euh, Kwangjun; Lee, Jung-Moo; Nam, Duk-Hyun; Lee, Sunghak

    2011-12-01

    The fracture property improvement of Ni-Mn-Ga-Fe ferromagnetic shape memory alloys containing ductile γ particles was explained by direct observation of microfracture processes using an in-situ loading stage installed inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. The Ni-Mn-Ga-Fe alloys contained a considerable amount of γ particles in β grains after the homogenization treatment at 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C). With increasing homogenization temperature, γ particles were coarsened and distributed homogeneously along β grain boundaries as well as inside β grains. According to the in-situ microfracture observation, γ particles effectively acted as blocking sites of crack propagation and provided the stable crack growth, which could be confirmed by the R-curve analysis. The increase in fracture resistance with increasing crack length improved overall fracture properties of the Ni-Mn-Ga-Fe alloys. This improvement could be explained by mechanisms of blocking of crack propagation and crack blunting and bridging.

  7. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    SciTech Connect

    Akmaldinov, K.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V.

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  8. Effect of one-step recrystallization on the grain boundary evolution of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy and its subsystems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Ru; Yeh, An-Chou; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2016-02-29

    In this study, the grain boundary evolution of equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi, CoCrFeNi, and FeCoNi alloys after one-step recrystallization were investigated. The special boundary fraction and twin density of these alloys were evaluated by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Among the three alloys tested, FeCoNi exhibited the highest special boundary fraction and twin density after one-step recrystallization. The special boundary increment after one-step recrystallization was mainly affected by grain boundary velocity, while twin density was mainly affected by average grain boundary energy and twin boundary energy.

  9. Effect of one-step recrystallization on the grain boundary evolution of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy and its subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Ru; Yeh, An-Chou; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the grain boundary evolution of equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi, CoCrFeNi, and FeCoNi alloys after one-step recrystallization were investigated. The special boundary fraction and twin density of these alloys were evaluated by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Among the three alloys tested, FeCoNi exhibited the highest special boundary fraction and twin density after one-step recrystallization. The special boundary increment after one-step recrystallization was mainly affected by grain boundary velocity, while twin density was mainly affected by average grain boundary energy and twin boundary energy.

  10. Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudi, Abbas; Nedjad, Syamak Hossein; Behnam, Mir Masud Jabbari

    2011-10-01

    Effects of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels were studied. To investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile test, and hardness test were used. The results show that the solution-annealing treatment in the cold-rolled steel redounds to the formation of submicrocrystalline Fe2(Mo, Ti) Laves phase particles, which are stable at high temperatures. These secondary Laves phase particles prevent from recrystallization at high temperatures and correspond to semi-brittle fracture in the subsequent aging treatment.

  11. Magnetic structures at the ferromagnetic NiFe and antiferromagnetic NiMn interface in exchange-biased films: Role of noncollinear magnetism and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kohji; Freeman, A. J.; Wang, Ding-Sheng; Zhong, Lieping; Fernandez-de-Castro, Juan

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic structures at the compensated ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AFM) interface of exchange bias FM NiFe/AFM NiMn films were determined with first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave calculations including noncollinear magnetism. The results predict that the magnetic moments of the FM NiFe layer lie perpendicular to those of the AFM NiMn layer. The intra-atomic noncollinear magnetism that arises near the interface is found to play an important role in stabilizing the perpendicular coupling that leads to a large biquadratic exchange energy (BEE). The BEE is large enough to require formation of a magnetic domain wall (with an estimated thickness ~370 Å) in the AFM NiMn layers, which may account for the observed large coercivity and exchange bias. We also discuss magnetic structures at a rough FM/AFM interface-as simulated in model calculations with the inclusion of line step defects-which may contribute to a unidirectional magnetic anisotropy.

  12. Electrical conduction mechanism of LaNi{sub x}Me{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} (Me = Fe, Mn)

    SciTech Connect

    Niwa, Eiki; Maeda, Hiroki; Uematsu, Chie; Hashimoto, Takuya

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Compositional dependence of (a) electrical conductivity and (b) E{sub a} for hopping conduction of LaNi{sub x}Me{sub 1−x}O{sub 3} (Me = Fe, Mn). - Highlights: • Electrical conduction mechanism of LaNi{sub x}Me{sub 1−x}O{sub 3} (Me = Fe, Mn) was investigated. • Hopping conduction model could be applied for conductivity of both specimens. • The difference of E{sub a} due to that of energy level of Fe and Mn was observed. • Hole concentration estimated by iodimetry increases with increasing Ni content. - Abstract: Electrical conduction mechanism of LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} and LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O{sub 3+δ} expected as Sr-free new cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells was analyzed. Electrical conduction behaviors of both specimens could be well fitted by small polaron hopping conduction model. The electrical conductivity of LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} increased with increasing Ni content, showing agreement with decrease of activation energy for hopping conduction. The decrease of electrical conductivity and increase of activation energy of LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O{sub 3+δ} were observed with increasing Ni content for 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4. Further Ni substitution increased electrical conductivity and decreased activation energy for 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6. It was revealed using iodometry that the difference of hole carrier density between LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} and LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O{sub 3+δ} was small. It was suspected that the origin of the difference of electrical conduction behavior of LaNi{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}O{sub 3−δ} and LaNi{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}O{sub 3+δ} was difference of energy level of e{sub g} band composed of Fe 3d or Mn 3d orbitals and their overlapping quantity with O 2p and Ni 3d band.

  13. Critical dependence of magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect on particle size in Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongrong; Shen, Feiran; Hu, Fengxia; Wang, Jing; Bao, Lifu; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yao; Zhao, Yingying; Liang, Feixiang; Zuo, Wenliang; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen

    2016-02-01

    Magnetostructural coupling, which is the coincidence of crystallographic and magnetic transition, has obtained intense attention for its abundant magnetoresponse effects and promising technological applications, such as solid-state refrigeration, magnetic actuators and sensors. The hexagonal Ni2In-type compounds have attracted much attraction due to the strong magnetostructural coupling and the resulted giant negative thermal expansion and magnetocaloric effect. However, the as-prepared samples are quite brittle and naturally collapse into powders. Here, we report the effect of particle size on the magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect in the Ni2In-type Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compound, which undergoes a large lattice change across the transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite. The disappearance of martensitic transformation in a large amount of austenitic phase with reducing particle size, to our best knowledge, has not been reported up to now. The ratio can be as high as 40.6% when the MnNi0.8Fe0.2Ge bulk was broken into particles in the size range of 5~15 μm. Meanwhile, the remained magnetostructural transition gets wider and the magnetic hysteresis becomes smaller. As a result, the entropy change drops, but the effective cooling power RCeffe increases and attains to the maximum at particles in the range of 20~40 μm. These observations provide constructive information and highly benefit practical applications for this class of novel magnetoresponse materials.

  14. Critical dependence of magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect on particle size in Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compounds

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rongrong; Shen, Feiran; Hu, Fengxia; Wang, Jing; Bao, Lifu; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yao; Zhao, Yingying; Liang, Feixiang; Zuo, Wenliang; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetostructural coupling, which is the coincidence of crystallographic and magnetic transition, has obtained intense attention for its abundant magnetoresponse effects and promising technological applications, such as solid-state refrigeration, magnetic actuators and sensors. The hexagonal Ni2In-type compounds have attracted much attraction due to the strong magnetostructural coupling and the resulted giant negative thermal expansion and magnetocaloric effect. However, the as-prepared samples are quite brittle and naturally collapse into powders. Here, we report the effect of particle size on the magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect in the Ni2In-type Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compound, which undergoes a large lattice change across the transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite. The disappearance of martensitic transformation in a large amount of austenitic phase with reducing particle size, to our best knowledge, has not been reported up to now. The ratio can be as high as 40.6% when the MnNi0.8Fe0.2Ge bulk was broken into particles in the size range of 5~15 μm. Meanwhile, the remained magnetostructural transition gets wider and the magnetic hysteresis becomes smaller. As a result, the entropy change drops, but the effective cooling power RCeffe increases and attains to the maximum at particles in the range of 20~40 μm. These observations provide constructive information and highly benefit practical applications for this class of novel magnetoresponse materials. PMID:26883719

  15. Critical dependence of magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect on particle size in Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongrong; Shen, Feiran; Hu, Fengxia; Wang, Jing; Bao, Lifu; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yao; Zhao, Yingying; Liang, Feixiang; Zuo, Wenliang; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen

    2016-02-17

    Magnetostructural coupling, which is the coincidence of crystallographic and magnetic transition, has obtained intense attention for its abundant magnetoresponse effects and promising technological applications, such as solid-state refrigeration, magnetic actuators and sensors. The hexagonal Ni2In-type compounds have attracted much attraction due to the strong magnetostructural coupling and the resulted giant negative thermal expansion and magnetocaloric effect. However, the as-prepared samples are quite brittle and naturally collapse into powders. Here, we report the effect of particle size on the magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect in the Ni2In-type Mn-Fe-Ni-Ge compound, which undergoes a large lattice change across the transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite. The disappearance of martensitic transformation in a large amount of austenitic phase with reducing particle size, to our best knowledge, has not been reported up to now. The ratio can be as high as 40.6% when the MnNi0.8Fe0.2Ge bulk was broken into particles in the size range of 5~15 μm. Meanwhile, the remained magnetostructural transition gets wider and the magnetic hysteresis becomes smaller. As a result, the entropy change drops, but the effective cooling power RCeffe increases and attains to the maximum at particles in the range of 20~40 μm. These observations provide constructive information and highly benefit practical applications for this class of novel magnetoresponse materials.

  16. Defect formation energy and magnetic structure of shape memory alloys Ni-X-Ga (X=Mn, Fe, Co) by first principle calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Raulot, J. M.; Zhang, Y. D.; Esling, C.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2010-09-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic structures of the Ni2XGa (X=Mn, Fe, Co), are systematically investigated by means of the first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the VIENNA AB INITIO SOFTWARE PACKAGE. The formation energies of several kinds of defects (atomic exchange, antisite, vacancy) are estimated. The Ga atoms stabilize the cubic structure, and the effect of X atoms on the structural stability is opposite. For most cases of the site occupation, the excess atoms of the rich component directly occupy the site(s) of the deficient one(s), except for Ga-rich Ni-deficient type. The magnitude of the variation in Ni moments is much larger than that of Mn in defective Ni2XGa. The value of Ni magnetic moment sensitively depends on the distance between Ni and X. Excess Mn could be ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, depending on the distance between the neighboring Mn atoms.

  17. Tailoring magnetic behavior of CoFeMnNiX (X = Al, Cr, Ga, and Sn) high entropy alloys by metal doping

    DOE PAGES

    Zuo, Tingting; Gao, Michael C.; Ouyang, Lizhi; ...

    2017-03-07

    Magnetic materials with excellent performances are desired for functional applications. Based on the high-entropy effect, a system of CoFeMnNiX (X = Al, Cr, Ga, and Sn) magnetic alloys are designed and investigated. The dramatic change in phase structures from face-centered-cubic (FCC) to ordered body-centered-cubic (BCC) phases, caused by adding Al, Ga, and Sn in CoFeMnNiX alloys, originates from the potent short-range chemical order in the liquid state predicted by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. This phase transition leads to the significant enhancement of the saturation magnetization (Ms), e.g., the CoFeMnNiAl alloy has Ms of 147.86 Am2/kg. In conclusion, first-principlesmore » density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the electronic and magnetic structures reveal that the anti-ferromagnetism of Mn atoms in CoFeMnNi is suppressed especially in the CoFeMnNiAl HEA because Al changes the Fermi level and itinerant electron-spin coupling that lead to ferromagnetism.« less

  18. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe(C)MnNi model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiapetto, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is one of the most important lifetime limiting factors of existing nuclear light water reactor pressure vessels. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. The development of models that describe, based on physical mechanisms, the nanostructural changes in these types of materials due to neutron irradiation are expected to help to better understand which features are mainly responsible for embrittlement. The chemical elements that are thought to influence most the response under irradiation of low-Cu RPV steels, especially at high fluence, are Ni and Mn, hence there is an interest in modelling the nanostructure evolution in irradiated FeMnNi alloys. As a first step in this direction, we developed sets of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations that allow this to be done, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" approach that extends the already existing OKMC model for neutron irradiated Fe-C binary alloys [1]. Our model proved to be able to describe the trend in the buildup of irradiation defect populations at the operational temperature of LWR (∼300 °C), in terms of both density and size distribution of the defect cluster populations, in FeMnNi model alloys as compared to Fe-C. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proves to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable point-defect clusters with increasing solute content.

  19. Sediment fractionation of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn, and Fe in one experimental and three natural marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Lindau, C.W.; Hossner, L.R.

    1982-07-01

    Dredged sediments from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway near Galveston, Tex., were used as a substrate material in the construction of an experimental intertidal salt marsh. Selected substrate properties were compared with those of established marshes. Clay mineralogical properties of the experimental marsh were compared with those of three nearby natural marshes. A sequential chemical extraction procedure was used to obtain data on the partitioning of micronutrients and heavy metals among selected marsh substrate fractions. Clay minerals found in the sediments of the experimental marsh were equivalent to those identified in the natural marshes. Total elemental substrate concentrations of Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Fe averaged 7.9, 8.6, 25.5, 25.2, 123, and 12,200 ..mu..g/g, respectively, over the four marsh sites. Copper, nickel, zinc, and chromium displayed only minor variations in substrate partitioning between the experimental and natural marsh samples. Micronutrients and heavy metal concentrations in the exchangeable and water-soluble fraction were low compared with other fractions. Approximately 30% of the total substrate Cu, Ni, and Zn was associated with the organic matter fraction. Metals fixed within the lattice structures of clay and silicate minerals ranged from 20% Mn for experimental marsh samples to 90% Cr for one of the natural marshes. Major differences in Mn and Fe substrate partitioning were observed when the experimental marsh samples were compared with those of the natural marshes.

  20. Defect Structures for Fe3+, Mn2+, and Ni3+ Impurities in Wuritzite GaN Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wen-Chen; Wu, Shao-Yi; Zi, Jian

    2001-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) zero-field splittings D for Mn2+ and Fe3+ in wurtzite GaN crystals are studied from high-order perturbation formulas based on the spin-orbit mechanism in both weak- and strong-field schemes. From these studies it can be seen that the Mn2+ or Fe3+ impurity does not occupy the exact Ga3+ position, but is displaced by ΔR on the C3 axis. The displacements are confirmed from a study of the superposition model, based on which a normal value of b̅2 (Ro) ( ≈ -0 .34 (15) cm-1 ) for the Fe3+-N3- combination is suggested. The EPR parameters D, g|| and g ⟂ for Ni3+ in GaN crystals are also studied. It is found that Ni3+ is almost not displaced. The impurity displacements in GaN are discussed by considering the valences and radii of these impurity ions and the replaced Ga3+ ion. - Pacs: 61.16Hn; 76.30Fc; 71.70Ch

  1. The use of diffusion multiples to explore the Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul Nathaniel

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) or Multi-principal element alloys (MEAs) are a relatively new class of alloys. These alloys are defined as having at least five major alloying elements in atomic percent from 5% to 35%. There are hundreds of thousands of equiatomic compositions possible and only a fraction have been explored. This project examines diffusion multiples as a method to accelerate alloy development in these systems. The system chosen for this experiment is the Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni system. The methodology developed for creating these diffusion multiples involved a two-step process. In the first step two binary alloys (50at-% Fe-Mn and 50 at%- Ni-Co ) were diffusion bonded together. In the second step, under uniaxial compression, was used to bond Cr to diffusion couple prepared in Step I. Successful diffusion multiples were created by this method. An auxiliary method named differential melting liquid impingement (DMLI) was developed that created diffusion multiples using liquid processing methods that will be described. After creation of these multiples, the ternary and quinary interface regions were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and nanoindentation. The Cr/NiCo region experienced interdiffusion but no intermediate phase formation retaining the FCC / BCC interface at the hot-pressing temperature (1200 °C). However, upon cooling from 1200 °C, the BCC region adjacent to the interface decomposed into BCC + sigma. In contrast, the Cr/FeMn interface region developed a layered structure of FCC/sigma/BCC suggesting that sigma is stable at 1200 °C in contradiction to the published 1200 °C ternary phase diagram. Upon cooling, the sigma present at 1200 °C decomposed into FCC + sigma, except in samples that were contaminated with C; in those cases, FCC + M23C6 was observed as the decomposition product. The quinary regions were evaluated using the various HEA parameters, namely

  2. Magnetism and superconductivity in MxFe1+yTe1-zSez (M = Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Yang, Z. R.; Li, L.; Zhang, C. J.; Pi, L.; Tan, S.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2011-04-01

    High-quality single crystals with nominal composition M0.05Fe0.95Te0.8Se0.2 (M = Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) have been grown, through which the doping effect on magnetism and superconductivity is studied. Elementary analysis reveals that Cu, Co, and Ni, with smaller ionic radii for valence state 2+, can substitute effectively for Fe with doping levels near 5%. In contrast, the solid solution of Cr, Mn, and Zn in the host system is low. Magnetic and electronic investigations show that the substitution of Co, Ni, or Cu for Fe leads to the formation of spin-glass state and suppression of superconductivity. The superconductivity is partly suppressed by Co doping, while completely destroyed by Ni and Cu doping. Compared with Cu- and Ni-doped samples, the Co-doped sample has the smallest lattice constant, indicating that the superconductivity might be also modulated by the changes of microstructure.

  3. Ferrite nanoparticles Ni- ZnFe2O4 , Mn- ZnFe2O4 and Fe2O4 in the flow of ferromagnetic nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Noor; Nadeem, Sohail

    2017-09-01

    The performance of convective heat transfer is elevated in boundary layer flow regions via nanoparticles. A magnetic dipole in the presence of ferrite nanoparticles plays a vital role in controlling the thermal and momentum boundary layers. In view of this, the impacts of a magnetic dipole on the nano boundary layer, laminar, and steady flow of an incompressible ferromagnetic NiZnFe2O4-C2H6O2 (nickel zinc ferrite-ethylene glycol), MnZnFe2O4-C2H6O2 (manganese zinc ferrite-ethylene glycol), and Fe2O4-C2H6O2 (magnetite ferrite-ethylene glycol) nanofluids are characterized for the first time in the present analysis. Flow is caused by a linear stretching sheet. Fourier's law of heat conduction is hired for the evaluation of heat flux. Impacts of emerging parameters on the magneto-thermomechanical coupling are analyzed numerically. It is seen that the characteristics of magneto-thermomechanical interaction decelerate the movements of fluid particles, thereby strengthen the skin friction coefficient and reduce the heat transfer rate at the surface. Further, it is evident that a solid volume fraction has increasing behaviour on the rate of heat transfer in the boundary layer. Comparisons with available results for specific cases are found in excellent agreement.

  4. Quantification of site disorder and its role on spin polarization in the nearly half-metallic Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukadam, M. D.; Roy, Syamashree; Meena, S. S.; Bhatt, Pramod; Yusuf, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The electronic structure and magnetism of the quaternary Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn are studied using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) method. The calculation for the perfectly LiMgPdSn-type ordered crystal structure (type I) of NiFeMnSn shows a high spin polarization (˜76 %) with a ferromagnetic ground state. The total spin magnetic moment is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. The structural investigations using neutron diffraction at 500 K, and Mössbauer spectroscopy at 300 K on the NiFeMnSn alloy, prepared using an arc melting, show the presence of atomic site disorder. The electronic structure calculation for the disordered structure shows that the site disorder destroys the nearly half-metallic nature of this alloy. The magnetization measurements indicate that the Curie temperature is well above room temperature (˜405 K) as desired for the spintronics application.

  5. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  6. Nano-twin Mediated Plasticity in Carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn High Entropy Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Zhenggang; Bei, Hongbin; Parish, Chad M

    2015-06-14

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. Moreover, the effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. We found that these materials canmore » be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (~70% at 77 K and ~40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys.« less

  7. Nano-twin Mediated Plasticity in Carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn High Entropy Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenggang; Bei, Hongbin; Parish, Chad M

    2015-06-14

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. Moreover, the effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. We found that these materials can be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (~70% at 77 K and ~40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys.

  8. Effect of Pre-straining on the Shape Recovery of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Verma, Amit; Basu, R.; Samajdar, I.; Ray, Ranjit K.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of pre-straining on the shape recovery behavior of Fe-14Mn-6Si-9Cr-5Ni (wt pct) shape memory alloy (SMA) has been studied. The shape recovery associated with the reverse ɛ martensitic transformation, i.e., ɛ → γ, was characterized by dilatometry using specimens which were pre-strained to different extent (0 to 14 pct). Dilatometric studies revealed that in Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni SMA, the shape recovery takes place in two stages: (i) in the first stage, the unpinned fraction of stress-induced ɛ martensite reverts back to parent phase γ in the temperature regime of 353 K to 653 K (80 °C to 380 °C) and (ii) in the second stage the remaining "pinned" ɛ martensite is unpinned by the decomposition of deformation-induced α' martensite in the temperature range of 743 K to 893 K (470 °C to 620 °C). The amount of recovery in the first stage decreases with pre-strain, whereas it increases in the second stage. The ɛ → γ transformation finish temperature, A f, increases with increase in pre-strain amount, though the reverse transformation start temperature, A S, remains unaffected. Microstructural characterization revealed that the amount of deformation-induced α' martensite depends on the mode of straining and the crystallographic texture of the starting material. The reversion of α' martensite is seen to occur by the precipitation of Fe5Ni3Si2-type intermetallic π-phase within these plates.

  9. Large enhancement of Blocking temperature by control of interfacial structures in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Shouguo Han, Gang; Jiang, Shaolong; Yang, Kang; Liu, Qianqian; Yu, Guanghua; Liu, Jialong; Wang, Rongming

    2015-09-15

    The Blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers was greatly enhanced from far below room temperature (RT) to above RT by inserting 1 nm thick Mg layer at IrMn/MgO interface. Furthermore, the exchange bias field (H{sub eb}) was increased as well by the control of interfacial structures. The evidence for a significant fraction of Mn-O bonding at IrMn/MgO interface without Mg insertion layer was provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bonding between Mn and O can decrease the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, leading to lower value of T{sub B} in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers. Ultrathin Mg film inserted at IrMn/MgO interface acting as an oxygen sinking layer can suppress the oxidation reactions between Mn and O and reduce the formation of Mn-O bonding greatly. The oxidation suppression results in the recovery of the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, which can enhance T{sub B} and H{sub eb}. Furthermore, the high resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the Mg insertion layer can efficiently promote a high-quality MgO (200) texture. This study will enhance the understanding of physics in antiferromagnet-based spintronic devices.

  10. High pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    DOE PAGES

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.; ...

    2017-05-25

    High pressure x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the face-centered cubic (fcc) high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi transforms martensitically to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase at ~14 GPa. We attribute this to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the fcc phase. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, this transformation is sluggish, occurring over a range of >40 GPa. But, the behavior of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures.

  11. Determination of ratios of Auger electrons emission probabilities and K-L shell vacancy transfer probability of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçükönder, Adnan; Kavşut, Onur

    2017-02-01

    Ratios of emission probabilities of Auger electrons [u = p(KLX)/p(KLL), ν = p(KXY)/p(KLL)] and the vacancy transfer probabilities from K to L shell, ηKL for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co,Ni, Cu and Zn compounds were obtained using the experimental Kx-ray emission ratios and K-shell fluorescence yields. We were used the experimental Kβ/Kα intensity ratios and K shell fluorescence yields WK. Ratios of emission probabilities of Auger electrons and the vacancy transfer probabilities are changed by chemical effect for different for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co,Ni, Cu and Zn compounds.

  12. Constructing heterostructured Li-Fe-Ni-Mn-O cathodes for lithium-ion batteries: effective improvement of ultrafast lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Taolin; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xue, Qing; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Minli; Li, Li; Chen, Renjie

    2017-08-23

    Surface modification is proved to be an effective strategy to improve the power density of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) applied in electric vehicles. In this article, a protective modification layer (FeF3/LiF) is successfully deposited onto the surface of a low-cost cathode material, Li6/5[Fe1/10Ni3/20Mn11/20]O2, for realizing the improvement of ultrafast lithium storage. The reversible specific capacity and ultrahigh rate capability are effectively improved. The modified sample can achieve a higher reversible discharge specific capacity of 171.8 mA h g(-1) at 0.2C. A discharge specific capacity of 150.4 mA h g(-1) is delivered at 1C after 60 cycles. Even at 2C and 5C, the discharge specific capacities are still maintained at 135.7 and 124.5 mA h g(-1). Notably, when charged and discharged at 20C, a discharge specific capacity of 73.4 mA h g(-1) can be achieved after 200 cycles by the heterostructured Li-Fe-Ni-Mn-O cathode, almost twice that of the bare material. The good fast lithium storage capability can be ascribed to the effective suppression of interfacial side reactions, the conversion reaction from the FeF3 phase, and the harmonious coexistence of layered and spinel phases. The triple benefits from the heterostructured cathode provide a promising route for constructing advanced LIBs.

  13. Magnetic properties of Mg12O12 nanocage doped with transition metal atoms (Mn, Fe, Co and Ni): DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javan, Masoud Bezi

    2015-07-01

    Binding energy of the Mg12O12 nanocage doped with transition metals (TM=Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) in endohedrally, exohedrally and substitutionally forms were studied using density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional along 6 different paths inside and outside of the Mg12O12 nanocage. The most stable structures were determined with full geometry optimization near the minimum of the binding energy curves of all the examined paths inside and outside of the Mg12O12 nanocage. The results reveal that for all stable structures, the Ni atom has a larger binding energy than the other TM atoms. It is also found that for all complexes additional peaks contributed by TM-3d, 4s and 4p states appear in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap of the host MgO cluster. The mid-gap states are mainly due to the hybridization between TM-3d, 4s and 4p orbitals and the cage π orbitals. The magnetic moment of the endohedrally doped TM atoms in the Mg12O12 are preserved to some extent due to the interaction between the TM and Mg12O12 nanocage, in contrast to the completely quenched magnetic moment of the Fe and Ni atoms in the Mg11(TM)O12 complexes. Furthermore, charge population analysis shows that charge transfer occurs from TM atom to the cage for endohedrally and substitutionally doping.

  14. Weathering and precipitation after meteorite impact of Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca and Mn in K-T boundary clays from Stevns Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Yumiko; Yoshiasa, Akira; Tobase, Tsubasa; Isobe, Hiroshi; Hongu, Hidetomo; Okube, Maki; Nakatsuka, Akihiko; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca and Mn K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectra were measured on K-T boundary clays from Stevns Klint in Denmark. According to XANES spectra and EXAFS analyses, the local structures of Ni, Cr and Fe in K-T boundary clays is similar to Ni(OH)2, Cr2O3 and FeOOH, respectively. It is assumed that the Ni, Cr and Fe elements in impact related glasses is changing into stable hydrate and oxide by the weathering and diagenesis at the surface of the Earth. Ca in K-T boundary clays maintains the diopside-like structure. Local structure of Ca in K-T clays seems to keep information on the condition at meteorite impact. Mn has a local structure like MnCO3 with divalent state. It is assumed that the origin on low abundant of Mn in the Fe-group element in K-T clays was the consumption by life activity and the diffusion to other parts.

  15. Structural and magnetic transition in stainless steel Fe-21Cr-6Ni-9Mn up to 250 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Hou, Qi-Yue; Zhang, Yi; Jing, Qiu-Min; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Bi, Yan; Xu, Ji-An; Li, Xiao-Dong; Li, Yan-Chun; Liu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Stainless steel Fe-21Cr-6Ni-9Mn (SS 21-6-9), with ˜21% Cr, ˜6% Ni, and ˜9% Mn in weight percentage, has wide applications in extensive fields. In the present study, SS 21-6-9 is compressed up to 250 GPa, and its crystal structures and compressive behaviors are investigated simultaneously using the synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction technique. The SS 21-6-9 undergoes a structural phase transition from fcc to hcp structure at ˜12.8 GPa with neglectable volume collapse within the determination error under the quasi-hydrostatic environment. The hcp structure remains stable up to the highest pressure of 250 GPa in the present experiments. The antiferromagnetic-to-nonmagnetic state transition of hcp SS 21-6-9 with the changes of inconspicuous density and structure, is discovered at ˜50 GPa, and revealed by the significant change in c/a ratio. The hcp SS-21-6-9 is compressive anisotropic: it is more compressive in the c-axis direction than in the a-axis direction. Both the equations of states (EOSs) of fcc and hcp SS 21-6-9, which are in accordance with those of fcc and hcp pure irons respectively, are also presented. Furthermore, the c/a ratio of hcp SS 21-6-9 at infinite compression, R∞, is consistent with the values of pure iron and Fe-10Ni alloy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1230201, 11274281, and 11304294), the Industrial Technology Development Program, China (Grant No. 9045140509), and the Funds from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N03 and KJCX2-SW-N20).

  16. Soft ferromagnetic properties of Ni44Fe6Mn32Al18 doped Co partially

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar; Kurniawan, Budhy; Kurniawan, Candra; Manaf, Azwar

    2017-01-01

    Research in finding suitable magnetocaloric material around room temperature made ferromagnetic (FM) (Ni-Mn)-based Heusler alloys receive considerable attention as a potential candidate for the magnetic refrigerator. This compound are associated with the shape-memory effect, magnetic superelasticity, and more others magneto-functional properties. The compounds were prepared by vacuum arc melter (VAM) under argon atmosphere which sintering and annealing process were running with quartz cube in vacuum condition. A small amount of coercivity value at σ = 0 in the hysteresis curve occurred whereas magnetization of the sample in various temperature does not reach saturation. The Currie temperature Tc of the sample was obtained at 358 K. Nevertheless, this is dubious value because at T = 300 K the curves had swooped down. Additional measurements necessary to taken as a comparison to verify this value.

  17. Anomalous magnetotransport behavior in Fe-doped MnNiGe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, P.; Pramanick, S.; Singh, Vijay; Major, Dan Thomas; Das, D.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical dc transport properties of hexagonal magnetic equiatomic alloys of nominal composition Mn1 -xFexNiGe (x =0.2 and0.25 ) have been investigated experimentally as well as theoretically using first-principles electronic structure calculations. Thermal hysteresis in the magnetization data indicates that the alloys undergo a first-order martensitic transition. Both the alloys show unusual nonmetallic resistivity behavior and a noticeable amount of training effect in resistivity when thermally cycled through the first-order martensitic transition. We observe moderate negative magnetoresistance (˜-11.5 % for 150 kOe) at 5 K (well below the martensitic transition temperature) associated with clear virgin line effect for both the alloys. We have adapted different flavors of density functional theory approach to understand the experimentally observed nonmetallic transport behavior.

  18. PdM nanoparticles (M = Ni, Co, Fe, Mn) with high activity and stability in formic acid oxidation synthesized by sonochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, Md. Abdul; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic alloy PdnM (n = 1 for M = Mn, Fe, and Co; n = 1, 2, and 3 for M = Ni) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized on carbon supports by sonochemical reactions of Pd(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) with M(acac)2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn) or Fe(acac)3 in ethylene glycol. The NPs are characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy to determine their crystal structures, particle sizes, morphology, and elemental compositions. Alloy formation of the NPs is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line profiles using scanning TEM. The electronic structures and the surface compositions of NPs are analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. PdnM NPs are applied as electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation. The incorporation of M in Pd reduces the poisoning by surface hydroxyl groups. Activities based on the current densities are in the order of PdNi > PdFe > PdCo > PdMn. Within the PdnNi series, the activity is in the order of PdNi > Pd2Ni > Pd3Ni. The PdnM NP electrocatalysts show higher activity by a factor of 2-3.5 and improved durability than similarly prepared Pd NP electrocatalyst.

  19. Transport of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cd) in the western Arctic Ocean (Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin) in late summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime.; Hioki, Nanako; Ooki, Atsushi; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kuma, Kenshi

    2016-10-01

    Distributions of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cd) in the western Arctic Ocean (Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin) in September 2012 were investigated to elucidate the mechanisms behind the transport of these metals from the Chukchi Shelf to the Canada Basin. Filtered (<0.22 μm) and unfiltered seawater samples were analyzed to determine dissolved (D) and total dissolvable (TD) trace metal concentrations, respectively. We identified maxima in vertical profiles for the concentrations of D-Fe and TD-Fe, as well as for the other four analyzed trace metals, which occurred in the halocline and/or near-bottom waters. Concentration profiles of all trace metals except for Cd also tended to show peaks near the surface, which suggest that the inflow of low-salinity Pacific-origin water from the Bering Strait, as well as local fresh water inputs such as river water and melting sea-ice, influenced trace metal concentrations. The distribution patterns and concentration ranges were generally similar between the D and TD fractions for Ni, Zn and Cd, which indicate that Ni, Zn and Cd were present mainly in their dissolved forms, whereas the concentrations of TD-Fe and TD-Mn were generally higher than those of D-Fe and D-Mn, respectively. These results are consistent with the results of previous studies of this region. For both Fe and Mn, labile particulate (LP) concentrations (the difference between the TD and D fractions, which is acid-leachable fraction in the particles during storage at pH 1.5-1.6) were highest in the near-bottom waters of the Chukchi Shelf region. The relationships between the distance from the shelf break and the concentrations of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn concentrations in halocline waters tended to decrease logarithmically with distance, whereas changes in the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and phosphate with distance were small. These results suggest that the distributions of Fe and Mn were controlled mainly by input from shelf sediment and removal

  20. Magnetic hysterysis evolution of Ni-Al alloy with Fe and Mn substitution by vacuum arc melting to produce the room temperature magnetocaloric effect material

    SciTech Connect

    Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar; Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar; Setiawan, Jan

    2016-06-17

    The development of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) material is done in order to reduce the damage of the ozone layer caused by the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted into the air. The research dealing with synthesis of magnetocaloric materials based of Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure and by varying substitution some atoms of Ni with Fe and Al with Mn on Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure to become Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6}Mn{sub 32}Al{sub 18}. Vacuum Arc Melting (VAM) equipment is used to form the alloys on vacuum condition and by flowing argon gas atmosphere and then followed by annealing process for 72 hours. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) reveals that crystallite structure of material is observed. We define that Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6} as X{sub 2}, Mn{sub 25} as Y, and Al{sub 18}Mn{sub 7} as Z. Based on the XRD result, we observed that the general formula X{sub 2}YZ is not changed. The PERMAGRAF measurement revealed that there exists of magnetic hysterysis. The hysterysis show that the magnetic structures of the system undego evolution from diamagnetic to soft ferromagnetic material which all of the compound have the same crystallite structure. This evolution indicated that the change in the composition has led to changes the magnetic composition. Mn is the major element that gives strong magnetic properties to the sample. When Mn partially replaced position of Al, the sample became dominant to be influenced to improve their magnetic properties. In addition, substitution a part of Ni by Fe in the composition reveals a pinning of the domain walls in the sample.

  1. Single crystal growth and structural characterization of ternary transition-metal uranium oxides: MnUO4, FeUO4, and NiU2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Cory M.; Smith, Mark D.; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2014-11-01

    Single crystals of MnUO4, FeUO4, and NiU2O6 were grown for the first time. The use of chloride fluxes facilitated the crystal growth. MnUO4, a hexavalent uranium compound, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group, Imma, with a = 6.6421(19) Å, b = 6.978(2) Å, and c = 6.748(2) Å, and exhibits typical uranyl, UO22+, coordination. FeUO4 and NiU2O6 contain pentavalent uranium and are structurally related, exhibiting three-dimensional connectivity. FeUO4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group, Pbcn, with a = 4.8844(2) Å, b = 11.9328(5) Å, c = 5.1070(2) Å. NiU2O6 crystallizes in the trigonal space group, P321, with a = 9.0148(3) Å, c = 5.0144(3) Å.

  2. Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and thermopower of aerospace alloys from 4 to 300 K. 6: Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hust, J. G.; Sparks, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    The equipment and techniques for determining the thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity Lorenz ratio, and thermopower characteristics of Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel are discussed. The dimensions of the specimen and its preparation are described. The experimental data are represented by arbitrary functions over the entire range and smooth tables are generated from these functions.

  3. Role of Si in Improving the Shape Recovery of FeMnSiCrNi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Gouthama; Ray, R. K.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of Si addition on the microstructure and shape recovery of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloys has been studied. The microstructural observations revealed that in these alloys the microstructure remains single-phase austenite ( γ) up to 6 pct Si and, beyond that, becomes two-phase γ + δ ferrite. The Fe5Ni3Si2 type intermetallic phase starts appearing in the microstructure after 7 pct Si and makes these alloys brittle. Silicon addition does not affect the transformation temperature and mechanical properties of the γ phase until 6 pct, though the amount of shape recovery is observed to increase monotonically. Alloys having more than 6 pct Si show poor recovery due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The shape memory effect (SME) in these alloys is essentially due to the γ to stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation, and the extent of recovery is proportional to the amount of stress-induced ɛ martensite. Alloys containing less than 4 pct and more than 6 pct Si exhibit poor recovery due to the formation of stress-induced α' martensite through γ- ɛ- α' transformation and the large volume fraction of δ-ferrite, respectively. Silicon addition decreases the stacking fault energy (SFE) and the shear modulus of these alloys and results in easy nucleation of stress-induced ɛ martensite; consequently, the amount of shape recovery is enhanced. The amount of athermal ɛ martensite formed during cooling is also observed to decrease with the increase in Si.

  4. Study of certain features of the electronic structure of the ternary alloys Ni2(Mn, Fe) and Ni3(Mn, Co)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhukova, V. M.; Fadin, V. P.

    1981-01-01

    The changes in electronic structure related to transport processes occurring during the alloying of he alloy Ni3Mn with iron and cobalt, and the ordering of the ternary alloys thus formed are presented. The Hall effect, the absolute thermal emf, the internal saturation induction, the Nernst-Ettingshausen constant, and the electrical resistivity were measured. Results show a decrease in the contribution of hole sections of the Fermi surface to the transport process occurs together with a considerable increase in the contribution of electron sections. In this case, the mobility of 3 dimensional holes decreases and the mobility of 4s electrons increases considerably.

  5. Strain-induced martensite to austenite reverse transformation in an ultrafine-grained Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Koohdar, H. R.; Habibi-Parsa, M.; Nedjad, S. Hossein; Alidokht, S. A.; Langdon, Terence G.

    2014-05-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of heavy cold rolling on microstructural evolution in an Fe-10Ni-7Mn (wt.%) martensitic steel. The chemical driving force for the strain-induced martensite to austenite reverse transformation was calculated using thermodynamic principles and a model was developed for estimating the effect of applied stress on the driving force of the martensite to austenite reverse transformation through heavy cold rolling. These calculations show that, in order to make a reverse transformation feasible, the applied stress on the material should supply the total driving force, both chemical and non-chemical, for the transformation. It is demonstrated that after 60% cold rolling the required driving force for the reverse transformation may be provided. Experimental results, including cold rolling and transmission electron microscopy images, are utilized to verify the thermodynamic calculations.

  6. Robust paramagnetism in Bi2- xMxRu2O7 (M=Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu) pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, M. K.; Cava, R. J.; Avdeev, M.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    2002-09-01

    We report magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, and Seebeck coefficients for Bi2-xMxRu2O7 pyrochlore. The solid solution exists up to x=0.5 for M=Cu,Ni,Co and up to x=0.1 for M=Fe,Mn. The doped materials do not exhibit ferromagnetism or any localized ruthenium moment behavior. Instead we find the Ru-O and Bi-O sublattices to be essentially independent, with any magnetism resulting from the unpaired first-row transition metal dopant spins. Cobalt substitution for bismuth results in localized Co2+ and low-temperature spin-glass transitions in several cases. Nickel moments on the pyrochlore lattice display properties intermediate to localized and itinerant. Finally, copper doping results in an enhancement of the Pauli metallic density of states.

  7. Optical properties of layered III-VI semiconductor γ-InSe:M (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milutinović, Aleksandra; Lazarević, Zorica Ž.; Jakovljević, Milka; Hadzić, Branka; Petrović, Milica; Gilić, Martina; Dobrowolski, Witold Daniel; Romčević, Nebojša Ž.

    2016-02-01

    Indium selenide belongs to layered III-VI semiconductors with highly anisotropic optical and electronic properties. Energy gap of 1.32 eV makes this material very attractive for solar energy conversion. We investigated the influence of 1% 3-d transition metals M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, used as dopants, on energy levels of InSe:M in the range 1.4-6.5 eV and especially in the range of energy gap <1.4 eV by means of ellipsometric measurements. It was concluded that at ambient temperature foregoing dopants, all divalent, with 4s2 valent electrons, in the similar way influenced on blue-shift of energy levels in valent zone, but did not influence on the fundamental energy gap. Photoluminescence measurements confirmed blue-shift of the valent zone energy levels and an existence of deep impurity levels.

  8. Microstructures and mechanical properties of compositionally complex Co-free FeNiMnCr18 FCC solid solution alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z.; Bei, H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a structurally-simple but compositionally-complex FeNiCoMnCr high entropy alloy was found to have excellent mechanical properties (e.g., high strength and ductility). To understand the potential of using high entropy alloys as structural materials for advanced nuclear reactor and power plants, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of their structural stability and mechanical properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Furthermore, this requires us to develop a similar model alloy without Co because material with Co will make post-neutron-irradiation testing difficult due to the production of the 60Co radioisotope. In order to achieve this goal, a FCC-structured single-phase alloy with a composition of FeNiMnCr18 was successfully developed. This near-equiatomic FeNiMnCr18 alloy has good malleability and its microstructure can be controlled by thermomechanical processing. By rolling and annealing, the as-cast elongated-grained-microstructure is replaced by homogeneous equiaxed grains. The mechanical properties (e.g., strength and ductility) of the FeNiMnCr18 alloy are comparable to those of the equiatomic FeNiCoMnCr high entropy alloy. Both strength and ductility increase with decreasing deformation temperature, with the largest difference occurring between 293 and 77 K. Extensive twin-bands which are bundles of numerous individual twins are observed when it is tensile-fractured at 77 K. No twin bands are detected by EBSD for materials deformed at 293 K and higher. Ultimately the unusual temperature-dependencies of UTS and uniform elongation could be caused by the development of the dense twin substructure, twin-dislocation interactions and the interactions between primary and secondary twinning systems which result in a microstructure refinement and hence cause enhanced strain hardening and postponed necking.

  9. Electromagnetic Properties of Composites CoFeNiBSiMo, CoFeBSiCr and CoMnSiB in wide frequency bande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elboubakraoui, My C.; Bri, S.; Foshi, J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, our study is based on composites with ferromagnetic wire with a frequency region in the microwave regime with scattering spectra strongly dependent on an external magnetic field and the microwire periodicity. Three types of composites made of grids of continuous and short-cut wires CoFeNiBSiMo, CoFeBSiCr and CoMnSiB are considered to employ different types of spectra of the permittivity and permeability in the frequency band 1 GHz-12 GHz. The complex permittivity increases remarkably with the increase of microwire periodicity, with negative real permittivity is observed over frequency range for wires. With this increase in the microwire periodicity, first we note decreased minimum reflection loss and maximum absorption.

  10. Martensitic transition, magnetic, magnetocaloric and exchange bias properties of Fe-substituted Mn-Ni-Sn Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Suresh, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    In this report, effect of Fe substitution on martensitic transition, magnetic, magnetocaloric and exchange bias (EB) properties of Mn50Ni40-xFexSn10 (x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3) Heusler alloys series has been investigated systematically. Fe substitution has been found to affect the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interactions significantly in both the martensite and austenite phases. Martensitic transition temperature decreases with increasing Fe content, which is attributed to the decrease in number of average valence electrons per atom (e/a ratio) of these alloys. Large magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and refrigerant capacity (RC) have been observed in these alloys, as a maximum ΔSM of 12.6 J/kg. K is observed for composition x=0.5. Present alloys have also been found to show large exchange bias properties, as maximum exchange bias fields (HEB) of 890 Oe and 810 Oe are observed for x=0 and 0.5, respectively at 5 K. Composition and temperature dependencies of EB are associated with the change in exchange anisotropy at interfaces of competing magnetic phases. Study of minor loop and training effect also corroborates with the presence of EB in these alloys.

  11. Microstructural stability and mechanical behavior of FeNiMnCr high entropy alloy under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J.; Bei, Hongbin; Zinkle, Steven J.; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Li, C.

    2016-05-13

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, making them potential candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However there is very little known about their radiation resistance, particularly at elevated temperatures relevant for energy applications. In the present study, a single phase (face centered cubic) concentrated solid solution alloy of composition 27%Fe-28%Ni-27%Mn-18%Cr was irradiated with 3 or 5.8 MeV Ni ions at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 °C and midrange doses from 0.03 to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (STEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the radiation defects and microstructural changes. Irradiation at higher temperatures showed evidence of relatively sluggish solute diffusion with limited solute depletion or enrichment at grain boundaries. The main microstructural feature at all temperatures was high-density small dislocation loops. Voids were not observed at any irradiation condition. Nano-indentation tests on specimens irradiated at room temperature showed a rapid increase in hardness ~35% and ~80% higher than the unirradiated value at 0.03 and 0.3 dpa midrange doses, respectively. The irradiation-induced hardening was less pronounced for 500 °C irradiations (<20% increase after 3 dpa). Overall, the examined HEA material exhibits superior radiation resistance compared to conventional single phase Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys such as stainless steels. Furthermore, the present study provides insight on the fundamental irradiation behavior of a single phase HEA material over a broad range of irradiation temperatures.

  12. Microstructural stability and mechanical behavior of FeNiMnCr high entropy alloy under ion irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Keith J.; Bei, Hongbin; Zinkle, Steven J.; ...

    2016-05-13

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, making them potential candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However there is very little known about their radiation resistance, particularly at elevated temperatures relevant for energy applications. In the present study, a single phase (face centered cubic) concentrated solid solution alloy of composition 27%Fe-28%Ni-27%Mn-18%Cr was irradiated with 3 or 5.8 MeV Ni ions at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 °C and midrange doses from 0.03 to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopymore » (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (STEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the radiation defects and microstructural changes. Irradiation at higher temperatures showed evidence of relatively sluggish solute diffusion with limited solute depletion or enrichment at grain boundaries. The main microstructural feature at all temperatures was high-density small dislocation loops. Voids were not observed at any irradiation condition. Nano-indentation tests on specimens irradiated at room temperature showed a rapid increase in hardness ~35% and ~80% higher than the unirradiated value at 0.03 and 0.3 dpa midrange doses, respectively. The irradiation-induced hardening was less pronounced for 500 °C irradiations (<20% increase after 3 dpa). Overall, the examined HEA material exhibits superior radiation resistance compared to conventional single phase Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys such as stainless steels. Furthermore, the present study provides insight on the fundamental irradiation behavior of a single phase HEA material over a broad range of irradiation temperatures.« less

  13. Microstructural stability and mechanical behavior of FeNiMnCr high entropy alloy under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J.; Bei, Hongbin; Zinkle, Steven J.; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Li, C.

    2016-05-13

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, making them potential candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However there is very little known about their radiation resistance, particularly at elevated temperatures relevant for energy applications. In the present study, a single phase (face centered cubic) concentrated solid solution alloy of composition 27%Fe-28%Ni-27%Mn-18%Cr was irradiated with 3 or 5.8 MeV Ni ions at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 700 °C and midrange doses from 0.03 to 10 displacements per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (STEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the radiation defects and microstructural changes. Irradiation at higher temperatures showed evidence of relatively sluggish solute diffusion with limited solute depletion or enrichment at grain boundaries. The main microstructural feature at all temperatures was high-density small dislocation loops. Voids were not observed at any irradiation condition. Nano-indentation tests on specimens irradiated at room temperature showed a rapid increase in hardness ~35% and ~80% higher than the unirradiated value at 0.03 and 0.3 dpa midrange doses, respectively. The irradiation-induced hardening was less pronounced for 500 °C irradiations (<20% increase after 3 dpa). Overall, the examined HEA material exhibits superior radiation resistance compared to conventional single phase Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys such as stainless steels. Furthermore, the present study provides insight on the fundamental irradiation behavior of a single phase HEA material over a broad range of irradiation temperatures.

  14. Elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys studied by the combinatorial thin film approach and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Reeh, S; Kasprzak, M; Klusmann, C D; Stalf, F; Music, D; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Schneider, J M

    2013-06-19

    The elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys with additions of up to 8 at.% X were studied by combinatorial thin film growth and characterization and by ab initio calculations using the disordered local moments (DLM) approach. The lattice parameter and Young's modulus values change only marginally with X. The calculations and experiments are in good agreement. We demonstrate that the elastic properties of transition metal alloyed Fe-Mn can be predicted by the DLM model.

  15. Effect of pressure on Fe-Mg, Ni and Mn diffusion in (Fe xMg 1- x) 2SiO 4 olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzapfel, C.; Chakraborty, S.; Rubie, D. C.; Frost, D. J.

    2007-07-01

    The pressure dependence of Fe-Mg interdiffusion coefficients, as well as of diffusion coefficients of the trace elements Ni and Mn in olivine, have been determined from diffusion anneals carried out using oriented single crystals in multianvil presses. This is the first determination of activation volumes of diffusion of trace elements (Ni, Mn) in olivine. Results from an isothermal polybaric (1673 K, 6-12 GPa) and an isobaric polythermal (1623-1823 K, 12 GPa) set of experiments were combined to constrain an internally consistent set of Arrhenius parameters for the diffusion processes. It is found that within the uncertainty of the data, (a) diffusion rates of Fe-Mg, Mn and Ni are very similar to each other at all conditions, consistent with more detailed observations from 1 atmosphere experiments ( Petry et al., 2004), (b) apparent activation volumes using different fitting protocols lie between 4 and 7 cm 3 mol -1, but a value of 5.3 ± 1.0 cm 3 mol -1 (cf. Misener, 1974; Farber et al., 2000), describes the pressure dependence of diffusivity of these elements in olivine over its entire stability range (in pressure) adequately along the Ni-NiO fO 2 buffer, (c) the activation volume at constant fO 2 is higher, ˜7 cm 3 mol -1 and (d) at depths corresponding to the lowermost stability of olivine (˜12 GPa), activation energies of diffusion are ˜100 kJ mol -1 higher than at near surface conditions, which means that closure temperatures are higher by several hundred degrees. Along geothermal gradients within the Earth, diffusion rates increase with depth in the lithosphere but decrease with depth, in spite of the increase in temperature, in the convective asthenospheric part of the mantle. Consequently, there is a maxima in diffusion rates at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and for the olivine part of the mantle, this is likely to be the region where most geochemical mixing and eradication of heterogeneities occur.

  16. Experimental investigation of off-stoichiometry and 3d transition metal (Mn, Ni, Cu)-substitution in single-crystalline FePt thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takuya; Nakata, Hitoshi; Moriya, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kitakami, Osamu; Shimatsu, Takehito

    2016-05-01

    In L10 (fct)-FePt thin films, both tuning Fe and Pt concentrations and substitution with third-metal were studied for magnetic characteristic optimization. We investigated single-crystalline FePt-X (X = Mn, Ni, Cu) thin films grown epitaxially on MgO(001) substrates at a substrate temperature of 350 °C by changing Fe, Pt, and X contents, and explored the effects of off-stoichiometry and 3d-metal-substitution. The magnetic moment per atom (m) of FePt-X films as a function of the effective number of valence electrons (neff) in 3d metal sites follows the Slater-Pauling-type trend, by which m decreases by the neff deviation from neff = 8, independently of the X metal and the Pt concentration. The magnetic anisotropy (Ku) exhibits neff dependence similar to m. This trend was almost independent of the Pt concentration after compensation using the theoretical prediction on the relation between Ku and Fe/Pt concentrations. Such a trend has been proved for stoichiometric FePt-X films, but it was clarified as robust against off-stoichiometry. The compensated Ku ( Ku comp ) of FePt-Mn and FePt-Cu followed a similar trend to that predicted by the rigid-band model, although the Ku comp of the FePt-Mn thin films dropped more rapidly than the rigid band calculation. However, it followed the recent first-principles calculation.

  17. Dye-Sensitized Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) Nanofibers for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Gonce, Mehmet Kerem; Aslan, Emre; Ozel, Faruk; Hatay Patir, Imren

    2016-03-21

    The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities of low-cost and noble-metal-free Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofiber catalysts have been investigated using triethanolamine as an electron donor and eosin Y as a photosensitizer under visible-light irradiation. The rates of hydrogen evolution by Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofibers have been compared with each other and with that of the noble metal Pt. The hydrogen evolution rates for the nanofibers change in the order Cu2 NiSnS4 >Cu2 FeSnS4 >Cu2 CoSnS4 >Cu2 ZnSnS4 >Cu2 MnSnS4 (2028, 1870, 1926, 1420, and 389 μmol g(-1) h(-1) , respectively). The differences between the hydrogen evolution rates of the nanofibers could be attributed to their energy levels. Moreover, Cu2 NiSnS4, Cu2 FeSnS4 , and Cu2 CoSnS4 nanofibers show higher and more stable photocatalytic hydrogen production rates than that of the noble metal Pt under long-term irradiation with visible light.

  18. Spiral Dinuclear Complexes of Tetradentate N(4) Diazine Ligands with Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(III), and Ni(II) Salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Thompson, Laurence K.; Miller, David O.; Clase, Howard J.; Howard, Judith A. K.; Goeta, Andrés E.

    1998-07-13

    A series of dinuclear complexes of the tetradentate dipyridyl-diazine ligand PAHAP with Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(III), and Ni(II) salts is reported in which three ligands wrap themselves around the six-coordinate metal centers in a rare spiral-like fashion. A similar Fe(II) complex is found for the dipyrazinyl-diazine ligand PZHPZ. The ligands are severely twisted with dihedral angles between the metal chelate ring mean planes on each ligand in the range 50-70 degrees, values close to the expected twist angle for orthogonality between the bridging nitrogen atom p orbitals. Full structures are reported for the dinuclear complexes [Mn(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(4).5H(2)O (1), [Fe(2)(PAHAP)(3)](NO(3))(4).3H(2)O (2), [Fe(2)(PZHPZ)(3)](NO(3))(4).5H(2)O (5), [Co(2)(PAHAP)(3)](NO(3))(6).5H(2)O (6), and [Ni(2)(PAHAP)(3)][Ni(H(2)O)(6)](NO(3))(6).4.5H(2)O (7). Other derivatives [Fe(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(4).4H(2)O (3), [Fe(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(6).4.5H(2)O (4), [Ni(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(4).5H(2)O (8), and [Fe(PHAAP-H)(H(2)O)(2)(NO(3))](NO(3))(2) (9) are also reported. Complex 1 crystallized in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c, with a = 13.4086(2) Å, b = 32.0249(1) Å, c = 14.3132(2) Å, alpha = 90 degrees, beta = 115.635(1) degrees, gamma = 90 degrees, and Z = 4. Complex 2 crystallized in the cubic system, space group Pa&thremacr;, with a = b = c = 21.0024(1) Å, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees, and Z = 8. Complex 5 crystallized in the monoclinic system, space group P2/n, with a = 14.039(3) Å, b = 11.335(6) Å, c = 14.6517(15) Å, beta = 96.852(11) degrees, and Z = 1. Complex 6 crystallized in the trigonal system, space group R&thremacr;c(h), with a = b = 17.386(2) Å, c = 32.15(2) Å, alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees, and Z = 4. Complex 7 crystallized in the trigonal system, space group R&thremacr;c, with a = b = 17.3737(3) Å, c = 33.235(6) Å, alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees, and Z = 27. Weak ferromagnetic coupling was observed for 1

  19. Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Yadav, Sangeeta

    2011-07-01

    A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia was found to be a root accumulator for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb. In addition, C. esculentus also accumulated most of the tested heavy metals in the roots, while Mn and Fe were translocated up to leaves. Further, the long term metal treatment showed maximum accumulation of all heavy metals in P. cummunis followed by T. angustifolia and C. esculentus. Among heavy metals, Fe was accumulated maximum, i.e., >1000 microg g(-1) by all three plants. Simultaneously, the adverse effects on biochemical parameters were noted earlier in C. esculentus than T. angustifolia and P. cummunis. Ultra structural observation showed the cellular changes in wetland plants after longer exposure. Results revealed that P. cummunis and T. angustifolia had more potential for tested metals than C. esculentus. This study established that these wetland plants could be used for heavy metals phytoremediation from metal containing industrial wastewater.

  20. Exact ab initio transport coefficients in bcc Fe-X (X=Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, P, Si) dilute alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Luca; Nastar, Maylise; Garnier, Thomas; Domain, Christophe; Olsson, Pär

    2014-09-01

    Defect-driven diffusion of impurities is the major phenomenon leading to formation of embrittling nanoscopic precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Diffusion depends strongly on the kinetic correlations that may lead to flux coupling between solute atoms and point defects. In this work, flux coupling phenomena such as solute drag by vacancies and radiation-induced segregation at defect sinks are systematically investigated for six bcc iron-based dilute binary alloys, containing Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, P, and Si impurities, respectively. First, solute-vacancy interactions and migration energies are obtained by means of ab initio calculations; subsequently, self-consistent mean field theory is employed in order to determine the exact Onsager matrix of the alloys. This innovative multiscale approach provides a more complete treatment of the solute-defect interaction than previous multifrequency models. Solute drag is found to be a widespread phenomenon that occurs systematically in ferritic alloys and is enhanced at low temperatures (as for instance RPV operational temperature), as long as an attractive solute-vacancy interaction is present, and that the kinetic modeling of bcc alloys requires the extension of the interaction shell to the second-nearest neighbors. Drag occurs in all alloys except Fe(Cr); the transition from dragging to nondragging regime takes place for the other alloys around (Cu, Mn, Ni) or above (P, Si) the Curie temperature. As far as only the vacancy-mediated solute migration is concerned, Cr depletion at sinks is foreseen by the model, as opposed to the other impurities which are expected to enrich up to no less than 1000 K. The results of this study confirm the current interpretation of the hardening processes in ferritic-martensitic steels under irradiation.

  1. Electron microscopy investigation and electrochemical performance of carbon-coated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohman, Fadli; Suwandi, Endang; Majid, Nurhalis; Subhan, Achmad

    2016-02-01

    The carbon-coated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 was synthesized using solid state reaction method and sintering process. The carbon was coated on the surface of the LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 particle using citric acid as the carbon source. the crystal phase and diffraction peak of the particle was shown from X-Ray Diffraction characterization. The particle morphology and size distribution of this material was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The thickness of the carbon coating and the crystal lattice spacing was investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The particle size, carbon coating thickness, and crystal lattice spacing were found to be 10 - 50 µm, 4 nm, and Å, respectively. The effect of the carbon layer on the surface of the LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 particle as a cathode material in lithium-ion battery exhibited in the electrochemical performance test as shown in cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurement test. According to the cyclic voltammetry test, it was shown that the redox peaks of the carbon-coated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 from Fe2+ to Fe3+ were at 3.579 V and 2.96 V, but there was lower peak at 3.52 V. This phenomenon indicated the presence of doped Mn and Ni. The specific capacity of carbon coated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 was 49 mAh/g, which was higher than uncoated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4, 30 mAh/g. On the other hand, after 40 cycles the specific capacity of carbon-coated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 was decreasing to 10%, while the specific capacity of uncoated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 remained almost similar before and after 40 cycles. In term of columbic efficiency, carbon-coated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 was more stable, better than uncoated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4. Moreover, all samples were in close proximity to 100% efficiency. The C-rates test result showed that the discharge C-rates ability of the carbon coated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4 had been better than uncoated LiFe0.7Mn0.2Ni0.1PO4. At 1.5 C rate, the capacity loss of carbon-coated LiFe0

  2. Magneto-optical Kerr effect in ZnTMO2 (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merikhi, R.; Bennecer, B.; Hamidani, A.

    2017-02-01

    First principles generalized gradient full potential density-functional calculations were performed to predict the optical and magneto-optical (MO) properties of the chalcopyrite compounds ZnTMO2, TM=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. Detailed investigation of the electronic band structure and density of states is reported. The optical properties in the 0-8 eV energy range are analyzed in terms of band structure transitions. As for the magneto-optical properties, our results show that the studied compounds have peaks in the Kerr rotation ranging from infrared to ultraviolet radiation, with ZnFeO2 having the highest Kerr rotation angle of 10 ° and - 8.46 ° at 0.35 eV and 4.59 eV, respectively. The peaks in the Kerr spectra were assigned to the optical and magneto-optic contributions. Our calculated function of merit for these compounds indicates that these compounds might be useful for technological application in high density storage.

  3. Enhancement of exchange bias and training effect in ion-beam sputtered Fe{sub 46}Mn{sub 54}/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Fulara, Himanshu; Chaudhary, Sujeet Kashyap, Subhash C.; Granville, Simon

    2014-01-28

    We present a remarkable enhancement by 300% of the exchange-bias field at room temperature, without affecting the coercivity value, via optimum magnetic annealing (250 °C/3 kOe) in ion-beam sputtered FeMn(30 nm)/NiFe(10 nm) bilayers. This specific behavior has been attributed to a higher degree of γ-FeMn(111) orientation that offers more interfacial FeMn moments to get pinned with the moments of the adjacent NiFe layer. Unlike the absence of training effect at room temperature, a pronounced training effect and an accompanying magnetization reversal asymmetry are evidenced upon field cooling below 50 K due to the presence of biaxial exchange induced anisotropy across the interdiffused FeMn/NiFe interface. The present findings not only have technological significance but also are of relevance to the understanding of interfacial spin disorder and frustration in these exchange-biased systems.

  4. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li2(Li1–xTx)N (T = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-11

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li2(Li1–xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane→easy axis→easy plane→easy axis when progressing from T = MnFe → Co → Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model. As a result, the calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.

  5. Compressibility Anomaly in Magnetic Heuslar Alloy Ni{sub 2}MnGa and Co{sub 2}FeSi

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Alka B.; Vijayakumar, V.

    2011-07-15

    Results of synchrotron based high pressure x ray diffraction measurements on Heuslar alloys Ni{sub 2}MnGa and Co{sub 2}FeSi are reported up to 30.6 and 24.6 GPa respectively. Pressure volume data for Ni{sub 2}MnGa shows normal compressibility behaviour up to 30.6 GPa with the value of bulk modulus Bo and its pressure derivative B' as 130 GPa and 4.97 respectively. In case of Co{sub 2}FeSi, the P-V data shows normal behaviour upto 5 Gpa and hereafter linear P-V relation. The estimated ambient pressure compressibility based on data up to 5 GPa is 267 GPa (with B' = 4). The fit to linear P-V data above 5 GPa yields a compressibility of 279.5.

  6. Structure and magnetic properties of the double-perovskites Ba2(B,Re)2O6 (B = Fe, Mn, Co and Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammeh, N.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Cheikkh-Rouhou, A.

    2006-09-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of Ba2(B,Re)2O6 (B = Fe, Mn, Co and Ni) double-perovskite oxides have been investigated. Rietveld analysis shows that all our synthesized samples are single phase and crystallize at room temperature in the cubic double-perovskite structure with Fm3m space group. Magnetization measurements versus temperature and versus magnetic applied field up to 5 T show that Ba2(Fe,Re)2O6, Ba2(Mn,Re)2O6 and Ba2(Ni,Re)2O6 are ferromagnetic at low temperature with TC = 318 K, 113 K and 32 K respectively while Ba2(Co,Re)2O6 is antiferromagnetic below TN = 25 K.

  7. Preparation, crystal structure and magnetic behavior of new double perovskites Sr{sub 2} B'UO{sub 6} with B'=Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Pinacca, R.M.; Viola, M.C.; Pedregosa, J.C.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Carbonio, R.E.; Alonso, J.A.

    2007-05-15

    Sr{sub 2} B'UO{sub 6} double perovskites with B'=Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn have been prepared in polycrystalline form by solid-state reaction, in air or reducing conditions. These new materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements. The room-temperature crystal structure is monoclinic (space group P2{sub 1}/n), and contains alternating B'O{sub 6} and UO{sub 6} octahedra sharing corners, tilted along the three pseudocubic axes according to the Glazer notation a {sup -} a {sup -} b {sup +}. The magnetic measurements show a spontaneous magnetic ordering below T {sub N}=21 K for B'=Mn, Ni, and T {sub C}=150 K for B'=Fe. From a Curie-Weiss fit, the effective paramagnetic moment for B'=Mn (5.74 {mu}{sub B}/f.u.) and B'=Ni(3.51 {mu}{sub B}/f.u.) are significantly different from the corresponding spin-only moments for the divalent cations, suggesting the possibility of a partial charge disproportionation B'{sup 2+}+U {sup 6+}{r_reversible}B'{sup 3+}+U {sup 5+}, also accounting for plausible ferrimagnetic interactions between B' and U sublattices. The strong curvature of the reciprocal susceptibility for B'=Fe precludes a Curie-Weiss fit but also suggests the presence of ferrimagnetic interactions in this compound. This charge disproportionation effect is also supported by the observed B'-O distances, which are closer to the expected values for high-spin, trivalent Mn, Fe and Ni cations. - Graphical abstract: The title double perovskites are monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n, and the magnetic properties suggest the possibility of a partial charge disproportionation B'{sup 2+}+U {sup 6+}{r_reversible}B'{sup 3+}+U {sup 5+}, accounting for plausible ferrimagnetic interactions between B' and U sublattices.

  8. Association of metals (Cd, Fe, As, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) with cigarette butts in northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj; Saeedi, Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Khorsand, Maryam; Khajeahmadi, Nahid; Hayati, Reza; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2017-07-01

    Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the marine environment and represent potential point sources for environmental contamination. The metals leached from cigarette butts have not been studied well in the marine environment. In this study, the levels of metals (Cd, Fe, As, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) in cigarette butts were monitored at nine stations along the northern part of the Persian Gulf in Bushehr coastal areas in summer 2015 with a sampling time interval of 10 days. The Cd, Fe, As, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn contents of cigarette butts were found to vary widely between 0.16 and 0.67 μg/g, 79.01 and 244.97 μg/g, 0.12 and 0.48 μg/g, 1.13 and 3.27 μg/g, 4.29 and 12.29 μg/g, 6.39 and 21.17 μg/g, and 38.29 and 123.1 μg/g, respectively. A Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that there were no significant differences between the Cd, Fe, As, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn contents of cigarette butts at different sampling times. Considering the estimated number of cigarette butts littered annually, the results of this study indicated that considerable metals including Cd, Fe, As, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn may enter the marine environment each year from cigarette litter alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Temperature dependencies of the elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficient of an equiatomic, single-phase CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Laplanche, G.; Gadaud, P.; Horst, O.; ...

    2014-11-15

    The equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi alloy is now regarded as a model face-centered cubic single-phase high-entropy alloy. Consequently, determination of its intrinsic properties such as the temperature dependencies of elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficient are important to improve understanding of this new class of material. Lastly, these temperature dependencies were measured over a large temperature range (200–1270 K) in this study.

  10. Reverse Shape Memory Effect Related to α → γ Transformation in a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Huang, Pan; Zhou, Tiannan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the shape memory behavior and phase transformations of solution-treated Fe43.61Mn34.74Al13.38Ni8.27 alloy between room temperature and 1173 K (900 °C). This alloy exhibits the reverse shape memory effect resulting from the phase transformation of α (bcc) → γ (fcc) between 673 K and 1073 K (400 °C and 800 °C) in addition to the shape memory effect resulting from the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' (fcc) → α (bcc) below 673 K (400 °C). There is a high density of hairpin-shaped dislocations in the α phase undergoing the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' → α. The lath γ phase, which preferentially nucleates and grows in the reversed α phase, has the same crystal orientation with the reverse-transformed γ' martensite. However, the vermiculate γ phase, which is precipitated in the α phase between lath γ phase, has different crystal orientations. The lath γ phase is beneficial to attaining better reverse shape memory effect than the vermiculate γ phase.

  11. Nano- and microvoid formation in ultrafine-grained martensitic Fe-Ni-Mn steel after severe cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, Hadi; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Mirsepasi, Arya; Zamani, Cyrus

    2014-03-01

    Severe cold-rolling was applied on solution annealed Fe-Ni-Mn steel with fully lath martensite structure to obtain ultrafine-grained structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to investigate the microstructural evolution after severe cold-rolling. HRTEM images showed the typical deformed structure consisting of lamellar dislocation cell blocks. HRTEM study also revealed strain-induced reverse martensitic transformation (activated during grain refinement). It was assumed that severe plastic deformation route and related deformation mode were responsible for microstructural evolutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) diagram revealed 7% (volume fraction) reverted austenite after final deformation pass. Moreover, HRTEM images revealed nano-void nucleation at the interface of severely deformed martensite and reverted austenite presumably due to high strain energy of misfit and molar volume difference between the austenite and the martensite. It seems that the coalescence of nano-voids could lead to the formation of microvoids in the microstructure.

  12. Nanoscale origins of the damage tolerance of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZiJiao; Mao, M M; Wang, Jiangwei; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X; George, Easo P; Yu, Qian; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-12-09

    Damage tolerance can be an elusive characteristic of structural materials requiring both high strength and ductility, properties that are often mutually exclusive. High-entropy alloys are of interest in this regard. Specifically, the single-phase CrMnFeCoNi alloy displays tensile strength levels of ∼ 1 GPa, excellent ductility (∼ 60-70%) and exceptional fracture toughness (KJIc>200 MPa√m). Here through the use of in situ straining in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on the salient atomistic to micro-scale mechanisms underlying the origin of these properties. We identify a synergy of multiple deformation mechanisms, rarely achieved in metallic alloys, which generates high strength, work hardening and ductility, including the easy motion of Shockley partials, their interactions to form stacking-fault parallelepipeds, and arrest at planar slip bands of undissociated dislocations. We further show that crack propagation is impeded by twinned, nanoscale bridges that form between the near-tip crack faces and delay fracture by shielding the crack tip.

  13. Nanoscale origins of the damage tolerance of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, ZiJiao; Mao, M. M.; Wang, Jiangwei; ...

    2015-12-09

    Damage tolerance can be an elusive characteristic of structural materials requiring both high strength and ductility, properties that are often mutually exclusive. High-entropy alloys are of interest in this regard. Specifically, the single-phase CrMnFeCoNi alloy displays tensile strength levels ofB1GPa, excellent ductility (~60 70%) and exceptional fracture toughness (KJIc > 200MPa√m). Here through the use of in situ straining in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on the salient atomistic to micro-scale mechanisms underlying the origin of these properties. We identify a synergy of multiple deformation mechanisms, rarely achieved in metallic alloys, which generates high strength, work hardening andmore » ductility, including the easy motion of Shockley partials, their interactions to form stacking-fault parallelepipeds, and arrest at planar slip bands of undissociated dislocations. As a result, we further show that crack propagation is impeded by twinned, nanoscale bridges that form between the near-tip crack faces and delay fracture by shielding the crack tip.« less

  14. Reverse Shape Memory Effect Related to α → γ Transformation in a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Huang, Pan; Zhou, Tiannan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the shape memory behavior and phase transformations of solution-treated Fe43.61Mn34.74Al13.38Ni8.27 alloy between room temperature and 1173 K (900 °C). This alloy exhibits the reverse shape memory effect resulting from the phase transformation of α (bcc) → γ (fcc) between 673 K and 1073 K (400 °C and 800 °C) in addition to the shape memory effect resulting from the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' (fcc) → α (bcc) below 673 K (400 °C). There is a high density of hairpin-shaped dislocations in the α phase undergoing the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' → α. The lath γ phase, which preferentially nucleates and grows in the reversed α phase, has the same crystal orientation with the reverse-transformed γ' martensite. However, the vermiculate γ phase, which is precipitated in the α phase between lath γ phase, has different crystal orientations. The lath γ phase is beneficial to attaining better reverse shape memory effect than the vermiculate γ phase.

  15. In Situ Observation of Austenite Growth During Continuous Heating in Very-Low-Carbon Fe-Mn and Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, M.; Wan, X. L.

    2017-04-01

    The growth of austenite during continuous heating was observed in situ under a confocal scanning laser microscope in Fe-Mn and Ni alloys containing less than 0.01 mass pct C. The advancements of the α/ γ boundary were measured in the temperature range of ca. 40 K, which encompassed the Ae3 line of the alloys. Below Ae3, the growth rates were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted from the carbon diffusion-controlled negligible partition local equilibrium in the ( α + γ) two-phase region, whereas those observed near and above the Ae3 were ca. two orders of magnitude greater. The α/ γ boundary mobilities evaluated therefrom were somewhat smaller than those obtained previously in massive ferrite transformation during continuous cooling in the same alloys, albeit the experimental scatter was large and fell near the mobilities proposed in the literature. The α/ γ boundary migrated probably with a carbon diffusion spike ahead of the boundary and the solute drag of the carbon or alloy element is unlikely to be operative during the growth of austenite.

  16. In Situ Observation of Austenite Growth During Continuous Heating in Very-Low-Carbon Fe-Mn and Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, M.; Wan, X. L.

    2017-02-01

    The growth of austenite during continuous heating was observed in situ under a confocal scanning laser microscope in Fe-Mn and Ni alloys containing less than 0.01 mass pct C. The advancements of the α/γ boundary were measured in the temperature range of ca. 40 K, which encompassed the Ae3 line of the alloys. Below Ae3, the growth rates were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted from the carbon diffusion-controlled negligible partition local equilibrium in the (α + γ) two-phase region, whereas those observed near and above the Ae3 were ca. two orders of magnitude greater. The α/γ boundary mobilities evaluated therefrom were somewhat smaller than those obtained previously in massive ferrite transformation during continuous cooling in the same alloys, albeit the experimental scatter was large and fell near the mobilities proposed in the literature. The α/γ boundary migrated probably with a carbon diffusion spike ahead of the boundary and the solute drag of the carbon or alloy element is unlikely to be operative during the growth of austenite.

  17. Determination of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and V in diesel and biodiesel samples by ETV-ICP-MST.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Eduardo S; Lepri, Fábio G; Silva, Jessee S A; de Quadros, Daiane P C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Curtius, Adilson J

    2008-10-01

    This work presents the determination of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and V in diesel and biodiesel samples by ETV-ICP MS using emulsion sample preparation. The emulsion composition was: 1.0 g of the diesel or biodiesel sample, 2.0 mL of a 5% m/v Triton X-100 solution, 0.5 mL of HNO3 and deionized water to a 10 mL final volume. The optimized parameters were mass of carrier/modifier (1.0 microg Pd), RF power (1100 W), carrier gas flow rate (0.95 L min(-1)) and inner ETV gas flow rate (0.15 L min(-1)). The determinations were performed against aqueous solutions using 10 microg L(-1) Rh as internal standard. The accuracy of the method was verified through the analysis of the NIST 1634c reference residual fuel oil, recovery tests and comparison of the results with those obtained by GF AAS. The results were in agreement according to the t-test at a 95% confidence level. The RSD values were lower than 20%, the recoveries were between 80 and 120% and the LOD values were in the order of ng g(-1), showing the good accuracy and sensitivity of the method.

  18. Effect of precipitated austenite on the fracture of a ferritic cryogenic steel. [Fe-8Ni-2Mn-0. 1Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Frear, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of precipitated austenite on the fracture of an Fe-8Ni-2Mn-0.1Ti steel was investigated. To understand the effect an attempt was made to correlate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and the fracture surface appearance of specimens heat treated to contain austenite or be austenite-free. The fracture surfaces were quantitatively studied using a 3D imaging technique in the SEM. It was found that the presence of austenite had a beneficial influence on mechanical properties by lowering the DBTT. Part of this decrease was found to be due to the austenite gettering deleterious elements off the grain boundaries. Specimens that contained precipitated austenite were also found to have a smaller median facet size, when fractured in a brittle transgranular mode, than specimens with no austenite. The decrease in DBTT and change in fracture surface appearance is related to the austenite transforming to martensite of a different variant than the matrix which effectively grain refines the steel and raises the cleavage stress.

  19. Nanoscale origins of the damage tolerance of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, ZiJiao; Mao, M. M.; Wang, Jiangwei; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X.; George, Easo P.; Yu, Qian; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-12-09

    Damage tolerance can be an elusive characteristic of structural materials requiring both high strength and ductility, properties that are often mutually exclusive. High-entropy alloys are of interest in this regard. Specifically, the single-phase CrMnFeCoNi alloy displays tensile strength levels of ~1 GPa, excellent ductility (~60–70%) and exceptional fracture toughness (KJIc>200M Pa√m). Here through the use of in situ straining in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on the salient atomistic to micro-scale mechanisms underlying the origin of these properties. We identify a synergy of multiple deformation mechanisms, rarely achieved in metallic alloys, which generates high strength, work hardening and ductility, including the easy motion of Shockley partials, their interactions to form stacking-fault parallelepipeds, and arrest at planar slip bands of undissociated dislocations. In conclusion, we further show that crack propagation is impeded by twinned, nanoscale bridges that form between the near-tip crack faces and delay fracture by shielding the crack tip.

  20. Nanoscale origins of the damage tolerance of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, ZiJiao; Mao, M. M.; Wang, Jiangwei; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X.; George, Easo P.; Yu, Qian; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Damage tolerance can be an elusive characteristic of structural materials requiring both high strength and ductility, properties that are often mutually exclusive. High-entropy alloys are of interest in this regard. Specifically, the single-phase CrMnFeCoNi alloy displays tensile strength levels of ∼1 GPa, excellent ductility (∼60–70%) and exceptional fracture toughness (KJIc>200 MPa√m). Here through the use of in situ straining in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on the salient atomistic to micro-scale mechanisms underlying the origin of these properties. We identify a synergy of multiple deformation mechanisms, rarely achieved in metallic alloys, which generates high strength, work hardening and ductility, including the easy motion of Shockley partials, their interactions to form stacking-fault parallelepipeds, and arrest at planar slip bands of undissociated dislocations. We further show that crack propagation is impeded by twinned, nanoscale bridges that form between the near-tip crack faces and delay fracture by shielding the crack tip. PMID:26647978

  1. Dopant driven tunability of dielectric relaxation in MxCo(1-x)Fe2O4 (M: Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+) nano-ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Gopal; Abhyankar, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Nano-ferrites with tunable dielectric and magnetic properties are highly desirable in modern electronics industries. This work reports the effect of ferromagnetic (Ni), anti-ferromagnetic (Mn), and non-magnetic (Zn) substitution on cobalt-ferrites' dielectric and magnetic properties. The Rietveld analysis of XRD data and the Raman spectroscopic study reveals that all the samples are crystallized in the Fd-3m space group. The T2g Raman mode was observed to split into branches, which is due to the presence of different cations (with different vibrational frequencies) at crystallographic A and B-sites. The magnetization study shows that the MnCoFe2O4 sample has the highest saturation magnetization of 87 emu/g, which is attributed to the presence of Mn2+ cations at the B-site with a magnetic moment of 5 μB. The dielectric permittivity of these nanoparticles (NPs) obeys the modified Debye model, which is further supported by Cole-Cole plots. The dielectric constant of MnCoFe2O4 ferrite is found to be one order higher than that of the other two ferrites. The increased bond length of the Mn2+-O2- bond along with the enhanced d-d electron transition between Mn 2 +/Co 2 +⇋Fe 3 + cations at the B-site are found to be the main contributing factors for the enhanced dielectric constant of MnCoFe2O4 ferrite. We find evidence of variable-range hopping of localized polarons in these ferrite NPs. The activation energy, hopping range, and density of states N (" separators="|EF ), of these polarons were calculated using Motts' 1/4th law. The estimated activation energies of these polarons at 300 K were found to be 288 meV, 426 meV, and 410 meV, respectively, for the MnCoFe2O4, NiCoFe2O4, and ZnCoFe2O4 ferrite NPs, while the hopping range of these polarons were found to be 27.14 Å, 11.66 Å, and 8.17 Å, respectively. Observation of a low dielectric loss of ˜0.04, in the frequency range of 0.1-1 MHz, in these NPs makes them potential candidates for energy harvesting devices in

  2. Unravelling the Role of Electrochemically Active FePO4 Coating by Atomic Layer Deposition for Increased High-Voltage Stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Biwei; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Wang, Biqiong; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Zhao, Dong; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Ruying; Cui, Xiaoyu; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xueliang

    2015-05-01

    Ultrathin amorphous FePO4 coating derived by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used to coat the 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material powders, which dramatically increases the capacity retention of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. It is believed that the amorphous FePO4 layer could act as a lithium-ions reservoir and electrochemically active buffer layer during the charge/discharge cycling, helping achieve high capacities in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, especially at high current densities.

  3. Electronic structure and magnetic properties in T2AlB2 (T = Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, and Ni) and their alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Ke, Liqin; Harmon, Bruce N.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2017-03-20

    In this study, the electronic structure and intrinsic magnetic properties of Fe2AlB2-related compounds and their alloys have been investigated using density functional theory. For Fe2AlB2, the crystallographic a axis is the easiest axis, which agrees with experiments. The magnetic ground state of Mn2AlB2 is found to be ferromagnetic in the basal ab plane, but antiferromagnetic along the c axis. All 3d dopings considered decrease the magnetization and Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2. Electron doping with Co or Ni has a stronger effect on the decreasing of Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2 than hole doping with Mn or Cr. However, a larger amountmore » of Mn doping on Fe2AlB2 promotes the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition. A very anisotropic magnetoelastic effect is found in Fe2AlB2: the magnetization has a much stronger dependence on the lattice parameter c than on a or b, which is explained by electronic-structure features near the Fermi level. Dopings of other elements on B and Al sites are also discussed.« less

  4. Electronic structure and magnetic properties in T2AlB2 (T =Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, and Ni) and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liqin; Harmon, Bruce N.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2017-03-01

    The electronic structure and intrinsic magnetic properties of Fe2AlB2 -related compounds and their alloys have been investigated using density functional theory. For Fe2AlB2 , the crystallographic a axis is the easiest axis, which agrees with experiments. The magnetic ground state of Mn2AlB2 is found to be ferromagnetic in the basal a b plane, but antiferromagnetic along the c axis. All 3 d dopings considered decrease the magnetization and Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2 . Electron doping with Co or Ni has a stronger effect on the decreasing of Curie temperature in Fe2AlB2 than hole doping with Mn or Cr. However, a larger amount of Mn doping on Fe2AlB2 promotes the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition. A very anisotropic magnetoelastic effect is found in Fe2AlB2 : the magnetization has a much stronger dependence on the lattice parameter c than on a or b , which is explained by electronic-structure features near the Fermi level. Dopings of other elements on B and Al sites are also discussed.

  5. Automated preconcentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Co, and Mn in seawater with analysis using high-resolution sector field inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Rusiecka, Dagmara; Gledhill, Martha; Achterberg, Eric P

    2017-07-11

    A rapid, automated, high-throughput analytical method capable of simultaneous analysis of multiple elements at trace and ultratrace levels is required to investigate the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals in the ocean. Here we present an analytical approach which uses a commercially available automated preconcentration device (SeaFAST) with accurate volume loading and in-line pH buffering of the sample prior to loading onto a chelating resin (WAKO) and subsequent simultaneous analysis of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) by high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). Quantification of sample concentration was undertaken using isotope dilution for Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, and standard addition for Co and Mn. The chelating resin is shown to have a high affinity for all analyzed elements, with recoveries between 83 and 100% for all elements, except Mn (60%) and Ni (48%), and showed higher recoveries for Ni, Cd, Pb, Co and Mn in direct comparison to an alternative resin (NOBIAS Chelate-PA1). The reduced recoveries for Ni and Mn using the WAKO resin did not affect the quantification accuracy. A relatively constant retention efficiency on the resin over a broad pH range (pH 5-8) was observed for the trace metals, except for Mn. Mn quantification using standard addition required accurate sample pH adjustment with optimal recoveries at pH 7.5 ± 0.3. UV digestion was necessary to increase recovery of Co and Cu in seawater by 15.6% and 11.4%, respectively, and achieved full break-down of spiked Co-containing vitamin B12 complexes. Low blank levels and detection limits could be achieved (e.g., 0.029 nmol L(-1) for Fe and 0.028 nmol L(-1) for Zn) with the use of high purity reagents. Precision and accuracy were assessed using SAFe S, D1, and D2 reference seawaters, and results were in good agreement with available consensus values. The presented method is ideal for

  6. Statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys and concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, FeNi, and FeCr

    SciTech Connect

    Vaks, V. G.; Khromov, K. Yu. Pankratov, I. R.; Popov, V. V.

    2016-07-15

    The statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys with arbitrary pairwise interatomic interactions based on the master equation approach is developed. Vacancy–atom correlations are described using both the second-shell-jump and the nearest-neighbor-jump approximations which are shown to be usually sufficiently accurate. General expressions for Onsager coefficients in terms of microscopic interatomic interactions and some statistical averages are given. Both the analytical kinetic mean-field and the Monte Carlo methods for finding these averages are described. The theory developed is used to describe sharp concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in several iron-based alloy systems. For the bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, and FeNi, we predict the notable increase of the iron self-diffusion coefficient with solute concentration c, up to several times, even though values of c possible for these alloys do not exceed some percent. For the bcc alloys FeCr at high temperatures T ≳ 1400 K, we show that the very strong and peculiar concentration dependencies of both tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients observed in these alloys can be naturally explained by the theory, without invoking exotic models discussed earlier.

  7. Air breathing cathodes for microbial fuel cell using Mn-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-containing platinum group metal-free catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Kodali, Mounika; Santoro, Carlo; Serov, Alexey; ...

    2017-02-07

    Here we discuss the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the major factors that is limiting the overall performance output of microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this study, Platinum Group Metal-free (PGM-free) ORR catalysts based on Fe, Co, Ni, Mn and the same precursor (Aminoantipyrine, AAPyr) were synthesized using identical sacrificial support method (SSM). The catalysts were investigated for their electrochemical performance, and then integrated into an air-breathing cathode to be tested in “clean” environment and in a working microbial fuel cell (MFC). Their performances were also compared to activated carbon (AC) based cathode under similar conditions. Results showedmore » that the addition of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni to AAPyr increased the performances compared to AC. Fe-AAPyr showed the highest open circuit potential (OCP) that was 0.307 ± 0.001 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the highest electrocatalytic activity at pH 7.5. On the contrary, AC had an OCP of 0.203 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and had the lowest electrochemical activity. In MFC, Fe-AAPyr also had the highest output of 251 ± 2.3 μWcm–2, followed by Co-AAPyr with 196 ± 1.5 μWcm–2, Ni-AAPyr with 171 ± 3.6 μWcm–2, Mn-AAPyr with 160 ± 2.8 μWcm–2 and AC 129 ± 4.2 μWcm–2. The best performing catalyst (Fe-AAPyr) was then tested in MFC with increasing solution conductivity from 12.4 mScm–1 to 63.1 mScm–1. A maximum power density of 482 ± 5 μWcm–2 was obtained with increasing solution conductivity, which is one of the highest values reported in the field.« less

  8. Study of angular dependence of exchange bias and misalignment in uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy in NiFe(111)/FeMn(111)/CoFeB(amorphous) stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Braj Bhusan; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2015-07-01

    We report the investigation of the in-plane azimuthal angular dependence of the magnetization reversal in the ion beam sputtered exchanged biased NiFe(111)/FeMn(111)/CoFeB(amorphous) stack. Compared to the as-deposited case, the magnetic annealing resulted in 3 fold enhancement in exchange bias but decrease in coercivity. The observed cosine dependence of exchange biased CoFeB layer on the in-plane azimuthal angle of applied field is corroborated with Meiklejohn and Bean model. The training effect associated with the exchange bias showed unconventional increase in coercivity after first cycle of hysteresis loop, while the exchange bias decreases sharply, and for subsequent cycles the exchange bias follows the empirical relation based on the energy dissipation in the AF layer. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements also exhibited the in-plane azimuthal angle dependence of the magnetic resonance field indicating that the uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies are not collinear, although they lie in the same plane. However, no misalignment between the unidirectional anisotropy and the exchange bias direction is observed. The misalignment angle between the uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropy, as measured by FMR, is found to be 10° and 14° for CoFeB and NiFe, respectively. This misalignment is attributed to the interface roughness as revealed by x-ray reflectance measurements.

  9. AlM2B2 (M  =  Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni): a group of nanolaminated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kádas, K.; Iuşan, D.; Hellsvik, J.; Cedervall, J.; Berastegui, P.; Sahlberg, M.; Jansson, U.; Eriksson, O.

    2017-04-01

    Combining theory with experiments, we study the phase stability, elastic properties, electronic structure and hardness of layered ternary borides AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, AlFe2B2, AlCo2B2, and AlNi2B2. We find that the first three borides of this series are stable phases, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are metastable. We show that the elasticity increases in the boride series, and predict that AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, and AlFe2B2 are more brittle, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are more ductile. We propose that the elasticity of AlFe2B2 can be improved by alloying it with cobalt or nickel, or a combination of them. We present evidence that these ternary borides represent nanolaminated systems. Based on SEM measurements, we demonstrate that they exhibit the delamination phenomena, which leads to a reduced hardness compared to transition metal mono- and diborides. We discuss the background of delamination by analyzing chemical bonding and theoretical work of separation in these borides.

  10. Electronic structures and magnetic properties of the transition-metal atoms (Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) doped WS2: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2016-10-01

    The spin-polarized first-principles calculations are performed to study the electronic structures and magnetic properties of a single or double identical transition metal (TM) atoms X (X = Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) doped monolayer WS2 systems. Although the pristine monolayer WS2 system is a nonmagnetic semiconductor with a direct band gap of 1.820 eV, a single Mn, Fe, Co or Ni doped WS2 systems exhibit the magnetic half-metallic (HM) characters with the total magnetic moments Mtot of 1, 2, 3 and 4 μB and the smaller spin-down gaps Eg of 1.262, 1.154, 1.407 and 1.073 eV, respectively. For double identical TM atoms doped monolayer WS2 systems, except for the cases of two Ni atoms doped at the first (0,1), second (0,2) and third (0,3) nearest-neighbor cation configuration which are antiferromagnetic (AFM), ferromagnetic (FM) and FM metals, respectively, the other cases are all HM ferromagnets, and the total magnetic moment Mtot increases not only for double identical TM dopants Mn, Fe, Co and Ni (except for (0,1) AFM case) successively at the same nearest-neighbor cation configuration but also for each of the double identical TM dopants at the first (0,1), second (0,2) and third (0,3) nearest-neighbor cation configurations successively. These results provide a theoretical guide to choose new two-dimensional HM ferromagnetic materials in spintronic applications.

  11. Magnetic properties of NixFe100-x layers in exchange-coupled FeMn/NixFe100-x film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adanakova, Olga; Lepalovskij, Vladimir; Svalov, Andrey; Larrañaga, Aitor; Trubin, Anton; Vas'kovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Thin Fe20Ni80/FeMn/NixFe100-x multilayers were prepared using magnetron sputtering. The influence of composition on crystalline structure, exchange bias, magnetic hysteresis, and spontaneous magnetization of FeNi ferromagnetic layers coupled with the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer was investigated.

  12. Electronic structure and half-metallicity in new Heusler alloys CoYO2 (Y = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteki, S.; Ahmadian, F.

    2017-09-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) using the self-consistent full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method were applied to study the electronic structures and magnetic properties of new Heusler alloys CoYO2 (Y = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn). The calculated formation energies of these compounds were negative, therefore, they can be synthesized experimentally. All compounds were stable in ferromagnetic AlCu2Mn-type structure. In AlCu2Mn-type structure, CoScO2, CoFeO2, and CoNiO2 compounds were HM ferromagnets, CoCuO2 was a nearly half-metal, CoZnO2 was a spin gapless semiconductor, and other compounds were conventional ferromagnets. In CuHg2Ti-type structure, CoTiO2 compound had a nearly HM characteristic, CoVO2 was a spin gapless semiconductor, and other compounds were conventional ferromagnets. The origin of the half-metallic band gap for CoScO2 alloy Heusler alloy was well understood. The total magnetic moments of the three HM compounds obeyed Slater-Pauling rules (Mtot = 22-Ztot and Mtot = 32-Ztot). CoScO2 had the widest region of half-metallicity between the three half-metals indicating its high robustness of half-metallicity with respect to the variation of lattice constants.

  13. High-voltage cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries: freeze-dried LiMn0.8Fe0.1M0.1PO4/C (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Iturrondobeitia, Amaia; Goñi, Aintzane; Gil de Muro, Izaskun; Lezama, Luis; Kim, Chunjoong; Doeff, Marca; Cabana, Jordi; Rojo, Teófilo

    2015-03-16

    Four LiMn0.8Fe0.1M0.1PO4/C (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) cathode materials have been synthesized via a freeze-drying method. The samples have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemical measurements. The composition and effective insertion of the transition-metal substituents in LiMnPO4 have been corroborated by elemental analysis, the evolution of the crystallographic parameters, and the magnetic properties. The morphological characterization of the composites has demonstrated that the phosphate nanoparticles are enclosed in a matrix of amorphous carbon. Among them, LiMn0.8Fe0.1Ni0.1PO4/C is the most promising cathode material, providing a good electrochemical performance in all aspects: high voltage and specific capacity values, excellent cyclability, and good rate capability. This result has been attributed to several factors, such as the suitable morphology of the sample, the good connection afforded by the in situ generated carbon, and the amelioration of the structural stress provided by the presence of Ni(2+) and Fe(2+) in the olivine structure.

  14. Electrochemical studies of DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII Schiff base tetraazamacrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anuj; Vashistha, Vinod Kumar; Tevatia, Prashant; Singh, Randhir

    2017-04-01

    Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII have been synthesized by template method. These tetraazamacrocycles have been analyzed with various techniques like molar conductance, IR, UV-vis, mass spectral and cyclic voltammetric studies. On the basis of all these studies, octahedral geometry has been assigned to these tetraazamacrocyclic complexes. The DNA binding properties of these macrocyclic complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The cyclic voltammetric data showed that ipc and ipa were effectively decreased in the presence of calf thymus DNA, which is a strong evidence for the interaction of these macrocyclic complexes with the calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant found in the order: KCoII > KNiII > KMnII which indicates that CoII macrocyclic complex has formed a strong intercalated intermediate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) and voltammetric binding constant were found in the order KSV(CoII) > KSV(NiII) > KSV(MnII) and K+(CoII) > K+(NiII) > K+(MnII) which shows that CoII macrocyclic complex exhibits the high interaction affinity towards ct-DNA by the intercalation binding. Biological studies of the macrocyclic complexes compared with the standard drug like Gentamycin, have shown antibacterial activities against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus and antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  15. Microstructures and Mechanical Performance of Plasma-Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei-Yeh; Chuang, Ming-Hao; Lin, Su-Jien; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of plasma nitriding at 798 K (525 °C) on microstructures and the mechanical performance of Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys (HEAs) obtained using different cast and wrought processing. All the alloys can be well nitride, with a thickness of around 80 μm, and attain a peak hardness level around Hv 1300 near the surface. The main nitride phases are CrN, AlN, and (Mn, Fe)4N. Those of the substrates are bcc, fcc, Al-, and Ni-rich B2 precipitates, and ρ phase. Their relative amounts depend on the prior processing and also change under the heat treatment during nitriding. The formation of ρ phase during nitriding could in-situ harden the substrate to attain the suitable level required for wear applications. This gives the advantage in simplifying the processing for making a wear-resistance component or a mold since austenitizing, quench hardening, and tempering required for steels such as SACM and SKD steels are no longer required and final finishing can be accomplished before nitriding. Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 samples have much better wear resistance than un-nitrided ones by 49 to 80 times and also exhibit superior adhesive wear resistance to conventional nitrided alloys: nitriding steel SACM-645 (AISI 7140), 316 stainless steel, and hot-mold steel SKD-61 (AISI H13) by 22 to 55 times depending on prior processing. The superiority is due to the fact that the present nitrided alloys possess a much thicker highly hardened layer than the conventional alloys.

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of NaMF 3 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni) and their electrochemical properties as positive electrode materials for sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocheva, Irina D.; Nishijima, Manabu; Doi, Takayuki; Okada, Shigeto; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    Mechanical treatment was used as a nonconventional solid-state process for large-scale preparation of fluoride materials as an alternative to the hazardous high-pressure fluorination route. Sodium fluoroperovskites of Fe, Mn, and Ni were achieved by mechanical grinding of NaF and binary metal fluorides for different periods of time under Ar. The obtained monophases were characterized by XRD measurements, AAS, ICP-OES, and IC. The electrochemical performance of the achieved materials was tested in a Na half-cell under different operating conditions. It was revealed that mechanochemically inserted sodium is electrochemically active for the NaFeF 3 positive electrode composition. In this pilot study, NaFeF 3 showed an initial discharge capacity of 130 mA h g -1 at 0.2 mA cm -2.

  17. First-order magnetic and magnetostructural transitions in the magnetocaloric compound MnNi0.73Fe0.27Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Aili; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Liu, Enke; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and magnetostructural transitions of MnNi0.73Fe0.27Ge have been studied by calorimetry and by magnetic measurements. The first-order MST from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic martensite shows a giant magnetic entropy change of -27 J/kg K for a magnetic-field change of 50 kOe around 233 K. A weak first-order magnetic transition is observed in the martensite phase over a large low-temperature range, with clear thermal hysteresis and increased saturation field. The origin is discussed on the basis of the competitiom between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling with magneto-elastic coupling.

  18. A Novel Training-Free Processed Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Undergoing δ → γ Phase Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Wang, Gaixia; Du, Yangyang; Wang, Shanling; Chen, Jie; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    We not only suppress the formation of twin boundaries but also introduce a high density of stacking faults by taking advantage of δ → γ phase transformation in a processed Fe-19.38Mn-5.29Si-8.98Cr-4.83Ni shape memory alloy. As a result, its shape memory effect is remarkably improved after heating at 1533 K (1260 °C) (single-phase region of δ ferrite) and air cooling due to δ → γ phase transformation.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of (smif)2M(n) (n = 0, M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Ru; n = +1, M = Cr, Mn, Co, Rh, Ir; smif =1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl).

    PubMed

    Frazier, Brenda A; Bartholomew, Erika R; Wolczanski, Peter T; DeBeer, Serena; Santiago-Berrios, Mitk'El; Abruña, Hector D; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Bart, Suzanne C; Mossin, Susanne; Meyer, Karsten; Cundari, Thomas R

    2011-12-19

    A series of Werner complexes featuring the tridentate ligand smif, that is, 1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl, have been prepared. Syntheses of (smif)(2)M (1-M; M = Cr, Fe) were accomplished via treatment of M(NSiMe(3))(2)(THF)(n) (M = Cr, n = 2; Fe, n = 1) with 2 equiv of (smif)H (1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azapropene); ortho-methylated ((o)Mesmif)(2)Fe (2-Fe) and ((o)Me(2)smif)(2)Fe (3-Fe) were similarly prepared. Metatheses of MX(2) variants with 2 equiv of Li(smif) or Na(smif) generated 1-M (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ru). Metathesis of VCl(3)(THF)(3) with 2 Li(smif) with a reducing equiv of Na/Hg present afforded 1-V, while 2 Na(smif) and IrCl(3)(THF)(3) in the presence of NaBPh(4) gave [(smif)(2)Ir]BPh(4) (1(+)-Ir). Electrochemical experiments led to the oxidation of 1-M (M = Cr, Mn, Co) by AgOTf to produce [(smif)(2)M]OTf (1(+)-M), and treatment of Rh(2)(O(2)CCF(3))(4) with 4 equiv Na(smif) and 2 AgOTf gave 1(+)-Rh. Characterizations by NMR, EPR, and UV-vis spectroscopies, SQUID magnetometry, X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations are presented. Intraligand (IL) transitions derived from promotion of electrons from the unique CNC(nb) (nonbonding) orbitals of the smif backbone to ligand π*-type orbitals are intense (ε ≈ 10,000-60,000 M(-1)cm(-1)), dominate the UV-visible spectra, and give crystals a metallic-looking appearance. High energy K-edge spectroscopy was used to show that the smif in 1-Cr is redox noninnocent, and its electron configuration is best described as (smif(-))(smif(2-))Cr(III); an unusual S = 1 EPR spectrum (X-band) was obtained for 1-Cr.

  20. Assessment of heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, Cr, Zn) pollution in effluent dominated rivulet water and their effect on glycogen metabolism and histology of Mastacembelus armatus.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the contamination of rivulet situated at Kasimpur, Aligarh (27.218° N; 79.378° E). It receives the wastewater of Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant (HTPS) containing fly ash and heavy metals. Among the heavy metals estimated in the rivulet water, Fe (8.71 mgL(-1)) was present in the highest concentration followed by Cu (0.86 mgL(-1)), Zn (0.30 mgL(-1)) Mn (0.21 mgL(-1)), Ni (0.12 mgL(-1)), Co (0.11 mgL(-1)) and Cr (0.10 mgL(-1)). The values for the heavy metals such as Fe, Ni and Mn were beyond the limits set by UNEPGEMS. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals was detected in tissues such as gills, liver, kidney, muscle and integument of the fish Mastacembelus armatus. Accumulation of Fe (213.29 - 2601.49 mgkg(-1).dw) was highest in all the organs. Liver was the most influenced organ and integument had the least metal load. The accumulation of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn, observed in the tissues were above the values recommended by FAO/WHO. Biochemical estimation related to blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen conducted showed significant (p < 0.01) elevation in blood glucose content over control (17.73%), whereas liver glycogen dropped significantly (p < 0.01) over control (-89.83%), and similarly muscle glycogen also decreased significantly (p < 0.05) over control (-71.95%), suggesting enhanced glycolytic capacity to fuel hepatic metabolism. Histopathological alterations were also observed in selected organs (gills, liver and kidney) of Mastacembelus armatus.

  1. Spinel, YbFe2O4, and Yb2Fe3O7 types of structure for compounds in the In2O3 and Sc2O3-A2O3-BO systems (A: Fe, Ga, or Al; B: Mg, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, or Zn) at temperatures over 1000C

    SciTech Connect

    Kimizuka, N.; Mohri, T.

    1985-01-01

    In the Sc2O3-Ga2O3-CuO, Sc2O3-Ga2O3-ZnO, and Sc2O3-Al2O3-CuO systems, ScGaCuO4, ScGaZnO4, and ScAlCuO4 with the YbFe2O4-type structure and Sc2Ga2CuO7 with the Yb2Fe3O7-type structure were obtained. In the In2O3-A2O3-BO systems (A: Fe, Ga, or Al; B: Mg, Mn, Fe, Ni, or Zn), InGaFeO4, InGaNiO4, and InFeT MgO4 with the spinel structure, InGaZnO4, InGaMgO4, and InAl-CuO4 with the YbFe2O4-type structure, and In2Ga2MnO7 and In2Ga2ZnO7 with the Yb2Fe3O7-type structure were obtained. InGaMnO4 and InFe2O4 had both the YbFe2O4-type and spinel-type structures. The revised classification for the crystal structures of AB2O4 compounds is presented, based upon the coordination numbers of constituent A and B cations. 5 references, 2 tables.

  2. Low hysteresis FeMn-based top spin valve.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, V V; Krinitsina, T P; Milyaev, M A; Naumova, L I; Proglyado, V V

    2012-09-01

    FeMn-based top spin valves Ta/[FeNi/CoFe]/Cu/CoFe/FeMn/Ta with different Cu and FeMn layers thicknesses were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. It was shown that low field hysteresis due to free layer magnetization reversal can be reduced down to (0.1 divided by 0.2) Oe keeping the GMR ratio higher 8% by using both layers thicknesses optimization and non-collinear geometry of magnetoresistance measurements. Dependence of low field hysteresis and GMR ratio on the angle between applied magnetic field and pinning direction are presented.

  3. High power factor in thiospinels Cu2 T r Ti3S8 ( T r = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) arising from TiS6 octahedron network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashikuni, Katsuaki; Suekuni, Koichiro; Usui, Hidetomo; Ohta, Michihiro; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2016-10-01

    Thermoelectric properties and electronic structures of n-type thiospinels Cu2T r Ti3S8 composed of CuS4 tetrahedron and (Tr/Ti)S6 octahedron network have been studied for T r = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. The samples with T r = Mn, Co, and Ni exhibit metallic behaviors in the electrical resistivity (ρ) and rather large and negative thermopower (S), leading to a high power factor (S2/ρ) of 0.4-0.6 mW/K2 m at 650 K. In addition to the superior electrical properties, relatively low thermal conductivity of ˜2 W/Km gives rise to a dimensionless figure of merit ZT reaching 0.16-0.18 at 650 K. The analysis of the temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility indicates that the Mn, Fe, and Ni ions are in high-spin divalent states while the Co2+ ion is in a low-spin nonmagnetic state. This electronic state for the Co2+ in Cu2CoTi3S8 is consistent with our first-principles electronic structure calculation indicating that the Fermi level lies in the conduction bands composed mainly of Ti-3d, Co-3d, and S-3p orbitals. The Ti-3d and S-3p orbitals forming the octahedron network likely results in high power factors irrespective of Tr elements. The addition of Co-3d orbitals makes a peak with steep slope in the density of states near the Fermi level, leading to the further enhanced power factor.

  4. Ternary titanium transition metal bismuthides Ti{sub 4}TBi{sub 2} with T = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, C.G.; Jeitschko, W.; Kuennen, B.; Gerdes, M.H.

    1997-11-01

    The title compounds were prepared by reaction of the elemental components and with the exception of the isotypic chromium compound their tetragonal V{sub 4}SiSb{sub 2}-type crystal structures (I4/mcm, Z = 4) were determined and refined from single-crystal X-ray data. Ti{sub 4}CrBi{sub 2}: a = 1051.6(l), c = 506.7(1) pm; Ti{sub 4}Mn Bi{sub 2}: a = 1049.1 (1), c = 497.8 (1) pm, R = 0.031 for 176 structure factors; Ti{sub 4}FeBi{sub 2}: a = 1048.6(1), c = 493.3(1) pm, R = 0.013 (274 F values); Ti{sub 4}CoBi{sub 2}: a = 1050.6(2), c = 488.2(1) pm, R = 0.038 (472 F values); Ti{sub 4}NiBi{sub 2}: a = 1055.4(1), c = 481.4(1) pm, R = 0.020(373 F values), and 14 variable parameters each. The compounds are isotypic with V{sub 4}SiSb{sub 2}, a structure which is isopointal with U{sub 6}Mn and closely related to the structures of W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and TlTe. All atoms have high coordination numbers. Unusual features of the structure are channels formed solely by the bismuth atoms and linear chains of the heavier transition metal ions with bond distances varying between 253.3 (Cr-Cr) and 240.7 pm (Ni-Ni). The electrical conductivities of Ti{sub 4}TBi{sub 2} (T= Fe,Co, Ni)--determined with a four-probe technique for sintered polycrystalline samples between 4 K and room temperature--indicate metallic behavior. The magnetic susceptibilities of the five compounds were determined with a SQUID magnetometer. Ti{sub 4}CrBi{sub 2}, T{sub i}4FeBi{sub 2}, and Ti{sub 4}NiBi{sub 2} are Pauli paramagnetic. The magnetic susceptibilities of Ti{sub 4}MnBi{sub 2} and Ti{sub 4}CoBi{sub 2} are strongly temperature dependent. The evaluation of these data according to a modified Curie-Weiss law suggests that both compounds contain one unpaired electron per formula unit. A brief discussion of chemical bonding in these compounds leads to the conclusion that considerable Ti-Ti bonding must be present in these bismuthides, in spite of the fact that the shortest Ti-Ti bonds are as long as 299 pm.

  5. Structural stability, mechanical properties, electronic structures and thermal properties of XS (X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) binary compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangzhen; Xing, Jiandong; Fu, Hanguang; Li, Yefei; Sun, Liang; Lv, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    The properties of sulfides are important in the design of new iron-steel materials. In this study, first-principles calculations were used to estimate the structural stability, mechanical properties, electronic structures and thermal properties of XS (X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) binary compounds. The results reveal that these XS binary compounds are thermodynamically stable, because their formation enthalpy is negative. The elastic constants, Cij, and moduli (B, G, E) were investigated using stress-strain and Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, respectively. The sulfide anisotropy was discussed from an anisotropic index and three-dimensional surface contours. The electronic structures reveal that the bonding characteristics of the XS compounds are a mixture of metallic and covalent bonds. Using a quasi-harmonic Debye approximation, the heat capacity at constant pressure and constant volume was estimated. NiS possesses the largest CP and CV of the sulfides.

  6. Cryogenic strength improvement by utilizing room-temperature deformation twinning in a partially recrystallized VCrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Y. H.; Jung, S.; Choi, W. M.; Sohn, S. S.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, N. J.; Lee, S.

    2017-01-01

    The excellent cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy are generally caused by deformation twinning, which is difficult to achieve at room temperature because of insufficient stress for twinning. Here, we induced twinning at room temperature to improve the cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy. Considering grain size effects on the critical stress for twinning, twins were readily formed in the coarse microstructure by cold rolling without grain refinement by hot rolling. These twins were retained by partial recrystallization and played an important role in improving strength, allowing yield strengths approaching 1 GPa. The persistent elongation up to 46% as well as the tensile strength of 1.3 GPa are attributed to additional twinning in both recrystallized and non-recrystallization regions. Our results demonstrate that non-recrystallized grains, which are generally avoided in conventional alloys because of their deleterious effect on ductility, can be useful in achieving high-strength high-entropy alloys. PMID:28604656

  7. Cryogenic strength improvement by utilizing room-temperature deformation twinning in a partially recrystallized VCrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y H; Jung, S; Choi, W M; Sohn, S S; Kim, H S; Lee, B J; Kim, N J; Lee, S

    2017-06-12

    The excellent cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy are generally caused by deformation twinning, which is difficult to achieve at room temperature because of insufficient stress for twinning. Here, we induced twinning at room temperature to improve the cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy. Considering grain size effects on the critical stress for twinning, twins were readily formed in the coarse microstructure by cold rolling without grain refinement by hot rolling. These twins were retained by partial recrystallization and played an important role in improving strength, allowing yield strengths approaching 1 GPa. The persistent elongation up to 46% as well as the tensile strength of 1.3 GPa are attributed to additional twinning in both recrystallized and non-recrystallization regions. Our results demonstrate that non-recrystallized grains, which are generally avoided in conventional alloys because of their deleterious effect on ductility, can be useful in achieving high-strength high-entropy alloys.

  8. Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhangwei; Wu, Margaret; Cai, Zhonghou; ...

    2016-06-13

    The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Tix with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 μm for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength,σy, from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongation to 2.3%.more » Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Ti4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in σy to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.« less

  9. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni in selected Nigerian tubers, legumes and cereals and estimates of the adult daily intakes.

    PubMed

    Akinyele, I O; Shokunbi, O S

    2015-04-15

    This study was designed to determine the levels of microminerals (manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)) and heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni)) in some tubers, legumes and cereals obtained from the markets in Abeokuta city, South-West Nigeria. The food samples were digested by dry ashing procedure and their minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show mean values of 1.67-32.00, 7.25-61.58, 1.59-10.56, 6.65-46.99, 0.02-0.58, <0.01-0.09, <0.08, and 0.06-0.14 mg/kg for Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni respectively. The levels of these metals in all the samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar tubers, legumes and cereals from various parts of the world. The daily intakes of the metals through tubers, legumes and cereals were found to be lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes proposed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  10. High pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Bei, Hongbin; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-01

    High-entropy alloys, near-equiatomic solid solutions of five or more elements, represent a new strategy for the design of materials with properties superior to those of conventional alloys. However, their phase space remains constrained, with transition metal high-entropy alloys exhibiting only face- or body-centered cubic structures. Here, we report the high-pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the prototypical high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi. This martensitic transformation begins at 14 GPa and is attributed to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the initial fcc structure. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, the transformation is sluggish, occurring over a range of >40 GPa. However, the behaviour of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures. This demonstrates a means of tuning the structures and properties of high-entropy alloys in a manner not achievable by conventional processing techniques.

  11. Charge transfer in MOH(H2O)(+) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) complexes revealed by vibrational spectroscopy of mass-selected ions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Brett M; Zhou, Jia; Garand, Etienne

    2015-10-21

    Charge transfer between a metal and its ligand is fundamental for the structure and reactivity of a metal complex as it directly dictates the distribution of electron density within the complex. To better understand such charge transfer interactions, we studied the vibrational spectra of mass-selected MOH(H2O)(+) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, or Zn) complexes, acquired using cryogenic ion infrared predissociation spectroscopy. We find that there is a partial charge transfer from the hydroxide anion to the metal center for these first-row transition metals, the extent of which is in the order of Mn < Fe < Co < Ni < Cu > Zn, dictated by the 2nd ionization energy of the bare metal. This gradual change across the metal series points to the complexity in the electronic structures of these transition metal complexes. Interestingly, the hydroxide ligand in these complexes can serves as a sensitive in situ probe of this charge transfer. Its vibrational frequency varies by >150 cm(-1) for different metal species, and it is dependent on the electric field produced by the charged metal center. This dramatic vibrational Stark shift is further modulated by the charge present on the hydroxide itself, providing a well-defined relationship between the observed hydroxide frequency and the effective electric field.

  12. Neutrino energy spectrum and electron capture of Nuclides 56Fe, 56Co, 56Ni, 56Mn, 56Cr and 56V in stellar interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    Based on the shell-model Monte Carlo method and random phase approximation theory, the neutrino energy spectrum (NES) and the electron capture (EC) of 56Fe 56Co 56Ni, 56Mn, 56Cr and 56V are investigated in presupernova surroundings. The results show that the EC rates are affected greatly at different densities and temperatures. The rates increase greatly and even exceed six orders of magnitude at lower temperature. On the other hand, the NES is very sensitive to stellar temperature and electron energy. The higher the temperature and the lower the electron energy, the larger the influence on NES is. For example, the maxima of NES in the ground state are 9.02, 160, 80, 24.01, 0.44, 1.42 me c2 for 56Fe, 56Co, 56Ni, 56Mn, 56Cr and 56V respectively at ρ7 = 10.7, Ye = 0.45 and T9 = 15. Furthermore, the influence on NES due to EC for different nuclei has some otherness because of different Q0-values. For example, the spectrum of 56Co shows a double bump structure.

  13. Development of a wear-resistant flux cored wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V system for deposit welding of mining equipment parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetkovsky, I. V.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Gusev, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of introduction of cobalt in the charge of the flux cored wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V system operating under abrasive and abrasive-shock loads is studied. In the laboratory conditions samples of flux cored wires were made, deposition was performed, the effect of cobalt on the hardness and the degree of wear was evaluated, metallographic studies were carried out. The influence of cobalt introduced into the charge of the flux cored wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V system on the structure, nature of nonmetallic inclusions, hardness and wear resistance of the weld metal was studied. In the laboratory conditions samples flux cored wire were made using appropriate powdered materials. As a carbon-fluorine-containing material dust from gas cleaning units of aluminum production was used. In the course of the study the chemical composition of the weld metal was determined, metallographic analysis was performed, mechanical properties were determined. As a result of the metallographic analysis the size of the former austenite grain, martensite dispersion in the structure of the weld metal, the level of contamination with its nonmetallic inclusions were established.

  14. Field dependence of the dynamic properties of colloidal suspensions of Mn 0.66Zn 0.34Fe 2O 4 and Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, P. C.; Charles, S. W.; Dormann, J. L.

    1999-07-01

    Results of the magnetic field dependence of the complex susceptibility, of colloidal suspensions of Mn 0.66Zn 0.34Fe 2O 4 and Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 particles in a polarising magnetic field, H, covering the range 0-116 kA m -1 are presented. Ferromagnetic resonance is observed for both samples and from plots of the dependence of the resonant frequency fres on polarising field, average values of anisotropy field, H¯A, and anisotropy constant, K¯, are determined. In the case of the Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 20 4 sample the variation in the ferromagnetic linewidth as a function of increasing polarising field shows a steady monotonic increase in contrast to that of the manganese zinc ferrite sample. This effect is attributed to the influence of the polarising field on the local canted structure.

  15. Experimental study of the microscopic mechanisms of magnetization reversal in FeNi/FeMn exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet polycrystalline bilayers using the magneto-optical indicator film technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornakov, V. S.; Kabanov, Yu. P.; Tikhomirov, O. A.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Urazhdin, S. V.; Yang, F. Y.; Chien, C. L.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.

    2006-05-01

    Remagnetization of the FeNi/FeMn bilayer was investigated using the magneto-optical indicator film imaging technique. We show the formation and breakdown of the homogeneous exchange spring into exchange springs of opposite chiralities during reversal in a rotating magnetic field. In reversal with a linear field, contrary to theoretical predictions, the winding of the exchange spring occurs without net magnetization rotation. It initiates by the formation of local spin spirals with opposite chirality and terminates with the formation of a single chiral state through the propagation of a specific kind of boundary separating regions with this single chirality from those with the mixed chiral state.

  16. Ageing behaviour of an Fe-20Ni-1.8Mn-1.6Ti-0.59Al (wt%) maraging alloy: clustering, precipitation and hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E.V. . E-mail: elena.pereloma@spme.monash.edu.au; Shekhter, A.; Miller, M.K.; Ringer, S.P.

    2004-11-08

    Changes in the solute distribution as well as the evolution of precipitation, microstructure and mechanical properties have been studied in an experimental maraging Fe-20Ni-1.8Mn-1.5Ti-0.59Al (wt%) alloy during ageing at 550 deg C. An initial hardening reaction within 5 s is reported, which is remarkable in terms of extent and rapidity. This strengthening was caused by the formation of complex multi-component atomic co-clusters containing primarily Ni-Ti-Al as well as some Mn. This cluster strengthened condition produced the optimum toughness observed throughout the ageing sequence. After 60 s ageing, the appearance of discrete precipitation of needle-shaped {eta}-Ni{sub 3}Ti particles was associated with a second rise in hardness towards an eventual peak at 600 s. This precipitation hardening was accompanied by an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in ductility. A reverse transformation of martensite to austenite occurs progressively during ageing and this contributes to the initial and secondary softening.

  17. Mechanism of Fluorescence Enhancement of Biosynthesized XFe2O4-BiFeO3 (X = Cr, Mn, Co, or Ni) Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Liang; Li, Hai-long; Dong, Hai-liang; Dong, Fa-qin; Song, Mian-xin; Wang, Li-sheng; Hou, Wen-ping; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Zhou, Tian-liang; Sun, Guang-ai; Li, Xin-xi; Xie, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Ferrites-bismuth ferrite is an intriguing option for medical diagnostic imaging device due to its magnetoelectric and enhanced near-infrared fluorescent properties. However, the embedded XFO nanoparticles are randomly located on the BFO membranes, making implementation in devices difficult. To overcome this, we present a facile bio-approach to produce XFe2O4-BiFeO3 (XFO-BFO) (X = Cr, Mn, Co, or Ni) membranes using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The perovskite BFO enhances the fluorescence intensity (at 660 and 832 nm) and surface potential difference (-469 385 meV and -80 525 meV) of the embedded spinel XFO. This mechanism is attributed to the interfacial coupling of the X-Fe (e- or h+) and O-O (h+) interfaces. Such a system could open up new ideas in the design of environmentally friendly fluorescent membranes.

  18. Ab initio study of MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) rutile-type compounds using the periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. R. Moreira, Ibério; Dovesi, Roberto; Roetti, Carla; Saunders, Victor R.; Orlando, Roberto

    2000-09-01

    The ab initio periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock method has been applied in the investigation of the ground-state structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the rutile-type compounds MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). All electron Gaussian basis sets have been used. The systems turn out to be large band-gap antiferromagnetic insulators; the optimized geometrical parameters are in good agreement with experiment. The calculated most stable electronic state shows an antiferromagnetic order in agreement with that resulting from neutron scattering experiments. The magnetic coupling constants between nearest-neighbor magnetic ions along the [001], [111], and [100] (or [010]) directions have been calculated using several supercells. The resulting ab initio magnetic coupling constants are reasonably satisfactory when compared with available experimental data. The importance of the Jahn-Teller effect in FeF2 and CoF2 is also discussed.

  19. Spectra-structure correlation based study of complex molecules of 1-isonicotinoyl-3-thiosemicarbazide with Ni2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ using Raman, UV-visible and DFT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Priyanka; Prakash, Om; Dani, R. K.; Bharty, M. K.; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2017-01-01

    In present work, we have analysed the structural property of newly synthesized ligand and its coordination complex molecules with Ni2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+. The spectroscopic techniques UV-visible, IR, Raman and DFT methods are used. The newly synthesized ligand 1-isonicotinoyl-3-thiosemicarbazide (Hintsc) has supramolecular architecture stabilized through various intermolecular interactions viz. Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N, Nsbnd H⋯S and Csbnd H⋯S type hydrogen bonds as observed in the single crystal of the ligand. The single crystals of the complexes could not be obtained with high degree of homogeneity from the solutions therefore plausible geometry of the complexes have been proposed on the basis of Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible and DFT methods and coordination properties of Ni2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ with ligand (Hintsc). The ligand Hintsc contains the thiosemicarbazide (TSC) moiety through which Ni2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ metals are coordinated. Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate the binding of Ni2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ with ligand (Hintsc). In Raman spectra, the disappearance of Nsbnd H bending/ Nsbnd H stretching and lower wavenumber region Raman spectra clearly confirms that Ni2+ and Mn2+ metals are coordinated through sbnd N3 and sbnd O sites of thiosemicarbazide (TSC) and consequently formed the chelate ring {C6sbnd N2sbnd N3sbnd Msbnd O}, where Mdbnd Ni2+ and Mn2+. In Fe complex, Fe3+ is coordinated through sbnd N2 and sbnd S sites of TSC and formed the chelate ring {C7sbnd N3sbnd N2sbnd Fesbnd S}. The structural and molecular property of 1-isonicotinoyl-3-thiosemicarbazide (Hintsc) and its complexes with transition metals Ni2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ have also been studied by DFT technique. By means of UV-visible, Raman spectroscopy and DFT technique, it is found that Ni2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ exhibit the octahedral coordination property with 1-isonicotinoyl-3-thiosemicarbazide (Hintsc).

  20. Structural, EPR and optical properties of Zn0.75TM0.25O (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) aerogel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayari, Amor; El Mir, Lassaad; Jürgen von Bardeleben, Hans

    2014-07-01

    ZnO nanopowders with different 3d transition metal (TM) doping (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) were synthesized by a new protocol based on slow hydrolyse of zinc acetate dissolved in methanol and supercritical drying in ethyl alcohol. The prepared Zn1-xTMxO (x = 0.25) nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The results demonstrated that the TM dopant significantly affects the structural and magnetic properties of the samples. From the XRD spectra, the lattice parameters, average crystallite size and microstrain values were obtained. All ZnTMO nanoparticles show an expansion of the lattice parameters compared those of the bulk samples. Unit cell volume was minimized with Fe doping and increased as the atomic number of the dopant moved away from Fe. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO for all the TM dopants. Electron microscopy characterization showed that the size of the Zn1-xTMxO particles is about 25 nm did not change significantly for the different dopants. Optical absorption measurements show that band gap energies of the TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles are around 3.2 eV. The Urbach energy of the ZnTMO nanopowders varies with the TM dopant. From magnetic measurements we observed the presence of room temperature ferromagnetic order in our TM-doped ZnO samples. EPR spectra confirm that TM ions were mainly incorporated as TM2+, occupying the Zn2+ sites in the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Room temperature ferromagnetic order was observed only in Ni- and Co-doped ZnO samples, whereas Mn- and Fe-doped powders showed only antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic interactions, respectively. The correlation between the structural and magnetic properties as a function of the TM dopant is discussed.

  1. (Bi,Sr) (Fe1-x,Mx)O3-δ (M = Co, Ni and Mn) Cathode Materials with Mixed Electro-Ionic Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Cheng J; Huang, Der-Rong; Wang, Dan

    2016-11-14

    (Bi,Sr)FeO3-δ (BSF) cathode materials doped with either Co, Ni or Mn are synthesized by an ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-citrate complexing method, and the effects of the doping level on the mixed electronic-ionic conductivity at various temperatures are studied up to 800 °C. The phase purity and solid solution limit are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ionic conductivity is measured by the four-probe direct current (DC) method, the valence state of Fe and Mn by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the oxygen non-stoichiometry by differential thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The doped ferrites show interesting electronic conductivity dependent on the testing temperature, implying two conductive mechanisms, either controlled by double exchange at lower temperatures or small polaron (electron-oxygen vacancy) conduction at temperatures greater than 400 °C. The results of Co-doped BSF (S50C20) show the best mixed conductivity among the ferrites, and this is used to assemble cells. The cell with a S50C20 cathode in the region of 600-800 °C is improved by 15% in maximum power density greater than the cell with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) due to the balanced contribution from oxygen ions, vacancies and electrons.

  2. (Bi,Sr) (Fe1−x,Mx)O3−δ (M = Co, Ni and Mn) Cathode Materials with Mixed Electro-Ionic Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Cheng J.; Huang, Der-Rong; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    (Bi,Sr)FeO3−δ (BSF) cathode materials doped with either Co, Ni or Mn are synthesized by an ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-citrate complexing method, and the effects of the doping level on the mixed electronic-ionic conductivity at various temperatures are studied up to 800 °C. The phase purity and solid solution limit are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ionic conductivity is measured by the four-probe direct current (DC) method, the valence state of Fe and Mn by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the oxygen non-stoichiometry by differential thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The doped ferrites show interesting electronic conductivity dependent on the testing temperature, implying two conductive mechanisms, either controlled by double exchange at lower temperatures or small polaron (electron-oxygen vacancy) conduction at temperatures greater than 400 °C. The results of Co-doped BSF (S50C20) show the best mixed conductivity among the ferrites, and this is used to assemble cells. The cell with a S50C20 cathode in the region of 600–800 °C is improved by 15% in maximum power density greater than the cell with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF) due to the balanced contribution from oxygen ions, vacancies and electrons. PMID:28774043

  3. Effect of H2O on metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe: Implications for the oxidation state of the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clesi, V.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Manthilake, G.; Fabbrizio, A.; Andrault, D.

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe during core mantle differentiation of terrestrial planets under hydrous conditions. For this, we equilibrated a molten hydrous CI chondrite model composition with various Fe-rich alloys in the system Fe-C-Ni-Co-Si-S in a multi-anvil over a range of P, T, fO2 and water content (5-20 GPa, 2073-2500 K, from 1 to 5 log units below the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer and for XH2O varying from 500 ppm to 1.5 wt%). By comparing the present experiments with the available data sets on dry systems, we observes that the effect of water on the partition coefficients of moderately siderophile elements is only moderate. For example, for iron we observed a decrease in the partition coefficient of Fe (Dmet/silFe) from 9.5 to 4.3, with increasing water content of the silicate melt, from 0 to 1.44 wt%, respectively. The evolution of metal-silicate partition coefficients of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe are modelled based on sets of empirical parameters. These empirical models are then used to refine the process of core segregation during accretion of Mars and the Earth. It appears that the likely presence of 3.5 wt% water on Mars during the core-mantle segregation could account for ∼74% of the FeO content of the Martian mantle. In contrast, water does not play such an important role for the Earth; only 4-6% of the FeO content of its mantle could be due to the water-induced Fe-oxidation, for a likely initial water concentration of 1.8 wt%. Thus, in order to reproduce the present-day FeO content of 8 wt% in the mantle, the Earth could initially have been accreted from a large fraction (between 85% and 90%) of reducing bodies (similar to EH chondrites), with 10-15% of the Earth's mass likely made of more oxidized components that introduced the major part of water and FeO to the Earth. This high proportion of enstatite chondrites in the original constitution of the Earth is consistent with the 17O,48Ca,50Ti,62Ni

  4. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of Non-Olivine Cmcm Polymorphs of LiMPO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) at Low Temperature and Pressure.

    PubMed

    Assat, Gaurav; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-10-19

    Lithium transition-metal phosphates, LiMPO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni), have attracted significant research interest over the past two decades as an important class of lithium ion battery cathode materials. However, almost all of the investigations thus far have focused on the olivine polymorph that exists in the orthorhombic Pnma space group. In this study, a distinct orthorhombic but non-olivine polymorph of LiMPO4, described by a Cmcm space group symmetry, has been synthesized with M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. Of these, LiMnPO4 in the Cmcm space group is reported for the first time. A rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal (MW-ST) heating process with tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as the solvent and transition-metal oxalates as precursors facilitates the synthesis of these materials. The peak reaction temperatures and pressures were below 300 °C and 30 bar, respectively, which are several orders of magnitude lower than those of the previously reported high-pressure (gigapascals) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the crystal structure with the Cmcm space group, and scanning electron micrographs indicate a submicrometer thin platelet-like morphology. The synthesis process conditions have been optimized to obtain impurity-free samples with the correct stoichiometry, as characterized by XRD and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Upon heat treatment to higher temperatures, an irreversible transformation of the metastable Cmcm polymorphs into olivine is observed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Although the electrochemical activity of these polymorphs as lithium ion cathodes turns out to be poor, the facile synthesis under mild conditions has permitted easy access to these materials in a nanomorphology, some of which were not even possible before.

  5. A comparative study on electrochemical cycling stability of lithium rich layered cathode materials Li1.2Ni0.13M0.13Mn0.54O2 where M = Fe or Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laisa, C. P.; Nanda Kumar, A. K.; Selva Chandrasekaran, S.; Murugan, P.; Lakshminarasimhan, N.; Govindaraj, R.; Ramesha, K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we compare electrochemical cycling stability of Fe containing Li rich phase Li1.2Ni0.13Fe0.13Mn0.54O2 (Fe-Li rich) with the well-known Co containing Li rich composition Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 (Co-Li rich). During the first charge, the activation plateau corresponding to removal of Li2O from the structure is smaller (removal of 0.6 Li) in the case of Fe-Li rich compared to Co-Li rich composition (0.8 Li removal). Consequently, the Fe compound shows better capacity retention; for example, after 100 cycles Fe-Li rich compound exhibits 20% capacity degradation where as it is about 40% in the case of Co-Li rich phase. The electrochemical and microscopy studies support the fact that compared to Co-Li rich compound, the Fe-Li rich composition display smaller voltage decay and reduced spinel conversion. XPS studies on charged/discharged Fe-Li rich samples show participation of Fe+3/Fe+4 redox during electrochemical cycling which is further supported by our first principles calculations. Also the temperature dependent magnetic studies on charge-discharged samples of Fe-Li rich compound point out that magnetic behavior is sensitive to cation oxidation states and Ni/Li disorder.

  6. Coating effect of LiFePO4 and Al2O3 on Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode surface for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seteni, Bonani; Rapulenyane, Nomasonto; Ngila, Jane Catherine; Mpelane, Siyasanga; Luo, Hongze

    2017-06-01

    Lithium-manganese-rich cathode material Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 is prepared by combustion method, and then coated with nano-sized LiFePO4 and nano-sized Al2O3 particles via a wet chemical process. The as-prepared Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2, LiFePO4-coated Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 and Al2O3-coated Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy shows the agglomeration of the materials and their nanoparticle size ∼100 nm. The transmission electron microscopy confirms that LiFePO4 forms a rough mat-like surface and Al2O3 remain as islandic particles on the surface of the Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 material. The Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 coated with LiFePO4 and Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 coated with Al2O3 exhibits improved electrochemical performance. The initial discharge capacity is enhanced to 267 mAhg-1 after the LiFePO4 coating and 285 mAhg-1 after the Al2O3 coating compared to the as-prepared Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 material that has an initial discharge capacity of 243 mAhg-1. Galvanostatic charge-discharge tests at C/10 display longer activation of Li2MnO3 phase and higher capacity retention of 88% after 20 cycles for Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-LiFePO4 compared to Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-Al2O3 of 80% after 20 cycles and LMNC of 80% after 20 cycles. Meanwhile Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-LiFePO4 also shows higher rate capability compared to Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-Al2O3.

  7. Influence of Na+, K+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions on the electrodeposition of Ni-Co alloys: Implications for the recycling of Ni-MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, S.; Orta-Rodriguez, R.; Delvasto, P.

    2017-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical recycling procedure for the recovery of a mixed rare earths sulfate and an electrodeposited Ni-Co alloy has been described. The latter step was found to be complex, due to the presence of several ions in the battery electrode materials. Electrochemical evaluation of the influence of the ions on the Ni-Co alloy deposition was carried out by cyclic voltammetry test. It was found that ions such as K+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ improved the current efficiency for the Ni-Co deposition process on a copper surface. On the other hand, Na+ and Zn2+ ions exhibited a deleterious behaviour, minimizing the values of the reduction current. The results were used to suggest the inclusion of additional steps in the process flow diagram of the recycling operation, in order to eliminate deleterious ions from the electroplating solution.

  8. Electronic, magnetic and spectroscopic properties of doped Mn(1-x) A x WO4 (A  =  Co, Cu, Ni and Fe) multiferroic: an experimental and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, Priyanath; Bera, G.; Rambabu, P.; Turpu, G. R.; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Singh, R. P.; Sen, Pintu; Das, Pradip

    2017-02-01

    The influence of dopants (Co, Cu, Fe and Ni) on the optical, electronic and magnetic properties of multiferroic MnWO4 was studied using Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), magnetization measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The evolution of Raman spectra with different elemental substitutions at the Mn site was also studied, where the peak width increased with doping of higher mass elements (Co, Cu, Fe and Ni). UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on polycrystalline Mn(1-x) A x WO4 (A  =  Co, Cu, Fe and Ni) (0  ⩽  x   ⩽  0. was performed. The evaluated electronic band gap decreasing with successive Co, Cu and Fe doping reflected the lower ionic radius of the substituted element, and for Ni-doped MnWO4 the band gap increased slightly compared to the parent MnWO4. Bader charge transfer and a partial density of states (PDOS) analysis from DFT simulations predict the appearance of impurity states in the band gap region (of pure MnWO4) from the d orbital of the dopant (Co, Cu and Fe) hybridized with the p orbital of the bonded O atoms due to charge transfer from O to the dopant, and reduced the band gap of Co, Cu and Fe-doped MnWO4. On the other hand, for Ni-doped MnWO4 strong W-O hybridization occurring due to large charge transfer from oxygen to tungsten leads to an increase in the band gap. The band gap, computed using the GGA  +  U method, is close to the experimental value. The signature of the d-d transition observed in the UV spectra is explained in terms of the crystal field stabilization energy caused by the octahedral distortion present in the lattice. Three different antiferromagnetic phases (AF1, AF2 and AF3) are identified in MnWO4 and also for the Co (18.75%)-doped sample. For Cu-doped samples, suppression of the AF1 phase and stabilization of the AF2 phase is observed up to 2 K. Successive doping of Cu leads to the diminution of magnetic frustration. A new

  9. Electronic, magnetic and spectroscopic properties of doped Mn(1-x) A x WO4 (A  =  Co, Cu, Ni and Fe) multiferroic: an experimental and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Mal, Priyanath; Bera, G; Rambabu, P; Turpu, G R; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M; Singh, R P; Sen, Pintu; Das, Pradip

    2017-02-22

    The influence of dopants (Co, Cu, Fe and Ni) on the optical, electronic and magnetic properties of multiferroic MnWO4 was studied using Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), magnetization measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The evolution of Raman spectra with different elemental substitutions at the Mn site was also studied, where the peak width increased with doping of higher mass elements (Co, Cu, Fe and Ni). UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on polycrystalline Mn(1-x) A x WO4 (A  =  Co, Cu, Fe and Ni) (0  ⩽  [Formula: see text]  ⩽  0. was performed. The evaluated electronic band gap decreasing with successive Co, Cu and Fe doping reflected the lower ionic radius of the substituted element, and for Ni-doped MnWO4 the band gap increased slightly compared to the parent MnWO4. Bader charge transfer and a partial density of states (PDOS) analysis from DFT simulations predict the appearance of impurity states in the band gap region (of pure MnWO4) from the d orbital of the dopant (Co, Cu and Fe) hybridized with the p orbital of the bonded O atoms due to charge transfer from O to the dopant, and reduced the band gap of Co, Cu and Fe-doped MnWO4. On the other hand, for Ni-doped MnWO4 strong W-O hybridization occurring due to large charge transfer from oxygen to tungsten leads to an increase in the band gap. The band gap, computed using the GGA  +  U method, is close to the experimental value. The signature of the d-d transition observed in the UV spectra is explained in terms of the crystal field stabilization energy caused by the octahedral distortion present in the lattice. Three different antiferromagnetic phases (AF1, AF2 and AF3) are identified in MnWO4 and also for the Co (18.75%)-doped sample. For Cu-doped samples, suppression of the AF1 phase and stabilization of the AF2 phase is observed up to 2 K. Successive doping of Cu leads to the diminution of magnetic

  10. Designed synthesis of MOx (M = Zn, Fe, Sn, Ni, Mn, Co, Ce, Mg, Ag), Pt, and Au nanoparticles supported on hierarchical CuO hollow structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zailei; Jung, Ji Chul; Yan, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Despite intensive research into support substrates for the dispersal of nanoparticles and their applications, there has been a lack of general methods to produce metal oxide hollow substrates supporting a wide range of metal and metal oxides. Herein, a synthetic protocol for the preparation of CuO hollow structure-supported MOx (M = Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn, Mn, Co, Ce, Mg, and Ag) and noble metals (Pt and Au) with the desired properties and shell structure, such as CuO/Fe2O3, CuO/ZnO, CuO/SnO2, CuO/MgO, CuO/NiO, CuO/Mn2O3, CuO/CoO, CuO/CeO2, CuO/Ag2O, CuO/Pt, CuO/Au hollow cubes, CuO/ZnO double-shell hollow cubes, CuO/SnO2 double-shell hollow octahedra, CuO/SnO2/Fe2O3 and CuO/Mn2O3/NiO double-shell hollow cubes, was developed based on controlled calcination and etching. These hybrid hollow structures were employed not only as support substrates but also as active constituents for catalytic reactions. As an example, we demonstrated that CuO/ZnO hollow cubes are remarkably efficient in converting solid chitin biomass to liquid chemicals in methanol. In addition, CuO/ZnO double-shell hollow cubes were highly effective in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the presence of H2O2, whereas CuO/Pt and CuO/Au hollow cubes promoted the oxidation of benzyl alcohol in pure O2. The strategy developed in this work extends the controllable fabrication of high-quality CuO hollow structure-supported nanoparticles using various compositions and shell structures, paving the way to the exploration and systematic comparison of these materials in a wider range of applications.

  11. Molten Pool Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Pulsed Current Double-Sided Synchronization GTA Welded Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wang, Kehong; Feng, Yuehai; Chen, Jiahe

    2017-02-01

    Double-sided synchronization vertical gas tungsten arc welding (DSSVW) procedure was used to weld high-nitrogen low-nickel stainless steel Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N without groove and filler wire. First, the molten pool behaviors and appearances of pulsed current DSSVW (PC-DSSVW) and constant current DSSVW (CC-DSSVW) were comparatively analyzed. The periodic variation occurs in the width of both the anode region of the arc and the molten pool tail during PC-DSSVW, while the contact angle first increases and then decreases, and both the width of the anode region and the length of arc plume increase progressively in CC-DSSVW. It is found that the weld appearance of PC-DSSVW is superior to that of CC-DSSVW. Second, the forces of the DSSVW molten pool were analyzed. The result indicates that the molten pool of the DSSVW procedure is in a state of unstable equilibrium, and it will easily lose balance after being disturbed, resulting in the asymmetrical weld or hump bead. Third, the PC-DSSVW experiments at various welding speeds were conducted to study the influence of welding speed on the weld profile, microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness. Furthermore, the solidification mode of Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N was predicted to help determine the microstructure of the welded joint. Results indicate that the weld width, weld reinforcement and melting area all increase with decreasing welding speed, and Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N solidifies as A mode. The microstructure of the base metal (BM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) is equiaxed austenite and that of the fusion zone (FZ) is austenite dendrite with some chromium carbides dispersed in the grain boundary; with decreasing welding speed, grains become coarse. The maximum tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of PC-DSSVW joint are 860 MPa and 8.1%, and the elongation decreases dramatically with decreasing welding speed. The impact toughness decreases substantially compared to the BM, achieving 48.2% of the BM.

  12. Molten Pool Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Pulsed Current Double-Sided Synchronization GTA Welded Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wang, Kehong; Feng, Yuehai; Chen, Jiahe

    2016-12-01

    Double-sided synchronization vertical gas tungsten arc welding (DSSVW) procedure was used to weld high-nitrogen low-nickel stainless steel Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N without groove and filler wire. First, the molten pool behaviors and appearances of pulsed current DSSVW (PC-DSSVW) and constant current DSSVW (CC-DSSVW) were comparatively analyzed. The periodic variation occurs in the width of both the anode region of the arc and the molten pool tail during PC-DSSVW, while the contact angle first increases and then decreases, and both the width of the anode region and the length of arc plume increase progressively in CC-DSSVW. It is found that the weld appearance of PC-DSSVW is superior to that of CC-DSSVW. Second, the forces of the DSSVW molten pool were analyzed. The result indicates that the molten pool of the DSSVW procedure is in a state of unstable equilibrium, and it will easily lose balance after being disturbed, resulting in the asymmetrical weld or hump bead. Third, the PC-DSSVW experiments at various welding speeds were conducted to study the influence of welding speed on the weld profile, microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness. Furthermore, the solidification mode of Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N was predicted to help determine the microstructure of the welded joint. Results indicate that the weld width, weld reinforcement and melting area all increase with decreasing welding speed, and Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N solidifies as A mode. The microstructure of the base metal (BM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) is equiaxed austenite and that of the fusion zone (FZ) is austenite dendrite with some chromium carbides dispersed in the grain boundary; with decreasing welding speed, grains become coarse. The maximum tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of PC-DSSVW joint are 860 MPa and 8.1%, and the elongation decreases dramatically with decreasing welding speed. The impact toughness decreases substantially compared to the BM, achieving 48.2% of the BM.

  13. Photon Absorption Improvement in Reststrahlen Band of Mn1.56Co0.96- x Ni0.48Fe x O4 Series Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Shi, Qin; Ren, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Hewei; Bao, Shuai; Wang, Lei; Bian, Liang; Xu, Jinbao; Chang, Aimin

    2017-08-01

    Mn1.56Co0.96- x Ni0.48Fe x O4 series films have been fabricated on SiO2/Si(100) substrates by chemical solution deposition and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and their structural and mid-infrared (IR) properties investigated. The results indicate slight improvement in the microstructure and density of the films with increasing Fe content. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed variation in the local distortion and cation distribution at octahedral sites with elevated Fe content. The IR optical properties of the films were investigated at room temperature in the wavelength range from 1.5 μm to 25 μm. A strong absorption peak corresponding to Reststrahlen band located at 19.5 μm was observed and its absorption intensity found to improve with increasing Fe content in the films. The maximum absorption coefficient was calculated to be about 18,000 cm-1. The results bear technological significance for the design and fabrication of devices for IR detection applications.

  14. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni)

    PubMed Central

    Molenda, Janina; Kulka, Andrzej; Milewska, Anna; Zając, Wojciech; Świerczek, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV) application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni), solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 < y ≤ 1). An increase of electrical conductivity for the substitution level y = 0.25 was observed. Electrons of 3d metals other than iron do not contribute to the electrical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4, and substitution level y > 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level. PMID:28809235

  15. Structural and electronic properties of half-Heusler alloys PtXBi (with X=Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) calculated from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenchao; Wang, Xiaofang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Damewood, L.; Fong, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    First principles calculations with spin polarization based on density functional theory have been performed on half-Heusler alloys PtXBi, with X=Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, in three different atomic configurations (i.e. α, β, and γ phases). For each configuration, their optimized lattice constants are determined. Electronic and magnetic properties are also investigated. The differences reflect the atomic arrangements of the three phases and varied transition metal elements X. Meanwhile, the possibility of having the integer magnetic moment for each phase is explored. PtMnBi in α phase show half-metallic (HM) properties when its lattice constant is reduced from -3.0% to -11.2% with magnetic moment consistent with the values given by the modified Slater-Pauling rule. Additionally, we examined the effects of the spin-orbit (S-O) interaction on half-metal PtMnBi by comparing the relative shifts of the valence bands and the indirect semiconducting gap with respect to the spin polarized results.

  16. Composition Dependence of Phase Stability, Deformation Mechanisms, and Mechanical Properties of the CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasan, C. C.; Deng, Y.; Pradeep, K. G.; Yao, M. J.; Springer, H.; Raabe, D.

    2014-10-01

    The proposal of configurational entropy maximization to produce massive solid-solution (SS)-strengthened, single-phase high-entropy alloy (HEA) systems has gained much scientific interest. Although most of this interest focuses on the basic role of configurational entropy in SS formability, setting future research directions also requires the overall property benefits of massive SS strengthening to be carefully investigated. To this end, taking the most promising CoCrFeMnNi HEA system as the starting point, we investigate SS formability, deformation mechanisms, and the achievable mechanical property ranges of different compositions and microstructural states. A comparative assessment of the results with respect to room temperature behavior of binary Fe-Mn alloys reveals only limited benefits of massive SS formation. Nevertheless, the results also clarify that the compositional requirements in this alloy system to stabilize the face-centered cubic (fcc) SS are sufficiently relaxed to allow considering nonequiatomic compositions and exploring improved strength-ductility combinations at reduced alloying costs.

  17. Gaussian Modification of Neutrino Energy Losses in Electron Capture Processes of Nuclides 56Fe, 56Co, 56Ni and 56Mn in Stellar Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-jing; Luo, Zhi-quan

    2010-10-01

    By using the Gaussian modification method, the neutrino energy losses in the electron capture processes of nuclides 56Fe, 56Co, 56Ni and 56Mn are investigated. The results show that the energy loss rate of neutrinos is increased due to the Gaussian modification of the energy level distribution of the Gamow-Teller (GT) resonance transitions of nuclides. In the reactions dominated by the electron capture processes of the low-energy transitions, the Gaussian modification has a very small influence on the neutrino energy losses. When the high-energy G-T resonance transition is the main electron capture process, the influence on the neutrino energy losses will be greatly increased. For example, the correctional differences of nuclide 56Fe are about 2 orders of magnitude when the density ρ7 = 100 (ρ7 is in units of 10 7 mol × cm -3) and the half width of Gaussian function Δ = 14.3, 18.3, 22.3 Mev, and those of nuclide 56Ni are about 60% and 40% when Δ = 6.3, 18.3 Mev, respectively.

  18. Twinning-mediated work hardening and texture evolution in CrCoFeMnNi high entropy alloys at cryogenic temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, T. K.; Wu, Z.; Stoica, A. D.; ...

    2017-06-17

    The cryogenic plastic deformation of CrCoFeMnNi high entropy alloy is characterized by three distinct stages based on the change of the work hardening rate. Microstructure and bulk texture at different strain levels were studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and neutron diffraction. Our findings indicate that the deformation twins led to the constant work hardening rate at Stage II and resulted in the appearance of <115 >//TA texture component, while the dislocation slip was involved all though the entire plastic deformation. As a result, the twinning-mediated tensile plastic deformation at cryogenic temperature finally induced the strong {111}- < 112 >more » texture component and minor {001} < 110 > texture component accompanied with twinning-induced {115}< 552 > texture component.« less

  19. Evolution of microstructure and crystallographic texture in severely cold rolled high entropy equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi alloy during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiaraj, G. D.; Lee, C.; Tsai, C. W.; Yeh, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, P. P.

    2015-04-01

    An equiatomic FCC CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy (HEA) was heavily cold rolled up to 90% reduction in thickness followed by isochronal annealing for 1 hour at temperatures ranging between 700°C to 1100°C. A strong brass texture was observed in the cold-rolled condition indicating the low stacking fault energy of the material. A fine stable microstructure was observed during annealing at low temperatures. The recrystallization texture was characterized by the presence of deformation texture components, in particular, the α-fiber (ND//<110>), S ({123} <634>) and the typical brass recrystallization texture component ({236} <385>). Annealing twins were shown to have important effect on the formation of annealing texture.

  20. Monte Carlo and Ab-initio calculation of TM (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) doped MgH2 hydride: GGA and SIC approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmani, E.; Laghrissi, A.; Laamouri, R.; Benchafia, E.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-02-01

    MgH2: TM (TM: V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that the ferromagnetic state is stable when TM introduces magnetic moments as well as intrinsic carriers in TM: Co, V, Cr, Ti; Mg0.95TM0.05H2. Some of the DMS Ferro magnets under study exhibit a half-metallic behavior, which make them suitable for spintronic applications. The double exchange is shown to be the underlying mechanism responsible for the magnetism of such materials. The exchange interactions obtained from first principle calculations and used in a classical Ising model by a Monte Carlo approach resulted in ferromagnetic states with Curie temperatures within the ambient conditions.

  1. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in [1 ¯ 11 ]-oriented single crystals of FeNiMnCrCo high entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, Irina; Chumlyakov, Yurii; Pobedennaya, Zinaida; Kuksgauzen, Dmitrii; Karaman, Ibrahim; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of fcc Fe20Ni20Mn20Cr20Co20 (atom percent) high entropy alloy oriented along the [1 ¯11 ] direction are used to study flow curves and deformation mechanisms—slip, twinning under tensile deformation at early stages of plastic flow, ɛ = 2.5-5.0%, at the test temperature of 77 and 296 K. It is shown that twinning in [1 ¯11 ] -oriented single crystals is observed from the beginning of plastic flow when ɛ = 2.5-5.0% from 77 to 296 K. Plastic flow in [1 ¯11 ]-oriented single crystals under tension is developed with the high strain hardening coefficients 1800 and 2000 MPa, respectively, at 296 and 77 K. It is also characterized by a good plasticity of 58 and 60% and by a high level of stresses before fracture, 980 and 1580 MPa, respectively, at 296 and 77 K.

  2. Thermodynamic laws of the oxygen solubility in liquid metals (Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr) and the formation of oxygen-containing solutions in the alloys based on them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paderin, S. N.; Shil'nikov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The solubility of oxygen in liquid Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Cr metals (Group IV in the periodic table) has been found for the first time. Linear dependences of the oxygen solubility on the standard Gibbs energy for the oxidation reaction of a liquid metal with gaseous oxygen are found. The revealed function of oxygen solubility is of scientific importance and allows one to develop a theory of oxygen solutions in liquid metals and liquid multicomponent metallic compositions and to calculate the energies of mixing of liquid metals with oxygen from Δ G MO ° for metal oxidation reactions with allowance for pseudoregular-solution model equations. Using the energies of mixing and metal compositions, we calculated the equilibrium oxygen concentrations in a metal molten pool at the end of oxidation stage of melting 08Kh18N10T steel in an arc furnace. This fact indicates practical importance of the found function of the oxygen solubility in metals.

  3. Magnetoelectric coupling and dielectric study of xNiFe2O4 - (1-x)ErMnO3 lead free multiferroic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Mandal, S. K.; Dey, P.

    2017-05-01

    We have investigated magnetoelectric coupling and dielectric properties of xNiFe2O4 - (1-x)ErMnO3 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) lead free multiferroic nanocomposites prepared through pyrophoric reaction method. The magnetoelectric response is observed for lead free series of nanocomposites at room temperature at frequency of 95 Hz and 1 kHz, which is depending on EMO volume fraction. Furthermore, we have studied the dielectric properties of series of nanocomposites at dc magnetic field of 0 and 1800 Oe. Enhanced value of dielectric constant has been observed at low frequency region which is attributed due to the presence of interfacial polarization of the sample.

  4. Microstructural observation of helium implanted and creep ruptured Fe 25%Ni 15%Cr alloys containing various MC and MN formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Norikazu; Nagakawa, Johsei; Murase, Yoshiharu; Shiraishi, Haruki

    1998-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopic observations have been carried out on Fe-25%Ni-15%Cr austenitic alloys with various MX (M=V, Ti, Nb, Zr; X=C, N) stabilizers after helium implantation and creep rupture at 923 K. It is shown that suppression of helium embrittlement can be achieved through a higher dispersion density of incoherent precipitates because of their high capability of bubble entrapment. A good agreement between the average distance of grain boundary bubbles exceeding the minimum critical size and the spacing of cavity traces on intergranularly fractured surfaces is obtained. This suggests that the enhancement of grain boundary decohesion by helium is a result of unstable growth of super-critical helium bubbles.

  5. Magnetocaloric effect and negative thermal expansion in hexagonal Fe doped MnNiGe compounds with a magnetoelastic AFM-FM-like transition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Liu, Enke; Zhou, Haichun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Jing, Chao

    2017-01-30

    We report a detailed study of two successive first-order transitions, including a martensitic transition (MT) and an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM)-like transition, in Mn1-xFexNiGe (x = 0, 0.06, 0.11) alloys by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization and linear thermal expansion measurements. Such an AFM-FM-like transition occurring in the martensitic state has seldom been observed in the M(T) curves. The results of Arrott plot and linear relationship of the critical temperature with M(2) provide explicit evidence of its first-order magnetoelastic nature. On the other hand, their performances as magnetocaloric and negative thermal expansion materials were characterized. The isothermal entropy change for a field change of 30 kOe reaches an impressive value of -25.8 J/kg K at 203 K for x = 0.11 compared to the other two samples. It demonstrates that the magneto-responsive ability has been significantly promoted since an appropriate amount of Fe doping can break the local Ni-6Mn AFM configuration. Moreover, the Fe-doped samples reveal both the giant negative thermal expansion and near-zero thermal expansion for different temperature ranges. For instance, the average thermal expansion coefficient ā of x = 0.06 reaches -60.7 × 10(-6)/K over T = 231-338 K and 0.6 × 10(-6)/K over T = 175-231 K during cooling.

  6. Lung bioaccessibility of As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in fine fraction (<20μm) from contaminated soils and mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Guney, Mert; Bourges, Clothilde M-J; Chapuis, Robert P; Zagury, Gerald J

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims (1) to characterize contaminated soils (n=6) and mine tailings samples (n=3) for As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn content; and (2) to assess elemental lung bioaccessibility in fine fraction (d<20μm which might contribute to airborne particulate matter (PM) and thus be inhaled) by means of in vitro tests using Gamble's solution (GS) and an artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF). Elemental concentrations were high in the majority of samples, particularly for As (up to 2040mg·kg(-1)), Fe (up to 30.7%), Mn (up to 4360mg·kg(-1)), and Zn (up to 4060mg·kg(-1)); and elemental concentrations (As, Cu, and Ni) in the sieved fraction (d<20μm) obtained from contaminated soils were significantly higher than in the bulk fraction (<160μm). In vitro tests with ALF yielded much higher bioaccessibility than tests with GS, and the use of ALF in addition to GS is recommended to assess lung bioaccessibility. Bioaccessibility in ALF was high for all elements after 2weeks of testing both in terms of concentration (e.g. up to 1730mg·kg(-1) for As) and percentages (e.g. up to 81% for Pb). The elemental solubilization rate generally declined rapidly and continuously with time. Similarly, bioaccessibility increased rapidly and tended to reach a plateau with time for most samples and metals. However, it is not possible to recommend a general testing duration as the solubilization behavior was highly element and sample-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetocaloric effect and negative thermal expansion in hexagonal Fe doped MnNiGe compounds with a magnetoelastic AFM-FM-like transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Liu, Enke; Zhou, Haichun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Jing, Chao

    2017-01-01

    We report a detailed study of two successive first-order transitions, including a martensitic transition (MT) and an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM)-like transition, in Mn1-xFexNiGe (x = 0, 0.06, 0.11) alloys by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization and linear thermal expansion measurements. Such an AFM-FM-like transition occurring in the martensitic state has seldom been observed in the M(T) curves. The results of Arrott plot and linear relationship of the critical temperature with M2 provide explicit evidence of its first-order magnetoelastic nature. On the other hand, their performances as magnetocaloric and negative thermal expansion materials were characterized. The isothermal entropy change for a field change of 30 kOe reaches an impressive value of -25.8 J/kg K at 203 K for x = 0.11 compared to the other two samples. It demonstrates that the magneto-responsive ability has been significantly promoted since an appropriate amount of Fe doping can break the local Ni-6Mn AFM configuration. Moreover, the Fe-doped samples reveal both the giant negative thermal expansion and near-zero thermal expansion for different temperature ranges. For instance, the average thermal expansion coefficient ā of x = 0.06 reaches -60.7 × 10-6/K over T = 231-338 K and 0.6 × 10-6/K over T = 175-231 K during cooling.

  8. Magnetocaloric effect and negative thermal expansion in hexagonal Fe doped MnNiGe compounds with a magnetoelastic AFM-FM-like transition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Liu, Enke; Zhou, Haichun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Jing, Chao

    2017-01-01

    We report a detailed study of two successive first-order transitions, including a martensitic transition (MT) and an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM)-like transition, in Mn1-xFexNiGe (x = 0, 0.06, 0.11) alloys by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization and linear thermal expansion measurements. Such an AFM-FM-like transition occurring in the martensitic state has seldom been observed in the M(T) curves. The results of Arrott plot and linear relationship of the critical temperature with M2 provide explicit evidence of its first-order magnetoelastic nature. On the other hand, their performances as magnetocaloric and negative thermal expansion materials were characterized. The isothermal entropy change for a field change of 30 kOe reaches an impressive value of −25.8 J/kg K at 203 K for x = 0.11 compared to the other two samples. It demonstrates that the magneto-responsive ability has been significantly promoted since an appropriate amount of Fe doping can break the local Ni-6Mn AFM configuration. Moreover, the Fe-doped samples reveal both the giant negative thermal expansion and near-zero thermal expansion for different temperature ranges. For instance, the average thermal expansion coefficient ā of x = 0.06 reaches −60.7 × 10−6/K over T = 231–338 K and 0.6 × 10−6/K over T = 175–231 K during cooling. PMID:28134355

  9. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadef, Fatma

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe-Al-X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe-Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems.

  10. Defect chemistry of La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Cu): Relevance to catalytic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Read, M.S.D.; Islam, M.S.; King, F.; Hancock, F.E.

    1999-03-04

    Atomistic computer simulation techniques are used to investigate the defect properties of the La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) layered perovskite which are related to the mode of operation of the catalyst. The theoretical techniques are based upon efficient energy minimization procedures and Mott-Littleton methodology for accurate defect modeling. Effective ionic pairwise interatomic potentials correctly reproduce the tetragonal crystal structure. The formation energy of intrinsic atomic defects of the Schottky and Frenkel type are not particularly favorable. The oxidation of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} was found to be an exothermic process with charge compensation occurring via hole formation preferentially on the Ni site. The highest solubility, for a range of dopants, is calculated for Sr and Ca, in accord with observation. Hole formation was most favorable for Mn > Fe > Co > Ni(undoped) > Cu, demonstrating that Mn and Fe enhance Ni(III) hole formation, which is believed to be an important factor in the observed catalytic activity.

  11. The effects of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Fanling; Qiu, Jingwen; Baker, Ian; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-08-20

    In this paper, As-cast Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21, which consists of aligned, 50 nm, (Ni, Al)-rich B2, and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases, was annealed at a variety of temperatures up to 1423 K and the microstructure and mechanical properties were examined. It was shown that the as-cast microstructure arises from a eutectoid transformation at ~1300 K. Annealing at temperatures ≤1073 K produces β-Mn-structured precipitates and hardness values up to 816 HV, while annealing at temperatures >1073 K leads to dramatic coarsening of the two-phase B2/f.c.c. microstructure (up to 5.5 µm after 50 h at 1273 K), but does not lead to β-Mn precipitation. Interestingly, annealing at temperatures >1073 K delays the onset of β-Mn precipitation during subsequent anneals at lower temperatures. Coarsening the B2/f.c.c. lamellar structure by annealing at higher temperatures softens it and leads to increases in ductility from fracture before yield to ~8 % elongation. Finally, the presence of β-Mn precipitates makes the very fine, brittle B2/f.c.c. microstructures even more brittle, but significant ductility (8.4 % elongation) is possible even with β-Mn precipitates present if the B2/f.c.c. matrix is coarse and, hence, more ductile.

  12. Atomic Linkage Flexibility Tuned Isotropic Negative, Zero, and Positive Thermal Expansion in MZrF6 (M = Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Zn).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Xu, Jiale; Wang, Na; Han, Fei; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Rong, Yangchun; Huang, Rongjin; Deng, Jinxia; Li, Laifeng; Xing, Xianran

    2016-11-09

    The controllable isotropic thermal expansion with a broad coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) window is intriguing but remains challenge. Herein we report a cubic MZrF6 series (M = Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn), which exhibit controllable thermal expansion over a wide temperature range and with a broader CTE window (-6.69 to +18.23 × 10(-6)/K). In particular, an isotropic zero thermal expansion (ZTE) is achieved in ZnZrF6, which is one of the rarely documented high-temperature isotropic ZTE compounds. By utilizing temperature-dependent high-energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering diffraction, it is found that the flexibility of metal···F atomic linkages in MZrF6 plays a critical role in distinct thermal expansions. The flexible metal···F atomic linkages induce negative thermal expansion (NTE) for CaZrF6, whereas the stiff ones bring positive thermal expansion (PTE) for NiZrF6. Thermal expansion could be transformed from striking negative, to zero, and finally to considerable positive though tuning the flexibility of metal···F atomic linkages by substitution with a series of cations on M sites of MZrF6. The present study not only extends the scope of NTE families and rare high-temperature isotropic ZTE compounds but also proposes a new method to design systematically controllable isotropic thermal expansion frameworks from the perspective of atomic linkage flexibility.

  13. Effects of hydrogen annealing and codoping (Mn, Fe, Ni, Ga, Y) of nanocrystalline Cu-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bououdina, Mohamed; Aziz Dakhel, Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) codoped with Cu and M ions (M = Mn, Fe, Ni, Ga, Y) powders were synthesised by simultaneous thermal co-decomposition of a mixture of zinc and metal complexes. The synthesised chemical formula for the prepared solid solution is Zn0.97Cu0.01M0.02O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of single nanocrystalline structure of the as-prepared powders, thus, both Cu and M ions were incorporated into ZnO lattice forming solid solutions. Magnetic measurements reveal that all the as-synthesised doped ZnO powders gained partial (RT-FM) properties but with different strength and BH-behaviour depends on the nature of the doping (M). Furthermore, H2 post-treatment was subsequently carried out and it was found that the observed RT-FM is enhanced. Very interestingly, in case of Ni dopant, the whole powder becomes completely ferromagnetic with coercivity (Hc), remanence (Mr) and saturation magnetisation (Ms) of 133.6 Oe, 1.086 memu/g and 4.959 memu/g, respectively. The value of Ms was increased by ~ 95% in comparison with as-prepared.

  14. Stability and mobility of small vacancy-solute complexes in Fe-MnNi and dilute Fe-X alloys: A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Luca; Malerba, Lorenzo; Olsson, Pär

    2015-06-01

    Manganese and nickel solute atoms in irradiated ferritic steels play a major role in the nanostructural evolution of reactor pressure vessels (RPV), as they are responsible for the formation of embrittling nanofeatures even in the absence of copper. The stability and mobility of small vacancy-solute clusters is here studied with an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo approach based on ab initio calculations, in order to investigate the influence of Mn and Ni on the early life of small radiation-induced vacancy clusters, and to provide the necessary parameters for advanced object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the RPV long-term nanostructural evolution. Migration barriers are obtained by direct ab initio calculations or through a binding energy model based on ab initio data. Our results show a clear immobilizing and stabilizing effect on vacancy clusters as the solute content is increased, whereas the only evident difference between the two solute species is a somewhat longer elongation of the cluster mean free path in the presence of a few Mn atoms.

  15. Effect of alloy grain size and silicon content on the oxidation of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si alloys in pure O sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.N.; Yurek, G.J. )

    1991-10-01

    Austenitic Fe-18Cr-20Ni-1.5 Mn alloys containing 0, 0.6, and 1.5 wt% Si were produced both by conventional and rapid solidification processing. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation resistance of the alloys were studied at 900C in pure O{sub 2} to elucidate the role of alloy microstructure and Si content on oxidation properties. The conventionally-processes, large-grained alloy that contained no silicon formed Fe-rich nodules during oxidation. The nodule formation was effectively eliminated by either reducing the alloy grain size by rapid solidification or by adding Si to the alloy. The lowest weight grains were achieved when a continuous silica layer formed between the alloy and the external chromia scale. The formation of the continuous silica layer required a combination of fine alloy grain size and high Si content. The presence of S in the alloy was found to be detrimental to oxide scale adherence when the silica layer was continuous.

  16. Heterobimetallic oxalato-bridged M(II)Re(IV) complexes (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni): synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Chiozzone, Raúl; González, Ricardo; Kremer, Carlos; De Munno, Giovanni; Armentano, Donatella; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Faus, Juan

    2003-02-24

    Four rhenium(IV)-M(II) bimetallic complexes of formula [ReCl(4)(mu-ox)M(dmphen)(2)].CH(3)CN with M = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), and Ni (4) (ox = oxalate anion, dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and the crystal structures of 1 and 3 determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 and 3 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/c, with a = 16.008(4) A, b = 12.729(2) A, c = 18.909(5) A, beta = 112.70(2) degrees, and Z = 4 for 1 and a = 15.998(4) A, b = 12.665(2) A, c = 18.693(5) A, beta = 112.33(2) degrees, and Z = 4, for 3. The structure of 1 and 3 is made up of neutral [ReCl(4)(mu-ox)M(dmphen)(2)] bimetallic units (M = Mn (1), Co (3)) and acetonitrile molecules of crystallization. M(II) and Re(IV) metal ions exhibit distorted octahedral coordination geometries being bridged by a bis(bidentate) oxalato ligand. The magnetic behavior of 1-4 has been investigated over the temperature range 2.0-300 K. A very weak antiferromagnetic coupling between Re(IV) and Mn(II) occurs in 1 (J = -0.1 cm(-)(1)), whereas a significant ferromagnetic interaction between Re(IV) and M(II) is observed in 2-4 [J = +2.8 (2), +5.2 (3), and +5.9 cm(-)(1) (4)].

  17. Simultaneous release of sulfide with Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in marine harbour sediment measured using a combined metal/sulfide DGT probe.

    PubMed

    Naylor, C; Davison, W; Motelica-Heino, M; Van Den Berg, G A; Van Der Heijdt, L M

    2004-07-26

    The technique of DGT (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films) was further developed to allow simultaneous measurement of sulfide and trace metals at the same location in sediment. The new combined DGT probe consisted of a layer of gel impregnated with AgI, overlain by (1) a layer of gel containing Chelex, (2) a layer of gel and (3) a filter membrane. Diffusion of sulfide was controlled by layers (1) to (3), while diffusion of metals was controlled by layers (2) and (3). The Chelex gel trapped metals that were measured after elution with acid. The AgI gel trapped sulfide through the formation of Ag2S. This was then measured densitometrically as the colour changed from pale yellow to grey. Experiments demonstrated that concentrations of metal or sulfide measured by the combined device were no different to the concentrations measured by more conventional devices. The presence of Chelex in the gel did not impede the diffusion of sulfide. Deployment of a combined probe in marine sediment revealed simultaneous remobilisation of metals and sulfide at the same location. Solubility calculations indicated that some precipitation of amorphous FeS was probably occurring at the maxima in sulfide concentrations. There was general undersaturation with respect to NiS, but ZnS was supersaturated at all locations. There appeared to be localised active zones of organic matter decomposition, where reduction of manganese oxides, iron oxides and sulfate occurred simultaneously. Mass balance calculations indicated that Ni could not be supplied by release from decomposing organic matter. Manganese oxides were the most likely source, but supply from reductive dissolution of iron oxides could not be entirely discounted. Supply from either Fe or Mn oxides could account for the Zn maxima. Application of the newly developed combined probe provides new information that helps understanding of the complex nature of trace metal and sulfur chemistry in sediments.

  18. Metal-organic niccolite: synthesis, structures, phase transition, and magnetic properties of [CH3NH2(CH2)2NH2CH3][M2(HCOO)6] (M=divalent Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn).

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Yuan; Kurmoo, Mohamedally; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2011-11-04

    We report the synthesis, crystal structures, thermal and magnetic characterizations of a family of metal-organic frameworks adopting the niccolite (NiAs) structure, [dmenH(2)(2+)][M(2)(HCOO)(6)(2-)] (dmen=N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine; M=divalent Mn, 1Mn; Fe, 2Fe; Co, 3Co; Ni, 4Ni; Cu, 5Cu; and Zn, 6Zn). The compounds could be synthesized by either a diffusion method or directly mixing reactants in methanol or methanol-water mixed solvents. The five members, 1Mn, 2Fe, 3Co, 4Ni, and 6Zn are isostructural and crystallize in the trigonal space group P31c, while 5Cu crystallizes in C2/c. In the structures, the octahedrally coordinated metal ions are connected by anti-anti formate bridges, thus forming the anionic NiAs-type frameworks of [M(2)(HCOO)(6)(2-)], with dmenH(2)(2+) located in the cavities of the frameworks. Owing to the Jahn-Teller effect of the Cu(2+) ion, the 3D framework of 5Cu consists of zigzag Cu-formate chains with Cu-OCHO-Cu connections through short basal Cu-O bonds, further linked by the long axial Cu-O bonds. 6Zn exhibits a phase transition probably as a result of the order-disorder transition of the dmenH(2)(2+) cation around 300 K, confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and single crystal X-ray diffraction patterns under different temperatures. Magnetic investigation reveals that the four magnetic members, 1Mn, 2Fe, 3Co, and 4Ni, display spin-canted antiferromagnetism, with a Néel temperature of 8.6 K, 19.8 K, 16.4 K, and 33.7 K, respectively. The Mn, Fe, and Ni members show spin-flop transitions below 50 kOe. 2Fe possesses a large hysteresis loop with a large coercive field of 10.8 kOe. The Cu member, 5Cu, shows overall antiferromagnetism (both inter- and intra-chains) with low-dimensional characteristics.

  19. Chemical bonding in the ternary transition metal bismuthides Ti{sub 4}TBi{sub 2} with T=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Rytz, R.; Hoffman, R.

    1999-04-05

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding in the ternary transition metal bismuthides Ti{sub 4}TBi{sub 2} (T = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) is investigated by approximate MO calculations of the extended Hueckel tight-binding type. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in a layer structure, repeating sequence T-Ti/Bi-T-Ti/Bi, stacking along c; the late transition metals form linear chains with short T-T bonds. Other important structural elements are face-sharing chains of Ti{sub 4}Bi{sub 2} octahedra and Bi channels. The decrease of the T-T bond lengths from Cr to Ni is more pronounced than expected from the decrease of the metallic radii alone. The analysis of the electronic structure indicates that this behavior arises from the titanium-titanium and titanium-bismuth interlayer interactions. Diminution of the titanium-titanium interlayer distances as one goes from Ti{sub 4}CrBi{sub 2} to Ti{sub 4}NiBi{sub 2} is due to Ti(d)-Ti(d) bonding, which increases with increasing electron filling of the titanium d levels. The titanium-bismuth interactions remain strong along this series, as can also be seen by the constant intralayer/titanium-bismuth distances. A distinguishing feature of the title compounds is the channels formed by bismuth atoms. These channels are filled by Bi-centered, essentially unhybridized 6p orbitals forming a 2D net stacking along c and interacting with each other, stronger in the c direction than perpendicular to it. The possibility of intercalating electrophilic species into these electron-filled voids is also investigated.

  20. Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ti1+xFeSb and TiFe0.75M0.25Sb (M = Ni, Mn) Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azar, Said; Mousa, Ahmad

    Density functional theory calculations based on full potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) plus local orbital method in the framework of GGA-PBE, as embodied in the WIEN2k code, is used to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of intermetallic Ti1+xFeS Heusler compounds, where (x = i/4, i =-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4) and the TiFe0.75M0.25Sb (M = Ni, Mn) quaternary semi-Heusler compounds. Moreover, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential, as a semi-local method, was employed to predict the band-gap more precisely. We examined the site preference of the parent compound TiFeSb and varying the electron concentration by doping or removing a Ti atom. It is found that they play a crucial role in physical properties of these material systems. The lattice parameters and spin magnetic moment calculated were consistent with the previous experimental and theoretical data available. Moreover, alloys with x<0 are found to exhibit a ferrimagnetic phase, and the alloy with x =0.25 exhibit a non-magnetic properties, whereas the rest have shown ferromagnetic phase. The band-structure analysis of Ti1.75FeSb, Ti2FeSb and TiFe0.75Ni0.25Sb alloys suggested that they could be a ferromagnetic half-metallic members with band-gaps 0.67, 0.41 and 0.54 eV, respectively.

  1. Organic-Acid-Assisted Fabrication of Low-Cost Li-Rich Cathode Material (Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2) for Lithium-Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Taolin; Chen, Shi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Huiming; Wu, Tianpin; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-24

    A novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2 (0.4Li(2)MnO(3-)0.6LiFe(1/3)Ni(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2)) was synthesized by a solgel method, which uses citric acid (SC), tartaric acid (ST), or adipic acid (SA) as a chelating agent. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by various methods. X-ray diffraction showed that single-phase materials are formed mainly with typical alpha-NaFeO2 layered structure (R3 m), and the SC sample has the lowest Li/Ni cation disorder. The morphological study indicated homogeneous primary particles in good distribution size (100 nm) with small aggregates. The Fe, Ni, and Mn valences were determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. In coin cell tests, the initial reversible discharge capacity of an SA electrode was 289.7 mAh g(-1) at the 0.1C rate in the 1.54.8 V voltage range, while an SC electrode showed a better cycling stability with relatively high capacity retention. At the 2C rate, the SC electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves were employed to further investigate the electrochemical reactions and the structural change process during cycling. This low-cost, Fe-based compound prepared by the solgel method has the potential to be used as the high capacity cathode material for Liion batteries.

  2. Organic-acid-assisted fabrication of low-cost Li-rich cathode material (Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O2) for lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Taolin; Chen, Shi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Huiming; Wu, Tianpin; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-24

    A novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O2 (0.4Li2MnO3-0.6LiFe1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2) was synthesized by a sol-gel method, which uses citric acid (SC), tartaric acid (ST), or adipic acid (SA) as a chelating agent. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by various methods. X-ray diffraction showed that single-phase materials are formed mainly with typical α-NaFeO2 layered structure (R3̅m), and the SC sample has the lowest Li/Ni cation disorder. The morphological study indicated homogeneous primary particles in good distribution size (100 nm) with small aggregates. The Fe, Ni, and Mn valences were determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. In coin cell tests, the initial reversible discharge capacity of an SA electrode was 289.7 mAh g(-1) at the 0.1C rate in the 1.5-4.8 V voltage range, while an SC electrode showed a better cycling stability with relatively high capacity retention. At the 2C rate, the SC electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves were employed to further investigate the electrochemical reactions and the structural change process during cycling. This low-cost, Fe-based compound prepared by the sol-gel method has the potential to be used as the high capacity cathode material for Li-ion batteries.

  3. Substitution of Ni for Fe in superconducting Fe>0.98mn>Te>0.5mn>Se>0.5mn> depresses the normal-state conductivity but not the magnetic spectral weight

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinghui; Zhong, Ruidan; Li, Shichao; Gan, Yuan; Xu, Zhijun; Zhang, Cheng; Ozaki, T.; Matsuda, M.; Zhao, Yang; Li, Qiang; Xu, Guangyong; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Wen, Jinsheng

    2015-01-05

    We have performed systematic resistivity and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on Fe₀.₉₈₋zNizTe₀.₅Se₀.₅ samples to study the impact of Ni substitution on the transport properties and the low-energy (≤ 12 meV) magnetic excitations. It is found that, with increasing Ni doping, both the conductivity and superconductivity are gradually suppressed; in contrast, the low-energy magnetic spectral weight changes little. Comparing with the impact of Co and Cu substitution, we find that the effects on conductivity and superconductivity for the same degree of substitution grow systematically as the atomic number of the substituent deviates from that of Fe. The impact of the substituents as scattering centers appears to be greater than any contribution to carrier concentration. The fact that low-energy magnetic spectral weight is not reduced by increased electron scattering indicates that the existence of antiferromagnetic correlations does not depend on electronic states close to the Fermi energy.

  4. Mechanical properties, microstructure and thermal stability of a nanocrystalline CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy after severe plastic deformation

    DOE PAGES

    Schuh, B.; Mendez-Martin, F.; Völker, B.; ...

    2015-06-24

    An equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy (HEA), produced by arc melting and drop casting, was subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) using high-pressure torsion. This process induced substantial grain refinement in the coarse-grained casting leading to a grain size of approximately 50 nm. As a result, strength increased significantly to 1950 MPa, and hardness to similar to 520 MV. Analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D-APT) showed that, after SPD, the alloy remained a true single-phase solid solution down to the atomic scale. Subsequent investigations characterized the evolution of mechanical properties and microstructure of this nanocrystallinemore » HEA upon annealing. Isochronal (for 1 h) and isothermal heat treatments were performed followed by microhardness and tensile tests. The isochronal anneals led to a marked hardness increase with a maximum hardness of similar to 630 HV at about 450 degrees C before softening set in at higher temperatures. The isothermal anneals, performed at this peak hardness temperature, revealed an additional hardness rise to a maximum of about 910 MV after 100 h. To clarify this unexpected annealing response, comprehensive microstructural analyses were performed using TEM and 3D-APT. New nano-scale phases were observed to form in the originally single-phase HEA. After times as short as 5 min at 450 degrees C, a NiMn phase and Cr-rich phase formed. With increasing annealing time, their volume fractions increased and a third phase, FeCo, also formed. It appears that the surfeit of grain boundaries in the nanocrystalline HEA offer many fast diffusion pathways and nucleation sites to facilitate this phase decomposition. The hardness increase, especially for the longer annealing times, can be attributed to these nano-scaled phases embedded in the HEA matrix. The present results give new valuable insights into the phase stability of single-phase high-entropy alloys as

  5. Imaging the surface morphology, chemistry and conductivity of LiNi 1/3 Fe 1/3 Mn 4/3 O 4 crystalline facets using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Cutler, Jeffrey; ...

    2016-07-26

    We have employed scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) using the X-ray fluorescence mode in order to elucidate the chemical structures at Ni, Fe, Mn and O sites from the (111) and (100) facets of micron-sized LiNi1/3Fe1/3Mn4/3O4 energy material particles. Furthermore, STXM imaging using electron yield mode has mapped out the surface conductivity of the crystalline particles. Our study presents a novel approach that visualizes local element segregation, chemistry and conductivity variation among different crystal facets, which will assist further tailoring of the morphology and surface structure of this high voltage spinel lithium ion battery cathode material.

  6. Bimetallic cyanide-bridged complexes based on the photochromic nitroprusside anion and paramagnetic metal complexes. Syntheses, structures, and physical characterization of the coordination compounds [Ni(en)2]4[Fe(CN)5NO]2[Fe(CN)6]x5H2O, [Ni(en)2][Fe(CN)5NO]x3H2O, [Mn(3-MeOsalen)(H2O)]2[Fe(CN)5NO], and [Mn(5-Brsalen)]2[Fe(CN)5NO].

    PubMed

    Clemente-León, M; Coronado, E; Galán-Mascarós, J R; Gómez-García, C J; Woike, T; Clemente-Juan, J M

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure, and physical characterization of the coordination compounds [Ni(en)2]4[Fe(CN)5NO]2[Fe(CN)6]x5H2O (1), [Ni(en)2][Fe(CN)5NO]x3H2O (2), [Mn(3-MeOsalen)(H2O)]2[Fe(CN)5NO] (3), and [Mn(5-Brsalen)]2[Fe(CN)5NO] (4) are presented. 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n (a = 7.407(4) A, b = 28.963(6) A, c = 14.744(5) A, alpha = 90 degrees, beta = 103.26(4) degrees, gamma = 90 degrees, Z = 2). Its structure consists of branched linear chains formed by cis-[Ni(en)2]2+ cations and ferrocyanide and nitroprusside anions. The presence of two kinds of iron(II) sites has been demonstrated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c (a = 11.076(3) A, b = 10.983(2) A, c = 17.018(5) A, alpha = 90 degrees, beta = 107.25(2) degrees, gamma = 90 degrees, Z = 4). Its structure consists of zigzag chains formed by an alternated array of cis-[Ni(en)2]2+ cations and nitroprusside anions. 3 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 (a = 8.896(5) A, b = 10.430(5) A, c = 12.699(5) A, alpha = 71.110(5) degrees, beta = 79.990(5) degrees, gamma = 89.470(5) degrees, Z = 1). Its structure comprises neutral trinuclear bimetallic complexes in which a central [Fe(CN)5NO]2- anion is linked to two [Mn(3-MeOsalen)]+ cations. 4 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/ncc (a = 13.630(5) A, c = 21.420(8) A, Z = 4). Its structure shows an extended 2D neutral network formed by cyclic octameric [-Mn-NC-Fe-CN-]4 units. The magnetic properties of these compounds indicate the presence of quasi-isolated paramagnetic Ni2+ and Mn3+. Irradiated samples of the four compounds have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry to detect the existence of the long-lived metastable states of nitroprusside.

  7. Substitution effect on magnetic and electrical properties of half-Heusler alloy Ni{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Mn{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Varun Sharma, Himanshu Dixit, Dinesh Tomy, C. V.; Tulapurkar, Ashwin

    2014-04-24

    We have studied the effects of Co and Fe doping on the magnetic and electrical properties of half-Heusler compound NiMnSb. The alloys were prepared by arc-melting method in the presence of Argon gas. The powder X-ray diffraction of the each alloy was performed in air at room temperature. The magnetic and electrical properties were performed in the temperature range 2–400 K and in magnetic field up to 1 T.

  8. M2(m-dobdc) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly-Selective, High-Capacity Adsorbents for Olefin/Paraffin Separations.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Jonathan E; Kapelewski, Matthew T; Reed, Douglas A; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-10-05

    The metal-organic frameworks M2(m-dobdc) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; m-dobdc4- = 4,6-dioxido-1,3-benzenedicarboxylate) were evaluated as adsorbents for separating olefins from paraffins. Using single-component and multicomponent equilibrium gas adsorption measurements, we show that the coordinatively-unsaturated M2+ sites in these materials lead to superior performance for the physisorptive separation of ethylene from ethane and propylene from propane relative to any known adsorbent, including para-functionalized structural isomers of the type M2(p-dobdc) (p-dobdc4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). Notably, the M2(m-dobdc) frameworks all exhibit an increased affinity for olefins over paraffins relative to their corresponding structural isomers, with the Fe, Co, and Ni variants showing more than double the selectivity. Among these frameworks, Fe2(m-dobdc) displays the highest ethylene/ethane (> 25) and propylene/propane (> 55) selectivity under relevant conditions, together with olefin capacities exceeding 7 mmol/g. Differential enthalpy calculations in conjunction with structural characterization of ethylene binding in Co2(m-dobdc) and Co2(p-dobdc) via in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveal that the vast improvement in selectivity arises from enhanced metal-olefin interactions induced by increased charge density at the metal site. Moderate olefin binding enthalpies, below 55 kJ/mol and 70 kJ/mol for ethylene and propylene, respectively, indicate that these adsorbents maintain sufficient reversibility under mild regeneration conditions. Additionally, transient adsorption experiments show fast kinetics, with more than 90% of ethylene adsorption occurring within 30 s after dosing. Breakthrough measurements further indicate that Co2(m-dobdc) can produce high purity olefins without a temperature swing, an important test of process applicability. The excellent olefin/paraffin selectivity, high olefin capacity, rapid adsorption kinetics, and low raw materials

  9. The role of magnetic excitations in magnetoresistance and Hall effect of slightly TM-substituted BaFe2As2 compounds (TM = Mn, Cu, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. P.; Piva, M. M.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Lesseux, G. G.; Garitezi, T. M.; Tobia, D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Grant, T.; Fisk, Z.; Adriano, C.; Urbano, R. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Pureur, P.

    2016-12-01

    We report on electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance (MR) and Hall effect measurements in four non-superconducting BaFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Cu and Ni) single crystals with small values of the chemical substitution x. The spin density wave (SDW) ordering that occurs in these systems at temperatures T ∼ (120-140) K, in close vicinity to a tetragonal/orthorhombic transition, produces significant modifications in their magneto-transport properties. While in the magnetically ordered phase the MR is positive and its magnitude increases with decreasing temperatures, in the paramagnetic regime the MR becomes vanishingly small. Above the spin density wave transition temperature (TSDW) the Hall coefficient RH is negative, small and weakly temperature dependent, but a remarkable change of slope occurs in the RH versus T curves at T =TSDW . The Hall coefficient amplitude, while remaining negative, increases steadily and significantly as the temperature is decreased below TSDW and down to T = 20 K. The qualitative behavior of both MR and Hall coefficient is weakly dependent on the chemical substitution in the studied limit. The experiments provide strong evidence that scattering of charge carriers by magnetic excitations has to be taken into account to explain the behavior of the resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect in the ordered phase of the studied compounds. Effects of multiple band conduction also must be considered for a complete interpretation of the results.

  10. First principles study of structural, electronic, magnetic and elastic properties of Mg0.75TM0.25S (TM=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gous, M. H.; Meddour, A.; Bourouis, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to predict the structural, electronic, magnetic and elastic properties of Mg1-xTMxS (TM=Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) compound in the zinc blende Ferromagnetic phase using first principal approach. The structural and elastic properties are performed using the generalized gradient approximation proposed by Wu and Cohen(WC-GGA). However, the electronic and magnetic properties have been performed using modified Becke-Johnson potential combined with the LDA correlation (mBJLDA). The results show that all compounds Mg1-xMnxS, Mg1-xFexS and Mg1-xNixS exhibit a half-metallic ferromagnetic character with 100% spin-polarization at the Fermi level, except Mg1-xCoxS is a metal. For each compounds study here, the total magnetic momentum is an integer equal to magnetic moments of TM atom in their free space charge value. Due to the p-d hybridization, there is a small local magnetic moment on the Mg and S sites; whereas, the local magnetic moments of TM atom reduce from their free space charge value. In addition, we investigate the mechanical behavior of MgS and Mg1-xTMxS; all compounds studied here are mechanically stable and exhibit a strong anisotropic behavior.

  11. Size effect, critical resolved shear stress, stacking fault energy, and solid solution strengthening in the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Norihiko L.; Fujimoto, Shu; Kambara, Yuki; Kawamura, Marino; Chen, Zhenghao M. T.; Matsunoshita, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Katsushi; Inui, Haruyuki; George, Easo P.

    2016-10-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) comprise a novel class of scientifically and technologically interesting materials. Among these, equatomic CrMnFeCoNi with the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is noteworthy because its ductility and strength increase with decreasing temperature while maintaining outstanding fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report for the first time by single-crystal micropillar compression that its bulk room temperature critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) is ~33–43 MPa, ~10 times higher than that of pure nickel. CRSS depends on pillar size with an inverse power-law scaling exponent of –0.63 independent of orientation. Planar ½ < 110 > {111} dislocations dissociate into Shockley partials whose separations range from ~3.5–4.5 nm near the screw orientation to ~5–8 nm near the edge, yielding a stacking fault energy of 30 ± 5 mJ/m2. Dislocations are smoothly curved without any preferred line orientation indicating no significant anisotropy in mobilities of edge and screw segments. The shear-modulus-normalized CRSS of the HEA is not exceptionally high compared to those of certain concentrated binary FCC solid solutions. Its rough magnitude calculated using the Fleischer/Labusch models corresponds to that of a hypothetical binary with the elastic constants of our HEA, solute concentrations of 20–50 at.%, and atomic size misfit of ~4%.

  12. Brillouin Light Scattering study of the rotatable magnetic anisotropy in exchange biased bilayers of Ni81 Fe19 Ir20 Mn80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Oliveira, Alexandre; Estrada, Francisco; Santos, Obed; Azevedo, Antonio; Rezende, Sergio

    It is known that when a ferromagnet (FM) is in atomic contact with an antiferromagnet (AF) the exchange coupling between the FM and AF spins at the interface induces a unidirectional anisotropy in the ferromagnetic film. This effect is known as exchange bias (EB). Despite the large amount of research on this topic there are still several aspects of the EB mechanism that are not well understood. One of this aspects is the origin of the rotatable anisotropy in polycrystalline AFs. By means of Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS) measurements, we investigated the dependence of the rotatable anisotropy field HRA and exchange field HE with the magnitude of the external magnetic field (Ho) in FM/AM bilayers of Ni81Fe19(10nm)/Ir20Mn80(tAF) . We developed an algorithm to numerically fit the in-plane angular dependence of the magnon frequency, at a fixed value of Ho measured by BLS. From the fit parameters we were able to investigate HRA and HE dependency on Ho. The results reveal that HRA value depends on Ho, so we argue that AF grain distribution at the interface is partially modified by the applied field strength. Contrary to this, the relation between HE and Ho is not straightforward, remaining constant at high values of Ho.

  13. Large single crystal diamond grown in FeNiMnCo-S-C system under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Li, Shangsheng; Su, Taichao; Hu, Meihua; Li, Guanghui; Ma, Hongan; Jia, Xiaopeng

    2016-11-01

    Large diamonds have successfully been synthesized from FeNiMnCo-S-C system at temperatures of 1255-1393 °C and pressures of 5.3-5.5 GPa. Because of the presence of sulfur additive, the morphology and color of the large diamond crystals change obviously. The content and shape of inclusions change with increasing sulfur additive. It is found that the pressure and temperature conditions required for the synthesis decrease to some extent with the increase of S additive, which results in left down of the V-shape region. The Raman spectra show that the introduction of additive sulfur reduces the quality of the large diamond crystals. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra show the presence of S in the diamonds. Furthermore, the electrical properties of the large diamond crystals are tested by a four-point probe and the Hall effect method. When sulfur in the cell of diamond is up to 4.0 wt.%, the resistance of the diamond is 9.628×105 Ω·cm. It is shown that the large single crystal samples are n type semiconductors. This work is helpful for the further research and application of sulfur-doped semiconductor large diamond. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Education Department of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 12A430010), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Universities of Henan Province, China (Grant No. NSFRF140110).

  14. DC-Bias-Superposition Characteristics of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 Nanopowders Synthesized by Auto-Combustion.

    PubMed

    Sadhana, K; Sandhya, R; Praveena, K

    2015-06-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by auto-combustion method. The as-synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and the powders were densified at different temperatures 400 degrees C, 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C/4 hrs using conventional sintering method. The sintered samples were characterized by XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bulk densities of the samples were increased with an increase of sintering temperature. The grain sizes of all the samples vary in between 18 nm to 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicates that it is a soft material. The incremental permeability (permeability with magnetic field superposition) was influenced by both ΔM and H(c). A sample with higher initial permeability and favoured the attainment of a higher incremental permeability. The Q-factor was mainly determined by the sintered density and microstructure. To summarize, a uniform and dense microstructure with relatively small average grain size is favourable for obtaining better dc-bias-superposition characteristics, including permeability and Q-factor.

  15. In quest of cathode materials for Ca ion batteries: the CaMO3 perovskites (M = Mo, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni).

    PubMed

    Arroyo-de Dompablo, M E; Krich, C; Nava-Avendaño, J; Palacín, M R; Bardé, F

    2016-07-20

    Basic electrochemical characteristics of CaMO3 perovskites (M = Mo, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) as cathode materials for Ca ion batteries are investigated using first principles calculations at the Density Functional Theory level (DFT). Calculations have been performed within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and GGA+U methodologies, and considering cubic and orthorhombic perovskite structures for CaxMO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The analysis of the calculated voltage-composition profile and volume variations identifies CaMoO3 as the most promising perovskite compound. It combines good electronic conductivity, moderate crystal structure modifications, and activity in the 2-3 V region with several intermediate CaxMoO3 phases. However, we found too large barriers for Ca diffusion (around 2 eV) which are inherent to the perovskite structure. The CaMoO3 perovskite was synthesized, characterized and electrochemically tested, and results confirmed the predicted trends.

  16. Size effect, critical resolved shear stress, stacking fault energy, and solid solution strengthening in the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Norihiko L; Fujimoto, Shu; Kambara, Yuki; Kawamura, Marino; Chen, Zhenghao M T; Matsunoshita, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Katsushi; Inui, Haruyuki; George, Easo P

    2016-10-24

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) comprise a novel class of scientifically and technologically interesting materials. Among these, equatomic CrMnFeCoNi with the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is noteworthy because its ductility and strength increase with decreasing temperature while maintaining outstanding fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report for the first time by single-crystal micropillar compression that its bulk room temperature critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) is ~33-43 MPa, ~10 times higher than that of pure nickel. CRSS depends on pillar size with an inverse power-law scaling exponent of -0.63 independent of orientation. Planar ½ < 110 > {111} dislocations dissociate into Shockley partials whose separations range from ~3.5-4.5 nm near the screw orientation to ~5-8 nm near the edge, yielding a stacking fault energy of 30 ± 5 mJ/m(2). Dislocations are smoothly curved without any preferred line orientation indicating no significant anisotropy in mobilities of edge and screw segments. The shear-modulus-normalized CRSS of the HEA is not exceptionally high compared to those of certain concentrated binary FCC solid solutions. Its rough magnitude calculated using the Fleischer/Labusch models corresponds to that of a hypothetical binary with the elastic constants of our HEA, solute concentrations of 20-50 at.%, and atomic size misfit of ~4%.

  17. Following electron impact excitation of single (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) atom L subshells ionization cross section calculations by using Lotz's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinol, Mahmut

    2017-02-01

    L shell and Li subshells ionization cross sections[σL and σLi i = 1, 2, 3 following electron impact on (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) atoms calculated. By using Lotz' equation for non-relativistic cases in Matlab σL and σLi cross section values obtained for ten electron impact(Eo) values in the range of ELi

  18. Size effect, critical resolved shear stress, stacking fault energy, and solid solution strengthening in the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Norihiko L.; Fujimoto, Shu; Kambara, Yuki; Kawamura, Marino; Chen, Zhenghao M. T.; Matsunoshita, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Katsushi; Inui, Haruyuki; George, Easo P.

    2016-01-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) comprise a novel class of scientifically and technologically interesting materials. Among these, equatomic CrMnFeCoNi with the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is noteworthy because its ductility and strength increase with decreasing temperature while maintaining outstanding fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report for the first time by single-crystal micropillar compression that its bulk room temperature critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) is ~33–43 MPa, ~10 times higher than that of pure nickel. CRSS depends on pillar size with an inverse power-law scaling exponent of –0.63 independent of orientation. Planar ½ < 110 > {111} dislocations dissociate into Shockley partials whose separations range from ~3.5–4.5 nm near the screw orientation to ~5–8 nm near the edge, yielding a stacking fault energy of 30 ± 5 mJ/m2. Dislocations are smoothly curved without any preferred line orientation indicating no significant anisotropy in mobilities of edge and screw segments. The shear-modulus-normalized CRSS of the HEA is not exceptionally high compared to those of certain concentrated binary FCC solid solutions. Its rough magnitude calculated using the Fleischer/Labusch models corresponds to that of a hypothetical binary with the elastic constants of our HEA, solute concentrations of 20–50 at.%, and atomic size misfit of ~4%. PMID:27775026

  19. Proton NMR of isomorphous paramagnetic and diamagnetic monohydrates MeSO4.1 H2O Me = Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+ AND Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murín, J.; Olčák, D.; Oravcová, J.; Rákoš, M.; Jelšovská, K.

    1981-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance of protons of crystallization water in isomorphous paramagnetic and diamagnetic monohydrates MeSO4. 1 H2O with Me = Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+ and Mg2+ is studied in the present paper. Proton NMR spectra in paramagnetic hydrates are asymmetric and their second moments, M2, depend linearly on the square of the induction of the external magnetic field B0. NMR spectrum of diamagnetic hydrate MgSO4. 1 H2O is symmetric and its shape and the second moment do not change with B0. The parameters M20 and K which characterize nuclear dipole-dipole interaction of protons and interaction of protons and paramagnetic ions, respectively, are derived from experimentally obtained dependences M2 vs B{0/2} and on the other hand, they are calculated by means of crystallographic data for substances studied. Calculations were realized in approximation where two nearest neighbour ions Me2+ to each water molecule are considered. The influence of the demagnetizing magnetic field of the sample was neglected.

  20. Transport Properties of the Layered Transition Metal Oxypnictide Sr2ScMPO3 with MP layers (M =Mn, Ni and Co0.5Fe0.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Kamihara, Y.; Ohkubo, N.; Ban, S.; Matoba, M.

    2014-12-01

    Polycrystalline samples of novel oxypnictides, Sr2ScMPO3, with MP layer (M = Mn, Ni and Co0.5Fe0.5) were synthesized, and their resistivities and Seebeck coefficients were measured. Sr2ScMPO3 crystallizes in a stacked, layered structure comprised of a ThCr2Si2- type MP layer alternating with a K2NiF4-type Sr2ScO3 layer. Sr2ScMnPO3 is an insulator at room temperature. The resistivities (ρ) of Sr2ScNiPO3 and Sr2ScCo0.5Fe0.5PO3 decrease with decreasing temperature like a metal. The Seebeck coefficients (S) of these materials are negative at room temperature. For Sr2ScNiPO3, S initially decreases slightly with decreasing temperature, and increases with decreasing temperature below 50 K. However, for Sr2ScCo0.5Fe0.5PO3, S increases with decreasing temperature, and attains to a positive value below 270 K.

  1. Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shufeng; Li, Run-Wei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yao, Kui; Wu, Yihong

    2016-03-01

    Fieldlike spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt bilayers with ultrathin polycrystalline FeMn has been characterized through planar Hall effect measurements. A large effective field of 2.05 ×10-5 to 2.44 ×10-5Oe (A-1cm2) is obtained for FeMn in the thickness range of 2-5 nm. The experimental observations can be reasonably accounted for by using a macrospin model under the assumption that the FeMn layer is composed of two spin sublattices with unequal magnetizations. The large effective field corroborates the spin Hall origin of the effective field, considering the much smaller uncompensated net moments in FeMn as compared to NiFe. The effective absorption of spin current by FeMn is further confirmed by the fact that spin current generated by Pt in NiFe/FeMn/Pt trilayers can only travel through the FeMn layer with a thickness of 1-4 nm. By quantifying the fieldlike effective field induced in NiFe, a spin diffusion length of 2 nm is estimated in FeMn, consistent with values reported in the literature by ferromagnetic resonance and spin-pumping experiments.

  2. Magnetooptic coupling coefficients for one- and two-magnon Raman scattering in rutile-structure antiferromagnets FeF2, MnF2, CoF2, and NiF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, D. J.; Cottam, M. G.

    2012-07-01

    Inelastic light scattering intensities in response to magnetic excitations are governed by magnetooptic coupling coefficients, which have been previously evaluated, for instance, for the ferrimagnetic Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) and the metamagnetic FeCl2 and FeBr2. However, by far the most detailed studies to date were performed on the classic rutile-structure antiferromagnets, and here we summarize the results obtained from the many experimental and theoretical investigations of these compounds for both one-magnon and two-magnon excitations. A comparison of the magnitudes of the various coupling coefficients for MnF2, FeF2, CoF2, and NiF2 reveals a surprising similarity in many coefficients. In one-magnon Raman scattering the in-phase linear magnetooptic coefficient dominates, and the main differences between MnF2, FeF2, and NiF2 lie in the relative significance of the in-phase quadratic magnetooptic coefficient. Thus, the quadratic coefficients now appear to be of particular importance in determining the strength of one-magnon scattering in a variety of magnetic insulators. In two-magnon Raman scattering one magnetooptic coefficient is dominant for all of these antiferromagnets. However, the other six coefficients are in general remarkably similar in magnitude and not negligible in most cases, indicating some similarity in the way light interacts with the pairs of magnons of opposite and equal wave vectors in rutile structure antiferromagnets.

  3. Corrosion study of single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga alloy and Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 alloy for the design of new medical microdevices.

    PubMed

    Pouponneau, Pierre; Savadogo, Oumarou; Napporn, Teko; Yahia, L'Hocine; Martel, Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    Once placed in a magnetic field, smart magnetic materials (SMM) change their shape, which could be use for the development of smaller minimally invasive surgery devices activated by magnetic field. However, the potential degradation and release of cytotoxic ions by SMM corrosion has to be determined. This paper evaluates the corrosion resistance of two SMM: a single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga alloy and Tb(0.27)Dy(0.73)Fe(1.95) alloy. Ni-Mn-Ga alloy displayed a corrosion potential (E (corr)) of -0.58 V/SCE and a corrosion current density (i (corr)) of 0.43 μA/cm(2). During the corrosion assay, Ni-Mn-Ga sample surface was partially protected; local pits were formed on 20% of the surface and nickel ions were mainly found in the electrolyte. Tb(0.27)Dy(0.73)Fe(1.95) alloy exhibited poor corrosion properties such as E (corr) of -0.87 V/SCE and i (corr) of 5.90 μA/cm(2). During the corrosion test, this alloy was continuously degraded, its surface was impaired by pits and cracks extensively and a high amount of iron ions was measured in the electrolyte. These alloys exhibited low corrosion parameters and a selective degradation in the electrolyte. They could only be used for medical applications if they are coated with high strain biocompatible materials or embedded in composites to prevent direct contact with physiological fluids.

  4. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Talik, E.; Lipińska, L.; Zajdel, P.; Załóg, A.; Michalska, M.; Guzik, A.

    2013-10-15

    The process of sol–gel synthesis was applied to obtain LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. The samples were characterized by following methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SQUID magnetometry. XPS was used to examine the chemical composition and oxidation state of manganese, in particular the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio from the deconvolution of the complex Mn3p lines. The size of the grains and crystallites were independently obtained from SEM images and XRD patterns, respectively. In all the cases a critical interplay of electronic (Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio), structural (unit cell volume) and magnetic properties was observed depending on the synthesis process. - Graphical abstract: SEM image of Li{sub 0.79}Ni{sub 0.41}Mn{sub 1.35}O{sub 4.45} sample. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} obtained by sol–gel method. • XRD method was used to determine the crystal structure. • SEM/EDX imaging have been done. • XPS electronic structure was examined and discussed. • Experimental effective magnetic moment and the calculated one were compared.

  5. Magnetic and structural relationship of RFe2Si2 and R(Fe(1-x)M(x))2Si2(x = 0-1) systems (R = La, Y and Lu, M = Ni, Mn and Cu).

    PubMed

    Felner, I; Lv, Bing; Chu, C W

    2014-11-26

    Due to the similarity between AFe(2)As(2) (A = Ba, Sr) and RFe(2)Si(2) (R = La, Y and Lu), the RFe(2)Si(2) system has been proposed as a potential candidate for a new high TC superconducting family containing Fe-Si (instead of Fe-As) layers as a structural unit. Various R (Fe(1-x)M(x))2 Si(2) (M = Ni and Cu) materials were synthesized and measured for their magnetic properties. None of these materials is superconducting down to 1.8 K. A pronounced peak at 232 K was observed in the magnetization curve of YFe(2)Si(2). (57)Fe Mössbauer studies confirm the absence of any long-range magnetic ordering below 232 K. Similar peaks at various temperatures also appear in R (Fe(1-x)M(x))2 Si2 samples. For Y (Fe(1-x)Mn(x))2 Si(2) the peak position is dramatically affected by the magnetic Mn dopants. Four independent factors affect the peak position and shift it to lower temperatures: (i) the lattice parameters, (ii) the concentration of x (iii) the applied magnetic field and (iv) the magnetic nature of M. It is proposed that the magnetic peaks observed in RFe(2)Si(2) and in R (Fe(1-x)M(x))2 Si(2) represent a new nearly ferromagnetic Fermi liquid system, its nature is yet to be determined.

  6. Magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of antiferromagnetic NiMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Kim, M.; Zhong, L.; Fernandez-de-Castro, J.

    2000-03-01

    Despite the importance of magnetic anisotropy in industrial applications, the magnetic anisotropy of AFM as well as FM/AFM interfaces is not well understood. We have performed first-principles FLAPW calculations(Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert and Freeman, PRB 24, 864(1981)) in order to understand the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of AFM NiMn with L10 structure. The bulk system shows AFM ordering of the Mn spins while the Ni atom has almost no magnetic moment, as expected from experiment. The Mn moment at the surface is enhanced compared to the bulk case. The magneto-crystalline anisotropy (MCA) energy was calculated by the state tracking and torque approaches(D.-S. Wang, R. Wu and A. J. Freeman, PRL 70, 869(1993))^,(X. Wang, R. Wu, D.-S. Wang and A. J. Freeman, PRB 54, 61(1996)) and found to be sensitive to the environment. The case of bulk clearly exhibits in-plane MCA - in agreement with experiment. In the surface case, if Mn is at the surface the MCA exhibits qualitatively the same behavior as bulk, while for Ni at the surface there is a larger MCA energy. Work in progress on exchange bias materials includes the AFM/FM interface, NiMn/NiFe.

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of Fe{sub 1−y}X{sub y}Pt-L1{sub 0} [X = Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu] bulk alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cuadrado, R.; Chantrell, R. W.; Klemmer, Timothy J.

    2014-10-13

    We demonstrate by means of fully relativistic first principles calculations that, by substitution of Fe by Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, or Cu in FePt-L1{sub 0} bulk alloys, with fixed Pt content, it is possible to tune the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy by adjusting the content of the non-magnetic species in the material. The changes in the geometry due to the inclusion of each element induces different values of the tetragonality and hence changes in the magnetic anisotropy and in the net magnetic moment. The site resolved magnetic moments of Fe increase with the X content while those of Pt and X are simultaneously reduced. The calculations are in good quantitative agreement with experimental data and demonstrate that models with fixed band structure but varying numbers of electrons per unit cell are insufficient to describe the experimental data for doped FePt-L1{sub 0} alloys.

  8. Atomic Linkage Flexibility Tuned Isotropic Negative, Zero, and Positive Thermal Expansion in MZrF6 (M = Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Zn)

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Xu, Jiale; ...

    2016-10-26

    The controllable isotropic thermal expansion with a broad coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) window is intriguing but remains challenge. Herein we report a cubic MZrF6 series (M = Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn), which exhibit controllable thermal expansion over a wide temperature range and with a broader CTE window (–6.69 to +18.23 × 10–6/K). In particular, an isotropic zero thermal expansion (ZTE) is achieved in ZnZrF6, which is one of the rarely documented hightemperature isotropic ZTE compounds. By utilizing temperature dependent high-energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering diffraction, it is found that the flexibility of metal···F atomic linkages inmore » MZrF6 plays a critical role in distinct thermal expansions. The flexible metal···F atomic linkages induce negative thermal expansion (NTE) for CaZrF6, whereas the stiff ones bring positive thermal expansion (PTE) for 6. Thermal expansion could be transformed from striking negative, to zero, and finally to considerable positive though tuning the flexibility of metal···F atomic linkages by substitution with a series of cations on M sites of MZrF6. In conclusion, the present study not only extends the scope of NTE families and rare high-temperature isotropic ZTE compounds but also proposes a new method to design systematically controllable isotropic thermal expansion frameworks from the perspective of atomic linkage flexibility.« less

  9. The influences of temperature and microstructure on the tensile properties of a CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, Frederik; Dlouhy, A.; Somsen, Ch.; Bei, Hongbin; Eggeler, G.; George, Easo P

    2013-01-01

    An equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy, which crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure, was produced by arc melting and drop casting. The drop-cast ingots were homogenized, cold rolled, and recrystallized to obtain single-phase microstructures with three different grain sizes in the range 4~160 m. Quasi-static tensile tests were then performed at temperatures between 77 and 1073 K. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and ductility all increased with decreasing temperature. During the initial stages of plasticity (up to ~2% strain), deformation occurs by planar dislocation glide on the normal FCC slip system {111} 110 at all temperatures and grain sizes investigated. Undissociated 1/2 110 dislocations were observed, as were numerous stacking faults, which imply the dissociation of several of these dislocations into 1/6 112 Shockley partials. At later stages ( 20% strain), nanoscale deformation twins were observed after interrupted tests at 77 K, but not in specimens tested at room temperature where plasticity occurred exclusively by dislocations which organized into cells. Deformation twinning, by continually decreasing the mean free path of dislocations during tensile testing, produces a high degree of work hardening and a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength. This increased work hardening prevents the early onset of necking instability and is a reason for the enhanced ductility observed at 77 K. A second way in which twinning can contribute to ductility is by providing an additional deformation mode to accommodate plasticity. However, it cannot explain the increase in yield strength with decreasing temperature in our high-entropy alloy since twinning was not observed in the early stages of plastic deformation. Since strong temperature dependencies of yield strength are also seen in binary FCC solid solution alloys, it may be an inherent solute effect, which needs further study.

  10. Planar Hall effect bridge sensors with NiFe/Cu/IrMn stack optimized for self-field magnetic bead detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2016-03-01

    The stack composition in trilayer Planar Hall effect bridge sensors is investigated experimentally to identify the optimal stack for magnetic bead detection using the sensor self-field. The sensors were fabricated using exchange-biased stacks Ni80Fe20(tFM)/Cu(tCu)/Mn80Ir20(10 nm) with tFM = 10, 20, and 30 nm, and 0 ≤ tCu ≤ 0.6 nm. The sensors were characterized by magnetic hysteresis measurements, by measurements of the sensor response vs. applied field, and by measurements of the sensor response to a suspension of magnetic beads magnetized by the sensor self-field due to the sensor bias current. The exchange bias field was found to decay exponentially with tCu and inversely with tFM. The reduced exchange field for larger values of tFM and tCu resulted in higher sensitivities to both magnetic fields and magnetic beads. We argue that the maximum magnetic bead signal is limited by Joule heating of the sensors and, thus, that the magnetic stacks should be compared at constant power consumption. For a fixed sensor geometry, the figure of merit for this comparison is the magnetic field sensitivity normalized by the sensor bias voltage. In this regard, we found that sensors with tFM = 20 nm or 30 nm outperformed those with tFM = 10 nm by a factor of approximately two, because the latter have a reduced AMR ratio. Further, the optimum layer thicknesses, tCu ≈ 0.6 nm and tFM = 20-30 nm, gave a 90% higher signal compared to the corresponding sensors with tCu = 0 nm.

  11. Atomic Linkage Flexibility Tuned Isotropic Negative, Zero, and Positive Thermal Expansion in MZrF6 (M = Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Zn)

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Xu, Jiale; Wang, Na; Han, Fei; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Rong, Yangchun; Huang, Rongjin; Deng, Jinxia; Li, Laifeng; Xing, Xianran

    2016-10-26

    The controllable isotropic thermal expansion with a broad coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) window is intriguing but remains challenge. Herein we report a cubic MZrF6 series (M = Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn), which exhibit controllable thermal expansion over a wide temperature range and with a broader CTE window (–6.69 to +18.23 × 10–6/K). In particular, an isotropic zero thermal expansion (ZTE) is achieved in ZnZrF6, which is one of the rarely documented hightemperature isotropic ZTE compounds. By utilizing temperature dependent high-energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering diffraction, it is found that the flexibility of metal···F atomic linkages in MZrF6 plays a critical role in distinct thermal expansions. The flexible metal···F atomic linkages induce negative thermal expansion (NTE) for CaZrF6, whereas the stiff ones bring positive thermal expansion (PTE) for 6. Thermal expansion could be transformed from striking negative, to zero, and finally to considerable positive though tuning the flexibility of metal···F atomic linkages by substitution with a series of cations on M sites of MZrF6. In conclusion, the present study not only extends the scope of NTE families and rare high-temperature isotropic ZTE compounds but also proposes a new method to design systematically controllable isotropic thermal expansion frameworks from the perspective of atomic linkage flexibility.

  12. First-principles study on stability and magnetism of NdFe11M and NdFe11M N for M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harashima, Yosuke; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Kino, Hiori; Ishibashi, Shoji; Miyake, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Recently synthesized NdFe12N has excellent magnetic properties, while it is thermodynamically unstable. Using the first-principles method, we study the effect of substitutional 3d transition metal elements to the mother compound NdFe12. We find that Co has a positive effect on the stability of the ThMn12 structure. In contrast to Ti substitution, Co substitution does not reduce the magnetization significantly. The crystal field parameter A20 is nearly unchanged by Co substitution, and nitrogenation to NdFe11Co greatly enhances A20 . This suggests that Co is a good candidate as a substitutional element for NdFe12N.

  13. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    SciTech Connect

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-10-19

    Here, we investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in Ni80Fe20/FeMn/W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. By using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. Furthermore, the latter can extend to relatively large distances (approximate to 9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.

  14. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    DOE PAGES

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; ...

    2016-10-19

    Here, we investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in Ni80Fe20/FeMn/W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. By using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. Furthermore, the latter can extend to relatively large distances (approximate to 9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close tomore » the measurement temperature.« less

  15. oxide and FeNi alloy: product dependence on the reduction ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jungang; Qin, Yuyang; Li, Minglun; Zhao, Shuyuan; Li, Jianjun

    2014-12-01

    Based on the sol-gel combustion method, stoichiometric Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+ ions and citric acid were chosen as the initial reactants for the preparation of magnetic particles. Due to the different reduction ability of metal ions, completely different magnetic products (MnFe2O4 oxide and FeNi alloy) were obtained by heating the flakes at 600 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. MnFe2O4 particles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and martensitic phase transformation is observed magnetically at 125 K for FeNi alloy particles.

  16. Electronic and optical properties of Cu2XSnS4 (X = Be, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni) and the impact of native defect pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhen; Persson, Clas

    2017-05-01

    Reducing or controlling cation disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 is a major challenge, mainly due to low formation energies of the anti-site pair ( CuZn - + ZnCu +) and the compensated Cu vacancy ( VCu - + ZnCu +). We study the electronic and optical properties of Cu2XSnS4 (CXTS, with X = Be, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni) and the impact of defect pairs, by employing the first-principles method within the density functional theory. The calculations indicate that these compounds can be grown in either the kesterite or stannite tetragonal phase, except Cu2CaSnS4 which seems to be unstable also in its trigonal phase. In the tetragonal phase, all six compounds have rather similar electronic band structures, suitable band-gap energies Eg for photovoltaic applications, as well as good absorption coefficients α(ω). However, the formation of the defect pairs ( C u X + X Cu) and ( V Cu + X Cu) is an issue for these compounds, especially considering the anti-site pair which has formation energy in the order of ˜0.3 eV. The ( C u X + X Cu) pair narrows the energy gap by typically ΔEg ≈ 0.1-0.3 eV, but for Cu2NiSnS4, the complex yields localized in-gap states. Due to the low formation energy of ( C u X + X Cu), we conclude that it is difficult to avoid disordering from the high concentration of anti-site pairs. The defect concentration in Cu2BeSnS4 is however expected to be significantly lower (as much as ˜104 times at typical device operating temperature) compared to the other compounds, which is partly explained by larger relaxation effects in Cu2BeSnS4 as the two anti-site atoms have different sizes. The disadvantage is that the stronger relaxation has a stronger impact on the band-gap narrowing. Therefore, instead of trying to reduce the anti-site pairs, we suggest that one shall try to compensate ( C u X + X Cu) with ( V Cu + X Cu) or other defects in order to stabilize the gap energy.

  17. Periodic trends within a series of five-coordinate thiolate-ligated [MII(SMe2N4(tren))]+ (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) complexes, including a rare example of a stable CuII-thiolate.

    PubMed

    Brines, Lisa M; Shearer, Jason; Fender, Jessica K; Schweitzer, Dirk; Shoner, Steven C; Barnhart, David; Kaminsky, Werner; Lovell, Scott; Kovacs, Julie A

    2007-10-29

    A series of five-coordinate thiolate-ligated complexes [M(II)(tren)N4S(Me2)]+ (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) are reported, and their structural, electronic, and magnetic properties are compared. Isolation of dimeric [Ni(II)(SN4(tren)-RS(dang))]2 ("dang"= dangling, uncoordinated thiolate supported by H bonds), using the less bulky [(tren)N4S](1-) ligand, pointed to the need for gem-dimethyls adjacent to the sulfur to sterically prevent dimerization. All of the gem-dimethyl derivatized complexes are monomeric and, with the exception of [Ni(II)(S(Me2)N4(tren)]+, are isostructural and adopt a tetragonally distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry favored by ligand constraints. The nickel complex uniquely adopts an approximately ideal square pyramidal geometry and resembles the active site of Ni-superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD). Even in coordinating solvents such as MeCN, only five-coordinate structures are observed. The MII-S thiolate bonds systematically decrease in length across the series (Mn-S > Fe-S > Co-S > Ni-S approximately Cu-S < Zn-S) with exceptions occurring upon the occupation of sigma* orbitals. The copper complex, [Cu(II)(S(Me2)N4(tren)]+, represents a rare example of a stable CuII-thiolate, and models the perturbed "green" copper site of nitrite reductase. In contrast to the intensely colored, low-spin Fe(III)-thiolates, the M(II)-thiolates described herein are colorless to moderately colored and high-spin (in cases where more than one spin-state is possible), reflecting the poorer energy match between the metal d- and sulfur orbitals upon reduction of the metal ion. As the d-orbitals drop in energy proceeding across the across the series M(2+) (M= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu), the sulfur-to-metal charge-transfer transition moves into the visible region, and the redox potentials cathodically shift. The reduced M(+1) oxidation state is only accessible with copper, and the more oxidized M(+4) oxidation state is only accessible for

  18. AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Ormeci, Alim; Koch, Katrin; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Schnelle, Walter; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Rosner, Helge

    2009-02-01

    The electronic structure and physical properties of the pnictide compound families REOFeAs (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm), AFe2As2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu), LiFeAs and FeSe are quite similar. Here, we focus on the members of the AFe2As2 family whose sample composition, quality and single-crystal growth are more controllable compared with the other systems. Using first-principles band structure calculations, we focus on understanding the relationship between the crystal structure, charge doping and magnetism in AFe2As2 systems. We will elaborate on the tetragonal to orthorhombic structural distortion along with the associated magnetic order and anisotropy, the influence of doping on the A site and the Fe site and the changes in the electronic structure as a function of pressure. Experimentally, we investigate the substitution of Fe in SrFe2-xTMxAs2 by other 3d transition metals, TM=Mn, Co or Ni. In contrast to a partial substitution of Fe by Co or Ni (electron doping), a corresponding Mn partial substitution does not lead to the suppression of the antiferromagnetic order or the appearance of superconductivity. Most of the calculated properties agree well with the measured properties, but several of them are sensitive to the As z position. For a microscopic understanding of the electronic structure of this new family of superconductors, this structural feature related to the Fe-As interaction is crucial, but its correct ab initio treatment still remains an open question.

  19. Bis(azulene) "submarine" metal dimer sandwich compounds (C10H8)2M2(M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni): Parallel and opposed orientations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Hui; King, R Bruce; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-01-15

    The opposed and parallel structures for the binuclear bis(azulene) "submarine" sandwiches (C10H8)2M2 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) have been optimized using density functional theory. The lowest energy (C10H8)2 M2 structures of the early transition metals Ti, V, Cr, and Mn have the azulene units functioning as bis(pentahapto) ligands to each metal atom similar to the azulene ligand in the long-known molybdenum carbonyl complex (η(5),η(5)-C10H8 )Mo2 (CO)6 . The metal-metal bonds in these early transition metal structures have distances and Wiberg bond indices consistent with the formal bond orders required to give each metal atom an 18-electron configuration for the singlet structures and a 17-electron configuration for the triplet structures. For the later transition metals Fe, Co, and Ni, the lowest energy (C10H8)2 M2 structures contain pentahapto-trihapto azulene ligands with an uncomplexed C=C double bond, similar to that in the long-known iron carbonyl complex (η(5),η(3)-C10H8)Fe2 (CO)5 . The parallel (η(5),η(3)-C10H8 )2M2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) structures contain metallocene subunits with their metal atoms at long nonbonding distances of 3.5-3.9 Å from the other metal atom, which is located between the azulene C7 rings. Higher energy opposed (C10H8)2 Fe2 structures contain an unprecedented distorted η(6) ,η(4) -azulene ligand using six carbon atoms for bonding to one iron atom as a hexahapto fulvene ligand and the remaining four carbon atoms for bonding to the other iron atom as a tetrahapto diene ligand.

  20. Influence of transition metal doping (X  =  Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) on the structure and bandgap of ferroelectric Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti2X1O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Huang, Feng; Lu, Zhangwu; Xue, Yun; Min, Jingjing; Li, Jihui; Xiao, Jun; Yang, Fujun; Zeng, Xiangbin

    2017-03-01

    Although the internal field can effectively maintain the separation between photo-excited charge carriers, the wide bandgap restrains ferroelectric materials from visible light absorption. This study examined the effects of transition metal (TM) Mn, Fe, Co or Ni doping on the structure and bandgap of Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 (BNdT) prepared by the molten salt synthesis method. No other non-bismuth layered structure phases were introduced. Mn, Co or Ni doping does not change the three-layered perovskite structure of BNdT while Fe doping increases the layer number from three to four. The doping of TM ions decreases the bandgap obviously. Among them, Mn-doped BNdT shows the largest bandgap reduction by ~1.6 eV. The narrowed bandgap was discussed to be attributed to the electronegativity of TM ions and the lattice distortion induced by doping together. The present work provides an available way to control the bandgap of complex oxide materials and provides a new tool for manipulating oxide optoelectronics.

  1. Varied roles of Pb in transition-metal PbMO3 perovskites (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Ru).

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B; Zhou, Jianshi

    2015-06-01

    Different structural chemistries resulting from the Pb(2+) lone-pair electrons in the PbMO3 perovskites are reviewed. The Pb(2+) lone-pair electrons enhance the ferroelectric transition temperature in PbTiO3, stabilize vanadyl formation in PbVO3, and induce a disproportionation reaction of Cr(IV) in PbCrO3. A Pb(2+) + Ni(IV) = Pb(4+) + Ni(II) reaction in PbNiO3 stabilizes the LiNbO3 structure at ambient pressure, but an A-site Pb(4+) in an orthorhombic perovskite PbNiO3 is stabilized at modest pressures at room temperature. In PbMnO3, a ferroelectric displacement due to the lone pair electron effect is minimized by the spin-spin exchange interaction and the strong octahedral site preference of the Mn(IV/III) cation. PbRuO3 is converted under pressure from the defective pyrochlore to the orthorhombic (Pbnm) perovskite structure where Pb-Ru interactions via a common O -2p orbital stabilize at low temperature a metallic Imma phase at ambient pressure. Above Pc [Formula: see text] a covalent Pb-Ru bond is formed by Pb(2+) + Ru(IV) = Pb(4+) + Ru(II) electron sharing.

  2. Structure and magnetism of antiferromagnetic FeMN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maat, Stefan

    2000-09-01

    The magnetic and electronic structure of bulk fcc Fe 50Mn50 was studied by first principles calculations using the layer-version of the Korringa- Kohn-Rostocker method with the local spin density approximation and the coherent potential approximation to treat chemical disorder. The self-consistent calculations suggest a non-collinear spin-structure for Fe50Mn50 as the magnetic ground state, which can be understood from the electronic structure. Possible spin-structures identified are the 3Q structure with spins pointing along the body diagonals and the 2Q structure with spins pointing along the face diagonals. The collinear 1Q structure with spins pointing along the cube edges was found to be energetically unstable. Epitaxial FeMn/Cu multilayers were grown epitaxially by sputtering onto a thick buffer layer of twinned Cu(111) on H-terminated Si(110). The growth was characterized in situ by Auger electron spectroscopy and electron diffraction techniques and ex situ by X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction experiments were performed on these multilayers to investigate the spin structure of thin Fe50Mn50 films. The measurements confirmed that Fe50Mn50 has either a 3Q structure or equally populated domains of 2Q or 1Q structures. Hysteresis loops of polycrystalline and epitaxial exchange-biased Ni 80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 films were measured as a function of Fe50Mn50 layer thickness with the longitudinal Kerr effect. The variation of the loop-shift and the coercivity were observed over a full 360° in plane rotation and Fourier analyzed. Coercivities and loop shifts show a strong dependence on the antiferromagnetic layer thickness. Examination of the angular dependent results within different models of exchange bias verified that the Fourier coefficients obey necessary conditions to achieve energetic stability together with spontaneous magnetization.

  3. On the Stability of Reversely Formed Austenite and Related Mechanism of Transformation in an Fe-Ni-Mn Martensitic Steel Aided by Electron Backscattering Diffraction and Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohdar, Hamidreza; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Habibi-Parsa, Mohammad; Jafarian, Hamid Reza; Bhattacharjee, Tilak; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-01

    The stability of reversely formed austenite and related mechanism of transformation were investigated against temperature and time in an Fe-9.6Ni-7.1Mn (at. pct) martensitic steel during intercritical annealing at a dual-phase (α + γ) region. Dilatometry, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), atom probe tomography (APT), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the mechanism of reverse transformation. It was found that under intercritical annealing at 853 K (580 °C), when the heating rate is 20 K/s (20 °C/s), reverse transformation takes place through a mixed diffusion control mechanism, i.e., controlled by bulk diffusion and diffusion along the interface, where Ni controls the diffusion as its diffusivity is lower than that of Mn in the martensite and austenite. Increasing the intercritical annealing to 873 K (600 °C) at an identical heating rate of 20 K/s (20 °C/s) showed that reverse transformation occurs through a sequential combination of both martensitic and diffusional mechanisms. The transition temperature from diffusional to martensitic transformation was obtained close to 858 K (585 °C). Experimental results revealed that the austenite formed by the diffusional mechanism at 853 K (580 °C) mainly remains untransformed after cooling to ambient temperature due to the enrichment with Ni and Mn. It was also found that the stability of the reversely formed austenite by martensitic mechanism at 873 K (600 °C) is related to grain refinement.

  4. Unusual features of magnetism in transition-metal-doped phthalocyanines C32H16N8 TM (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Seehra, Mohindar S.

    Transition-metal-doped phthalocyanines (TMPc), semiconductors with potential optoelectronic applications, are planar molecules with the TM atom at the center bound to four N atoms and forming a linear chain along the monoclinic b-axis. Because of this symmetry, the ground states of TMPc often violate the Hunds' rules; e.g. the S = 3/2 state for d5 Mn(II) in β-MnPc, S = 1/2 state for the d7 Co(II) in β-CoPc, and S =0 for Ni(II) in NiPc. The magnetic properties of TMPc are also affected by the stack angle δ between the orientation of the molecular plane and the b-axis, δ being 65°(45°) for α (β) phase. For β-CoPc, our M vs. T data fits well with the Bonner-Fisher model for S = 1/2 AFM Heisenberg linear chain yielding the Co2+-Co2+ exchange constant J/kB = - 1.5 K. For β-MnPc , a long-presumed ferromagnet with TC ~ 9 K, our magnetic studies show it to be an Ising chain magnet with Arrhenius magnetic relaxation governed by J/kB = 2.6 K and the zero-field splitting D/kB = 8.3 K. In β-MnPc, the absence of λ-type peak in specific heat and no peaks in ac susceptibilities near the quoted TC ~ 9 K confirms the absence of long range order (LRO). Instead we argue that LRO is absent in β-MnPc as D >J makes the spins in a chain parallel but canted with respect to spins in neighboring chains.

  5. Crystal chemistry of M[PO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O compounds (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd): Structural investigation of the Ni, Zn and Cd salts

    SciTech Connect

    Koleva, Violeta Effenberger, Herta

    2007-03-15

    The compounds M[PO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd) were prepared from super-saturated aqueous solutions at room temperature. Single-crystal X-ray structure investigations of members with M=Ni, Zn, Cd were performed at 295 and 120 K. The space-group symmetry is P2{sub 1}/n, Z=2. The unit-cell parameters are at 295/120 K for M=Ni: a=7.240(2)/7.202(2), b=9.794(2)/9.799(2), c=5.313(1)/5.285(1) A, {beta}=94.81(1)/94.38(1){sup o}, V=375.4/371.9 A{sup 3}; M=Zn: a=7.263(2)/7.221(2), b=9.893(2)/9.899(3), c=5.328(1)/5.296(2) A, {beta}=94.79(1)/94.31(2){sup o}, V=381.5/377.5 A{sup 3}; M=Cd: a=7.356(2)/7.319(2), b=10.416(2)/10.423(3), c=5.407(1)/5.371(2) A, {beta}=93.85(1)/93.30(2){sup o}, V=413.4/409.1 A{sup 3}. Layers of corner-shared MO{sub 6} octahedra and phosphate tetrahedra are linked by three of the four crystallographically different hydrogen bonds. The fourth hydrogen bond (located within the layer) is worth mentioning because of the short O{sub h}...O bond distance of 2.57-2.61 A at room temperature (2.56-2.57 A at 120 K); only for M=Mg it is increased to 2.65 A. Any marked temperature-dependent variation of the unit-cell dimension is observed only vertical to the layers. The analysis of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy data evidences that the internal PO{sub 4} vibrations are insensitive to the size and the electronic configuration of the M {sup 2+} ions. The slight strengthening of the intra-molecular P-O bonds in the Mg salt is caused by the more ionic character of the Mg-O bonds. All IR spectra exhibit the characteristic 'ABC trio' for acidic salts: 2900-3180 cm{sup -1} (A band), 2000-2450 cm{sup -1} (B band) and 1550-1750 cm{sup -1} (C band). Both the frequency and the intensity of the A band provide an evidence that the PO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} groups in M[PO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O compounds form weaker hydrogen bonds as compared with other acidic salts with comparable O...O bond distances of about 2.60 A. The

  6. Adjustment of temperature coefficient of resistance in NiCr/CuNi(Mn)/NiCr films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, W.; Baunack, St.; Elefant, D.; Reiss, G.

    1996-06-01

    The thin-film system Ni0.37Cr0.63/Cu0.57Ni0.42Mn0.01/Ni0.37Cr0. 63 with a typical thickness of 1 μm is used for low-ohmic precision resistors. The necessary adjustment of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) by annealing has been studied by investigating the irreversible changes of the resistance during various annealing steps of NiCr/CuNi(Mn)/NiCr multilayers in comparison with single layers of CuNi(Mn) and NiCr. Auger depth profiles showed that the interdiffusion of CuNi(Mn) and NiCr results in an impoverishment of Ni in CuNi(Mn), explaining the TCR shift by comparison with data of Cu1-xNix bulk material. The decrease of the resistivity and the reduction of the width of the copper-nickel conductive layer by formation of a Ni0.6Cr0.2Cu0.2 interdiffusion zone phase (in accordance with the Cu-Ni-Cr phase diagram) cause a significant curvature of the resistance-temperature curve. As main result, it is shown that the NiCr base and cover layers and their interdiffusion with CuNi(Mn) play the decisive role in adjusting the TCR. It was checked that oxidation and topography effects have no remarkable influences.

  7. In situ DRIFTs investigation of the reaction mechanism over MnOx-MOy/Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hang; Zha, Kaiwen; Li, Hongrui; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-11-01

    A series of MnOx-MOy/Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) catalysts were synthesized by an impregnation method and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. The catalytic performances of various MnOx-MOy/Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 catalysts were studied. It was found that MnOx-FeOy/Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 catalyst showed excellent low-temperature activity and a broad temperature window. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Characterization of the catalyst confirmed the addition of iron oxide can enhance the NO oxidation ability of the catalyst which results in the outstanding low-temperature SCR activity. Meanwhile, iron oxides were well dispersed on catalyst surface which could avoid the agglomeration of active species, contributing to the strong interaction between active species and the support. More importantly, in situ DRIFTS results confirmed that bidentate nitrates are general active species on these catalysts, whereas the reactivity of gaseous NO2 and bridged nitrates got improved because of the addition of Fe.

  8. Rare-earth-metal iodide clusters centered by transition metals: Synthesis, structure, and bonding of R sub 7 I sub 12 M compounds (R = Sc, Y, Pr, Gd; M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni)

    SciTech Connect

    Hughbanks, T.; Corbett, J.D. )

    1988-06-15

    The compounds R{sub 7}I{sub 12}M (M = Co, Ni for R = Sc; M = Fe, Co for R = Y; M = Mn, Fe, Co for R = Gd; M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni for R = Pr) have been synthesized by reactions of RI{sub 3}, MI{sub 2}, and R metals at 750-950{degree}C in sealed Nb or Ta containers. These compounds all adopt the Sc(Sc{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}B) structure (space group R{bar 3}, Z = 3) with a transition metal at the cluster center (in place of boron). The seventh isolated R{sup 3+} ion can be substituted by Ca{sup 2+} in several of the Pr and Gd cases. The structural details of Sc{sub 7}I{sub 12}Co, Y{sub 7}I{sub 12}Fe, and (Ca{sub 0.65}Pr{sub 0.35})(Pr{sub 6}I{sub 12}Co) were determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods (a = 14.800, 15.351, 15.777 {angstrom}; c = 10.202, 10.661, 10.925 {angstrom}; R = 3.3, 3.8, 3.4%; R{sub w} = 6.7, 3.3, 3.5%, respectively). The last of these presented twinning difficulties endemic to this structure type, but these were overcome satisfactorily by an approximate separation procedure. R-M distances in the clusters are short; Pr-Co = 2.770, Y-Fe = 2.621, and Sc-Co = 2.431 {angstrom}. While MO theory provides some useful guides to these compounds stability, the true breadth of the chemistry possible remains to be explored. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Molecule-based magnets formed by bimetallic three-dimensional oxalate networks and chiral tris(bipyridyl) complex cations. The series [ZII(bpy)3][ClO4][MIICrIII(ox)3] (ZII = Ru, Fe, Co, and Ni; MII = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; ox = oxalate dianion).

    PubMed

    Coronado, E; Galán-Mascarós, J R; Gómez-García, C J; Martínez-Agudo, J M

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, and physical properties of the series of molecular magnets formulated as [ZII(bpy)3][ClO4][MIICrIII(ox)3] (ZII = Ru, Fe, Co, and Ni; MII = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; ox = oxalate dianion) are presented. All the compounds are isostructural to the [Ru(bpy)3][ClO4][MnCr(ox)3] member whose structure (cubic space group P4(1)32 with a = 15.506(2) A, Z = 4) consists of a three-dimensional bimetallic network formed by alternating MII and CrIII ions connected by oxalate anions. The identical chirality (lambda in the solved crystal) of all the metallic centers determines the 3D chiral structure adopted by these compounds. The anionic 3D sublattice leaves some holes where the chiral [Z(bpy)3]2+ and ClO4- counterions are located. These compounds behave as soft ferromagnets with ordering temperatures up to 6.6 K and coercive fields up to 8 mT.

  10. Electric field control of Martensitic Phase Transitions in Thin Films of Ni-Mn-In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil; Sokolov, Andrei; Sabirianov, Renat

    2015-03-01

    We propose the electric field control of martensite transformation of Ni-Mn-In thin films deposited on ferroelectric (FE) substrate. DFT- based calculations indicate that the off-stochiometric Ni2Mn1.5In0.5 alloy shows that the ferromagnetic (FM) cubic phase undergoes transformation to tetragonal ferromagnetic (FiM) martensite phase at low temperature. The presence of FE substrate changes the relative stability of FM austenite and FiM martensite phases. (SrZrO3/PbZrO3) superlattices were considered as FE substrates with polarization perpendicular to the interface. The relative stability of two phases of the thin films can be tuned by polarization reversal in FE due to the change in sign of induced charges at the interface. The energetically favorable structures of the FE/Ni2Mn1.5In0.5 systems depend on interface structure between FE and Ni2Mn1.5In0.5 layers, e.g Ni-(Pb-O) interface. The energy difference (per NiMnIn f.u) between FM austenite and FiM martensite states of the film on FE substrate is ΔE = 0.22 eV with polarization away from interface, upon polarization reversal ΔE = 0.75 eV, compared to (ΔE = 0.24 eV) in the bulk. Additionally Pb atoms in PbO3 planes shifted in opposite direction with respect to oxygen planes and alter the chemical bonding of Pb with Ni atoms of the thin films. These changes possibly cause the shift of the martensite transition temperature. These results clearly indicate the possibility of control of martensitic transition in Ni-Mn-In thin films by FE substrate.

  11. Steam reforming of ethanol at moderate temperature: Multifactorial design analysis of Ni/La 2O 3-Al 2O 3, and Fe- and Mn-promoted Co/ZnO catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, José Antonio; Llorca, Jordi; Casanovas, Albert; Domínguez, Montserrat; Salvadó, Joan; Montané, Daniel

    Novel Co (10%) catalysts supported on ZnO and promoted with Fe and Mn (1%) were synthesized and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). Their catalytic activity for steam reforming of ethanol was compared with that of Ni catalysts supported on La 2O 3-Al 2O 3. Experiments at 400 and 500 °C, steam to carbon ratios of 2 and 4, and a wide interval of contact time were analyzed following a multifactorial experimental design. At 500 °C and a steam to carbon molar ratio of 4, complete conversion of ethanol was achieved above a contact time of 200 g min mol -1 for all catalysts. The ratio of selectivity between hydrogen and methane was around 23 mol H2/mol CH4 in the Co catalysts, while it approached the thermodynamic equilibrium (5.7 mol H2/mol CH4) in the Ni catalysts. The Co catalysts do not promote methane-forming reactions like ethanol cracking and acetaldehyde decarbonilation, nor do they facilitate the reverse methane steam reforming reaction. The catalytic behavior of cobalt is enhanced by promotion with iron or manganese through the formation of bimetallic particles, which facilitates cobalt reducibility. This suggests that Co-Mn/ZnO and Co-Fe/ZnO catalysts have a good potential for their use for ethanol reforming at moderate temperature.

  12. Long-range antiferromagnetic order in malonate-based compounds Na2M(H2C3O4)2·2H2O (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni).

    PubMed

    Rousse, G; Radtke, G; Klein, Y; Ahouari, H

    2016-02-14

    The recently discovered metal-malonate compounds of formulae Na2M(H2C3O4)2·2H2O with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni are investigated for their magnetic properties. While the Cu-based material is a weak ferromagnet, all other members present antiferromagnetic interactions. Neutron powder diffraction experiments reveal the establishment of a long range magnetic order at low temperature in the Pbca Shubnikov magnetic group. The magnetic structures are characterized by antiferromagnetic layers perpendicular to [001]. These layers are stacked antiparallel (M = Fe) or parallel (M = Mn, Ni) in the (a, c) plane. Magnetic moments are collinear to b for the former and to c for the latter. The M = Co malonate exhibits a non-collinear magnetic structure intermediate between the two latter, with components along b and c. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the dominant magnetic interaction, J1, occurs along a malonate group via a carboxylate and links two transition metals within the same layer, while other interactions (inter- or intra-layer) are much weaker, so that these compounds present the dominant characteristics of 2D-antiferromagnets.

  13. Dual support ensuring high-energy supercapacitors via high-performance NiCo2S4@Fe2O3 anode and working potential enlarged MnO2 cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ruyue; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Shuo; Zhai, Teng; Xia, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Development of high-energy and high-power asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) is still a great challenge due to the low specific capacitance of anode materials (carbon materials of about 100-200 F g-1) and limited voltage window (<2 V) in aqueous electrolytes. Herein, we demonstrate the rational design of the hybrid NiCo2S4@Fe2O3 nanoneedle array anode with large specific capacitance (342 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and MnO2 nanosheet array cathode working in wide potential window (0-1.3 V vs. SCE) for high-energy and high-power ASCs. The unique core-shell hierarchical nanoarchitecture of the hybrid NiCo2S4@Fe2O3 nanoneedle arrays not only provides large surface area for charge storage but also facilitates fast charge transport in the electrode. Moreover, the extended potential window of the MnO2 cathode can effectively increase the device voltage of the as-assembled ASC up to 2.3 V, resulting in significantly increased energy density. The obtained ASC device can deliver a high volumetric energy density of 2.29 mWh cm-3 at 196 mW cm-3 and retain 1.08 mWh cm-3 at 2063 mW cm-3, providing new opportunity for developing high-performance ASCs.

  14. Quaternary M{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Zn, Co, Mn) ferrite oxides: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocarlan, Radu George; Pui, Aurel; Gherca, Daniel; Virlan, Constantin; Dobromir, Marius; Nica, Valentin; Craus, Mihail Liviu; Gostin, Irina Neta; Caltun, Ovidiu; Hempelman, Rolf; Cool, Pegie

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic quaternary nanoferrite (M{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4,} where M = Mn, Zn, Co, Ni) were obtained. • C, O, H and metals were observed by XPS analysis. • Phases purity were confirmed by XRD diffraction and crystallite size (3–10 nm) were determind. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of M{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (where M = Mn, Zn, Co, Ni) nanoparticles using the coprecipitation method in the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the in-situ surfactant. The crystalline structure and surface morphology were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and it was established that the average diameter of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is in the range of 3–10 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) show that the MNPs are activated by the hydrophilic groups of the surfactant, which coat them and enhance their stability. The vibrating sample magnetometry measurements show the superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles. Due to their small crystallite size, which implies large surface area, and their functionalization with organic groups, the obtained nanoparticles could have medical and catalytic applications.

  15. Effect of temperature on magnetization reversal characteristics of ferromagnetic 3 d metal layers within exchange-coupled FeMn-based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskiy, V. O.; Adanakova, O. A.; Gorkovenko, A. N.; Lepalovskij, V. N.; Svalov, A. V.; Stepanova, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multilayer films Fe20Ni80/FeMn/FM (with FM = Ni, Fe11Ni89, Fe20Ni80, Co30Ni70, Fe, Co) have been prepared and their structure has been estimated. Their hysteretic properties and interlayer coupling parameters have been studied in a temperature range of 5-350 K. Regularities of the magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic layers under magnetic exchange-bias conditions have been interpreted.

  16. Room temperature multiferroic properties of (Bi{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05})(Fe{sub 0.97}Mn{sub 0.03})O{sub 3}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} double layered thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, C.M.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.W.; Kim, S.S.

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chemical solution deposition of (Bi{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05})(Fe{sub 0.97}Mn{sub 0.03})O{sub 3}–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} double layered thin film. • Studies on structural, electrical and multiferroic properties. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} acts as both resistive buffer layer and magnetic source. - Abstract: (Bi{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05})(Fe{sub 0.97}Mn{sub 0.03})O{sub 3}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} double layered thin film was prepared on a Pt(111)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrate by a chemical solution deposition method. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy studies confirmed the formation of the distorted rhombohedral perovskite and the inverse spinel cubic structures for the (Bi{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05})(Fe{sub 0.97}Mn{sub 0.03})O{sub 3}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} double layered thin film. The (Bi{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05})(Fe{sub 0.97}Mn{sub 0.03})O{sub 3}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} double layered thin film exhibited well saturated ferromagnetic (2 M{sub r} of 18.1 emu/cm{sup 3} and 2H{sub c} of 0.32 kOe at 20 kOe) and ferroelectric (2P{sub r} of 60 μC/cm{sup 2} and 2E{sub c} of 813 kV/cm at 866 kV/cm) hysteresis loops with low order of leakage current density (4.5 × 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied electric field of 100 kV/cm), which suggest the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic multi-layers applications in real devices.

  17. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in trophosome and vestimentum of the tube worm Riftia pachyptila from Guaymas basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J.; Páez-Osuna, F.; Soto, Luis A.

    2005-07-01

    Twenty two specimens of vestimentiferan tube worms Riftia pachyptila were collected from Guaymas Basin. The distribution of ten trace metals in trophosome and vestimentum was investigated. Highest mean concentrations of Co, Cu and Fe were detected in the trophosome; while higher mean levels of Cd, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the vestimentum. However, the t-student test resulted in significant differences (p<0.05) only in the case of Co. Cd and Fe concentrations in vestimentum increased accordingly with the size of specimens. With respect to vent fluids, extreme uptake seems to be a characteristic of R. pachyptila in the case of Cu and Zn but not for the rest of the analyzed metals. Studies concerning accumulation mechanisms of trace metals in R. pachyptila are needed, particularly on the capacity of this organism to tolerate elevated levels of elements considered as non-essential.

  18. Electronic structure of Mn and Fe oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Walter

    2008-03-01

    We present a clear, simple tight-binding representation of the electronic structure and cohesive energy (energy of atomization) of MnO, Mn2O3, and MnO2, in which the formal charge states Mn^2+, Mn^3+, and Mn^4+, respectively, occur. It is based upon localized cluster orbitals for each Mn and its six oxygen neighbors. This approach is fundamentally different from local-density theory (or LDA+U), and perhaps diametrically opposite to Dynamical Mean Field Theory. Electronic states were calculated self-consistently using existing parameters [1], but it is found that the charge density is quite insensitive to charge state, so that the starting parameters are adequate. The cohesive energy per Mn is dominated by the transfer of two s electrons to oxygen p states, the same for all three compounds. The differing transfer of majority d electrons to oxygen p states, and the coupling between them, accounts for the observed variation in cohesion in the series. The same description applies to the perovskites, such as LaxSr1-xMnO3, and can be used for FeO, Fe2O3 (and FeO2), Because the formulation is local, it is equally applicable to impurities, defects and surfaces. [1] Walter A. Harrison, Elementary Electronic Structure, World Scientific (Singapore, 1999), revised edition (2004).

  19. Fe-Mn nodules of the Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, E. S.; Skolotnev, S. G.

    2015-10-01

    The results of study of Fe-Mn crusts from the Mendeleev Ridge in the Arctic Ocean sampled with manipulators from a submarine are presented. In almost all the samples, the ore phase is significantly enriched in some valuable trace elements (Ni, Co, Cu, etc.), the contents of which exceed those in ores from the pelagic zones of other oceans. The high ore potential of the Arctic pelagic zone is stated and substantiated.

  20. Monitoring trace elements (Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in deep and surface waters of the estuary of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal River (Bay of Biscay, Basque Country)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Silvia; Villanueva, Unai; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-01

    Deep water samples (in contact with the sediment) were collected at eight different points of the estuary of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal River (Bay of Biscay, Basque Country), both at low and high tides, during four sampling campaigns (May, September and December 2005 and March 2006). Superficial water was also sampled in March 2006. Temperature, pH, redox potential, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity corresponding to each sample were measured in situ at each sampling point using a multiparametric probe. The physico-chemical parameters found are typical of highly stratified estuaries, with an acceptable oxygenation level. After filtering and acidifying the samples, they were analysed by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) to simultaneously determine the total concentration of Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. Concentrations in the μg kg - 1 level were found in all cases ( cCr and cNi, 1-10; cAl, cAs and cZn, 10-50; cCu and cMn, 10-100 and cFe, 100-400 μg kg - 1 ). A probable net input of Al, Cr, Mn and Zn via the main (Nerbioi-Ibaizabal) and some of the tributary rivers (Galindo, Asua and Gobela) was identified. Evidence of a common source of Al and Zn to the estuary was found. Correlation analysis of data revealed connections between variables (concentration of Cu, Fe and As with salinity, as well as cAl with cZn, cCu with cFe, cAs with cFe, and cAs with cCu). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of data allowed the samples to be grouped according to sampling campaign, with two principal components accounting for 62% of the total variance. In addition, plots of element concentration against salinity suggested a conservative behaviour for As, Cu and Fe and a non-conservative one for Cr. Not clear mixing behaviour was observed for the rest of elements.

  1. Heterotetranuclear oxalato-bridged Re(IV)3M(II) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) complexes: a new example of a single-molecule magnet (M = Ni).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lillo, José; Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Krzystek, J; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Faus, Juan

    2009-04-06

    The use of the mononuclear species (NBu(4))(2)[Re(IV)Cl(4)(ox)] (NBu(4)(+) = tetra-n-butylammonium cation; ox = oxalate dianion) as a ligand toward fully solvated divalent first-row transition-metal ions affords the tetranuclear complexes (NBu(4))(4)[{Re(IV)Cl(4)(mu-ox)}(3)M(II)] with M = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), Ni (4), and Cu (5). Their structure is made up of discrete [{ReCl(4)(mu-ox)}(3)M](4-) anions and bulky NBu(4)(+) cations. The complexes 2-5 crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P1; 2 and 5 as well as 3 and 4 are isostructural. The Re and M atoms exhibit somewhat distorted ReCl(4)O(2) and MO(6) octahedral surroundings, with the oxalate groups adopting the bis-bidentate bridging mode. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on polycrystalline samples of 1-5 in the temperature range 1.9-300 K show the occurrence of intramolecular antiferromagnetic [J = -1.30 cm(-1) (1)] and ferromagnetic couplings [J = +1.62 (2), +3.0 (3), +16.3 (4), and +4.64 cm(-1) (5)], with the Hamiltonian being defined as H = -J[S(M)(S(Re1) + S(Re2) + S(Re3))]. Compound 4 is the first example of an oxalato-bridged heterometallic species that behaves as a single-molecule magnet with a ground-state spin S = (11)/(2) and D = -0.8(1) cm(-1), as shown by the study of its static and dynamic magnetic properties and a high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance study on polycrystalline samples together with detailed micro-SQUID measurements on single crystals.

  2. Tough cryogenic alloys from the Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schanfein, M. J.; Zackay, V. F.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    By adjusting composition, metastable gamma (austenite) and epsilon (hexagonal) martensite may be retained in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr alloys and used to impact toughness through the TRIP mechanism. The resulting alloys have excellent toughness at cryogenic temperatures. The best alloys obtained to date are: Fe-20Mn, with sigma (sub y) = 79ksi and K sub IC = 275ksi square root of (in) at 77 K, and Fc-16Mn-8Cr, with sigma sub y = 85ksi and K sub IC = 72ksi square root of (in) at 77 K.

  3. Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Heon-Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sangshik

    2017-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Febalance-19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21)N, in wt %) was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis. PMID:28772651

  4. Absorption and Transfer of Fe and Mn in Germinating Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Seshadri; Joseph, Benedict

    1975-01-01

    The absorption of Fe from FeSO4, FeEDTA, and FeEDDHA (ferric ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate)), and Mn from MnSO4, MnEDTA, and MnEDDHA, by germinating sorghum (Sorghum vulgarie Pers. var. M 35-1) was studied. The seeds were found to absorb Fe and Mn from all the sources, and these ions moved to the scutellum, shoot, and root. EDDHA facilitated greater translocation of Fe and Mn from the seed to the shoot and root. The translocation of Fe was more towards the root than to the shoot, whereas it was the reverse in the case of Mn. We observed that the leaves of seedlings treated with Mn were slightly chlorotic. Further studies revealed that Mn did not affect the translocation of Fe, and possibly interfered with Fe utilization in chlorophyll synthesis. PMID:16659199

  5. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of four new organically templated metal sulfates [C5H14N2][M(II)(H2O)6](SO4)2, (M(II) = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni).

    PubMed

    Hajlaoui, Fadhel; Naïli, Houcine; Yahyaoui, Samia; Turnbull, Mark M; Mhiri, Tahar; Bataille, Thierry

    2011-11-21

    A series of novel organically templated metal sulfates, [C(5)H(14)N(2)][M(II)(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2) with (M(II) = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3) and Ni (4)), have been successfully synthesized by slow evaporation and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. All compounds were prepared using a racemic source of the 2-methylpiperazine and they crystallized in the monoclinic systems, P2(1)/n for (1, 3) and P2(1)/c for (2,4). Crystal data are as follows: [C(5)H(14)N(2)][Mn(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2), a = 6.6385(10) Å, b = 11.0448(2) Å, c = 12.6418(2) Å, β = 101.903(10)°, V = 906.98(3) Å(3), Z = 2; [C(5)H(14)N(2)][Fe(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2), a = 10.9273(2) Å, b = 7.8620(10) Å, c = 11.7845(3) Å, β = 116.733(10)°, V = 904.20(3) Å(3), Z = 2; [C(5)H(14)N(2)][Co(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2), a = 6.5710(2) Å, b = 10.9078(3) Å, c = 12.5518(3) Å, β = 101.547(2)°, V = 881.44(4) Å(3), Z = 2; [C(5)H(14)N(2)][Ni(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2), a = 10.8328(2) Å, b = 7.8443(10) Å, c = 11.6790(2) Å, β = 116.826(10)°, V = 885.63(2) Å(3), Z = 2. The three-dimensional structure networks for these compounds consist of isolated [M(II)(H(2)O)(6)](2+) and [C(5)H(14)N(2)](2+) cations and (SO(4))(2-) anions linked by hydrogen-bonds only. The use of racemic 2-methylpiperazine results in crystallographic disorder of the amines and creation of inversion centers. The magnetic measurements indicate that the Mn complex (1) is paramagnetic, while compounds 2, 3 and 4, (M(II) = Fe, Co, Ni respectively) exhibit single ion anisotropy. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  6. Spectroscopic and thermal degradation behavior of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with thiopental sodium anesthesia drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-04-01

    A new series of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized with thiopental sodium anesthesia drug. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to stoichiometry of the formulas [M(TPL)3]ṡnH2O (M = Cr(III) or Fe(III); n = 6 or 5), [M(TPL)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O (M = Mn(II), Co(II) or Ni(II); n = 0 or 4), and [M(TPL)2] (M = Cu(II) or Zn(II); n = 2 or 0) respectively, where TPL is thiopental chelating agent. Structures have been discussed and suggested upon elemental analyses, infrared, Raman, electronic, electron spin resonance, 1H NMR spectral data and magnetic studies. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was performed of metal complexes. The XRD patterns indicate crystalline nature for the complexes. The measured low molar conductance values in dimethylsulfoxide indicate that the complexes are non-electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic discussion refer that coordination take place through three types: Cdbnd N (pyrimidine moiety) nitrogen and C2sbnd S (2-thiolate group) for Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III), C6dbnd O (amido group) oxygen and C2sbnd S (2-thiolate group) for Co(II) and Ni(II), and Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions coordinated via Cdbnd N (pyrimidine moiety) nitrogen, C2dbnd S (2-thiolate group) and C6dbnd O (amido group) oxygen, respectively. The thermal behavior (TG/DTG/DTA) of the complexes was studied and kinetic parameters were determined by Horowitz-Metzger and Coats-Redfern methods. The thiopental and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial (G+ and G-) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method.

  7. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

    2009-01-14

    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  8. A series of borate-rich metalloborophosphates Na 2[ MIIB 3P 2O 11(OH)]·0.67H 2O ( MII=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn): Synthesis, structure and magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Guobao; Ju, Jing; Liao, Fuhui; Xiong, Ming; Lin, Jianhua

    2006-08-01

    A series of metalloborophosphates Na 2[ MIIB 3P 2O 11(OH)]·0.67H 2O ( MII=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) have been prepared hydrothermally and their structures have been solved by single-crystal diffraction techniques. They all crystallize in a hexagonal space group P6 3 and form a 3D microporous structure with 12-membered ring channels consisted of octahedral ( MIIO 6), tetrahedral (BO 4, PO 4) and triangular (BO 2(OH)) units, in which the counter Na + cations and water molecules are located. The Na + cations are mobile and can be exchanged by Li + in a melt of LiNO 3. Their open frameworks are thermal stable up to about 500 °C. Completed solid solutions between two different transition metals can also be obtained. Magnetic properties of Na 2[ MIIB 3P 2O 11(OH)]·0.67H 2O ( MII=Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) have been investigated.

  9. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt %) to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al-5Mg-Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al-5Mg-Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  10. Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) new complexes of 5-aminosalicylic acid: Spectroscopic, thermal characterization and biological activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Madiha H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.

    2013-04-01

    The complexing behavior of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) towards the transition metal ions namely, Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been examined by elemental analyses, magnetic measurements, electronic, IR and 1H NMR. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all complexes are investigated. The interpretation, mathematical analyses and evaluation of kinetic parameters of all thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equation. The free ligand and its metal complexes have been tested in vitro against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillis subtilies and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in order to assess their antimicrobial potential. The results indicate that the metal complexes are also found to have more antimicrobial activity than the parent 5-ASA drug.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on structural and Mössbauer spectroscopic properties of coprecipitated Mn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, Ch.; Babu, Ch. Seshu; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Meena, S. S.; Sastry, D. L.

    2015-06-24

    Results obtained in a systamatic study by X-ray diffraction and Mösssbauer spectroscopy on the structural and magnetic properties on Mn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles heat treated at 200 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C are reported. Average crystallite sizes are estimated to be in the range (2.6nm – 12.8nm). It is observed that crystallite sizes increase with increase in sintering temperature and random variation in lattice parameter was observed. At relatively low sintering temperatures the samples exhibit superparamagnetism and complete ferrite phase was observed at higher heat treatment.

  12. The cyclo-tetra-phosphate Cd(2)P(4)O(12), a member of the isotypic series M(2)P(4)O(12) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu).

    PubMed

    Weil, Matthias

    2010-10-13

    The title compound, Cd(2)P(4)O(12), dicadmium cyclo-tetra-phosphate, crystallizes isotypically with the members of the series M(II) (2)P(4)O(12), where M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni or Cu. Two CdO(6) octa-hedra, one with 2 and one with symmetry, share corners with the centrosymmetric P(4)O(12) (4-) ring anion that is built up from four corner-sharing PO(4) tetra-hedra. The isolated ring anions are arranged in layers parallel to (10) with the CdO(6) octa-hedra situated between these layers. The main difference between the individual M(II) (2)P(4)O(12) structures pertains to the different sizes of the MO(6) octa-hedra whereas the geometric parameters of all cyclo-P(4)O(12) (4-) anions are very similar.

  13. The effect of MC and MN stabilizer additions on the creep rupture properties of helium implanted Fe-25% Ni-15% Cr austenitic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Norikazu; Nagakawa, Johsei; Shiraishi, Haruki

    1995-10-01

    Helium embrittlement resistance of Fe-25% Ni-15% Cr austenitic alloys with various MX (M = V, Ti, Nb, Zr; X = C, N) stabilizers was compared through post helium implantation creep testing at 923 K. While significant deterioration by helium in terms of creep rupture time and elongation occurred for all materials investigated, the suppression of the deterioration, especially in rupture time, was discerned for the materials in which semi-coherent MC (M = Ti, Ti + Nb, V + Ti) particles were distributed at high density. The material which contains the incoherent M 23C 6 as predominant precipitates seems to be less degraded by helium than those containing the MXs (M = Zr, V; X = C, N), if compared at the same number density of precipitates. Therefore, it is suggested that the high density dispersion of incoherent M 23C 6 as well as semi-coherent Ti containing MC particles would be beneficial in reducing the detrimental helium influences on mechanical properties.

  14. Structural evolution of the double perovskites Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} (B' = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) upon reduction: Magnetic behavior of the uranium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Pinacca, R.M.; Viola, M.C.; Pedregosa, J.C.; Carbonio, R.E.; Lope, M.J. Martinez; Alonso, J.A.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Evolution of the double perovskites Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} upon reduction were studied by XRPD. {yields} Orthorhombic (Pnma) disordered perovskites SrB'{sub 0.5-x}U{sub 0.5+x}O{sub 3} were obtained at 900 {sup o}C. {yields} U{sup 5+/4+} and Zn{sup 2+} cations are distributed at random over the octahedral positions. {yields} AFM ordering for the perovskite with B' = Zn appears below 30 K. -- Abstract: We describe the preparation of five perovskite oxides obtained upon reduction of Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} (B' = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) with H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (5%/95%) at 900 {sup o}C during 8 h, and their structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). During the reduction process there is a partial segregation of the elemental metal when B' = Co, Ni, Fe, and the corresponding B'O oxide when B' = Mn, Zn. Whereas the parent, oxygen stoichiometric double perovskites Sr{sub 2}B'UO{sub 6} are long-range ordered concerning B' and U cations. The crystal structures of the reduced phases, SrB'{sub 0.5-x}U{sub 0.5+x}O{sub 3} with 0.37 < x < 0.27, correspond to simple, disordered perovskites; they are orthorhombic, space group Pnma (No. 62), with a full cationic disorder at the B site. Magnetic measurements performed on the phase with B' = Zn, indicate uncompensated antiferromagnetic ordering of the U{sup 5+}/U{sup 4+} sublattice below 30 K.

  15. Chiral molecular magnets: synthesis, structure, and magnetic behavior of the series [M(L-tart)] (M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II); L-tart = (2R,3R)-(+)-tartrate).

    PubMed

    Coronado, Eugenio; Galán-Mascarós, José R; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Murcia-Martínez, Ana

    2006-04-24

    A new series of layered magnets with the formula [M(L-tartrate)] (M = Mn(II), Co(II), Fe(II), Ni(II); L-tartrate = (2R,3R)-(+)-tartrate) has been prepared. All of these compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the chiral orthorhombic space group I222, as found by X-ray structure analysis. Their structure consists of a three-dimensional polymeric network in which each metal shows distorted octahedral coordination bound to four L-tartrate ligands, two of which chelate through an alcohol and a carboxylate group and the other two bind terminally through a monodentate carboxylate group. The chirality of the ligand imposes a Delta conformation on all metal centers. Magnetically, the paramagnetic metal centers form pseudotetragonal layers in which each metal is surrounded by four other metals, with syn,anti carboxylate bridges. These salts show intralayer antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interactions, depending on the electronic configuration of the metal, and weak interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction. In all cases the magnetic properties are strongly affected by the anisotropy of the system, and the presence of magnetic canting has been found. The Mn derivative behaves as a weak ferromagnet with a critical temperature of 3.3 K. The Ni derivative shows very unusual magnetic behavior in that it exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K, the onset of spontaneous magnetization arising from spin reorientation into a canted phase below 4.5 K, and a field-induced ferromagnetic state above 0.3 T at 2 K, behavior typical of metamagnets. The Fe and Co derivatives show antiferromagnetic interactions between spin carriers, but do not order above 2 K.

  16. Simultaneous determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb, Bi, Se, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co and Fe in water samples by differential pulse stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, M M; Hassanein, A M; Hammam, E; Beltagi, A M

    2000-06-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric procedure is described for the simultaneous determination of eleven elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb, Bi, Se, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co and Fe) in water samples. Firstly, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is used for the direct simultaneous determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb and Bi in 0.1 M HCI solution (pH = 1) containing 2 M NaCl. Then, differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry (DPCSV) is used for the determination of Se in the same solution. Zn is subsequently determined by DPASV after raising the pH of the same solution to pH 4. Next, the pH of the medium is raised to pH 8.5 by adding NH3/NH4Cl buffer solution for the determination of Mn by DPASV. Ni and Co are determined in the same solution by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) after adding DMG (1 x 10(-4) M). Finally, 1 x 10(-5) M 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is added to the solution for the determination of Fe by DPAdSV. The optimal conditions are described. Relative standard deviations and relative errors are calculated for the eleven elements at three different concentration levels. The lower detection limits for the investigated elements range from 1.11 x 10(-10) to 1.05 x 10(-9)M, depending on the element determined. The proposed analysis scheme was applied for the determination of these eleven elements in some ground water samples.

  17. Domain Structures and Anisotropy in Exchange-coupled [Co/Pd]-NiFe and [Co/Ni]-NiFe Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Chung, Sunjae; Mohseni, Majid; Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Åkerman, Johan; Guo, Feng; McMichael, Robert D.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2014-03-01

    Exchange-coupled multilayers [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been proposed to use in spin-torque switching and oscillators devices with tilted fixed and free layer to improve their functional performance. We present an experimental study of the magnetization behavior of [Co/Pd]5-/NiFe and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe multilayers measured using magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a function of the thickness of the top NiFe layer. We varied the thickness of the NiFe layer in [Co/Pd]5-NiFe (t), t = 0 - 80 nm and [Co/Ni]4-NiFe (t), t = 0.5 - 2.5 nm in order to study the interplay between perpendicular magnetization of the Co/Pd or Co/Ni multilayers and in-plane magnetization of the NiFe. Our magnetometry and FMR data suggest that the [Co/Ni]4/NiFe multilayer behaves like a homogeneous ferromagnetic film with anisotropy that reorients towards in-plane as the NiFe thickness increases, whereas the [Co/Pd]5/NiFe multilayer reveals more complex behavior in which the [Co/Pd] layer retains out-of-plane anisotropy while the magnetization of NiFe layer tilts in-plane with increasing thickness. MFM showed that domains with ~0.1 +/-m size were visible in [Co/Pd]-/NiFe with NiFe thickness of 20-80 nm. Multilayers were patterned into sub-100 nm dots using ion beam etching and their magnetization behavior are compared with unpatterned films.

  18. Structural ordering tendencies in the new ferromagnetic Ni-Co-Fe-Ga-Zn Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Antje; Siewert, Mario; Gruner, Markus E.; Wuttig, Manfred; Entel, Peter

    In search for new ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) we have calculated structural energy differences, magnetic exchange interaction constants and mixing energies of quaternary (X1X2)YZ Heusler alloys with X1,X2,Y =Ni,Co,Fe and Z=Ga, Zn using density functional theory. The comparison of the energy profiles of (NiCo)FeZ, (FeNi)CoZ, and (FeCo)NiZ with Z=Ga and Zn as a function of the tetragonal distortion c / a reveals that the energetically preferred ordering type is (NiCo)FeGa and (NiCo)FeZn which shows that Fe prefers to occupy the same cubic sublattice as Ga or Zn what implies that Fe favors Co and Ni as nearest neighbors, respectively. The Curie temperatures of (NiCo)FeGa and (NiCo)FeZn are high of the order of 600 K. (NiCo)FeGa, which has the same valence electron concentration (e/a=7.5) as Ni2MnGa and also possesses a high martensitic transformation temperature (>500 K), is of interest for future magnetic shape memory devices.

  19. Modeling and Characterization of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Ni2MnGa Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Don M; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Rios, Orlando; Hodges, Jason P; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Porter, Wallace D; Sefat, A. S.; Rusanu, Aurelian; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys have great promise as magneto-caloric effect refrigerant materials due to their combined magnetic and structural transitions. Computational and experimental research is reported on the Ni2MnGa material system. The magnetic states of this system have been explored using the Wang-Landau statistical approach in conjunction with the Locally Self-consistent Multiple-Scattering (LSMS) method to explore the magnetic states responsible for the magnet-caloric effect in this material. The effects of alloying agents on the transition temperatures of the Ni2MnGa alloy were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Neutron scattering experiments were performed to observe the structural and magnetic phase transformations at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Mn-Ga-Cu-Fe. Data from the observations are discussed in comparison with the computational studies.

  20. Phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in MnNiGe 1--xAlx, Ni50Mn35(In1--x Crx)15 and (Mn1--xCrx)NiGe 1.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetz, Abdiel

    The magnetocaloric and thermomagnetic properties of the MnNiGe1-xAlx, Ni50Mn35(In 1-xCrx)15 and (Mn1-xCr x)NiGe1.05 systems have been studied by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and magnetization measurements. Partial substitution of Al for Ge in MnNiGe1-xAl x results in a first-order magnetostructural transition (MST) from a hexagonal ferromagnetic to an orthorhombic antiferromagnetic phase at 186 K (for x = 0.09). A large magnetic entropy change of ∆SM = -17.6 J/kg K for ∆H = 5 T was observed in the vicinity of T M = 186 K for x = 0.09. This value is comparable to those of well-known giant magnetocaloric materials, such as Gd5Si2Ge 2, MnFeP0.45As0.55, and Ni50Mn 37Sn13 [1]. The values of the latent heat (L = 6.6 J/g) and corresponding total entropy changes (∆ST = 35 J/kg K) have been evaluated for the MST using DSC measurements. Large negative values of ∆S M of -5.8 and -4.8 J/kg K for ∆H = 5 T in the vicinity of T C were observed for x = 0.09 and 0.085, respectively. Partial substitution of Cr for Mn in(Mn1-xCrx)NiGe 1.05 results in a MST from a hexagonal paramagnetic to an orthorhombic paramagnetic phase near TM ~ 380 K (for x = 0.07). Partial substitution of Cr for In in Ni50Mn35(In1-xCr x)15 shifts the magnetostructural transition to a higher temperature (TM ~ 450 K) for x = 0.1. Large magnetic entropy changes of ∆SM = -12 (J/kgK) and ∆S = -11 (J/kgK), both for a magnetic field change of 5 T, were observed in the vicinity of TM for (Mn1-xCrx)NiGe1.05 and Ni 50Mn35(In1-xCrx)15, respectively. The concentration-dependent (T-x) phase diagram of transition temperatures (magnetic, structural, and magnetostructural) has been generated using magnetic, XRD, and DSC data. The role of magnetic and structural changes on transition temperatures are discussed.

  1. Enhanced Photovoltage Response of Hematite-X-Ferrite Interfaces (X = Cr, Mn, Co, or Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Liang; Li, Hai-long; Li, Yu-jin; Nie, Jia-nan; Dong, Fa-qin; Dong, Hai-liang; Song, Mian-xin; Wang, Li-sheng; Zhou, Tian-liang; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Li, Xin-xi; Xie, Lei

    2017-02-01

    High-fluorescent p-X-ferrites (XFe2O4; XFO; X = Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, or Ni) embedded in n-hematite (Fe2O3) surfaces were successfully fabricated via a facile bio-approach using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The results revealed that the X ions with high/low work functions modify the unpaired spin Fe2+-O2- orbitals in the XFe2O4 lattices to become localized paired spin orbitals at the bottom of conduction band, separating the photovoltage response signals (73.36 455.16/-72.63 -32.43 meV). These (Fe2O3)-O-O-(XFe2O4) interfacial coupling behaviors at two fluorescence emission peaks (785/795 nm) are explained via calculating electron-hole effective masses (Fe2O3-FeFe2O4 17.23 × 10-31 kg; Fe2O3-CoFe2O4 3.93 × 10-31 kg; Fe2O3-NiFe2O4 11.59 × 10-31 kg; Fe2O3-CrFe2O4 -4.2 × 10-31 kg; Fe2O3-MnFe2O4 -11.73 × 10-31 kg). Such a system could open up a new idea in the design of photovoltage response biosensors.

  2. Oxalate-based soluble 2D magnets: the series [K(18-crown-6)]3[M(II)3(H2O)4{M(III)(ox)3}3] (M(III) = Cr, Fe; M(II) = Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu; ox = C2O4(2-); 18-crown-6 = C12H24O6).

    PubMed

    Coronado, Eugenio; Galán-Mascarós, José R; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Waerenborgh, João C; Gaczyński, Piotr

    2008-08-04

    The synthesis and magnetic properties of the oxalate-based molecular soluble magnets with general formula [K(18-crown-6)] 3[M (II) 3(H 2O) 4{M (III)(ox) 3} 3] (M (III) = Cr, Fe; M (II) = Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu; ox = C 2O 4 (2-)) are here described. All the reported compounds are isostructural and built up by 2D bimetallic networks formed by alternating M (III) and M (II) ions connected through oxalate anions. Whereas the Cr (III)M (II) derivatives behave as ferromagnets with critical temperatures up to 8 K, the Fe (III)M (II) present ferri- or weak ferromagnetic ordering up to 26 K.

  3. Mn deposition on Ni{sub 2}MnGa(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, J.; Rai, Abhishek; D'Souza, S. W.; Maniraj, M.; Barman, S. R.

    2012-06-05

    We report the study of Mn adlayers on a Mn deficient Ni{sub 2}MnGa(100) surface by using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The spot profile analysis indicates that after 0.2 monolayer (ML) deposition, the LEED spots become very sharp. This pattern indicates the removal of Mn vacancies formed on the surface due to Mn deficiency. But with further growth of Mn layers on this surface, the LEED spots become broad.

  4. Systematic study of electronic and magnetic properties for Cu{sub 12–x}TM{sub x}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Zn) tetrahedrite

    SciTech Connect

    Suekuni, K.; Tomizawa, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Koyano, M.

    2014-04-14

    Substitution effects of 3d transition metal (TM) impurities on electronic and magnetic properties for Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} tetrahedrite are investigated by the combination of low-temperature experiments and first-principles electronic-structure calculations. The electrical resistivity for the cubic phase of Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} exhibits metallic behavior due to an electron-deficient character of the compound. Whereas that for 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 2.0 of Cu{sub 12−x}Ni{sub x}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} exhibits semiconducting behavior. The substituted Ni for Cu is in the divalent ionic state with a spin magnetic moment and creates impurity bands just above the Fermi level at the top of the valence band. Therefore, the semiconducting behavior of the electrical resistivity is attributed to the thermal excitation of electrons from the valence band to the impurity band. The substitution effect of TM on the electronic structure and the valency of TM for Cu{sub 11.0}TM{sub 1.0}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} are systematically studied by the calculation. The substituted Mn, Fe, and Co for Cu are found to be in the ionic states with the spin magnetic moments due to the large exchange splitting of the 3d bands between the minority- and majority-spin states.

  5. Crystal structure and dielectric properties of aurivillius phases A 0.5Bi4.5 B 0.5Ti3.5O15 ( A = Na, Ca, Sr, Pb; B = Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Mn, Ga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, V. G.; Zubkov, S. V.; Shuvaeva, V. A.; Abdulvakhidov, K. G.; Shevtsova, S. I.

    2014-08-01

    New polycrystalline Bi-containing layered perovskite-like oxides having the Aurivillius phase (AP) structure with the general formula A 0.5Bi4.5 B 0.5Ti3.5O15 ( A = Na, Ca, Sr, Pb; B = Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Mn, Ga) have been synthesized. The unit cell parameters of the synthesized compounds have been determined by X-ray powder diffraction. All studied APs crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group A21 am (36)). The degree of distortion of AP unit cells has been analyzed based on the obtained structural parameters. The temperature dependences of the permittivity have been measured and the Curie temperatures have been determined for all the samples. The significant difference in the values of the permittivity maxima for APs Sr0.5Bi4.5Co0.5Ti3.5O15 and Sr0.5Bi4.5Ni0.5Ti3.5O15 has been interpreted based on the electron microscopy data and explained by substantial changes in the porosity and crystal grain sizes of these ceramic samples.

  6. A New CuO-Fe2 O3 -Mesocarbon Microbeads Conversion Anode in a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery with a Li1.35 Ni0.48 Fe0.1 Mn1.72 O4 Spinel Cathode.

    PubMed

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Verrelli, Roberta; Campanella, Daniele; Marangon, Vittorio; Hassoun, Jusef

    2017-01-10

    A ternary CuO-Fe2 O3 -mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) conversion anode was characterized and combined with a high-voltage Li1.35 Ni0.48 Fe0.1 Mn1.72 O4 spinel cathode in a lithium-ion battery of relevant performance in terms of cycling stability and rate capability. The CuO-Fe2 O3 -MCMB composite was prepared by using high-energy milling, a low-cost pathway that leads to a crystalline structure and homogeneous submicrometrical morphology as revealed by XRD and electron microscopy. The anode reversibly exchanges lithium ions through the conversion reactions of CuO and Fe2 O3 and by insertion into the MCMB carbon. Electrochemical tests, including impedance spectroscopy, revealed a conductive electrode/electrolyte interface that enabled the anode to achieve a reversible capacity value higher than 500 mAh g(-1) when cycled at a current of 120 mA g(-1) . The remarkable stability of the CuO-Fe2 O3 -MCMB electrode and the suitable characteristics in terms of delivered capacity and voltage-profile retention allowed its use in an efficient full lithium-ion cell with a high-voltage Li1.35 Ni0.48 Fe0.1 Mn1.72 O4 cathode. The cell had a working voltage of 3.6 V and delivered a capacity of 110 mAh gcathode(-1) with a Coulombic efficiency above 99 % after 100 cycles at 148 mA gcathode(-1) . This relevant performances, rarely achieved by lithium-ion systems that use the conversion reaction, are the result of an excellent cell balance in terms of negative-to-positive ratio, favored by the anode composition and electrochemical features.

  7. Development of Fe-Mn-Al-X-C alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a low cost Cr-free, iron-base alloy for aerospace applications involves both element substitution and enhancement of microstructural strengthening. When Mn is substituted for Ni and Al or Si is substituted for Cr, large changes occur in the mechanical and thermal stability of austenite in FeMnAlC alloys. The in situ strength of MC or M2C (M = Ti, V, Hf, Ta, or Mo) in FeMnAlC alloys was determined. The high temperature tensile strength depends more on the distribution of carbides than the carbide composition. Precipitation of a high volume percent-ordered phase was achieved in Fe2OMnlONi6Al6Ti (lC) alloys. As case, these alloys have a homogeneous austenitic structure. After solutioning at 1100 C for 5 hr followed by aging at 600 C for 16 hr, gamma prime or a perovskite carbide is precipitated. Overaging occurs at 900 C where eta is precipitated.

  8. Effect of sintering temperature on the structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 potential for radar absorbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, K.; Sadhana, K.; Matteppanavar, S.; Liu, Hsiang-Lin

    2017-02-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method, densified at different temperatures 400-700 °C/4 h using conventional sintering method. The grain sizes of all the samples vary between 18 nm and 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicating magnetically soft behaviour of the material. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity is almost constant upto 1 GHz and increases with further increase of frequency. The permeability is ruled by Snoek's law, the values of μ‧ increases with increase of temperature and the resonance frequency increases with an increase of temperature. The reflection coefficient is however increasing with sintering temperature and the maximum loss is observed in the range of 100 MHz-1 GHz. Sample sintered at 700 °C has shown maximum reflection loss and this loss occurs due to absorption, destructive interference and multiple internal reflections in the sample. Quality factor is constant upto 380 MHz and increases with frequency for all the samples sintered at different temperatures. The TC for all the samples is above 230 °C. The room temperature EPR spectra confirm the oxidation state of Fe3+. The g-factor is in the range of 2.

  9. Spectroscopic and DFT Investigation of [M{HB(3,5-iPr2pz)3}(SC6F5)] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) Model Complexes: Periodic Trends in Metal-thiolate Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Gorelsky, Serge I.; Basumallick, Lipika; Vura-Weis, Josh; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Fujisawa, Kiyoshi; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    A series of metal-varied model complexes [ML(SC6F5)] (where L = hydrotris(3,5-diisopropyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate and M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) related to blue copper proteins has been studied by the combination of absorption, MCD, resonance Raman, and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Density functional calculations have been used to characterize these complexes and calculate their spectra. The observed variations in geometry, spectra, and bond energies are interpreted in terms of changes in the nature of metal-ligand bonding interactions. The metal 3d-ligand orbital interaction, which contributes to the covalent bonding in these complexes, becomes stronger in going from Mn(II) to Co(II) (the σ contribution) and to Cu(II) (the π contribution). This change in the covalency results from the increased effective nuclear charge of the metal atom in going from Mn(II) to Zn(II) and the change in the 3d orbital populations (d5→d10). Ionic bonding also plays an important role in determining the overall strength of the ML+-SC6F5− interaction. However, there is a compensating effect: as the covalent contribution to the metal-ligand bonding increases, the ionic contribution decreases. These results provide insight into the Irving-Williams series, where it is found that the bonding of the ligand being replaced by the thiolate makes a major contribution to the observed order of stability constants over the series of metal ions. PMID:15998022

  10. Evaluation of Mn substitution for Ni in alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Liu, Chain T; Evans, Neal D; Maziasz, Philip J; Brady, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the substitution of low-cost Mn for Ni in austenitic stainless steels due to the rising price of Ni. This paper investigates the possibility of such a substitution approach for the recently developed alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})-forming austenitic (AFA) class of heat-resistant stainless steels. Computational thermodynamic tools were utilized to predict the alloy composition range to maintain an austenitic matrix microstructure when Mn is substituted for Ni in the presence of Al, which is a strong body-centered-cubic (BCC) phase stabilizer. Phase equilibria, oxidation behavior, and creep properties of Fe-(10-14)Cr-(5--15)Mn-(4-12)Ni-(2.5-3)Al-Cu-Nb-C-B (in weight percent) based alloys were studied. The alloys based on Fe-14Cr-2.5Al-(5-9)Mn-(10-12)Ni exhibited the best balance of oxidation and creep resistance, which represents approximately 50% reduction in Ni content compared to previously developed AFA alloys. These low-Ni, high-Mn AFA alloys formed protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales up to 973-1073 K in air and at 923 K in air with 10% water vapor. Creep-rupture lives of the alloys under a severe screening condition of 1023 K and 100 MPa were in the 7.2 x 10{sup 5}-1.8 x 10{sup 6} s (200-500 h) range, which is comparable to or somewhat improved over that of type 347 stainless steel (Fe-18Cr-11Ni base).

  11. Occasional ``long-range'' nonequilibrium body-centered-cubic structures in NiFe/Cu spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Heckman, J. W.; Pratt, W. P.; Bass, J.; Espinosa, F. J.; Conradson, S. D.; Lederman, D.; Crimp, M. A.

    1999-10-01

    We describe conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization of the microstructure of sputtered NiFe/Cu giant magnetoresistance spin valves (Cu/FeMn/NiFe/Cu/NiFe) sandwiched between thick Nb contact layers. Six spin valves, sputtered at different temperatures, three with thin (3 nm) and three with thick (24 and 30 nm) NiFe layers, were studied. All of the spin-valve layers were smooth and continuous, consisting of columnar grains generally 20-90 nm wide. In most cases, the grains had grown epitaxially from the bottom contact, through the entire multilayer, to the top contact layer. The columnar grains grew on the closest-packed planes (i.e., {110} planes for bcc Nb and {111} planes for fcc Cu, FeMn, and NiFe spin-valve components). This epitaxial growth yields an apparent Kurdjumov-Sachs {111}fcc∥{110}bcc; <110>fcc∥<111>bcc orientation relationship. However, HRTEM imaging supported by fast Fourier transform analysis reveals that in some of the columnar grains the Cu, FeMn, and NiFe layers take up a nonequilibrium bcc structure. In these cases, the bcc Cu, FeMn, and NiFe layers grow on {110} planes and are epitaxial with the Nb contacts for the individual grain columns. While bcc Cu has been observed elsewhere, the length scale of the nonequilibrium bcc phases reported here is an order of magnitude greater than previously observed.

  12. Evolution of structure, magnetic and transport properties of {{Fe}}_{{1-x}}{{Mn}}_{x}{Se}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Kapil E.; Priolkar, K. R.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper seeks to investigate effect of Mn doping in superconducting FeSe. It is found that over the entire doping range in {{Fe}}1-xMn x Se (0≤slant x≤slant 1), Mn does not substitute Fe in the superconducting tetragonal phase. Instead two impurity phases, NiAs type hexagonal phase and NaCl type cubic phase, grow with increasing Mn content. Initially, hexagonal phase has a higher content than the cubic phase but beyond x = 0.5, the cubic phase grows rapidly and for x≥slant 0.8, the sample is monophasic with cubic NaCl type structure. The superconducting tetragonal phase content steadily decreases with increasing Mn concentration and completely disappears beyond x = 0.5. The premise that Mn never replaces Fe in the superconducting phase is further strengthened by observation of a sharp drop in AC susceptibility akin to superconducting transition at the T c of FeSe up to x = 0.5. EXAFS studies at the Fe K edge also show that the Fe has a four coordinated tetragonal local structure in all compositions below x = 0.5, similar to that in FeSe and it gradually changes to a six coordinated one as is expected for a NaCl type cubic phase for x≥slant 0.5.

  13. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt %) to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  14. Imaging the surface morphology, chemistry and conductivity of LiNi 1/3 Fe 1/3 Mn 4/3 O 4 crystalline facets using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Cutler, Jeffrey; Hu, Enyuan; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-07-26

    We have employed scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) using the X-ray fluorescence mode in order to elucidate the chemical structures at Ni, Fe, Mn and O sites from the (111) and (100) facets of micron-sized LiNi1/3Fe1/3Mn4/3O4 energy material particles. Furthermore, STXM imaging using electron yield mode has mapped out the surface conductivity of the crystalline particles. Our study presents a novel approach that visualizes local element segregation, chemistry and conductivity variation among different crystal facets, which will assist further tailoring of the morphology and surface structure of this high voltage spinel lithium ion battery cathode material.

  15. Imaging the surface morphology, chemistry and conductivity of LiNi 1/3 Fe 1/3 Mn 4/3 O 4 crystalline facets using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Cutler, Jeffrey; Hu, Enyuan; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-07-26

    We have employed scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) using the X-ray fluorescence mode in order to elucidate the chemical structures at Ni, Fe, Mn and O sites from the (111) and (100) facets of micron-sized LiNi1/3Fe1/3Mn4/3O4 energy material particles. Furthermore, STXM imaging using electron yield mode has mapped out the surface conductivity of the crystalline particles. Our study presents a novel approach that visualizes local element segregation, chemistry and conductivity variation among different crystal facets, which will assist further tailoring of the morphology and surface structure of this high voltage spinel lithium ion battery cathode material.

  16. Variations on a Theme by Longhi: I, an Analysis of the Thermodynamic Underpinning of Fe, Mn, and Ni Partitioning into Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Longhi et al. [1] have used the D(Ni) vs. D(Mg) parameterizations of Jones [2, 3] in attempting to explain the Ni systematics of lunar differentiation. A key element of the Jones parameterization and the Longhi et al. models is that, at very high temperatures, Ni may become incompatible in olivine. Unfortunately, there is no actual experimental evidence that this is ever the case [1]. To date, all experiments designed to demonstrate such incompatibility have failed. Here I will investigate the thermodynamic foundations of the D vs. D(Mg) trends for olivine/liquid discovered by [2].

  17. Effects of Fe doping on the structures and properties of hexagonal birnessites - Comparison with Co and Ni doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hui; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Hu, Tiandou; Zheng, Lirong; Qiu, Guohong; Koopal, Luuk K.; Tan, Wenfeng

    2013-09-01

    Fe-doped hexagonal birnessite was synthesized by adding Fe3+ to the initial reactants, and the effects of Fe doping on the structures and properties of birnessite were investigated and compared with the effects of Co and Ni doping. The underlying mechanisms controlling the incorporation of transition metals (TMs) into the birnessite structure were proposed. Compared to the un-doped control, Fe-doped birnessite has weaker crystallinity, i.e., less stacking of the phyllomanganate sheets in the c direction, and larger surface area. Combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Mn K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectra demonstrates that Fe doping decreases the Mn average oxidation state (AOS) but has little effect on the basic layer structure and local Mn environments. Fe(III) located in the birnessite layers exhibits high-spin (HS) configuration whereas layer Mn(III) and Co(III) plausibly adopt low-spin (LS) state. The TMs decrease the thickness of birnessite plate crystals along the c axis and affect the unit cell parameter b in the order Fe > Ni > Co. Co and Fe incorporate into the birnessite layers by substitution for Mn(IV) while Ni substitutes for Mn(III). The substitution of TMs into the birnessite layers is governed by the coordination radius (CR), crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE) and oxidation state of the TMs. The variations in potassium contents in doped birnessites together with TM K-edge EXAFS data indicate that most of the Fe (˜81-82%) or Ni (˜66-76%) incorporated into the birnessite structure exists in the interlayer regions, while most of the Co (˜71-80%) occurs in the manganese layers. The compatibility of these TM ions in the birnessite layers is in the order Co > Ni > Fe. The smaller the difference between the CR of Fe, Co or Ni and Mn(IV) or Mn(III), the more dopants are compatible within the Mn layers.

  18. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  19. Giant magnetic coercivity in CaCu5-type SmNi3TSi (T=Mn-Cu) solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jinlei; Yan, Xu; Morozkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of transition metal substitution for Ni on the magnetic properties of the CaCu5-type SmNi3TSi (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) solid solutions have been investigated. SmNi3MnSi, SmNi3FeSi, SmNi3CoSi and SmNi3CuSi show ferromagnetic ordering at 125 K, 190 K, 46 K and 12 K and field induced transitions at 65 K, 110 K, 30 K and 6 K, respectively. The magnetocaloric effects of SmNi3TSi (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) were calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSm). The magnetic entropy ΔSm reaches value of -1.1 J/kg K at 130 K for SmNi3MnSi, -0.4 J/kg K at 180 K for SmNi3FeSi, -0.37 J/kg K at 45 K for SmNi3CoSi and -0.5 J/kg K at 12 K for SmNi3CuSi in field change of 0-50 kOe around the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. They show positive ΔSm of +2.4 J/kg K at 30 K for SmNi3MnSi, -2.6 J/kg K at 65 K for SmNi3FeSi, +0.73 J/kg K at 15 K for SmNi3CoSi and -0.5 J/kg K at 6 K for SmNi3CuSi in field change of 0-50 kOe around the metamagnetic-like transition temperature. Below the field induced transition temperature, SmNi3TSi (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) exhibits giant magnetic coercivity of 80 kOe at 20 K for SmNi3MnSi, 87 kOe at 40 K for SmNi3FeSi, 27 kOe at 20 K for SmNi3CoSi and 54 kOe at 5 K for SmNi3CuSi. Below the field induced transition temperature, SmNi3TSi (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) exhibits giant magnetic coercivity of 80 kOe at 20 K for SmNi3MnSi, 87 kOe at 40 K for SmNi3FeSi, 27 kOe at 20 K for SmNi3CoSi and 54 kOe at 5 K for SmNi3CuSi.

  20. Domain structure and magnetization process of a giant magnetoimpedance geometry FeNi/Cu/FeNi(Cu)FeNi/Cu/FeNi sensitive element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Elbaile, L.; Alves, F.; Ahamada, B.; Barrué, R.; Svalov, A. V.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2004-09-01

    The magnetization process and the magnetic domains of the FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (2.5 nm)/FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (480 nm)/FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (2.5 nm)/FeNi (100 nm) structure were studied. This geometry consists of two FeNi/Cu/FeNi trilayers with a thick in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the sensitive element and narrow in the direction of the flowing current Cu electrode in the centre. Ferromagnet/conductor/ferromagnet is the typical geometry of magnetoimpedance thin-film-based sensitive elements used to detect small magnetic fields. Multilayered structures were prepared by rf-sputtering in a magnetic field of 100 Oe applied perpendicular to the Cu electrode in order to induce transverse magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic measurements and magnetic domain structure observations were made in magnetic fields applied one at a time parallel or perpendicular to the Cu electrode. Different magnetization processes with non-homogeneous rotations in the first case and dominant multiple nucleation and merging of domains in the second one were observed.

  1. AC Impedance Behavior of LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.6Fe0.15 Hydrogen-Storage Alloy: Effect of Surface Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tliha, M.; Khaldi, C.; Lamloumi, J.

    2016-04-01

    The decrease of Cobalt content in alloy is very beneficial to reduce the production cost of the alloy, whereas the effect of Co on cycle life of the AB5-type hydrogen-storage alloys is extremely important. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate low-Co and/or Co-free AB5-type alloys in which Co was substituted by other elements. Iron is a key element in the development of low-Co AB5-type alloys. The aim of this work is to systematically investigate the effect of the real surface area on the all kinetic properties of a low-Co LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.6Fe0.15 alloy under cycling using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. All kinetic properties of the electrode, such as exchange density, limiting current density, high-rate charge/discharge ability, cycle life time, electrocatalytic activity, and diffusion rate are related to the real surface area. During the EIS analysis, interestingly, we found that with increasing number of charge/discharge cycles, the metal hydride alloy powders undergo micro-cracking into smaller particles, and thus the real surface area of the alloy increases, which then influences the kinetic properties of the electrode reactions.

  2. Influence of the type of tree habitat on the character of co-occurrence of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the soil of the Tatra Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Paprotny, Łukasz; Paukszto, Andrzej; Kowol, Jolanta; Rochel, Robert; Nogaj, Ewa; Musielińska, Renata; Celiński, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of habitat type of selected species of trees on the nature of co-occurrence of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr and Co. The presence of speciation forms of these metals was investigated, with reference to the species composition of tree stands in selected areas of the Tatra Mountain National Park (Chochołowska Valley, Strążyska Valley, Kościeliska Valley, as well as Mała Łąka Valley).Contents of selected metals in samples were determined by the flame ASA method, with an accuracy of 0.1 µg/g. In habitats dominated by maples, the Pb content in the Chochołowska Valley, unlike Kościeliska Valley covered with beeches, the Pb content in the form directly bioavailable, was twice as high. This was clearly proved in the case of Strążyska Valley where the soil in beech tree habitats contained larger quantities of exchangeable forms of Pb, than that in the Chochołowska Valley. The soil of the valleys, including the Mała Łąka Valley, showed peculiar characteristic averaging of the contents of selected speciation forms of metals in the soil. Content corresponding to 10 percentile and geometrical average may be regarded as benchmarks in future studies of the Tatra Mountain National Park, or other protected areas.

  3. Size tuned polyol-made Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles as potential heating agents for magnetic hyperthermia: from synthesis control to toxicity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basti, H.; Hanini, A.; Levy, M.; Ben Tahar, L.; Herbst, F.; Smiri, L. S.; Kacem, K.; Gavard, J.; Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Chau, F.; Ammar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Zn-rich substituted Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) of about 5 and 10 nm were produced by the so-called polyol method. They were engineered for hyperthermia therapy based on their magnetic and morphological properties. Indeed, because of their comparatively low Curie temperature and reasonable magnetization, these probes may turn into useful self-regulated heating agents under suitable conditions. For such a purpose, the structure, the microstructure, the magnetic and magnetocalorimetric properties of the produced NPs as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity were investigated. Our results demonstrate that the magnetic properties of these magnetically diluted spinel ferrite particles can be largely modified by just changing their size. They also show that the about 10 nm sized manganese-based ones exhibit the highest heating power under a 700 kHz ac magnetic field and the lowest cytotoxicity on Immortalized human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC).

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the structure and hardness of high-entropy alloys CoCrFeNiMnV x ( x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaysultanov, D. G.; Stepanov, N. D.; Salishchev, G. A.; Tikhonovsky, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    High-entropy alloys CoCrFeNiMnVKharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, ul. Akademicheskaya 1, Kharkov 61108 (Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, ul. Akademicheskaya 1, Kharkov 61108 = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) were prepared by vacuum arc melting. The structure and microhardness of the alloys have been studied in the cast state and after annealing at temperatures of 700-1100°C. It has been found that the alloys consist of the fcc (γ) solid solution and intermetallic sigma (σ) phase. The volume fraction of the σ phase increases with increasing vanadium content. As a result of annealing, phase transformations occur, including the precipitation of σ particles from the γ phase and, vice versa, the precipitation of γ particles from the σ phase. It has been shown that the change in the volume fraction of the σ phase upon annealing occurs due to the changes in the total content of σ-forming elements, chromium and vanadium, in accordance with the lever rule. With increasing temperature, the volume fraction of the σ phase varies nonmonotonically; first, it increases, then it decreases. The microhardness of the alloys correlates well with the change in the volume fraction of the σ phase. The mechanisms of the phase transformations and quantitative relationships between chemical and phase compositions of the alloys and their hardness are discussed.

  5. Interphase evolution at two promising electrode materials for Li-ion batteries: LiFePO4 and LiNi1/2 Mn1/2O2.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Nicolas; Cuisinier, Marine; Martin, Jean-Frederic; Guyomard, Dominique

    2014-07-21

    The present review reports the characterization and control of interfacial processes occurring on olivine LiFePO(4) and layered LiNi(1/2) Mn(1/2)O(2), standing here as model compounds, during storage and electrochemical cycling. The formation and evolution of the interphase created by decomposition of the electrolyte is investigated by using spectroscopic tools such as magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((7)Li,(19)F and (31)P) and electron energy loss spectroscopy, in parallel to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to quantitatively describe the interphase and unravel its architecture. The influence of the pristine surface chemistry of the active material is carefully examined. The importance of the chemical history of the surface of the electrode material before any electrochemical cycling and the strong correlation between interface phenomena, the formation/evolution of an interphase, and the electrochemical behavior appear clearly from the use of these combined characterization probes. This approach allows identifying interface aging and failure mechanisms. Different types of surface modifications are then investigated, such as intrinsic modifications upon aging in air or methods based on the use of additives in the electrolyte or carbon coatings on the surface of the active materials. In each case, the species detected on the surface of the materials during storage and cycling are correlated with the electrochemical performance of the modified positive electrodes.

  6. First principles study of electronic structure for cubane-like and ring-shaped structures of M{sub 4}O{sub 4}, M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu)

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu; Rahaman, Badiur

    2015-11-15

    Spin-polarized DFT has been used to perform a comparative study of the geometric structures and electronic properties for isolated M{sub 4}X{sub 4} nano clusters between their two stable isomers - a planar rhombus-like 2D structure and a cubane-like 3D structure with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu ; X = O, S. These two structural patterns of the M{sub 4}X{sub 4} clusters are commonly found as building blocks in several poly-nuclear transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry. The effects of the van der Waals corrections to the physical properties have been considered in the electronic structure calculations employing the empirical Grimme’s correction (DFT+D2). We report here an interesting trend in their relative structural stability - the isolated M{sub 4}O{sub 4} clusters prefer to stabilize more in the planar structure, while the cubane-like 3D structure is more favorable for most of the isolated M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters than their planar 2D counterparts. Our study reveals that this contrasting trend in the relative structural stability is expected to be driven by an interesting interplay between the s-d and p-d hybridization effects of the constituents’ valence electrons.

  7. M2(m-dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) metal-organic frameworks exhibiting increased charge density and enhanced H2 binding at the open metal sites.

    PubMed

    Kapelewski, Matthew T; Geier, Stephen J; Hudson, Matthew R; Stück, David; Mason, Jarad A; Nelson, Jocienne N; Xiao, Dianne J; Hulvey, Zeric; Gilmour, Elizabeth; FitzGerald, Stephen A; Head-Gordon, Martin; Brown, Craig M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-27

    The well-known frameworks of the type M2(dobdc) (dobdc(4-) = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) have numerous potential applications in gas storage and separations, owing to their exceptionally high concentration of coordinatively unsaturated metal surface sites, which can interact strongly with small gas molecules such as H2. Employing a related meta-functionalized linker that is readily obtained from resorcinol, we now report a family of structural isomers of this framework, M2(m-dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; m-dobdc(4-) = 4,6-dioxido-1,3-benzenedicarboxylate), featuring exposed M(2+) cation sites with a higher apparent charge density. The regioisomeric linker alters the symmetry of the ligand field at the metal sites, leading to increases of 0.4-1.5 kJ/mol in the H2 binding enthalpies relative to M2(dobdc). A variety of techniques, including powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering, infrared spectroscopy, and first-principles electronic structure calculations, are applied in elucidating how these subtle structural and electronic differences give rise to such increases. Importantly, similar enhancements can be anticipated for the gas storage and separation properties of this new family of robust and potentially inexpensive metal-organic frameworks.

  8. Study of the properties of flux cored wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co system for the strengthening of nodes and parts of equipment used in the mineral mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. I.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Osetkovsky, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the introduction of vanadium and cobalt into the charge of the powder surfacing wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni system is studied. In the laboratory conditions, the samples of flux cored wires were produced. The surfacing made by the prepared wire was produced under the flux AN-26C, on the plates of steel St3 in 6 layers with the help of ASAW-1250 welding tractor. Reduction of carbon content in the deposited layer to 0.19-0.2% with simultaneous change in the content of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and other elements present in it contributes to the enlargement of the martensite needles and the increase in the size of the former austenite grain. The obtained dependences of hardness of the deposited layer and its wear resistance on the mass fraction of elements, included in the composition of powder wires of the proposed system, can be used to predict the hardness of the welded layer and its wear resistance under different operating conditions for mining equipment and coal mining equipment.

  9. [ReCl4(CN)2]2-: a high magnetic anisotropy building unit giving rise to the single-chain magnets (DMF)4MReCl4(CN)2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni).

    PubMed

    Harris, T David; Bennett, Miriam V; Clérac, Rodolphe; Long, Jeffrey R

    2010-03-24

    An S = 3/2, high-anisotropy building unit, trans-[ReCl(4)(CN)(2)](2-), representing the first paramagnetic complex with a mixture of just cyanide and halide ligands, has been synthesized through the reaction of (Bu(4)N)CN with ReCl(4)(THF)(2). This species is characterized in detail and employed in directing the formation of a series of one-dimensional coordination solids of formula (DMF)(4)MReCl(4)(CN)(2) (M = Mn (2), Fe (3), Co (4), Ni (5)). Variable-temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrate the presence of intrachain antiferromagnetic (2) and ferromagnetic (3-5) exchange coupling within these solids. In addition, probing the ac magnetic susceptibility as a function of both temperature and frequency reveals that all of the chain compounds exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization. The relaxation time is shown to be thermally activated, with energy barriers to relaxation of Delta(tau) = 31, 56, 17, and 20 cm(-1) for 2-5, respectively. Notably, the field-dependent magnetization of the iron congener exhibits a significant hysteresis effect at low temperature, with a coercive field of H(C) = 1.0 T, thus demonstrating magnetlike behavior in this one-dimensional system. Finally, the magnetization dynamics of all solids occur within the finite-size regime, where the magnetic domain growth is limited due to physical defects along the chains within the crystals.

  10. Effect of alloy grain size and silicon content on the oxidation of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si alloys in a SO sub 2 -O sub 2 gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.N.; Yurek, G.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Stainless steels are exposed to complex mixtures of gases in many applications, such as in coal gasification environments. Austenitic Fe-18Cr-20Ni-1.5Mn alloys containing 0, 0.6, and 1.5 wt.% Si were produced both by conventional and rapid solidification processing. The cyclic oxidation resistance of these alloys was studied at 900C in a SO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} gas mixture to elucidate the role of alloy microstructure and Si content on oxidation properties in bioxidant atmospheres. All the large-grained, conventionally processed alloys exhibited breakaway oxidation during cyclic oxidation due to their poor rehealing characteristics. The rapidly solidified, fine-grained alloys that contained less than 1.5 wt.% Si exhibited very protective oxidation behavior. There was considerable evidence of sulfur penetration through the protective chromia scale. The rapidly solidified alloys that contained 1.5 wt.% Si underwent repeated scale spallation that led to breakaway oxidation behavior. The scale spallation was attributed to the formation of an extensive silica sublayer in the presence of sulfur in the atmosphere.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly-phase Waste Form: Gd{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}+(Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x})(Fe{sub y}Cr{sub 1-y}){sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, S.C.; Jang, Y.N.; Bae, I.K.; Ryu, K.W.

    2006-07-01

    The synthesis of poly-phase waste form, which is an immobilization matrix for the HLW, was performed with the mixed composition of garnet and spinel (Gd{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}+(Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x})(Fe{sub y}Cr{sub 1-y}){sub 2}O{sub 4}) at temperatures in the range of 1200 deg. C to 1400 deg. C. The phases synthesized from all stoichiometric compositions were garnet, perovskite, and spinel. Especially, garnet was synthesized only in the composition of the highest content of Fe(y=0.9), whereas it was not synthesized in other compositions. This result indicated that the content of Fe was closely related to the formation of garnet. The composition of garnet revealed that the content of Gd was exceeded and that of Fe was depleted. Preferential distribution of elements in the phases can be attributed to the nonstoichiometric composition of garnet. (authors)

  12. A DFT study on the complex formation between desferrithiocin and metal ions (Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+)).

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Sadegh; Izadyar, Mohammad; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Metal-chelating compounds, namely siderphores have been considered very much because of their crucial role in various fields of the environmental researches. Their importance lies in the fact that they are able to be bonded to a variety of metals in addition to iron. A theoretical study on the structures of desferrithiocin siderphore coordinated to Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions was carried out, using the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the theory in the water. In order to understand the factors which control the stability, reactivity and the strength of toxic metals excretion as well as microbial uptake of the metal-siderphore complexes, we examined the stability and binding energies of the desferrithiocin and various metal ions with different spin states. The binding affinity of desferrithiocin to Fe(3+) (log β2=23.88) showed that the desferrithiocin can scavenge the excess iron(III) from the labile sources. Also, the binding energy values were well described by addition of the dispersion-corrected D3 functional. Because of the importance of the charge transfer in the complex formation, donor-acceptor interaction energies were evaluated. Based on this analysis, an increase in the effective nuclear charge increases E(2) values. Vibrational analysis showed that the critical bonds (CO stretching and CH bending) are in the range of 1300-1800cm(-1). Finally, some probable correlations between the complexation behavior and quantum chemistry descriptors have been analyzed.

  13. Thickness dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Yihong; Yao, Kui

    2016-06-15

    We investigated spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers, which was found to be one order of magnitude larger than that of heavy metal and insulating ferromagnet or antiferromagnet bilayer systems, and comparable to that of NiFe/Pt bilayers. The spin Hall magnetoresistance shows a non-monotonic dependence on the thicknesses of both FeMn and Pt. The former can be accounted for by the thickness dependence of net magnetization in FeMn thin films, whereas the latter is mainly due to spin accumulation and diffusion in Pt. Through analysis of the Pt thickness dependence, the spin Hall angle, spin diffusion length of Pt and the real part of spin mixing conductance were determined to be 0.2, 1.1 nm, and 5.5 × 10{sup 14} Ω{sup −1}m{sup −2}, respectively. The results corroborate the spin orbit torque effect observed in this system recently.

  14. Enhanced Photovoltage Response of Hematite-X-Ferrite Interfaces (X = Cr, Mn, Co, or Ni).

    PubMed

    Bian, Liang; Li, Hai-Long; Li, Yu-Jin; Nie, Jia-Nan; Dong, Fa-Qin; Dong, Hai-Liang; Song, Mian-Xin; Wang, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Tian-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xin-Xi; Xie, Lei

    2017-12-01

    High-fluorescent p-X-ferrites (XFe2O4; XFO; X = Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, or Ni) embedded in n-hematite (Fe2O3) surfaces were successfully fabricated via a facile bio-approach using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The results revealed that the X ions with high/low work functions modify the unpaired spin Fe(2+)-O(2-) orbitals in the XFe2O4 lattices to become localized paired spin orbitals at the bottom of conduction band, separating the photovoltage response signals (73.36~455.16/-72.63~-32.43 meV). These (Fe2O3)-O-O-(XFe2O4) interfacial coupling behaviors at two fluorescence emission peaks (785/795 nm) are explained via calculating electron-hole effective masses (Fe2O3-FeFe2O4 17.23 × 10(-31) kg; Fe2O3-CoFe2O4 3.93 × 10(-31) kg; Fe2O3-NiFe2O4 11.59 × 10(-31) kg; Fe2O3-CrFe2O4 -4.2 × 10(-31) kg; Fe2O3-MnFe2O4 -11.73 × 10(-31) kg). Such a system could open up a new idea in the design of photovoltage response biosensors.

  15. Corrosion behavior of Au and Ag modified Cu-Ni-Mn alloys.

    PubMed

    Wright, S R; Cocks, F H; Gettleman, L

    1980-04-01

    The linear electrochemical polarization method was used to provide quantitative in vitro measurements of corrosion rates as a function of exposure time for Cu-Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn-Au, Cu-Ni-Mn-Ag, and Cu-Ni-Mn-Au-Ag alloys in artificial saliva. Both Au and Ag additives to dental-cast Cu-Ni-Mn alloys lowered the corrosion rate significantly.

  16. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  17. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  18. Mechanisms of radiation-induced segregation in CrFeCoNi-based single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    He, Mo-Rigen; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Shi; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Matsumura, Syo; Higashida, Kenji; Robertson, Ian M.

    2016-12-31

    Single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys have attracted wide interest due to their superior mechanical properties and enhanced radiation tolerance, which make them promising candidates for the structural applications in next-generation nuclear reactors. However, little has been understood about the intrinsic stability of their as-synthesized, high-entropy configurations against radiation damage. In this paper, we report the element segregation in CrFeCoNi, CrFeCoNiMn, and CrFeCoNiPd equiatomic alloys when subjected to 1250 kV electron irradiations at 400 °C up to a damage level of 1 displacement per atom. Cr/Fe/Mn/Pd can deplete and Co/Ni can accumulate at radiation-induced dislocation loops, while the actively segregating elements are alloy-specific. Moreover, electron-irradiated matrix of CrFeCoNiMn and CrFeCoNiPd shows L10 (NiMn)-type ordering decomposition and <001>-oriented spinodal decomposition between Co/Ni and Pd, respectively. Finally, these findings are rationalized based on the atomic size difference and enthalpy of mixing between the alloying elements, and identify a new important requirement to the design of radiation-tolerant alloys through modification of the composition.

  19. Mechanisms of radiation-induced segregation in CrFeCoNi-based single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    He, Mo-Rigen; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Shi; ...

    2016-12-31

    Single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys have attracted wide interest due to their superior mechanical properties and enhanced radiation tolerance, which make them promising candidates for the structural applications in next-generation nuclear reactors. However, little has been understood about the intrinsic stability of their as-synthesized, high-entropy configurations against radiation damage. In this paper, we report the element segregation in CrFeCoNi, CrFeCoNiMn, and CrFeCoNiPd equiatomic alloys when subjected to 1250 kV electron irradiations at 400 °C up to a damage level of 1 displacement per atom. Cr/Fe/Mn/Pd can deplete and Co/Ni can accumulate at radiation-induced dislocation loops, while the actively segregating elementsmore » are alloy-specific. Moreover, electron-irradiated matrix of CrFeCoNiMn and CrFeCoNiPd shows L10 (NiMn)-type ordering decomposition and <001>-oriented spinodal decomposition between Co/Ni and Pd, respectively. Finally, these findings are rationalized based on the atomic size difference and enthalpy of mixing between the alloying elements, and identify a new important requirement to the design of radiation-tolerant alloys through modification of the composition.« less

  20. Systematic study of room-temperature ferromagnetism and the optical response of Zn1-x TM x S/Se (TM  =  Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) ferromagnets: first-principle approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Q.; Hassan, M.; Noor, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    The structural, magnetic and optical characteristics of Zn1-x TM x S/Se (TM  =  Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and x  =  6.25%) have been investigated through the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory. The optimized structures have been used to calculate the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic ground-state energies. The stability of the ferromagnetic phase has been confirmed from the formation and the cohesive energies. The Heisenberg model is used to elucidate the Curie temperature (T c) of these alloys. From the band structures and density of states plots, it has been observed that TM-doped ZnS/Se alloys appear to be semiconductors and exhibit ferromagnetism. In addition, the observed ferromagnetism has also been explained in terms of direct exchange energy Δ x (d), exchange splitting energy Δ x (pd), crystal-field energy (E crys), exchange constants (N 0 α and N 0 β) and magnetic moments that shows potential spintronic applications. The optical behaviors of these alloys have been explained in terms of real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant ɛ(ω), refractive index n(ω), extinction coefficient K(ω), reflectivity R(ω) and absorption coefficient σ(ω), in the energy range 0-25 eV. The calculated static limits of the band gaps and real part of the dielectric constants satisfy the Penn model. The critical limits of the imaginary part of the dielectric constants and absorption coefficients indicate that these alloys can be operated in the visible and the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum; therefore, make them important for optoelectronic applications.

  1. The effect of interstitial carbon on the mechanical properties and dislocation substructure evolution in Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhangwei; Baker, Ian; Cai, Zhonghou; ...

    2016-09-01

    A systematic study of the effects of up to 1.1 at. % carbon on the mechanical properties and evolution of the dislocation substructure in a series of a high entropy alloys (HEA) based on Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 is presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT) were used to show that all the alloys are single-phase f.c.c. random solid solutions. The lattice constant, determined from synchrotron XRD measurements, increases linearly with increasing carbon concentration, which leads to a linear relationship between the yield strength and the carbon concentration. The dislocation substructures, as determined by a TEM,more » show a transition from wavy slip to planar slip and, at higher strains, and from cell-forming structure (dislocations cells, cell blocks and dense dislocation walls) to non-cell forming structure (Taylor lattice, microbands and domain boundaries) with the addition of carbon, features related to the increase in lattice friction stress. The stacking fault energy (measured via weak-beam imaging of the separation of dislocation partials) decreases with increasing carbon content, which also contributes to the transition from wavy slip to planar slip. The formation of non-cell forming structure induced by carbon leads to a high degree of strain hardening and a substantial increase in the ultimate tensile strength. In conclusion, the consequent postponement of necking due to the high strain hardening, along with the plasticity accommodation arising from the formation of microbands and domain boundaries, result in an increase of ductility due to the carbon addition.« less

  2. The effect of interstitial carbon on the mechanical properties and dislocation substructure evolution in Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 high entropy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhangwei; Baker, Ian; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei

    2016-11-01

    A systematic study of the effects of up to 1.1 at. % carbon on the mechanical properties and evolution of the dislocation substructure in a series of a high entropy alloys (HEA) based on Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 is presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT) were used to show that all the alloys are single-phase f.c.c. random solid solutions. The lattice constant, determined from synchrotron XRD measurements, increases linearly with increasing carbon concentration, which leads to a linear relationship between the yield strength and the carbon concentration. The dislocation substructures, as determined by a TEM, show a transition from wavy slip to planar slip and, at higher strains, and from cell-forming structure (dislocations cells, cell blocks and dense dislocation walls) to non-cell forming structure (Taylor lattice, microbands and domain boundaries) with the addition of carbon, features related to the increase in lattice friction stress. The stacking fault energy (measured via weak-beam imaging of the separation of dislocation partials) decreases with increasing carbon content, which also contributes to the transition from wavy slip to planar slip. The formation of non-cell forming structure induced by carbon leads to a high degree of strain hardening and a substantial increase in the ultimate tensile strength. The consequent postponement of necking due to the high strain hardening, along with the plasticity accommodation arising from the formation of microbands and domain boundaries, result in an increase of ductility due to the carbon addition. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic properties of MnBi based alloys: First-principles calculations for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe cases

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, YK; Park, J; Mryasov, ON; Kim, SG; Kim, S; Lee, J; Abo, GS; Choi, CJ; Lee, J

    2013-05-01

    First-principles calculations of fundamental magnetic properties were performed for ordered MnBi, MnBi-Co, and MnBi-Co-Fe alloys to evaluate maximum energy product (BH)(max). Full potential linear-augmented plane wave (FLAPW) and linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) were used and found to give a reasonable description of saturation magnetization (M-s), effective anisotropy constant (K-eff), and Curie temperature (T-c) for NiAs-structured MnBi crystal. We found that upon addition of Co, the M-s and K-eff increased, while T-c reduced. The magnetic anisotropy changed from weak anisotropy easy plane for MnBi to the strong easy axis anisotropy for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe. (C) 2013 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  4. Fe/Mn in olivine of carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    Olivines in primitive meteorites show a range of Fe/Mn both within one grain and among grains suggesting that they have recorded changing conditions during or after growth. Because olivine should be an early forming phase, Fe/Mn is used here to infer these earliest conditions. Initial Fe/Mn in cores of isolated, euhedral forsterite in both C2 and C3 meteorites ranges from 25 to 35 but differs at grain edge. Murchison (C2) forsterites show Fe/Mn approaching 1.0 at the grain edge while Ornans Fe/Mn is near 60 at grain edge. These values are lower than the matrix Fe/Mn for both meteorites and the distinct difference in zoning profile indicates different processes operating during and after grain growth. The Fe/Mn of bulk samples from a particular source such as the Moon is nearly constant. Individual samples show variation suggesting that there is some fractionation of Mn from Fe. Minerals have their individual ranges of Fe/Mn which has been used to recognize different types of olivine within one meteorite. Extreme values of Fe/Mn below 1.0 occur in forsterite from some IDP's, UOC matrix, and C1 meteorites. There are apparently no detailed studies of Fe/Mn variation within single olivine grains. Forsterite grains in C2 and C3 carbonaceous chondrites show complex zoning, and the nearly pure forsterites (Fo greater than approximately 99.5) have high levels of some minor elements including Ti, Al, V, and Sc. There is disagreement on the original source of these grains and both chondrule and vapor growth have been proposed. In addition, there is clear evidence that diffusion has affected the outer margins but in some cases the whole grain. Within the cores, the FeO range is limited, and if growing under constant conditions, the Fe/Mn should be near constant as there is little fractionation of Mn from Fe by forsterite. Additionally, there are apparently no co-crystallizing phases as evidenced by a lack of common inclusions in the forsterites. These observations are now

  5. Fe/Mn in olivine of carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    Olivines in primitive meteorites show a range of Fe/Mn both within one grain and among grains suggesting that they have recorded changing conditions during or after growth. Because olivine should be an early forming phase, Fe/Mn is used here to infer these earliest conditions. Initial Fe/Mn in cores of isolated, euhedral forsterite in both C2 and C3 meteorites ranges from 25 to 35 but differs at grain edge. Murchison (C2) forsterites show Fe/Mn approaching 1.0 at the grain edge while Ornans Fe/Mn is near 60 at grain edge. These values are lower than the matrix Fe/Mn for both meteorites and the distinct difference in zoning profile indicates different processes operating during and after grain growth. The Fe/Mn of bulk samples from a particular source such as the Moon is nearly constant. Individual samples show variation suggesting that there is some fractionation of Mn from Fe. Minerals have their individual ranges of Fe/Mn which has been used to recognize different types of olivine within one meteorite. Extreme values of Fe/Mn below 1.0 occur in forsterite from some IDP's, UOC matrix, and C1 meteorites. There are apparently no detailed studies of Fe/Mn variation within single olivine grains. Forsterite grains in C2 and C3 carbonaceous chondrites show complex zoning, and the nearly pure forsterites (Fo greater than approximately 99.5) have high levels of some minor elements including Ti, Al, V, and Sc. There is disagreement on the original source of these grains and both chondrule and vapor growth have been proposed. In addition, there is clear evidence that diffusion has affected the outer margins but in some cases the whole grain. Within the cores, the FeO range is limited, and if growing under constant conditions, the Fe/Mn should be near constant as there is little fractionation of Mn from Fe by forsterite. Additionally, there are apparently no co-crystallizing phases as evidenced by a lack of common inclusions in the forsterites. These observations are now

  6. Revisiting Mn and Fe removal in humic rich estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Véronique E.; Miller, Megan T.; Jensen, Laramie T.; Luther, George W.

    2017-07-01

    Metal removal by estuarine mixing has been studied for several decades, but few studies emphasize dissolved metal speciation and organic ligand complexation. Findings from the last decade indicate that metal-humic complexation can be significant for dissolved metals including Cu(II), Al(III) and Fe(III), but little consideration is given to the precipitation of these complexes with humic material at pH < 2. Given that total soluble metal analysis involves an acidification step for sample preservation, we show that Mn and other metal concentrations may have been underestimated in estuaries, especially when humic substance concentrations are high. A competitive ligand assay of selected samples from our study site, a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands (Broadkill River, DE), showed that Mn(III)-humic complexation is significant, and that some Mn(III)-L complexes precipitate during acidification. In the oxygenated surface waters of the Broadkill River, total dissolved Mn (dMnT) was up to 100% complexed to ambient ligands as Mn(III)-L, and we present evidence for humic-type Mn(III)-L complexes. The Mn(III) complexes were kinetically stabilized against Fe(II) reduction, even when [Fe(II)] was 17 times higher than [dMnT]. Unlike typical oceanic surface waters, [Fe(II)] > [Fe(III)-L] in surface waters, which may be attributed to high rates of photoreduction of Fe(III)-L complexes. Total [Mn(III)-L] ranged from 0.22 to 8.4 μM, in excess of solid MnOx (below 0.28 μM in all samples). Filtration of samples through 0.02 μm filters indicated that all Mn(III)-L complexes pass through the filters and were not colloidal species in contrast to dissolved Fe. Incubation experiments indicated that the reductive dissolution of solid MnOx by ambient ligands may be responsible for Mn(III) formation in this system. Unlike previous studies of estuarine mixing, which demonstrated metal removal during mixing, we show significant export of dMn and dissolved Fe (dFe) in the summer and fall

  7. Canted Antiferromagnetic Structure of M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmety, C. R.; Epstein, A. J.; Huang, Q.; Lynn, J. W.; Erwin, R. W.; MLowercaseccall, S.; Crow, J. E.; Manson, J. L.; Miller, Joel S.; Stevenson, K. L.

    2000-03-01

    We report neutron diffraction, magnetic and specific heat studies of the isomorphous M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe). The crystal structure consists of axially elongated and successively tilted discrete octahedra. There are two antiferromagnetically coupled and spontaneously canted sublattices. The spin orientation is mainly along the a-axis with small uncompensated moments along the b-axis for the Mn compound and in the bc-plane for the Fe compound. Both systems have novel field-induced magnetic phenomena at mK temperatures. Comparisons of the magnetic structures for the isomorphous series M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) suggest that spin direction is stabilized by the crystal fields and spin canting is induced by the successive tilting of the octahedra. We propose that the superexchange interaction is the mechanism responsible for the magnetic ordering in these compounds.

  8. Effect of Ni100-xCrx seedlayer on transport and magnetic properties in PtMn-based spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunekawa, K.; Nagai, M.; Djayaprawira, D. D.; Watanabe, N.

    2005-05-01

    The effect of cosputtered Ni100-xCrx seedlayer on transport and magnetic properties in PtMn-based synthetic spin valves has been studied. We found that magnetoresistance (MR) ratio increases with increasing Cr content, and reached over 15% when the Cr content is in the range of 38-41at.%. The MR ratio drastically decreases to less than 2% when the Cr content is higher than 41at.%. We found that the dependence of transport and magnetic properties on the Cr content of the NiCr seed layer is strongly correlated with the crystallographic orientation of the PtMn and CoFe /Ru/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/NiFe/Cu layers grown on the seedlayer.

  9. Sharp increase of microwave absorption in nonequilibrium MnZn- and NiZn-nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsev, Leonid; Shutkevich, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    We study microwave electromagnetic absorption in films containing (Mn,Zn)Fe2O4 and (Ni,Zn)Fe2O4 spinel nanoparticles in equilibrium and nonequilibrium spin states. The nonequilibrium spin state has been formed by the action of the alternating magnetic field with the frequency of 1 Hz. It is found that in the nonequilibrium state the microwave absorption is strongly enhanced. The microwave losses are increased by 78 times for the film with MnZn-spinel nanoparticles and by 12 times for the film containing NiZn-nanoferrite. The microwave-absorption-increase effect is observed in the central part of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency band. This frequency band of the microwave absorption enhancement is narrower than the ferromagnetic linewidth in the equilibrium state.

  10. Metal elution from Ni- and Fe-based alloy reactors under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Muhammad; Quitain, Armando T; Urano, Shin-Ya; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2004-05-20

    Elution of metals from Ni- and Fe-based alloy (i.e. Inconel 625 and SUS 316) under hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Results showed that metals could be eluted even in a short contact time. At subcritical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo, and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. Several factors including temperature and contact time were found to affect elution behavior. The presence of air in the fluid even promoted elution under subcritical conditions.

  11. Spin-dependent electron momentum density in the Ni2MnSn Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Aniruddha; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Onodera, M.; Sakai, N.

    2001-05-01

    The spin-dependent electron momentum distribution in Ni2MnSn Heusler alloy single crystals was studied using 270 keV circularly polarized synchrotron radiation, through magnetic Compton profile measurements, on the high energy inelastic scattering beamline at SPring-8. The experiments were carried out for the three principal crystallographic directions [100], [110], and [111] at 10 K. The results show that the conduction electrons have a negative spin polarization of 0.34μB the 3d spin moment on the nickel site was found to be negligible. A band structure calculation was performed including a hyperfine field study using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method, with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the electronic exchange and correlation. The spin moment on the Mn site at 10 K was observed as 4.39μB. The spin-dependent Compton profiles for the [100], [110], and [111] directions reported here show anisotropy in the momentum density, which is in good agreement with the FLAPW-GGA results, based on a ferromagnetic ground state. The hyperfine fields calculated were compared with previously calculated hyperfine field of Cu2MnAl and Co2FeGa Heusler alloys. From the comparison it is seen that the value of Hval (valence contribution to the hyperfine field) is roughly proportional to the spin polarization (ms) of the s electrons at the X (Ni,Cu,Co) and Y (Mn of Ni2MnSn and Cu2MnAl, Fe of Co2FeGa) atom positions.

  12. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process. PMID:1886521

  13. Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in N i80F e20/FeMn /W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. Using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. The latter can extend to relatively large distances (≈9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Thermally Sprayed NiCrBSi Coating on 16MnR Low-Alloy Steel in KOH Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Q.; Sun, J.; Emori, W.; Jiang, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    NiCrBSi coatings were selected as protective material and air plasma-sprayed on 16MnR low-alloy steel substrates. Corrosion behavior of 16MnR substrates and NiCrBSi coatings in KOH solution were evaluated by polarization resistance ( R p), potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion corrosion tests. Electrolytes were solutions with different KOH concentrations. NiCrBSi coating showed superior corrosion resistance in KOH solution compared with the 16MnR. Corrosion current density of 16MnR substrate was 1.7-13.0 times that of NiCrBSi coating in the given concentration of KOH solution. By contrast, R p of NiCrBSi coating was 1.2-8.0 times that of the substrate, indicating that the corrosion rate of NiCrBSi coating was much lower than that of 16MnR substrate. Capacitance and total impedance value of NiCrBSi coating were much higher than those of 16MnR substrate in the same condition. This result indicates that corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating was better than that of 16MnR substrate, in accordance with polarization results. NiCrBSi coatings provided good protection for 16MnR substrate in KOH solution. Corrosion products were mainly Ni/Fe/Cr oxides.

  15. Giant magnetic coercivity in YNi4B-type SmNi3TB (T=Mn-Cu) solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jinlei; Yan, Chang; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Morozkin, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of transition metal substitution for Ni on the magnetic properties of the YNi4B-type SmNi4B via SmNi3TB (T=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu) solid solutions have been investigated. SmNi4B, SmNi3MnB, SmNi3FeB, SmNi3CoB and SmNi3CuB show ferromagnetic ordering at 40 K, 210 K, 322 K, 90 K and 57 K and field sensitive metamagnetic-like transitions at 15 K, 100 K, 185 K, 55 K and 15 K in a magnetic field of 10 kOe, respectively. The magnetocaloric effects of SmNi3TB (T=Mn-Cu) were calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSm). The magnetic entropy ΔSm reaches value of -0.94 J/kg K at 40 K for SmNi4B, -1.5 J/kg K at 205 K for SmNi3MnB, -0.54 J/kg K at 320 K for SmNi3FeB, -0.49 J/kg K at 90 K for SmNi3CoB and -0.54 J/kg K at 60 K for SmNi3CuB in field change of 0-50 kOe around the Curie temperature. They show positive ΔSm of +0.71 J/kg K at ~10 K for SmNi4B, +1.69 J/kg K at 30 K for SmNi3MnB, +0.89 J/kg K at 110 K for SmNi3FeB, +1.08 J/kg K at 25 K for SmNi3CoB and +1.12 J/kg K at 10 K for SmNi3CuB in field change of 0-50 kOe around the low temperature metamagnetic-like transition. Below the field induced transition temperature (change of magnetic structure), SmNi3TB (T=Mn-Cu) exhibits giant magnetic coercivity of 74 kOe at 5 K for SmNi4B, 69 kOe at 20 K (90 kOe at 10 K) for SmNi3MnB, 77 kOe at 60 K for SmNi3FeB, 88 kOe at 20 K for SmNi3CoB and 52 kOe at 5 K for SmNi3CuB.

  16. H+-induced irradiation damage resistance in Fe- and Ni-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongran; Mei, Xianxiu; Zhang, Xiaonan; Li, Xiaona; Wang, Yingmin; Sun, Jianrong; Wang, Younian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, use of 40-keV H+ ion for irradiating metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 and Ni62Ta38 as well as metallic tungsten (W) at fluences of 1 × 1018 and 3 × 1018 ions/cm2, respectively, was investigated. At the fluence of 1 × 1018 ions/cm2, a crystalline layer appeared in metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, with α-Fe as the major crystalline phase, coupled with a little Fe2B, Fe3B, and metastable β-Mn-type phase. Fe80Si7.43B12.57 exhibited good soft magnetic properties after irradiation. At the fluence of 3 × 1018 ions/cm2, Ni62Ta38 was found to be amorphous-based, with a little μ-NiTa and Ni3Ta phases. No significant irradiation damage phenomenon appeared in metallic glasses Fe80Si7.43B12.57 and Ni62Ta38. Blistering, flaking, and other damage occurred on the surface of metallic W, and the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness increased with the increase of fluence. Metallic glass Ni62Ta38 exhibited better resistance to H+ irradiation than Fe80Si7.43B12.57, both of which were superior to the metallic W.

  17. Influence of Zn on magnetocaloric effect in (0.95)La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar, M.S.; Khan, Azmat Ali; Park, K.Y.; Lee, Seung Rok; Ahmed, Faheem; Koo, Bon Heun

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic ceramic composites. • Magnetization of dual phase ceramics. • Magnetic entropy change in (0.95)La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/(0.05)Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solution. - Abstract: We report the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of (0.95)La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/(0.05)Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) ceramic composites. The composite samples with nominal compositions were prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase purity and structure were confirmed by using X-ray diffraction. Temperature dependent magnetization measurements and Arrott analysis reveal second order of magnetic phase transition in the composite samples. A maximum in magnetic entropy change of ∼0.75 J/kg K at 1 T has been observed in (0.95)La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/(0.05)NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample. The values of magnetic entropy change of these composites make them attractive for potential applications. These composite samples may consider as potential material for magnetic refrigeration near room temperature.

  18. Critical evaluation of sequential leaching procedures for the determination of Ni and Mn species in welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Berlinger, B; Náray, M; Sajó, I; Záray, G

    2009-06-01

    corrosion-resistant steel and unalloyed structural steel, respectively. According to the results of the leaching procedures, GMAW fumes are rich in oxidic Ni (79%), while Ni compounds in welding fumes generated during MMAW are mainly in easily soluble form (44%). The crystalline phases were identified in each welding fume by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) technique as well. From the XRPD spectra, it is clear that GMAW fumes contain predominantly magnetite (FeFe(2)O(4)). In case of structural steel welding, there was a little amount of ferrite (alpha-Fe) also found. Welding fume generated during MMAW of structural steel contained a complex alkali-alkali earth fluoride phase (KCaF(3)-CaF(2)) and some magnetite and jakobsite (MnFe(2)O(4)). The XRPD results did not fully confirm the ones obtained from the extraction experiments. However, some results, for example the rate of soluble Ni and Mn compounds compared to the total, can be useful for further investigations of welding fumes.

  19. Magnetic properties of CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Morozkin, A.V.; Knotko, A.V.; Yapaskurt, V.O.; Yao, Jinlei; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S.K.

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds have been investigated. Magnetic measurements of RNi{sub 3}TSi display the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’. In contrast to GdNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi{sub 4}Si (~0.5 kOe) to TbNi{sub 3}CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi{sub 3}MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi{sub 3}CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic measurements of RNi{sub 3}TSi show the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of 'RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi'. In contrast to GdNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi{sub 4}Si (~0.5 kOe) to TbNi{sub 3}CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi{sub 3}MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi{sub 3}CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field. - Highlights: • CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi show ferromagnetic ordering (R=Gd, Tb, T=Mn–Co, Cu). • Curie point increases in ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’ row. • MCE decreases in ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’ row. • TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. • The coercive field of TbNi{sub 3}MnSi and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi reach 13 kOe and 16 kOe at 5 K.

  20. First principle-based AKMC modelling of the formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters in a neutron irradiated complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngayam-Happy, R.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2013-09-01

    The formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters under neutron irradiation have been modelled in a complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of RPV steels, by means of first principle-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained reproduce most features observed in available experimental studies, highlighting the very good agreement between both series. According to simulation, solute-rich clusters form and develop via an induced segregation mechanism on either the vacancy or interstitial clusters, and these point defect clusters are efficiently generated only in cascade debris and not Frenkel pair flux. The results have revealed the existence of two distinct populations of clusters with different characteristic features. Solute-rich clusters in the first group are bound essentially to interstitial clusters and they are enriched in Mn mostly, but also Ni to a lesser extent. Over the low dose regime, their density increases in the alloy as a result of the accumulation of highly stable interstitial clusters. In the second group, the solute-rich clusters are merged with vacancy clusters, and they contain mostly Cu and Si, but also substantial amount of Mn and Ni. The formation of a sub-population of pure solute clusters has been observed, which results from annihilation of the low stable vacancy clusters on sinks. The results indicate finally that the Mn content in clusters is up to 50%, Cu, Si, and Ni sharing the other half in more or less equivalent amounts. This composition has not demonstrated any noticeable modification with increasing dose over irradiation.

  1. Correlation of martensitic transformation temperatures of Ni- Mn-Ga/Al-X alloys to non-bonding electron concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramudu, M.; Satish Kumar, A.; Seshubai, V.; Rajasekharan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The martensitic transformation TM of the alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Mn-Al show a general trend of increase with electron per atom ratio (e/a) calculated from the total number of electrons outside the rare gas shell of the atoms. However prediction of TM fails among iron substituted Ni-Mn-Ga alloys and those with In doped for Ga, due to the absence of a useful trend. A scheme of computing modified electron concentration is presented considering only the non-bonding electrons per atom Ne/a of the compounds, based on Pauling's ideas on the electronic structure of metallic elements. Systematic variation of TM with Ne/a is reproduced for a large number of alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and the anomaly observed for Fe containing alloys with e/a disappears. The non-bonding electron concentration is thus demonstrated to be effective in predicting TM of shape memory alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga-X system including the isoelectronic compounds of Ni-Mn-Ga-In.

  2. Magnetic properties of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Yao, Jinlei; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds have been investigated. Magnetic measurements of RNi3TSi display the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of 'RNi3CuSi-RNi3NiSi-RNi3CoSi-RNi3MnSi-RNi3FeSi'. In contrast to GdNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi4Si ( 0.5 kOe) to TbNi3CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi3MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi3FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi3CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field.

  3. The effect of carbon on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and deformation mechanisms of thermo-mechanically treated Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhangwei; Baker, Ian; Guo, Wei; ...

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of cold rolling followed by annealing on the mechanical properties and dislocation substructure evolution of undoped and 1.1 at. % carbon-doped Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 high entropy alloys (HEAs). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) were employed to characterize the microstructures. The as-cast HEAs were coarse-grained and single phase f.c.c., whereas the thermo-mechanical treatment caused recrystallization (to fine grain sizes) and precipitation (a B2 phase for the undoped HEA; and a B2 phase, and M23C6 and M7C3 carbides for the C-doped HEA). Carbon, which was found to have segregated tomore » the grain boundaries using APT, retarded recrystallization. The reduction in grain size resulted in a sharp increase in strength, while the precipitation, which produced only a small increase in strength, probably accounted for the small decrease in ductility for both undoped and C-doped HEAs. For both undoped and C-doped HEAs, the smaller grain-sized material initially exhibited higher strain hardening than the coarse-grained material but showed a much lower strain hardening at large tensile strains. Wavy slip in the undoped HEAs and planar slip in C-doped HEAs were found at the early stages of deformation irrespective of grain size. At higher strains, dislocation cell structures formed in the 19 μm grain-sized undoped HEA, while microbands formed in the 23 μm grain-sized C-doped HEA. Conversely, localized dislocation clusters were found in both HEAs at the finest grain sizes (5 μm). The inhibition of grain subdivision by the grain boundaries and precipitates lead to the transformation from regular dislocation configurations consisting of dislocation-cells and microbands to irregular dislocation configurations consisting of localized dislocation clusters, which further account for the decrease in ductility. Our investigation of the formation mechanism

  4. Bioresorbable Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-HA Materials for Orthopedic Implantation: Enhancing Degradation through Porosity Control.

    PubMed

    Heiden, Michael; Nauman, Eric; Stanciu, Lia

    2017-07-01

    Resorbable, porous iron-manganese-hydroxyapatite biocomposites with suitable degradation rates for orthopedic applications are prepared using salt-leaching for the first time. These transient biomaterials have the potential to replace inert, permanent implants that can suffer from long-term complications, or have to be surgically removed, leaving an unfavorable void. Fe30Mn-10HA materials are newly developed to address inadequate resorption rates of degradable materials proposed for orthopedic environments in the past. In this study, controllable porosities with 300 µm diameter pores are introduced into Fe30Mn alloys and Fe30Mn-10HA composites, which enhance tissue ingrowth. For the composites, a Ca2 Mn7 O14 phase generated within the Fe30Mn matrix during the sintering process greatly increases degradability. The combination of this second phase and added porosity is found to contribute to increased bone-like apatite layer formation, mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell attachment, and reduction of detrimental oxide layer flaking. Remarkably, after thirty days in vitro, there is a significant increase in degradation up to 0.82 ± 0.04 mm per year for 30 wt% porous Fe30Mn-10HA biocomposites, compared to 0.02 ± 0.00 mm per year for traditional nonporous Fe30Mn, thereby increasing the viability of these materials for future clinical studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Strength of "Light" Ferritic and Austenitic Steels Based on the Fe - Mn - Al - C System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputkina, L. M.; Svyazhin, A. G.; Smarygina, I. V.; Kindop, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The phase composition, the hardness, the mechanical properties at room temperature, and the resistance to hot (950 - 1000°C) and warm (550°C) deformation are studied for cast deformable "light" ferritic and austenitic steels of the Fe - (12 - 25)% Mn - (0 - 15)% Al - (0 - 2)% C system alloyed additionally with about 5% Ni. The high-aluminum high-manganese low-carbon and carbonless ferritic steels at a temperature of about 0.5 T melt have a specific strength close to that of the austenitic steels and may be used as weldable scale-resistant and wear-resistant materials. The high-carbon Fe - (20 - 24)% Mn - (5 - 9)% Al - 5% Ni - 1.5% C austenitic steels may be applied as light high-strength materials operating at cryogenic temperatures after a solution treatment and as scale- and heat-resistant materials in an aged condition.

  6. Study of Magnetic Behavior of Mn1-xNixFe2O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, E. Ranjith; Kumar, Sanjay; Kojima, Toshinori; Jayaprakash, R.

    The nano crystalline manganese nickel cobalt ferrite is synthesized by a simple technique of thermal evaporation with the help of egg white and its magnetic behaviour is analyzed for different annealing temperature. The saturation magnetization for MnNiFe2O4 at different annealing temperature has been recorded and also the influence of particle size in magnetic properties is analyzed. The FT-IR spectra of the sample reveal the common feature of ferrites like high frequency band to the tetrahedral and low frequency band to the octahedral stretching vibrations. The presence of constituent phases in MnNiFe2O4 is confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction. The particle size, morphology and percentage of composition elements are measured by employing Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM),

  7. Mechanisms of Formation and Transformation of Ni-Fe Hydroxycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Refait, Ph.; Jeannin, M.; Reffass, M.; Drissi, S.H.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M.R.

    2005-04-26

    The mechanisms of the transformation of (Ni,Fe)(OH)2 precipitates in carbonated aqueous solutions were studied. The reactions were monitored by measuring the redox potential of the aqueous suspension, and end products were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation processes were compared to those occurring without Ni, that is when the initial hydroxide is Fe(OH)2. Schematically, the oxidation of Fe(OH)2 involves two intermediate compounds, the carbonated GR of formula Fe{sup II}{sub 4}Fe{sup III}{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O, and ferrihydrite, before to lead finally to goethite {alpha}-FeOOH. It proved possible to prepare Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonates with ratios Fe/Ni from 1/6 to 1/3. When the Fe/Ni ratio is larger than 1/3, a two stage oxidation process takes place. The first stage leads to a Ni(II)-Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate. The second stage corresponds to the oxidation of the Fe(II) remaining inside the hydroxycarbonate and leads to a mixture of Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate with ferrihydrite. The main effect of Ni is then to stop the reaction at an intermediate stage, as Ni(II) is not oxidised by O2, leaving unchanged the main features of the mechanisms of transformation.

  8. Fe-Ni composition dependence of magnetic anisotropy in artificially fabricated L1 0-ordered FeNi films.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takayuki; Ogiwara, Misako; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Kotsugi, Masato; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Ohtsuki, Takumi; Tashiro, Taka-Yuki; Takanashi, Koki

    2014-02-12

    We prepared L10-ordered FeNi alloy films by alternate deposition of Fe and Ni monatomic layers, and investigated their magnetic anisotropy. We employed a non-ferromagnetic Au-Cu-Ni buffer layer with a flat surface and good lattice matching to L10-FeNi. An L10-FeNi film grown on Au6Cu51Ni43 showed a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy (Ku = 7.0 × 10(6) erg cm(-)3). Ku monotonically increased with the long-range order parameter (S) of the L10 phase. We investigated the Fe-Ni composition dependence by alternating the deposition of Fe 1 − x and Ni 1 + x monatomic layers (− 0.4 < x < 0.4). Saturation magnetization (Ms) and Ku showed maxima (Ms = 1470 emu cm(-3), Ku = 9.3 × 10(6) erg cm(-3)) for Fe60Ni40 (x = -0.2) while S showed a maximum at the stoichiometric composition (x = 0). The change in the ratio of lattice parameters (c/a) was small for all compositions. We found that enrichment of Fe is very effective to enhance Ku. The large Ms and Ku of Fe60Ni40 indicate that Fe-rich L10-FeNi is promising as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet.

  9. Site occupancy trend of Co in Ni{sub 2}MnIn: Ab initio approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Soumyadipta Mahadevan, Priya; Biswas, C.

    2015-06-24

    The trend of site occupation of Co at Ni sites of Ni{sub 2}MnIn system is studied in austenitic phase having L2{sub 1} structure by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The Co atoms prefer to be at Ni sites rather than Mn site and are ferromagetically coupled with Ni and Mn. The ground state has tetragonal structure for Ni{sub 1.5}Co{sub 0.5}MnIn and Ni{sub 1.25}Co{sub 0.75}MnIn. The Co tends to form cluster.

  10. Ferromagnetism strengthening in the Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchin, A. G.; Iwasieczko, W.; Drulis, H.; Khrabrov, V. I.

    2008-06-01

    The compounds Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x, in which x=0-2, with the Th 2Ni 17-type crystal structure were synthesized. Their structural and magnetic properties are presented. The Lu 2Fe 17- xMn x compounds with x=0-0.5 are ferromagnets at low temperatures and antiferromagnets at high temperatures. Their temperature of "ferromagnet-antiferromagnet" phase transition surprisingly increases very fast from 135 to 253 K with a growing content of Mn, whereas Néel temperature stays practically unchanged (˜278 K) and is close to Curie temperature TC=287 K for the compound with x=0.7. The compounds from the range x=0.7-2 are ferromagnets only with a near constant TC(x) value.

  11. Molecular orbital (SCF-X-α-SW) theory of Fe2+-Mn3+, Fe3+-Mn2+, and Fe3+-Mn3+ charge transfer and magnetic exchange in oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-metal charge-transfer and magnetic exchange interactions have important effects on the optical spectra, crystal chemistry, and physics of minerals. Previous molecular orbital calculations have provided insight on the nature of Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ charge-transfer transitions in oxides and silicates. In this work, spin-unrestricted molecular orbital calculations on (FeMnO10) clusters are used to study the nature of magnetic exchange and electron delocalization (charge transfer) associated with Fe3+-Mn2+, Fe3+-Mn3+, and Fe2+-Mn3+ interactions in oxides and silicates. 

  12. Study of Ni/Fe nanotube properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskiy, A.; Zhanbotin, A.; Zdorovets, M.; Manakova, I.; Ozernoy, A.; Kadyrzhanov, K.; Rusakov, V.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of Fe/Ni nanotubes fabricated in polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) ion-track membrane. Fe/Ni nanotubes were electrochemically deposited into PET membrane with cylindrical holes of diameter 111 ± 3 nm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analysis were used to determine the physical properties of the obtained nanostructures. It was found that the samples were single phase and had face-centered cubic structure with lattice parameter a = 2.866 ± 0.0008 Å. It was assumed that the observed phase was a solid solution of iron substitution in nickel. According to Mössbauer data, the hyperfine field amounts to 337.75 ± 0.4 kOe. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data show a metal ratio in the nanotubes of around Ni20/Fe80. The magnetic domains have sizes close to the thickness of nanotube wall with their magnetization vector oriented at an angle of 37.9 ± 1.1° to the axis of the nanotubes.

  13. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed

    Lovley, Derek R; Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P

    2004-01-01

    Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction has an important influence on the geochemistry of modern environments, and Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, most notably those in the Geobacteraceae family, can play an important role in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with organic or metal contaminants. Microorganisms with the capacity to conserve energy from Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction are phylogenetically dispersed throughout the Bacteria and Archaea. The ability to oxidize hydrogen with the reduction of Fe(III) is a highly conserved characteristic of hyperthermophilic microorganisms and one Fe(III)-reducing Archaea grows at the highest temperature yet recorded for any organism. Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to oxidize a wide variety of organic compounds, often completely to carbon dioxide. Typical alternative electron acceptors for Fe(III) reducers include oxygen, nitrate, U(VI) and electrodes. Unlike other commonly considered electron acceptors, Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, the most prevalent form of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in most environments, are insoluble. Thus, Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms face the dilemma of how to transfer electrons derived from central metabolism onto an insoluble, extracellular electron acceptor. Although microbiological and geochemical evidence suggests that Fe(III) reduction may have been the first form of microbial respiration, the capacity for Fe(III) reduction appears to have evolved several times as phylogenetically distinct Fe(III) reducers have different mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction. Geobacter species, which are representative of the family of Fe(III) reducers that predominate in a wide diversity of sedimentary environments, require direct contact with Fe(III) oxides in order to reduce them. In contrast, Shewanella and Geothrix species produce chelators that solubilize Fe(III) and release electron-shuttling compounds that transfer electrons from the cell surface to

  14. Dislocation Mechanism of Twinning in Ni-Mn-Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárubová, N.; Ge, Y.; Gemperlová, J.; Gemperle, A.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2012-03-01

    Tensile tests were performed in situ in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the twinning mechanism in non-modulated Ni-Mn-Ga martensite. The reorientation of the twin variants occurs via twinning dislocations. Their generation and movement were followed; the glide plane and Burgers vector were verified. Individual twinning dislocations were visualized.

  15. Resolving and modeling the effects of Fe and Mn redox cycling on trace metal behavior in a seasonally anoxic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Smith, E. J.; Davison, W.; Sugiyama, M.

    2005-04-01

    Vertical profiles of the dissolved and particulate (>0.45 μm) concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Al and Ba were determined on two occasions (14 and 22 August 1996) during summer stratification in a seasonally anoxic lake (Esthwaite Water, UK). The results were combined with contemporaneous in situ measurements of water-column remobilization of the metals from settling particles at the base of the suboxic zone and other ancillary measurements. The combined data were interpreted with the aid of an equilibrium speciation model (WHAM6), incorporating metal-humic interactions and a surface-complexation description of binding to Fe and Mn oxides. The behavior of all the metals was related in different ways to the position of the O 2-H 2S interface and to Fe and Mn redox cycling. In the region of the O 2-H 2S interface the behavior of Co and to a lesser degree Ni was dominated by Mn redox cycling. Ba behavior was dominated by the biogenic precipitation and dissolution of barite and to a lesser degree by Mn redox cycling. The behavior of Al was linked to both Mn and Fe redox cycling, although the extent of binding to the oxides and to humic substances was poised with respect to pH. Unlike the other metals, the profiles of Pb and Cu showed little variation above the dissolved sulfide maximum, but modeling indicated that binding of Pb was significant to both Mn and Fe oxides. The featureless nature of the Cu profiles in the upper part of the water column was linked to its overriding association with dissolved humic substances. Below the dissolved sulfide maximum, Co, Ni, Ba, Cu, Pb and Mn were all affected by sulfide precipitation, probably through a common association with FeS. In the case of Co, Ni, Cu and Pb, inverse relationships between the measured dissolved and particulate concentrations were attributed to the coexistence of both filterable and nonfilterable FeS particles and associated mass balance effects. The observed behavior of the metals in relation to

  16. Topological frustrations in Mn films on Fe(001).

    PubMed

    Wulfhekel, Wulf; Schlickum, Uta; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2005-02-01

    The high lateral resolution of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy allows new insights into the spin structure of antiferromagnets on the nanometer range. We demonstrate the capability to image a well-defined in-plane component of the sample spin polarization and discuss the spin structure of antiferromagnetic bct Mn in contact with the ferromagnetic Fe(001) substrate. Mn atoms couple ferromagnetically within a Mn atomic plane, while normal to the surface a layer-wise antiferromagnetic order was found. Magnetic frustrations arise in this system at Fe substrate steps at the interface, where topologically induced 180 degrees domain walls are created in the Mn film. A clear widening of the enforced domain walls with increasing Mn thickness was found. The measured widths could be fitted with a linear function and are explained on the basis of a Heisenberg model.

  17. Euhedral metallic-Fe-Ni grains in extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    Metallic Fe-Ni is rare in terrestrial rocks, being largely restricted to serpentinized peridotites and volcanic rocks that assimilated carbonaceous material. In contrast, metallic Fe-Ni is nearly ubiquitous among extraterrestrial samples (i.e., meteorites, lunar rocks, and interplanetary dust particles). Anhedral grains are common. For example, in eucrites and lunar basalts, most of the metallic Fe-Ni occurs interstitially between silicate grains and thus tends to have irregular morphologies. In many porphyritic chondrules, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form rounded blebs in the mesostasis because their precursors were immiscible droplets. In metamorphosed ordinary chondrites, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form coarse anhedral grains. Some of the metallic Fe-Ni and troilite grains has also been mobilized and injected into fractures in adjacent silicate grains where local shock-reheating temperatures reached the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C). In interplanetary dust particles metallic Fe-Ni most commonly occurs along with sulfide as spheroids and fragments. Euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains are extremely rare. Several conditions must be met before such grains can form: (1) grain growth must occur at free surfaces, restricting euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains to systems that are igneous or undergoing vapor-deposition; (2) the metal (+/-) sulfide assemblage must have an appropriate bulk composition so that taenite is the liquidus phase in igneous systems or the stable condensate phase in vapor-deposition systems; and (3) metallic Fe-Ni grains must remain underformed during subsequent compaction, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Because of these restrictions, the occurrence of euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains in an object can potentially provide important petrogenetic information. Despite its rarity, euhedral metallic Fe-Ni occurs in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials. Some of these materials formed in the solar nebula; others formed on parent body surfaces by meteoroid

  18. Effect of Age-Hardening Treatment on Microstructure and Sliding Wear-Resistance Performance of WC/Cu-Ni-Mn Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Shuai; Liu, Kai; Gui, Chibin; Xia, Weisheng

    2017-06-01

    The Cu-Ni-Mn alloy-based hardfacing coatings reinforced by WC particles (WC/Cu-Ni-Mn) were deposited on a steel substrate by a manual oxy-acetylene weld hardfacing method. A sound interfacial junction was formed between the WC particles and the Cu-Ni-Mn alloy metal matrix binder even after the age-hardening treatment. The friction and wear behavior of the hardfacing coatings was investigated. With the introduction of WC particles, the sliding wear resistance of the WC/Cu-Ni-Mn hardfacing coatings was sharply improved: more than 200 times better than that of the age-hardening-treated Cu-Ni-Mn alloy coating. The sliding wear resistances of the as-deposited and the age-hardening-treated WC/Cu-Ni-Mn hardfacing coatings were 1.83 and 2.26 times higher than that of the commercial Fe-Cr-C hardfacing coating, which is mainly ascribed to the higher volume fraction of carbide reinforcement. Owing to the precipitation of the NiMn secondary phase in the Cu-Ni-Mn metal matrix, the age-hardening-treated coating had better wear resistance than that of the as-deposited coating. The main sliding wear mechanisms of the age-hardening-treated coatings are adhesion and abrasion.

  19. Is the enrichment of metals in Mn-Fe nodules from the central Pacific correlated with glacial-interglacial stages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegorzewski, A.; Kuhn, T.

    2012-12-01

    Polymetallic nodules and crusts contain high concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and HFSE. The BGR has been exploring a German license area between the Clarion- and Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the Pacific for nodule abundance and metal content. Nodules are Mn-Fe oxy-hydroxide precipitations consisting of concentrically banded microlayers of different chemical and mineralogical composition. There are layers with high Mn/Fe ratios (3-400) and high Ni+Cu (2-6 wt%) but low Co contents (0.01-0.2 wt%). Mineralogically these layers consists of todorokite and birnessite. In contrast there are layers with low Mn/Fe ≤ 3 and low Ni+Cu (~1 wt%) but increased Co content (0.2-0.5 wt%) and consist mineralogically of Fe-rich vernadite which is epitaxial intergrown with feroxyhyte nanoparticles (Bodei et al., 2007). The different composition of the layers is depending on different growth processes, such as hydrogenetic (metal precipitation from the water column under oxic conditions; Mn/Fe ≤ 3) or diagenetic (metal precipitation from the sediment pore water under oxic (Mn/Fe 3-10) or suboxic (Mn/Fe ≥ 10) conditions; Halbach et al., 1988). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analyses of recently precipitated outer layers show low Mn/Fe ratios (1.4-2.8). The Ni+Cu content range from 0.34-1.86 wt% and Co shows concentrations between 0.33-1.42 wt%. These results are typical for hydrogenetic processes. They may indicate that in the oxic pore water the same metal enrichment processes prevail as in oxic seawater. Oxygen measurements of near-bottom and pore water proved that the nodules are currently growing under oxic conditions (Mewes, K.,unpub. data). Layers with Mn/Fe ratios of 3-400 cannot grow under such oxic conditions. The high fractionation of Mn and Fe is only possible under suboxic conditions as they are currently predominating in the Peru Basin (PB). Similar growth structures and Mn/Fe ratios of individual layers from CCFZ and PB nodules indicate suboxic conditions

  20. Synthesis and properties of A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials for environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, Anderson; Cunha, Lumena; Vieira, Andiara C.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials were synthesized. {yields} Chemical synthesis produced different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree. {yields} Structural investigation by Raman scattering revealed a complex band structure. {yields} A strong correlation between band structure and ionic radius was determined. -- Abstract: Double layered hydroxide materials of composition A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) were synthesized by chemical precipitation at 60 {sup o}C. Different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree were observed depending upon the chemical environment or the combination between divalent and trivalent cations. The results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanostructured layered samples were obtained with interplanar spacing compatible with previous literature. Raman scattering was employed to investigate the complex band structure observed, particularly the lattice vibrations at lower frequencies, which is intimately correlated to the cationic radius of both divalent and trivalent ions. The results showed that strongly coordinated water and chloride ions besides highly structured hydroxide layers have a direct influence on the stability of the hydrotalcites. It was observed that transition and decomposition temperatures varied largely for different chemical compositions.

  1. Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Fe-Mn Binary Alloys with High Mn Content: Effects of Stable and Metastable ɛ-Martensite, and Mn Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Motomichi; Okazaki, Shota; Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

    2016-06-01

    To obtain a basic understanding of hydrogen embrittlement associated with ɛ-martensite, we investigated the tensile behavior of binary Fe-Mn alloys with high Mn content under cathodic hydrogen charging. We used Fe-20Mn, Fe-28Mn, Fe-32Mn, and Fe-40Mn alloys. The correlation between the microstructure and crack morphology was clarified through electron backscatter diffraction measurements and electron channeling contrast imaging. ɛ-martensite in the Fe-20Mn alloy critically deteriorated the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement owing to transformation to α'-martensite. However, when ɛ-martensite is stable, hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility became low, particularly in the Fe-32Mn alloys, even though the formation of ɛ-martensite plates assisted boundary cracking. The Fe-40Mn alloys, in which no martensite forms even after fracture, showed higher hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility compared to the Fe-32Mn alloy. Namely, in Fe-Mn binary alloys, the Mn content has an optimal value for hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility because of the following two reasons: (1) The formation of stable ɛ-martensite seems to have a positive effect in suppressing hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity, but causes boundary cracking, and (2) an increase in Mn content stabilizes austenite, suppressing martensite-related cracking, but probably decreases the cohesive energy of grain boundaries, causing intergranular cracking. As a consequence, the optimal Mn content was 32 wt pct in the present alloys.

  2. Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo predictions for bulk MnNiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Chandrima; Krogel, Jaron; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    MnNiO3 is a strongly correlated transition metal oxide that has recently been investigated theoretically for its potential application as an oxygen-evolution photo-catalyst. However, there is no experimental report on critical quantities like its band gap or its bulk modulus. Recent theoretical predictions with standard functionals, such as PBE +U and HSE show large discrepancies in the band-gaps (about 1.23 eV), depending on the nature of the functional used. Hence, there is clearly a need for an accurate quantitative prediction of the band-gap in order to decide its usefulness as a photo-catalyst. In this work, we present Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) study of the bulk properties of MnNiO3. This includes the quasiparticle band gap for the two spin channels, the equilibrium lattice parameter and the bulk modulus. The DMC approach has already been shown to achieve excellent agreement with experimental results for other oxides such as ZnO NiO and Fe2O3. To our knowledge, MnNiO3 is the first case where this theory is applied before experiments are done. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  3. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-09-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  4. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Brager, Howard R.; Garner, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  5. Martensitic transformation of FeNi nanofilm induced by interfacial stress generated in FeNi/V nanomultilayered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Fengcang; Liu, Xinkuan; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Daihua

    2014-08-01

    FeNi/V nanomultilayered films with different V layer thicknesses were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. By adjusting the thickness of the V layer, different interfacial compressive stress were imposed on FeNi layers and the effect of interfacial stress on martensitic transformation of the FeNi film was investigated. Without insertion of V layers, the FeNi film exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. With the thickness of V inserted layers up to 1.5 nm, under the coherent growth structure in FeNi/V nanomultilayered films, FeNi layers bear interfacial compressive stress due to the larger lattice parameter relative to V, which induces the martensitic transformation of the FeNi film. As the V layer thickness increases to 2.0 nm, V layers cannot keep the coherent growth structure with FeNi layers, leading to the disappearance of interfacial compressive stress and termination of the martensitic transformation in the FeNi film. The interfacial compressive stress-induced martensitic transformation of the FeNi nanofilm is verified through experiment. The method of imposing and modulating the interfacial stress through the epitaxial growth structure in the nanomultilayered films should be noticed and utilized.

  6. Martensitic transformation of FeNi nanofilm induced by interfacial stress generated in FeNi/V nanomultilayered structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    FeNi/V nanomultilayered films with different V layer thicknesses were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. By adjusting the thickness of the V layer, different interfacial compressive stress were imposed on FeNi layers and the effect of interfacial stress on martensitic transformation of the FeNi film was investigated. Without insertion of V layers, the FeNi film exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. With the thickness of V inserted layers up to 1.5 nm, under the coherent growth structure in FeNi/V nanomultilayered films, FeNi layers bear interfacial compressive stress due to the larger lattice parameter relative to V, which induces the martensitic transformation of the FeNi film. As the V layer thickness increases to 2.0 nm, V layers cannot keep the coherent growth structure with FeNi layers, leading to the disappearance of interfacial compressive stress and termination of the martensitic transformation in the FeNi film. The interfacial compressive stress-induced martensitic transformation of the FeNi nanofilm is verified through experiment. The method of imposing and modulating the interfacial stress through the epitaxial growth structure in the nanomultilayered films should be noticed and utilized. PMID:25232296

  7. Martensitic transformation of FeNi nanofilm induced by interfacial stress generated in FeNi/V nanomultilayered structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Fengcang; Liu, Xinkuan; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Daihua

    2014-01-01

    FeNi/V nanomultilayered films with different V layer thicknesses were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. By adjusting the thickness of the V layer, different interfacial compressive stress were imposed on FeNi layers and the effect of interfacial stress on martensitic transformation of the FeNi film was investigated. Without insertion of V layers, the FeNi film exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. With the thickness of V inserted layers up to 1.5 nm, under the coherent growth structure in FeNi/V nanomultilayered films, FeNi layers bear interfacial compressive stress due to the larger lattice parameter relative to V, which induces the martensitic transformation of the FeNi film. As the V layer thickness increases to 2.0 nm, V layers cannot keep the coherent growth structure with FeNi layers, leading to the disappearance of interfacial compressive stress and termination of the martensitic transformation in the FeNi film. The interfacial compressive stress-induced martensitic transformation of the FeNi nanofilm is verified through experiment. The method of imposing and modulating the interfacial stress through the epitaxial growth structure in the nanomultilayered films should be noticed and utilized.

  8. Fe(II)-mediated reduction and repartitioning of structurally incorporated Cu, Co, and Mn in iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Catalano, Jeffrey G

    2012-10-16

    The reduction of trace elements and contaminants by Fe(II) at Fe(III) oxide surfaces is well documented. However, the effect of aqueous Fe(II) on the fate of redox-active trace elements structurally incorporated into iron oxides is unknown. Here, we investigate the fate of redox-active elements during Fe(II)-activated recrystallization of Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted goethite and hematite. Enhanced release of Cu, Co, and Mn to solution occurs upon exposure of all materials to aqueous Fe(II) relative to reactions in Fe(II)-free fluids. The quantity of trace element release increases with pH when Fe(II) is present but decreases with increasing pH in the absence of Fe(II). Co and Mn release from goethite is predicted well using a second-order kinetic model, consistent with the release of redox-inactive elements such as Ni and Zn. However, Cu release and Co and Mn release from hematite require the sum of two rates to adequately model the kinetic data. Greater uptake of Fe(II) by Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted iron oxides relative to analogues containing only redox-inactive elements suggests that net Fe(II) oxidation occurs. Reduction of Cu, Co, and Mn in all materials following reaction with Fe(II) at pHs 7.0-7.5 is confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. This work shows that redox-sensitive elements structurally incorporated within iron oxides are reduced and repartitioned into fluids during Fe(II)-mediated recrystallization. Such abiotic reactions likely operate in tandem with partial microbial and abiotic iron reduction or during the migration of Fe(II)-containing fluids, mobilizing structurally bound contaminants and micronutrients in aquatic systems.

  9. Direct Experimental Probe of the Ni(II)/Ni(III)/Ni(IV) Redox Evolution in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Qiao, Ruimin; Wray, L. Andrew; Kim, Jung -Hyun; ...

    2015-11-11

    The LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is an appealing cathode material for next generation rechargeable Li-ion batteries due to its high operating voltage of ~4.7 V (vs Li/Li+). Although it is widely believed that the full range of electrochemical cycling involves the redox of Ni(II)/(IV), it has not been experimentally clarified whether Ni(III) exists as the intermediate state or a double-electron transfer takes place. Here, combined with theoretical calculations, we show unambiguous spectroscopic evidence of the Ni(III) state when the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode is half charged. This provides a direct verification of single-electron-transfer reactions in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 upon cycling, namely, from Ni(II) to Ni(III), thenmore » to Ni(IV). Additionally, by virtue of its surface sensitivity, soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy also reveals the electrochemically inactive Ni2+ and Mn2+ phases on the electrode surface. Our work provides the long-awaited clarification of the single-electron transfer mechanism in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes. Furthermore, the experimental results serve as a benchmark for further spectroscopic characterizations of Ni-based battery electrodes.« less

  10. [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenase diversity, mechanism, and maturation.

    PubMed

    Peters, John W; Schut, Gerrit J; Boyd, Eric S; Mulder, David W; Shepard, Eric M; Broderick, Joan B; King, Paul W; Adams, Michael W W

    2015-06-01

    The [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the formal interconversion between hydrogen and protons and electrons, possess characteristic non-protein ligands at their catalytic sites and thus share common mechanistic features. Despite the similarities between these two types of hydrogenases, they clearly have distinct evolutionary origins and likely emerged from different selective pressures. [FeFe]-hydrogenases are widely distributed in fermentative anaerobic microorganisms and likely evolved under selective pressure to couple hydrogen production to the recycling of electron carriers that accumulate during anaerobic metabolism. In contrast, many [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze hydrogen oxidation as part of energy metabolism and were likely key enzymes in early life and arguably represent the predecessors of modern respiratory metabolism. Although the reversible combination of protons and electrons to generate hydrogen gas is the simplest of chemical reactions, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases have distinct mechanisms and differ in the fundamental chemistry associated with proton transfer and control of electron flow that also help to define catalytic bias. A unifying feature of these enzymes is that hydrogen activation itself has been restricted to one solution involving diatomic ligands (carbon monoxide and cyanide) bound to an Fe ion. On the other hand, and quite remarkably, the biosynthetic mechanisms to produce these ligands are exclusive to each type of enzyme. Furthermore, these mechanisms represent two independent solutions to the formation of complex bioinorganic active sites for catalyzing the simplest of chemical reactions, reversible hydrogen oxidation. As such, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases are arguably the most profound case of convergent evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.

  11. The Effect of Metal Composition on Fe-Ni Partition Behavior between Olivine and FeNi-Metal, FeNi-Carbide, FeNi-Sulfide at Elevated Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Metal-olivine Fe-Ni exchange distribution coefficients were determined at 1500 C over the pressure range of 1 to 9 GPa for solid and liquid alloy compositions. The metal alloy composition was varied with respect to the Fe/Ni ratio and the amount of dissolved carbon and sulfur. The Fe/Ni ratio of the metal phase exercises an important control on the abundance of Ni in the olivine. The Ni abundance in the olivine decreases as the Fe/Ni ratio of the coexisting metal increases. The presence of carbon (up to approx. 3.5 wt.%) and sulfur (up to approx. 7.5 wt.%) in solution in the liquid Fe-Ni-metal phase has a minor effect on the partitioning of Fe and Ni between metal and olivine phases. No pressure dependence of the Fe-Ni-metal-olivine exchange behavior in carbon- and sulfur-free and carbon- and sulfur-containing systems was found within the investigated pressure range. To match the Ni abundance in terrestrial mantle olivine, assuming an equilibrium metal-olivine distribution, a sub-chondritic Fe/Ni-metal ratio that is a factor of 17 to 27 lower than the Fe/Ni ratios in estimated Earth core compositions would be required, implying higher Fe concentrations in the core forming metal phase. A simple metal-olivine equilibrium distribution does not seem to be feasible to explain the Ni abundances in the Earth's mantle. An equilibrium between metal and olivine does not exercise a control on the problem of Ni overabundance in the Earth's mantle. The experimental results do not contradict the presence of a magma ocean at the time of terrestrial core formation, if olivine was present in only minor amounts at the time of metal segregation.

  12. The Effect of Metal Composition on Fe-Ni Partition Behavior between Olivine and FeNi-Metal, FeNi-Carbide, FeNi-Sulfide at Elevated Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Metal-olivine Fe-Ni exchange distribution coefficients were determined at 1500 C over the pressure range of 1 to 9 GPa for solid and liquid alloy compositions. The metal alloy composition was varied with respect to the Fe/Ni ratio and the amount of dissolved carbon and sulfur. The Fe/Ni ratio of the metal phase exercises an important control on the abundance of Ni in the olivine. The Ni abundance in the olivine decreases as the Fe/Ni ratio of the coexisting metal increases. The presence of carbon (up to approx. 3.5 wt.%) and sulfur (up to approx. 7.5 wt.%) in solution in the liquid Fe-Ni-metal phase has a minor effect on the partitioning of Fe and Ni between metal and olivine phases. No pressure dependence of the Fe-Ni-metal-olivine exchange behavior in carbon- and sulfur-free and carbon- and sulfur-containing systems was found within the investigated pressure range. To match the Ni abundance in terrestrial mantle olivine, assuming an equilibrium metal-olivine distribution, a sub-chondritic Fe/Ni-metal ratio that is a factor of 17 to 27 lower than the Fe/Ni ratios in estimated Earth core compositions would be required, implying higher Fe concentrations in the core forming metal phase. A simple metal-olivine equilibrium distribution does not seem to be feasible to explain the Ni abundances in the Earth's mantle. An equilibrium between metal and olivine does not exercise a control on the problem of Ni overabundance in the Earth's mantle. The experimental results do not contradict the presence of a magma ocean at the time of terrestrial core formation, if olivine was present in only minor amounts at the time of metal segregation.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz with T=Fe, Ni; pyz=pyrazine: Formation of T-pyz-Ni bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, M.; Demeshko, S.; Avila, M.; Knobel, M.; Reguera, E.

    2011-08-15

    The formation of T-pyz-Ni bridges (pyz=pyrazine) in the T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz series is known for T=Mn, Zn, Cd and Co but not with T=Fe, Ni. In this contribution the existence of such bridges also for T=Fe, Ni is discussed. The obtained pillared solids, T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz, were characterized from XRD, TG, UV-Vis, IR, Raman, Moessbauer and magnetic data. Their crystal structures were refined in the orthorhombic Pmna space group from XRD powder patterns. The structural behavior of these solids on cooling down to 77 K was also studied. In the 180-200 K temperature range the occurrence of a structural transition to a monoclinic structure (P2{sub 1}/c space group) was observed. No temperature induced spin transition was observed for Fe[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz. The iron (II) was found to be in high spin electronic state and this configuration is preserved on cooling down to 2 K. The magnetic data indicate the occurrence of a low temperature weak anti-ferromagnetic interaction between T metal centers within the T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layer. In the paramagnetic region for Ni[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz, a reversible temperature induced spin transition for the inner Ni atom was detected. - Graphical abstract: Rippled sheets structure for the pillared solids T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz. The pyrazine molecule is found forming T-pyz-Ni bridges between neighboring layers. Highlights: > Pillared 2D solids. > Inorganic-organic solids. > Assembling of molecular blocks. > From 1D and 2D building blocks to 3D solids.

  14. FeNi-based magnetoimpedance multilayers: Tailoring of the softness by magnetic spacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalov, A. V.; Fernandez, E.; Garcia-Arribas, A.; Alonso, J.; Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.

    2012-04-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy films and FeNi(170 nm)/X/FeNi(170 nm) (X = Co, Fe, Gd, Gd-Co) sandwiches were studied. Laminating of the thick FeNi film with various spacers was done in order to control the magnetic softness of FeNi-based multilayers. In contrast to the Co and Fe spacers, Gd and Gd-Co magnetic spacers improved the softness of the FeNi/X/FeNi sandwiches. The magnetoimpedance responses were measured for [FeNi/Ti(6 nm)]2/FeNi and [FeNi/Gd(2 nm)]2/FeNi multilayers in a frequency range of 1-500 MHz: for all frequencies under consideration the highest magnetoimpedance variation was observed for [FeNi/Gd(2 nm)]2/FeNi multilayers.

  15. Safflorite, (Co,Ni,Fe)As2, isomorphous with marcasite

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T.; Eichler, Carla

    2008-01-01

    Safflorite, a naturally occurring cobalt-nickel-iron diarsenide (Co,Ni,Fe)As2, possesses the marcasite-type structure, with cations (M = Co + Ni + Fe) at site symmetry 2/m and As anions at m. The MAs6 octa­hedra share two edges, forming chains parallel to c. The chemical formula for safflorite should be expressed as (Co,Ni,Fe)As2, rather than the end-member format CoAs2, as its structure stabilization requires the simultaneous inter­action of the electronic states of Co, Ni, and Fe with As2 2− dianions. PMID:21201568

  16. Ferrous Carbonyl Dithiolates as Precursors to FeFe, FeCo, and FeMn Carbonyl Dithiolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reported are complexes of the formula Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and their use to prepare homo- and heterobimetallic dithiolato derivatives. The starting iron dithiolates were prepared by a one-pot reaction of FeCl2 and CO with chelating diphosphines and dithiolates, where dithiolate = S2(CH2)22– (edt2–), S2(CH2)32– (pdt2–), S2(CH2)2(C(CH3)2)2– (Me2pdt2–) and diphos = cis-C2H2(PPh2)2 (dppv), C2H4(PPh2)2 (dppe), C6H4(PPh2)2 (dppbz), C2H4[P(C6H11)2]2 (dcpe). The incorporation of 57Fe into such building block complexes commenced with the conversion of 57Fe into 57Fe2I4(iPrOH)4, which then was treated with K2pdt, CO, and dppe to give 57Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe). NMR and IR analyses show that these complexes exist as mixtures of all-cis and trans-CO isomers, edt2– favoring the former and pdt2– the latter. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with the Fe(0) reagent (benzylideneacetone)Fe(CO)3 gave Fe2(dithiolate)(CO)4(diphos), thereby defining a route from simple ferrous salts to models for hydrogenase active sites. Extending the building block route to heterobimetallic complexes, treatment of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) with [(acenaphthene)Mn(CO)3]+ gave [(CO)3Mn(pdt)Fe(CO)2(dppe)]+ ([3d(CO)]+). Reduction of [3d(CO)]+ with BH4– gave the Cs-symmetric μ-hydride (CO)3Mn(pdt)(H)Fe(CO)(dppe) (H3d). Complex H3d is reversibly protonated by strong acids, the proposed site of protonation being sulfur. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with CpCoI2(CO) followed by reduction by Cp2Co affords CpCo(dithiolate)Fe(CO)(diphos) (4), which can also be prepared from Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and CpCo(CO)2. Like the electronically related (CO)3Fe(pdt)Fe(CO)(diphos), these complexes undergo protonation to afford the μ-hydrido complexes [CpCo(dithiolate)HFe(CO)(diphos)]+. Low-temperature NMR studies indicate that Co is the kinetic site of protonation. PMID:24803716

  17. Research on pulse electrodeposition of Fe-Ni alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yongsen; Zhu, Zengwei Ren, Jianhua; Chen, Jiangbo; Han, Taojie

    2014-03-15

    Fe-Ni alloys were fabricated on steel substrates by means of pulse electrodeposition in sulfate solutions. The layers were electrodeposited using different peak current densities, duty cycles and frequencies. Fe contents, microhardnesses and crystalline phases were examined systematically. The Fe content in the deposit decreased and the microhardness increased with increasing duty cycle and peak current density. The pulse frequency had little effect on Fe content but led to a slight decrease in microhardness. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the crystalline phases vary with changes in peak current density and duty cycle but are barely influenced by frequency. When the peak current density or duty cycle is relatively low, crystalline Fe-Ni alloy and pure Fe phases coexist; the pure Fe phases disappear as the peak current density or duty cycle increases. At still larger peak current densities or duty cycles, crystalline Fe-Ni alloy and pure Ni phases coexist.

  18. Magnetic interactions in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingyu; Sheng, Yan; Khalid, M.; Cao, Yanqiang; Wang, Yutian; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Zhang, Wen; He, Maocheng; Wang, Shuangbao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Qi; Wu, Di; Zhai, Ya; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Peng; Xu, Y. B.; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The clear understanding of exchange interactions between magnetic ions in substituted BiFeO3 is the prerequisite for the comprehensive studies on magnetic properties. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), the ferroelectricity at room temperature has been inferred from the observation of PFM hysteresis loops and electrical writing of ferroelectric domains for both samples. Spin glass behavior has been observed in both samples by temperature dependent magnetization curves and decay of thermo-remnant magnetization with time. The magnetic ordering has been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, and Fe-O-Mn interaction has been confirmed to be antiferromagnetic (AF). The observed spin glass in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films has been attributed to cluster spin glass due to Mn-rich ferromagnetic (FM) clusters in AF matrix, while spin glass in BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices is due to competition between AF Fe-O-Fe, AF Fe-O-Mn and FM Mn-O-Mn interactions in the well ordered square lattice with two Fe ions in BiFeO3 layer and two Mn ions in BiMnO3 layer at interfaces. PMID:25766744

  19. Predicting solid solubility in CoCrFeNiMx (M = 4d transition metal) high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Saad; Mao, Huahai; Guo, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    CoCrFeMnNi is a prototype fcc-structured high-entropy alloy. Numerous efforts have been paid to strengthen CoCrFeMnNi, by replacing Mn with other elements for an enhancement of the solid solution strengthening. 4d transition metals, including Zr, Nb, and Mo, are of interest for this purpose, since they have much larger atomic radii than that of Mn. However, Nb and Mo are known to have a low solid solubility in fcc-structured CoCrFeNi. Compared to Nb and Mo, Zr has an even larger atomic radius. The solid solubility of Zr in fcc-structured CoCrFeNi was investigated in this work, combining both experimental studies and thermodynamic calculations. In addition, based on previous results and new results obtained here, methods to predict the solid solubility in CoCrFeNiMx (M = Zr, Nb, and Mo) alloys were developed. Particularly, the average d-orbital energy level, Md, was re-evaluated in the present work, for an improved predictability of the solid solubility in fcc-structured high entropy alloys containing 4d transition metals.

  20. Fate of half-metallicity near interfaces: the case of NiMnSb/MgO and NiMnSi/MgO.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Jing; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2014-08-27

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the interfaces between the half-metallic Heusler alloys NiMnSb, NiMnSi, and MgO have been investigated using first-principles density-functional calculations with projector augmented wave potentials generated in the generalized gradient approximation. In the case of the NiMnSb/MgO (100) interface, the half-metallicity is lost, whereas the MnSb/MgO contact in the NiMnSb/MgO (100) interface maintains a substantial degree of spin polarization at the Fermi level (∼60%). Remarkably, the NiMnSi/MgO (111) interface shows 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level, despite considerable distortions at the interface, as well as rather short Si/O bonds after full structural optimization. This behavior markedly distinguishes NiMnSi/MgO (111) from the corresponding NiMnSb/CdS and NiMnSb/InP interfaces.

  1. On the Tendency of the Co-, Ni-, and Fe-Based Melts to the Bulk Amorphization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterkhova, Irina V.; Lad'yanov, Vladimir I.; Kamaeva, Larisa V.; Umnova, Nadezhda V.; Umnov, Pavel P.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the influence of the liquid phase state on the glass-forming ability and solidification processes of the Co65.5Fe6.5Si18B10, Ni64.4Fe4Cr4.9Mn2B16.2C0.5Si8, and Fe50Cr15Mo14C15B6 alloys was studied. It was shown that in conditions of quenching from the melt at ~103 K/s, the largest fraction of the amorphous phase is achieved by cooling from a narrow temperature range near 1573 K (1300 °C) for Co65.5Fe6.5Si18B10, 1503 K (1230 °C) for Ni64.4Fe4Cr4.9Mn2B16.2C0.5Si8, and 1653 K (1380 °C) for Fe50Cr15Mo14C15B6. It was found that at these temperatures, there are anomalies in the viscosity and undercooling polytherms caused by changes in short-range ordering in these melts. Overheating the Co65.5Fe6.5Si18B10, Ni64.4Fe4Cr4.9Mn2B16.2C0.5Si8, and Fe50Cr15Mo14C15B6 melts above these temperatures is accompanied by changing the nature of their crystallization. It was shown that the analysis of the temperature dependences of undercooling and kinematic viscosity can be used to determine the optimum temperatures of the melts quenching to achieve their best bulk amorphization.

  2. Exchange bias magnetism in films of NiFe/(Ni,Fe)O nanocrystallite dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C.-H.; Chi, C.-C.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K.-W.; Lin, T.-L.

    2014-05-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni,Fe)O thin films having a nanocrystallite dispersion morphology were prepared by a reactive ion beam-assisted deposition technique. The crystallite sizes of these dispersion-based films were observed to decrease from 8.4 ± 0.3 nm to 3.4 ± 0.3 nm as the deposition flow-rate increased from 2.78% to 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar. Thin film composition was determined using selective area electron diffraction images and Multislice simulations. Through a detailed analysis of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the nanocrystallites were determined to be Ni{sub 3}Fe (a ferromagnet), NiO, and FeO (both antiferromagnets). It was determined that the interfacial molar Ni{sub 3}Fe ratio in the nanocrystallite dispersions increased slightly at first, then decreased as the oxygen content was increased; at 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar, the interfacial molar ratio was essentially zero (only NiO and FeO remained). For nanocrystallite dispersion films grown with O{sub 2}/Ar flow-rate greater than 7.89%, no interfacial (intermixed) Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was detected, which resulted in no measurable exchange bias. Comparing the exchange bias field between the nanocrystallite dispersion films at 5 K, we observed a decrease in the magnitude of the exchange bias field as the nanocrystallite size decreased. The exchange bias coupling for all samples measured set in at essentially the same temperature (i.e., the exchange bias blocking temperature). Since the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic (FM/AFM) contact area in the nanocrystallite dispersion films increased as the nanocrystallite size decreased, the increase in the magnitude of the exchange bias could be attributed to larger regions of defects (vacancies and bond distortions) which occupied a significant portion of the FM/AFM interfaces in the nanocrystallite dispersion films.

  3. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  4. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2017-03-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  5. Study of intergranular embrittlement in Fe-12Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Auger microscopic study has been performed on the intergranular fracture surfaces of Fe-12Mn steels in the as-austenitized condition. Fracture mode below the ductile-brittle transition temperature was intergranular whenever the alloy was quenched from the austenite field. The intergranular fracture surface failed to reveal any consistent segregation of P, S, As, O, or N. The occasional appearance of S or O on the fracture surface was found to be due to a low density precipitation of MnS and MnO/sub 2/ along the prior austenite boundaries. An AES study with Ar/sup +/ ion-sputtering showed no evidence of manganese enrichment along the prior austenite boundaries, but a slight segregation of carbon which does not appear to be implicated in the tendency toward intergranular fracture. Addition of 0.002% B with a 1000/sup 0/C/1h/WQ treatment yielded a high Charpy impact energy at liquid nitrogen temperature, preventing the intergranular fracture. High resolution AES studies showed that 3 at. % B on the prior austenite grain boundaries is most effective in increasing the grain boundary cohesive strength in an Fe-12Mn alloy. Trace additions of Mg, Zr, or V had negligible effects on the intergranular embrittlement. A 450/sup 0/C temper of the boron-modified alloys was found to cause tempered martensite embrittlement, leading to intergranular fracture. The embrittling treatment of the Fe-12Mn alloys with and without boron additions raised the ductile-brittle transition by 150/sup 0/C. This tempered martensite embrittlement was found to be due to the Mn enrichment of the fracture surface to 32 at. % Mn in the boron-modified alloy and 38 at. % Mn in the unmodified alloy. The Mn-enriched region along the prior austenite grain boundaries upon further tempering is believed to cause nucleation of austenite and to change the chemistry of the intergranular fracture surfaces. 61 figures.

  6. Structure and function of [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible conversion of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons via a heterolytic splitting mechanism. The active sites of [NiFe] hydrogenases comprise a dinuclear Ni-Fe center carrying CO and CN(-) ligands. The catalytic activity of the standard (O2-sensitive) [NiFe] hydrogenases vanishes under aerobic conditions. The O2-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases can sustain H2 oxidation activity under atmospheric conditions. These hydrogenases have very similar active site structures that change the ligand sphere during the activation/catalytic process. An important structural difference between these hydrogenases has been found for the proximal iron-sulphur cluster located in the vicinity of the active site. This unprecedented [4Fe-3S]-6Cys cluster can supply two electrons, which lead to rapid recovery of the O2 inactivation, to the [NiFe] active site.

  7. Microstructural Development and Ternary Interdiffusion in Ni-Mn-Ga Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Le; Kammerer, Catherine; Giri, Anit; Cho, Kyu; Sohn, Yongho

    2015-12-01

    NiMnGa alloys functioning as either ferromagnetic shape memory alloys or magnetocaloric materials have both practical applications and fundamental research value. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple experiments were carried out to investigate the phase equilibria, microstructural development, and interdiffusion behavior in Ni-Mn-Ga ternary alloys. Selected diffusion couples between pure Ni, Ni25Mn75 and four ternary off-stoichiometric NiMnGa alloys ( i.e., Ni52Mn18Ga30, Ni46Mn30Ga24, Ni52Mn30Ga18, Ni58Mn18Ga24) were assembled and annealed at 1073 K, 1123 K, and 1173 K (800 °C, 850 °C, and 900 °C) for 480, 240, and 120 hours, respectively. At these high temperatures, the β NiMnGa phase has a B2 crystal structure. The microstructure of the interdiffusion zone was examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Concentration profiles across the interdiffusion zone were determined by electron probe micro analysis. Solubility values obtained for various phases were mostly consistent with the existing isothermal phase diagrams, but the phase boundary of the γ(Mn) + β two-phase region was slightly modified. In addition, equilibrium compositions for the γ(Ni) and α' phases at 1173 K (900 °C) were also determined for the respective two-phase region. Both austenitic and martensitic phases were found at room temperature in each diffusion couple with a clear boundary. The compositions at the interfaces corresponded close to valence electron concentration (e/a) of 7.6, but trended to lower values when Mn increased to more than 35 at. pct. Average effective interdiffusion coefficients for the β phase over different compositional ranges were determined and reported in the light of temperature-dependence. Ternary interdiffusion coefficients were also determined and examined to assess the ternary diffusional interactions among Ni, Mn, and Ga. Ni was observed to interdiffuse the fastest, followed by Mn then Ga. Interdiffusion flux

  8. An AB initio study of molecular structures, force fields, and vibrational spectra of transition metal trifluorides MF{sub 3} (M = Sc, Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni)

    SciTech Connect

    Solomonik, V.G.; Sliznev, V.V.; Balabanov, N.B.

    1996-12-31

    An ab initio theoretical study was carried out on MF{sub 3} molecules to determine theirs ground electronic state geometries, force fields, and vibrational spectra, using basis sets (14sl1p6d1f/9s5pid){r_arrow}(10s8p3dlf/4s2pld). All of the molecules except MnF{sub 3} have been studied by spin and symmetry restricted Martree-Fock method (RHF). Configuration interaction calculations were carried out on ScF{sub 3}, CrF{sub 3}, and MnF{sub 3}. Single reference CISD+Q level of theory was used for ScF{sub 3}. Complete active space (CASSCF) calculations were performed on CrF{sub 3} and MnF{sub 3} in order to select the reference configurations for the final second order CI calculation (SOCI), which allows all single and double excitations out of a complete active space. At RHF level we find all of the molecules to be trigonal splanar D{sub 3h}, with the exception of CrF{sub 3} and NiF{sub 3}, molecule with extremely low barrier to planarity is in fact quasiplanar. The conclusion regarding the geometry of CrF{sub 3} is obviously unreliable, since our calculations have shown the D{sub 3h} molecule CrF{sub 3} is obviously unreliable, since our calculations have shown the D{sub 3h} molecule CrF{sub 3} to be Hartree-Fock unstable. At SOCI level of theory we find CrF{sub 3} to be planar D{sub 3h}. The lowest D{sub 3h} electronic state of MnF{sub 3} is {sup 5}E{prime}. The Jahn-Tellar surface has been studied. The three minima on this surface correspond to the {sup 5}A{sub l} minimum, and 2515 cm{sup {minus}1} below the D{sub 3h} energy, and are separated by 726 cm{sup {minus}1} barriers corresponding to the {sup 5}B{sub 2} {open_quotes}minimum{close_quotes}. These values show that the Jahn-Teller effect is mainly static and the molecular structure and the low-lying vibronic energy levels of MnF{sub 3} may be roughly treated within adiabatic approximation.

  9. Electronic structure of disordered α-FeMn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduani, C.; da Silva, E. G.

    1996-08-01

    Cluster calculations were performed with the first-principles discrete variational method, in the LSD approximation and spin-polarized case, to investigate the electronic structure of the ferromagnetic disordered α-FeMn alloys. We investigated the effect on the local magnetic properties at iron sites of the introduction of Mn atoms in their first and second neighborhoods. The calculated magnetic moment and hyperfine magnetic field ( Hc) for an isolated Mn atom in a bcc iron host were obtained as -3.15 μB and -230 kG, respectively, in good agreement with experimental results.

  10. Inverse magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Sn alloys.

    PubMed

    Krenke, Thorsten; Duman, Eyüp; Acet, Mehmet; Wassermann, Eberhard F; Moya, Xavier; Mañosa, Lluis; Planes, Antoni

    2005-06-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in paramagnetic materials has been widely used for attaining very low temperatures by applying a magnetic field isothermally and removing it adiabatically. The effect can also be exploited for room-temperature refrigeration by using giant MCE materials. Here we report on an inverse situation in Ni-Mn-Sn alloys, whereby applying a magnetic field adiabatically, rather than removing it, causes the sample to cool. This has been known to occur in some intermetallic compounds, for which a moderate entropy increase can be induced when a field is applied, thus giving rise to an inverse magnetocaloric effect. However, the entropy change found for some ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Sn alloys is just as large as that reported for giant MCE materials, but with opposite sign. The giant inverse MCE has its origin in a martensitic phase transformation that modifies the magnetic exchange interactions through the change in the lattice parameters.

  11. Magneto Caloric Effect in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys: First Principles and Experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don; Brown, Gregory; Rusanu, Aurelian; Rios, Orlando; Hodges, Jason; Safa-Sefat, Athena; Ludtka, Gerard; Eisenbach, Markus; Evans, Boyd

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the Magneto-Caloric Effect (MCE) in alloys with real technological potential is important to the development of viable MCE based products. We report results of computational and experimental investigation of a candidate MCE materials Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. The Wang-Landau statistical method is used in tandem with Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method to explore magnetic states of the system. A classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian is parametrized based on these states and used in obtaining the density of magnetic states. The Currie temperature, isothermal entropy change, and adiabatic temperature change are then calculated from the density of states. Experiments to observe the structural and magnetic phase transformations were performed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Ni-Mn-Ga-Cu. Data from the observations are discussed in comparison with the computational studies. This work was sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (ORNL), by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division; Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (US DOE), and by the Materials Sciences and Engineering Division; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (US DOE).

  12. Structural and magnetic studies on Mn-doped Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, S.; Dhanalakshmi, B.; Chandra Sekhar, B.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.; Parvatheeswara Rao, B.

    2016-11-01

    Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles with manganese substitutions, Ni0.4Zn0.6- x Mn x Fe2O4, where x varies from 0.00 to 0.25 in steps of 0.05, were prepared using sol-gel autocombustion method. The resultant nanoparticles were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm single-phase cubic spinel structures with crystallite sizes in the range from 25.43 to 37.23 nm. Particle sizes obtained from transmission electron micrographs were also in good agreement with the crystallite sizes obtained from the X-ray data. Saturation magnetization and coercivity data for all the samples obtained from the corresponding M-H loops suggest a sinusoidal variations with Mn concentration ( x) implying that the substitution of Mn in the given nano-sized Ni-Zn ferrite system seems to have brought in a profound influence not only on the site preferences of other cations in the system but also in bringing about modifications in its own site preferences. The results are analyzed in terms of the compositional and structural modifications, and it was found that the observed magnetic variation was governed by the crystallite size and the corresponding change in cationic preferences in these materials.

  13. Giant exchange bias in Mn2FeGa with hexagonal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, H. G.; Zhang, X. J.; Ma, X. Q.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present the experimental observation that polycrystalline Mn2+xFe1-xGa (x = -0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4) compounds can be synthesized to be D019-type (Ni3Sn-type) hexagonal structure with space group P63/mmc. A giant exchange bias field up to 1.32 kOe was achieved in hexagonal Mn2FeGa alloy at 5 K. A cluster glass state is confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement under different driving frequencies. Interestingly, robust horizontal and vertical shifts in magnetic hysteresis loop were simultaneously observed at 5 K under high cooling field up to 90 kOe. The large exchange bias is originated from the large exchange anisotropy between cluster glass phase and ferrimagnetic matrix. The vertical shift is thought to be attributed to the incomplete reversal of frozen cluster spins.

  14. Transformation behavior of Ni Mn Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernenko, V. A.; Ohtsuka, M.; Kohl, M.; Khovailo, V. V.; Takagi, T.

    2005-10-01

    The transformation behavior of Ni-Mn-Ga submicron polycrystalline thin films was investigated with respect to target composition, different substrates, annealing temperature and film thickness. Two series of thin films (A and B) with thicknesses ranging from 0.1 to 5 µm were deposited onto alumina ceramic, poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), quartz and glass by the RF magnetron sputtering technique. The use of the targets of Ni49.5Mn28.0Ga22.5 and Ni52Mn24Ga24 facilitated the formation of 10M and 14M martensitic structures for heat treated films A and B, respectively. Magnetization curves and temperature dependences of resistivity demonstrated anomalies and features typical for the bulk Heusler alloys exhibiting both martensitic and ferromagnetic transformations. The transformation temperatures and distribution of magnetic moments were found to be dependent on the film thickness. A magnetoresistance ratio of 1.5% was achieved at a maximum field of 1.5 T at room temperature.

  15. Replacement of Ni by Mn in High-Ni-Containing Austenitic Cast Steels used for Turbo-Charger Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seungmun; Jo, Yong Hee; Jeon, Changwoo; Choi, Won-Mi; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Oh, Yong-Jun; Kim, Gi-Yong; Jang, Seongsik; Lee, Sunghak

    2017-02-01

    High-temperature tensile properties of austenitic cast steels fabricated by replacing Ni by Mn in a 20 wt pct Ni-containing steel were investigated. In a steel where 8 wt pct Ni was replaced by 9.2 wt pct of Mn, 17.4 and 9.8 pct of ferrite existed in equilibrium phase diagrams and actual microstructures, respectively, because a role of Mn as an austenite stabilizer decreased, and led to deterioration of high-temperature properties. When 2 to 6 wt pct Ni was replaced by 2.3 to 6.9 wt pct Mn, high-temperature properties were comparable to those of the 20 wt pct Ni-containing steel because ferrites were absent, which indicated the successful replacement of 6 wt pct Ni by Mn, with cost reduction of 27 pct.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of polycrystalline La2NiMnO6 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Pittala; Laxmi, K. Vijaya; Bhat, Shwetha G.; Kumar, P. S. Anil

    2017-07-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) are deposited successfully on SiO2/Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural characterization using X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of a single phase with P21/n space group. Cross-sectional FE-SEM shows the film thickness ˜195 nm. The deposition temperature and the oxygen pressure played a crucial role determining the crystallization behavior and the magnetic transition temperatures. The ferromagnetic transition temperature is achieved to be ˜277 K by optimizing the deposition conditions.

  17. Magnetic properties and electronic structure of Mn-Ni-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Sunil Wilfred; Roy, Tufan; Barman, Sudipta Roy; Chakrabarti, Aparna

    2014-12-17

    Influence of disorder, antisite defects, martensite transition and compositional variation on the magnetic properties and electronic structure of Mn(2)NiGa and Mn(1+x)Ni(2-x)Ga magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by using full potential spin-polarized scalar relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (FP-SPRKKR) method. Mn(2)NiGa is ferrimagnetic and its total spin moment increases when disorder in the occupancy of MnNi (Mn atom in Ni position) is considered. The moment further increases when Mn-Ga antisite defect [1] is included in the calculation. A reasonable estimate of TC for Mn(2)NiGa is obtained from the exchange parameters for the disordered structure. Disorder influences the electronic structure of Mn(2)NiGa through overall broadening of the density of states and a decrease in the exchange splitting. Inclusion of antisite defects marginally broaden the minority spin partial DOS (PDOS), while the majority spin PDOS is hardly affected. For Mn(1+x)Ni(2-x)Ga where 1 ⩾ x ⩾ 0, as x decreases, Mn(Mn) moment increases while Mn(Ni) moment decreases in both austenite and martensite phases. For x ⩾ 0.25, the total moment of the martensite phase is smaller compared to the austenite phase, which indicates possible occurrence of inverse magnetocaloric effect. We find that the redistribution of Ni 3d- Mn(Ni) 3d minority spin electron states close to the Fermi level is primarily responsible for the stability of the martensite phase in Mn-Ni-Ga.

  18. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  19. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  20. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications. PMID:27185656

  1. Self-current induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn/Pt multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Yao, Kui; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2016-05-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of spin-orbit torque in ferromagnetic metal/heavy metal bilayers and exploitation of it for magnetization switching using an in-plane current. As the spin-orbit torque is inversely proportional to the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer, sizable effect has only been realized in bilayers with an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. Here we demonstrate that, by stacking ultrathin Pt and FeMn alternately, both ferromagnetic properties and current induced spin-orbit torque can be achieved in FeMn/Pt multilayers without any constraint on its total thickness. The critical behavior of these multilayers follows closely three-dimensional Heisenberg model with a finite Curie temperature distribution. The spin torque effective field is about 4 times larger than that of NiFe/Pt bilayer with a same equivalent NiFe thickness. The self-current generated spin torque is able to switch the magnetization reversibly without the need for an external field or a thick heavy metal layer. The removal of both thickness constraint and necessity of using an adjacent heavy metal layer opens new possibilities for exploiting spin-orbit torque for practical applications.

  2. Coercive force reduction effect in FeCoV and FeNi films due to ultrathin FeNiMo layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, T.; Nouchi, N.; Morimoto, F.; Otani, A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of the drastic coercive force reduction effect in essentially semi-hard FeCoV and FeNi films due to ultrathin FeNiMo layer has been examined. It is noted experimentally that a kind of a coupling of magnetic moments existing between ultrathin FeNiMo layer with anisotropic magnetization and semi-hard magnetic layer with anisotropic magnetization contributes to this drastic coercive force reducing effect.

  3. A comparative study of magnetic behaviors in TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. L.; Md Din, M. F.; Hong, F.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X.; Kennedy, S. J.; Studer, A. J.; Campbell, S. J.; Wu, G. H.

    2014-05-07

    All TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn compounds exhibit the cubic Laves phase with AB{sub 2}-type structure in spite of the fact that the ratio of the Tb to transition-metal components in TbNi{sub 2}Mn is 1:3. Rietveld refinement indicates that in TbNi{sub 2}Mn the Mn atoms are distributed on both the A (8a) and B (16d) sites. The values of the lattice constants were measured to be a = 14.348 Å (space group F-43 m), 7.618 Å, and 7.158 Å (space group Fd-3 m) for TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively. The magnetic transition temperatures T{sub C} were found to be T{sub C} = 38 K and T{sub C} = 148 K for TbNi{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively, while two magnetic phase transitions are detected for TbMn{sub 2} at T{sub 1} = 20 K and T{sub 2} = 49 K. Clear magnetic history effects in a low magnetic field are observed in TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn. The magnetic entropy changes have been obtained.

  4. Analyzing the magnetic profile in NiFe/NiO bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafur, Miguel; Nascimento, V. P.; Alayo, W.; Xing, Y. T.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic profile of the Si(100)/NiO(35 nm)/NiFe(10 nm)/Ta(1 nm) sample has been obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Two experimental procedures were used. In the procedure 1, the magnetic depth profile has been determines using samples deposited with different NiFe thicknesses, Si(100)/NiO(35 nm)/NiFe(t)/Ta(1 nm), t = 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 10 nm . In procedure 2, the sample (NiFe=10 nm), was thinned by several in situ sputtering cycles with Ar+ ions, followed by XAS and XMCD analysis. In both procedures, the calculated magnetic moments values tend to decrease close to interface with the NiO antiferromagnetic (AF) layer, however, this decreasement is more evidenced in the sputtered sample. There is no charge transfer between Ni and Fe in the inner part of the NiFe layer, a reduction of the morb /mspineff has been found at the NiFe/NiO interface. Procedure 1 emerged as the most indicated to analyse the interface region.

  5. Effect of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles Fe, Ni, & Fe/Ni based on carbon nanocomposites on electrocatalytic properties of anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranabhat, K.; Pylinina, A. I.; Skripkin, K. S.; Sofronova, E. A.; Revina, A. A.; Kasatkin, V. E.; Patrikeev, L. N.; Lapshinsky, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The optical properties of metallic Fe nanoparticles (NPs), Ni NPs and bimetallic Fe/Ni NPs produced under radiolysis in anaerobic condition based on a chemical reduction in the presence of oxygen and quercetin in reversed micellar solutions, and electrokinetic properties of nanoparticles carbon-based nanocomposites were studied. The possibility of the preparation of coating using different nanocomposites with anomalous electrocatalytic is addressed.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of Fe53Ni47 and Fe53Ni47/Cu granular composite materials in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massango, Herieta; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Kasagi, Teruhiro

    2016-09-01

    The electromagnetic proprieties of Fe53Ni47 granular composite materials and Fe53Ni47/Cu hybrid granular composites have been studied by measuring the relative complex permeability and permittivity spectra as well as the ac electrical conductivity. In the Fe53Ni47 composite, the variation of the ac conductivity at 1 kHz with the particle volume content shows an insulator-metal transition at the percolation threshold at 61 vol% particle content. A negative permeability spectrum due to the magnetic resonance in Fe53Ni47 particles was observed in the 85 vol% composite. Meanwhile, the negative permittivity spectrum caused by the plasmoinc state of the percolated Fe53Ni47 particle clusters appears at 90 vol%. The Fe53Ni47/Cu hybrid composite containing 85 vol% of Fe53Ni47/Cu hybrid particle as filers shows the percolative metallic properties; the ac conductivity increases with increasing the Cu particle volume fraction in the Fe53Ni47/Cu particle system. The negative permittivity spectrum appears above the Cu particle volume fraction of 0.16; the double negative characteristic was observed at that of 0.20 and 0.24 hybrid composites in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 1.8 GHz in the absence of the external magnetic field.

  7. Magnetoresistance behavior of Ni80Fe20/Ru/Ni80Fe20 nanostripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, P.; Liu, X. M.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-07-01

    We present a systematic investigation on the effects of interlayer coupling on the magnetoresistance (MR) behavior of Ni80Fe20/Ru(/Ni80Fe20 trilayer nanostripes (NSs) as a function of temperature T . By changing from 0.8 nm to 1.7 nm, either a ferromagnetic or an antiferromagnetic (AFM) type of interlayer coupling was achieved, leading to a markedly different MR behavior. We observed that the MR response is a superimposition of AMR and GMR effects, and it is significantly dependent on temperature. For AFM coupled NSs, there is a transition from a pure AFM state to a reversed spin-flop phase due to enhanced ferromagnetic pin-hole coupling at low T. Our experimental results are in good agreement with micromagnetic simulations.

  8. CASSCF/CI calculations for first row transition metal hydrides - The TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), FeH(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta) states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations are performed for the predicted ground states of TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), Fett(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta). For FeH both the 6-delta and 4-delta states are studied, since both are likely candidates for the ground state. The ground state symmetries are predicted based on a combination of atomic coupling arguments and coupling of 4s(2)3d(n) and 4s(1)3d(n+1) terms in the molecular system. Electron correlation is included by a CASSCF/CI (SD) treatment. The CASSCF includes near-degeneracy effects, while correlation of the 3d electrons in included at the CI level.

  9. CASSCF/CI calculations for first row transition metal hydrides - The TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), FeH(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta) states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations are performed for the predicted ground states of TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), Fett(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta). For FeH both the 6-delta and 4-delta states are studied, since both are likely candidates for the ground state. The ground state symmetries are predicted based on a combination of atomic coupling arguments and coupling of 4s(2)3d(n) and 4s(1)3d(n+1) terms in the molecular system. Electron correlation is included by a CASSCF/CI (SD) treatment. The CASSCF includes near-degeneracy effects, while correlation of the 3d electrons in included at the CI level.

  10. Exchange Coupling in an Isostructural Series of Face-Sharing Bioctahedral Complexes [LM(II)(&mgr;-X)(3)M(II)L]BPh(4) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; X = Cl, Br; L = 1,4,7-Trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane).

    PubMed

    Bossek, Ursula; Nühlen, Daniela; Bill, Eckhard; Glaser, Thorsten; Krebs, Carsten; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Wieghardt, Karl; Lengen, Marek; Trautwein, A. X.

    1997-06-18

    The reaction of the divalent metal halides ZnCl(2), ZnBr(2), MnCl(2).4CH(3)CN, MnBr(2), FeCl(2).4CH(3)CN, CoCl(2).4CH(3)CN, CoBr(2), NiCl(2).6H(2)O, and NiBr(2), respectively, with the macrocycle 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L) (1:1) in anhydrous acetonitrile, acetone, chloroform, or ethanol affords upon additon of NaBPh(4) the isomorphous series of complexes [LM(II)(&mgr;-X)(3)M(II)L]BPh(4): 1, M = Zn, X = Cl; 2, Zn, Br; 3, Mn, Cl; 4, Mn, Br; 5, Fe, Cl; 6, Co, Cl; 7, Co, Br; 8, Ni, Cl; 9, Ni, Br. Six of these complexes have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography; they crystallize in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; (No. 2) with Z = 4. Crystal data are as follows 1, a = 16.654(1), b = 17.042(1), c = 17.684(1) Å, alpha = 97.30(1), beta = 93.58(1), gamma = 117.46(1) degrees; 3, a = 16.632(8), b = 17.012(8), c = 17.855(5) Å, alpha = 97.16(3), beta = 93.37(3), gamma = 117.24(3) degrees; 5, a = 16.658(3), b = 17.064(3), c = 17.741(4) Å, alpha = 97.32(3), beta = 93.47(3), gamma = 117.36(3) degrees; 6, a = 16.640(3), b = 17.040(3), c = 17.686(4) Å, alpha = 97.39(3), beta = 93.58(3), gamma = 117.39(3) degrees; 8, a = 16.608(3), b = 16.995(3), c = 17.555(3) Å, alpha = 97.36(1), beta = 93.52(1), gamma = 117.52(1) degrees; 9, a = 16.680(3), b = 17.016(2), c = 17.715(3)Å, alpha = 96.99(1), beta = 93.70(1), gamma = 117.42(1) degrees. All complexes consist of a dinuclear, face-sharing bioctahedral monocation with three &mgr;(2)-Cl or &mgr;(2)-Br bridging ligands and two LM fragments and well-separated tetraphenylborate anions (1:1). The cations cocrystallize in two different forms: an enantiomeric form with (lambdalambdalambda) (or (deltadeltadelta)) conformation at both LM fragments and a meso form with an (lambdalambdalambda) conformation at one LM fragment and (deltadeltadelta) at the other (ratio 1:1). From temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements (2-293 K) it was established that the spins of the

  11. Nanostructurization of Fe-Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilhenko, Vitaliy E.

    2017-03-01

    Data about an effect of cyclic γ-α-γ martensitic transformations on the structure state of reverted austenite Fe-31.7 wt.% Ni-0.06 wt.% C alloy are presented. The effect of multiple direct γ-α and reverse α-γ martensitic transformations on fragmentation of austenitic grains has been investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. An ultrafine structure has been formed by nanofragmentation inside the initial austenite grains due to the successive misorientation of their crystal lattice. Austenite was nanofragmented as a result of multiple γ-α-γ martensitic transformations. Slow heating of the nanofragmented alloy at a rate below 2 °C/s results in nanograin refinement of the structure by multiplication of the reverted γ-phase orientations. The conditions of structure refinement up to ultrafine and nanocrystalline levels as a result of both shear and diffusion mechanisms of reverse α-γ transformation are determined.

  12. Electronic structure and ferromagnetism in the martensitic-transformation material Ni2FeGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Hu, H. N.; Liu, G. D.; Cui, Y. T.; Zhang, M.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Xiao, Gang

    2004-04-01

    We calculated the electronic structures of the Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa for both the cubic and the orthorhombic structures by self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented plane-wave method. The localized moment of Fe atom is interpreted based on the electronic structure and the popular explanation of the localized moment of Mn in Heusler alloy X2MnY. Comparing the density of states of cubic and orthorhombic structures, we observed that a Ni peak near the density of states of d band for the cubic structure splits for the orthorhombic structure, indicating a band Jahn-Teller mechanism should be responsible for the structural transition. Accompanied by this transformation, an increase of Ni moment and magnetization redistribution occurred. Temperature-dependence anisotropy field shows an evidence of martensitic transformation between 125 and 190 K. The magnetic behavior seems to contain a transition from Heisenberg-like at temperature below 70 K to itinerant magnetism at temperature higher than 160 K upon martensitic transformation. Temperature dependence of saturation magnetization reveals the spontaneous magnetization at martensite and parent phase are 3.170μB and 3.035μB, respectively. The calculated magnetic moment at martensite is 3.171μB, which is quite consistent with the experimental value. The magnetic moment of Fe and Ni atom in Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa is analyzed based on the computational results and the experimental magnetization curves. It is found that the magnetic moment of Fe atoms is about 10 43% larger than that of α-Fe.

  13. Angular dependent FORC and FMR of exchange-biased NiFe multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, R. A.; Khanal, S.; Vargas, J. M.; Spinu, L.; Ross, C. A.; Garcia, C.

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic ferromagnetic resonance (FMR, X-band 9.8 GHz) and static first-order reversal curve (FORC) techniques are combined to study the intrinsic exchange-bias distribution via measurements of in-plane angular variation in (FeNi/IrMn)n multilayers. The angular dependence of the exchange bias field was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated using both methods, which are sensitive to different couplings between the ferromagnetic layers. We have used the analysis of the angular dependence of first-order reversal curve (AFORC) data, extracted from FORC curves measured from {{0}\\circ} up to {{360}\\circ} in {{10}\\circ} steps. In addition, its counterpart angular dependence of FMR (AFMR) measurements were carried out and correlated with the AFORC results. The AFORC proved to be useful for simultaneously studying the magnetization reversal processes and magnetic interactions between the layers of the (FeNi/IrMn)n. These interactions are related to the structure and interfaces in the (FeNi/IrMn), and the results obtained by AFMR and AFORC are contrasted with a modified theoretical model for domain-wall formation.

  14. Fe-Ni-C system at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narygina, O.; Dubrovinsky, L.; McCammon, C.; Frost, D.; Miyajima, N.; Prakapenka, V.

    2008-12-01

    Apart from being technologically important, FeNi alloys introduce particularly interest to the material sciences as well as to the geosciences. It is generally accepted that the Earth's core is predominantly composed by FeNi alloy with 10-15 wt% Ni. The certain amount of the light element(s) is also known to be presented in the Core. A number of candidates for the light component have been proposed, including sulphur, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. In favor of the last one the following arguments can be listed (i) high cosmic abundance, (ii) chemical affinity to iron even at low pressures and (iii) capability of lowering the density of molten iron. Although there is quite a bit of experimental and theoretical results on high pressure high temperature behavior of the system Fe-C, there is still lack of information about the phase relations in Fe-Ni- C system at elevated pressures and temperatures. Therefore we provided a series of compression experiments on the system Fe-Ni-C at pressures up to 53 GPa in temperature range 300 - 2600 K (combining diamond anvil cell and large volume press techniques) in order to investigate phase diagram of Fe-Ni system and the influence of carbon on the phase relations in the system at elevated pressures and temperatures. We observed that dissolution of even 1 wt% carbon in FeNi alloys with 10, 15 and 22 wt% Ni leads to dramatic changes in the system: presence of carbon stabilizes fcc-structured FeNi through the redistribution of nickel. Combining Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM and chemical analyses by microprobe and SEM techniques we detected the formation of Ni-poor and Ni-enriched phases, with different elastic and structural properties.

  15. Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhangwei; Wu, Margaret; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Baker, Ian

    2016-06-13

    The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Tix with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 μm for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength,σy, from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongation to 2.3%. Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Ti4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in σy to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.

  16. Spectral and thermodynamic properties of Ag(I), Au(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), U(IV), and Zn(II) binding by methanobactin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong W; Do, Young S; Zea, Corbin J; McEllistrem, Marcus T; Lee, Sung-W; Semrau, Jeremy D; Pohl, Nicola L; Kisting, Clint J; Scardino, Lori L; Hartsel, Scott C; Boyd, Eric S; Geesey, Gill G; Riedel, Theran P; Shafe, Peter H; Kranski, Kim A; Tritsch, John R; Antholine, William E; DiSpirito, Alan A

    2006-12-01

    Methanobactin (mb) is a novel chromopeptide that appears to function as the extracellular component of a copper acquisition system in methanotrophic bacteria. To examine this potential physiological role, and to distinguish it from iron binding siderophores, the spectral (UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron) and thermodynamic properties of metal binding by mb were examined. In the absence of Cu(II) or Cu(I), mb will bind Ag(I), Au(III), Co(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), U(VI), or Zn(II), but not Ba(II), Ca(II), La(II), Mg(II), and Sr(II). The results suggest metals such as Ag(I), Au(III), Hg(II), Pb(II) and possibly U(VI) are bound by a mechanism similar to Cu, whereas the coordination of Co(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) by mb differs from Cu(II). Consistent with its role as a copper-binding compound or chalkophore, the binding constants of all the metals examined were less than those observed with Cu(II) and copper displaced other metals except Ag(I) and Au(III) bound to mb. However, the binding of different metals by mb suggests that methanotrophic activity also may play a role in either the solubilization or immobilization of many metals in situ.

  17. Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhangwei; Wu, Margaret; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Baker, Ian

    2016-06-13

    The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Tix with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 μm for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength,σy, from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongation to 2.3%. Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Ti4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in σy to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.

  18. Magnetic properties and atomic ordering of BCC Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yuepeng; Ma, Yuexing; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure, atomic disorder and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. BCC Fe2MnGa ribbon samples were prepared. Experimentally, a saturation magnetic moment (3.68 μB at 5 K) much larger than the theoretical value (2.04 μB) has been reported. First-principles calculations indicate that the difference is related to the Fe-Mn disorder between A, B sites, as can also be deduced from the XRD pattern. L21 type Fe2MnGa is a ferrimagnet with antiparallel Fe and Mn spin moments. However, when Fe-Mn disorder occurs, part of Mn moments will be parallel to Fe moments, and the Fe moments also clearly increase simultaneously. All this results in a total moment of 3.74 μB, close to the experimental value.

  19. Enhancement of ferromagnetism by Cr doping in Ni-Mn-Cr-Sb Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mahmud; Dubenko, Igor; Stadler, Shane; Jung, J.; Stoyko, S. S.; Mar, Arthur; Quetz, Abdiel; Samanta, Tapas; Ali, Naushad; Chow, K. H.

    2013-03-01

    A series of Mn rich Ni50Mn37-xCrxSb13 Heusler alloys have been investigated by dc magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements. Due to the weakening of the Ni-Mn hybridization, the martensitic transition shifts to lower temperatures with increasing Cr concentration, while the saturation magnetization at 5 K increases. The magnetoresistance and exchange bias properties are dramatically suppressed with increasing Cr concentration. The observed behaviors suggest that substitution of Cr for Mn in Ni50Mn37-xCrxSb13 Heusler alloys not only destabilizes the martensitic phase but also enhances ferromagnetism in the system. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed.

  20. Strain mediated coupling in magnetron sputtered multiferroic PZT/Ni-Mn-